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1

Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Science Advisory Panel (SAP) evaluated the potential for microbiological environmental and public health impacts of wastewater discharges from large passenger ships. Historically, fecal coliform bacteria have been used to indicate the presence of sewa...

C. D. McGee L. C. Loehr

2003-01-01

2

Coagulation of polymeric wastewater discharged by a chemical factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of an emulsified polymeric wastewater was investigated using sedimentation and coagulation. Settleability studies and jar tests were conducted in order to investigate the effect of sedimentation and coagulation on treatment of the wastewater, respectively. The effect of alum, ferric chloride and ferrous sulphate as coagulants on the treatment of samples collected from two different discharged streams was studied. The

Muhammad H Al-Malack; Nabil S Abuzaid; Aarif H El-Mubarak

1999-01-01

3

Changes in Nitrobacter serotypes biodiversity in a river: Impact of a wastewater treatment plant discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the impact of a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) effluent on a freshwater biofilm autochtonous bacterial microflora (Nitrobacter sp.). Physicochemical parameters showed drastic changes after wastewater discharge in the river: decrease of dissolved oxygen concentration, increase of N?NH+4 as well as dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon. Nevertheless the standard conditions of nitrification (pH, temperature, oxygen level)

B. Montuelle; B. Volat; M. M. Torio-Fernandez; E. Navarro

1996-01-01

4

The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships.  

PubMed

In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both black water and gray water discharges sometimes exceeded state water quality standards for toxicants. The state convened a Science Advisory Panel (the Panel) to evaluate impacts associated with cruise ship wastewater discharges. The effluent data received wide media coverage and increased public concerns. Consequently, legislative decisions were made at the State and Federal level, and regulations were imposed before the Panel completed its evaluation. The Panel demonstrated that following the rapid dilution from moving cruise ships, the effluent data from the Summer of 2000 would not have exceeded water quality standards, and environmental effects were not expected. PMID:16406006

Loehr, Lincoln C; Beegle-Krause, C-J; George, Kenwyn; McGee, Charles D; Mearns, Alan J; Atkinson, Marlin J

2006-01-10

5

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of...

2013-07-01

6

Degradation of Organic Contaminant by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Immersed in Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was applied to the degradation of an organic contaminant in wastewater. When electrical discharge occurs, the DBD reactor produces oxidative species (ozone) and emits ultraviolet light. For the purpose of using both ozone and ultraviolet light for the degradation of the organic contaminant, the DBD reactor was immersed in the wastewater. The DBD reactor for this

Young Sun Mok; Jin-Oh Jo

2006-01-01

7

Organics removal and protein recovery from wastewater discharged during the production of chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

Bentonite, chitosan and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were applied to treat wastewater discharged during the production of chondroitin sulfate and recover protein dissolved in the wastewater. The results showed that the combination of pH 9.00, 3-4 mL chitosan solution, 2 g of bentonite and 5 mL of 8% PAC solution per 100 mL of wastewater with a 4.0 h flocculation time were the optimal conditions for the recovery of protein and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) from wastewater. A pilot-scale test also was conducted, and 130 kg (dry weight) of sediment was obtained from 1.1 m(3) of discharged wastewater. This sediment contained abundant amino acids (proteins comprised 61% of the total sediment), after the recovery of protein, the dissolved TOC concentration in wastewater was decreased by approximately 80% and the residual wastewater could be readily disposed using a traditional activated sludge process. PMID:24135108

Sheng, Yanqing; Xing, Li

2013-01-01

8

Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.  

PubMed

Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and the Corporation are all worse off when treatment levels are pushed beyond what is economic and sustainable. PMID:23183146

Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

2012-11-24

9

Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.  

PubMed

The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 ?g/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 ?g/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17?-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17?-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17?-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

2012-05-07

10

Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in

Gerald R. Tetreault; Charles J. Bennett; K. Shires; B. Knight; Mark R. Servos; Mark E. McMaster

2011-01-01

11

The Study of Toxic Effects of Wastewaters Discharged From the Vilnius Treatment Plant on Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of wastewaters discharged from Vilnius treatment plant (VTP) using rainbow\\u000a trout, at different stages of development, and evaluating alterations in fish biological parameters. The results of the present\\u000a study demonstrated that untreated wastewaters (UTWW) could induce significant adverse effects in developing fish (the increase\\u000a in mortality of larvae and juveniles

Nijol? Kazlauskien?; Milda Zita Vosylien?; Edvinas Taujanskis

12

The use of multiple tracers for tracking wastewater discharges in freshwater systems.  

PubMed

The assessment of potential impacts of wastewater effluent discharges in freshwater systems requires an understanding of the likely degrees of dilution and potential zones of influence. In this study, four tracers commonly present in wastewater effluents were monitored to compare their relative effectiveness in determining areas in freshwater systems that are likely to be impacted by effluent discharges. The four tracers selected were the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine, anthropogenic gadolinium, fluorescent-dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and electrical conductivity (EC). The four tracers were monitored longitudinally in two distinct freshwater systems receiving wastewater effluents, where one site had a high level of effluent dilution (effluent <1 % of total flow) and the other site had a low level of effluent dilution (effluent ?50 % of total flow). At both sites, the selected tracers exhibited a similar pattern of response intensity downstream of discharge points relative to undiluted wastewater effluent, although a number of anomalies were noted between the tracers. Both EC and fDOM are non-specific to human influences, and both had a high background response, relative to the highly sensitive carbamazepine and anthropogenic gadolinium responses, although the ease of measuring EC and fDOM would make them more adaptable in highly variable systems. However, the greater sensitivity and selectivity of carbamazepine and gadolinium would make their combination with EC and fDOM as tracers of wastewater effluent discharges highly desirable to overcome potential limitations of individual tracers. PMID:23729161

Williams, Mike; Kumar, Anupama; Ort, Christoph; Lawrence, Michael G; Hambly, Adam; Khan, Stuart J; Kookana, Rai

2013-06-01

13

Municipal wastewater characteristics in Thailand and effects of soft intervention measures in households on pollutant discharge reduction.  

PubMed

In developing countries with large Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) sanitation indicator, pollutant discharge reduction function of wastewater treatment systems should be considered. In this paper, pollutant generations per capita (PGCs) and pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) are estimated as a base dataset for wastewater management in Thailand. PDCs of black water, i.e. toilet wastewater, are found to be much smaller than PGCs of black water. However, PDCs of gray water, i.e. municipal wastewater other than toilet wastewater are large. Gray water is often discharged without treatment and contributes much to ambient water deterioration. Moreover, possible 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) discharge reductions with "soft interventions", i.e. measurements in households to reduce wastewater pollutant discharge such as using a paper filter or a plastic net in kitchen sinks and so on, are estimated as 39, 21 and 34% for BOD5, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphate (PO4-P), respectively. For the estimation, environmental accounting housekeeping (EAH) books of domestic wastewater, spreadsheets with pollutant discharges by water usages and possible effects of "soft interventions" are applied. The framework of this study with "soft intervention" effects on pollutant discharge reductions should enhance wastewater management especially in the areas under development of wastewater treatment systems. PMID:20651426

Tsuzuki, Y; Koottatep, T; Jiawkok, S; Saengpeng, S

2010-01-01

14

An overview of standards concerning unwanted electrostatic discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

For users and manufacturers affected by unwanted electrostatic discharges, the publication of standards concerning the control of such discharges is a great improvement and helps to prevent unwanted electrostatic discharges in potentially explosive atmospheres as well as around electrostatically sensitive devices. There are, for instance, handbook-like documents giving recommendations to help set up effective electrostatic suppressing measures and programs. Another

Ulrich von Pidoll

2009-01-01

15

Assessment of accidental refinery wastewater discharge: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical qualities of an accidental discharge of refinery liquid waste, water, and soil sediment of that effluent-receiving\\u000a water body (canal) were investigated. Analyses of the discharge, qualities of water, and sediment of the canal showed high\\u000a parametric concentrations. Investigations revealed that the discharge took place form the spent caustic that was generated\\u000a from the caustic wash tower of Fluidized

Amitava Bandyopadhyay

2011-01-01

16

Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effect of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant. The purpose of the model was to stimulate conditions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site.

Wesolowski, E.A.

1999-09-01

17

Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. PMID:23886540

Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

2013-07-03

18

The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open\\/closed estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open\\/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of

Robynne A. Lawrie; Derek D. Stretch; Renzo Perissinotto

2010-01-01

19

Submarine wastewater discharges: dispersion modelling in the Northern Adriatic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope   Opposite interests must coexist in coastal areas: the presence of significant cities and urban centres, of touristic and recreational\\u000a areas, and of extensive shellfish farming. To avoid local pollution caused by treated wastewaters along the Northern Adriatic\\u000a coast (Friuli Venezia-Giulia and Veneto regions), marine outfall systems have been constructed. In this study, the application\\u000a of a

Isabella Scroccaro; Marco Ostoich; Georg Umgiesser; Francesca De Pascalis; Luigi Colugnati; Giorgio Mattassi; Marina Vazzoler; Marco Cuomo

2010-01-01

20

A zero discharge water and wastewater treatment system for a combined cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

Regulatory changes and increasing environmental restrictions are requiring utilities to explore cooling methods that reduce the relatively large thermal and chemical discharges, eliminate the large intake structures, and mitigate the plant's impact on water quality and aquatic life. In drier regions of the country, water conservation is also a major concern. Closed cooling water systems, such as wet cooling towers, are a step towards meeting these new requirements. In these systems the water is circulated through the cooling system,and a portion of this water is lost through evaporation. However, the cooling tower discharges a relatively concentrated wastewater in the form of a continuous blowdown to maintain a solids balance in the system. In addition, wastewater also is produced from boiler blowdown, ion exchange regeneration waste,filter backwashes, etc. This paper reviews the zero discharge options for a generic gas/oil-fired combined cycle plant that uses a wet cooling tower.

Naik, S.B.; Desai, M.S. (Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Terajewicz, J.C.; Collins, N. (J. Makowski Co., Inc., Boston, MA (US))

1989-01-01

21

Nitrogen transport and transformations in a shallow aquifer receiving wastewater discharge: A mass balance approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrogen transport and transformations were followed over the initial 3 years of development of a plume of wastewater-contaminated groundwater in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone and ammonium sorption in the saturated zone were predominant, while loss of fixed nitrogen through denitrification was minor. The major effect of transport was the oxidation of discharged organic and inorganic forms to nitrate, which was the dominant nitrogen form in transit to receiving systems. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone transformed 16-19% and 50-70%, respectively, of the total nitrogen mass discharged to the land surface during the study but did not attenuate the nitrogen loading. Nitrification in the unsaturated zone also contributed to a pH decrease of 2 standard units and to an N2O increase (46-660 ??g N/L in the plume). Other processes in the unsaturated zone had little net effect: Ammonium sorption removed <1% of the total discharged nitrogen mass; filtering of particulate organic nitrogen was less than 3%; ammonium and nitrate assimilation was less than 6%; and ammonia volatilization was less than 0.25%. In the saturated zone a central zone of anoxic groundwater (DO ??? 0.05 mg/L) was first detected 17 months after effluent discharge to the aquifer began, which expanded at about the groundwater-flow velocity. Although nitrate was dominant at the water table, the low, carbon-limited rates of denitrification in the anoxic zone (3.0-9.6 (ng N/cm3)/d) reduced only about 2% of the recharged nitrogen mass to N2. In contrast, ammonium sorption in the saturated zone removed about 16% of the recharged nitrogen mass from the groundwater. Ammonium sorption was primarily limited to anoxic zone, where nitrification was prevented, and was best described by a Langmuir isotherm in which effluent ionic concentrations were simulated. The initial nitrogen load discharged from the groundwater system may depend largely on the growth and stability of the sorbed ammonium pool, which in turn depends on effluent-loading practices, subsurface microbial processes, and saturation of available exchange sites.

DeSimone, L. A.; Howes, B. L.

1998-01-01

22

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

23

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

24

Appropriate basis of effluent standards for industrial wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing industrial discharge standards should reflect the numerical compromise between what can be achieved to prevent environmental pollution and sustainable development. They should involve categorical limitations for specific sources. Micropollutants represent the major concern for industrial effluents. A micropollutant-based subcategorization is needed for an effective control of industrial effluents. Regulations imposed require a comprehensive knowledge of polluting processes and sources,

A. Tilche; D. Orhon

25

Study on degradation of reactive red dye wastewater by high-voltage corona discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-temperature plasma and its active groups were produced by a small corona discharge device, which acted on the reactive red K-2DP dye wastewater. Factors to affecting decolorization rate including the power voltage, the initial concentration of dyestuff and the pH value of the dye solution were studied. The results indicated that there was higher decolorization rate under the conditions

Ren Dajun; Qu Jingjing; Zhang Huiling; Duan Ning

2011-01-01

26

Detection of a buoyant coastal wastewater discharge using airborne hyperspectral and infrared imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal wastewater discharged into the ocean through a submerged pipe, or outfall, can rise buoyantly to the sea surface, resulting in a near-field mixing zone and, in the presence of an ambient ocean current, an extended surface plume. In this paper, data from a CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) and an airborne infrared (IR) camera are shown to detect a municipal wastewater discharge off the southeast coast of Florida, U.S.A., through its elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter plus detrital material (CDOM) and cooler sea surface temperatures. CDOM levels within a ~15-m-diameter surface 'boil' are found to be about twice those in the ambient shelf water, and surface temperatures near the boil are lower by ~0.4°C, comparable to the vertical temperature difference across the ambient water column. The CASI and IR imagery show a nearly identically shaped buoyant plume, consistent with a fully surfacing discharge, but the IR data more accurately delineate the area of most rapid dilution as compared with previous in-situ measurements. The imagery also allows identification of ambient oceanographic processes that affect dispersion and transport in the far field. This includes an alongshore front, which limits offshore dispersion of the discharge, and shoreward-propagating nonlinear internal waves, which may be responsible for an enhanced onshore transport of the discharge.

Marmorino, George O.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Miller, W. D.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

27

Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected on March 9 and 10, 1987 from one site upstream and three sites downstream of the discharge from a municipal wastewater-treatment plant on Rowlett Creek. Purge-and-trap, closed-loop stripping, and ph-adjusted solvent extraction methods for water samples, and a Soxhlet-solvent extraction method for streambed sediment were used with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for separation and identification of organic compounds. Results of the analyses confirm the persistence of many organic compounds in water as far as 13.5 kilometers down- stream from the wastewater-discharge point. These compounds include: (1) the volatile organic com- pounds chloroform, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, and trichlo- roethene; (2) several linear alkylbenzene compounds, octyl phenol, and a tetramethylbutyl phenol isomer that are related to detergent use; (3) 9-phenyl- 9H-carbazole, a compound related to cal tars and coal compustion residues; and (4) caffeine. The only compound detected in water in concentrations greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination levels for drinking water was tetra- chloroethene (6.0 micrograms per liter) in a sample collected 13.5 kilometers downstream from the dis- charge point. Compounds identified in the streambed- sediment samples include a xylene isomer at 7.7 kilometers and chrysene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and a xylene isomer at 13.5 kilometers downstream from the wastewater discharge.

Buszka, P. M.; Barber, L. B., II; Schroeder, M. P.; Becker, L. D.

1994-01-01

28

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges.  

PubMed

As pathogen contamination is a leading cause of surface water impairment, there has been increasing interest in the implications of seasonal disinfection practices of wastewater effluents for meeting water quality goals. For receiving waters designated for recreational use, disinfection during the winter months is often considered unnecessary due to reduced recreational usage, and assumptions that lower temperatures may reduce pathogen accumulation. For a river subject to seasonal disinfection, we sought to evaluate whether fecal coliforms accumulate during the winter to concentrations that would impair river water quality. Samples were collected from municipal wastewater outfalls along the river, as well as upstream and downstream of each outfall during the winter, when disinfection is not practiced, and during the summer, when disinfection is practiced. During both seasons, fecal coliform concentrations reached 2000-5000 CFU/100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude higher than levels targeted for the river to achieve primary contact recreational uses. During the summer, wastewater effluents were not significant contributors to fecal coliform loadings to the river. During the winter, fecal coliform accumulated along the river predominantly due to loadings from successive wastewater outfalls. In addition to the exceedance of fecal coliform criteria within the river, the accumulation of wastewater-derived fecal coliform along the river during the winter season suggests that wastewater outfalls may contribute elevated loads of pathogens to the commercial shellfish operations occurring at the mouth of the river. Reductions in fecal coliform concentrations between wastewater outfalls were attributed to dilution or overall removal. Combining discharge measurements from gauging stations, tributaries and wastewater outfalls to estimate seepage, dilution between wastewater outfalls was estimated, along with the percentage of the river deriving from wastewater outfalls. After accounting for dilution, the residual reductions in fecal coliform concentrations observed between outfalls were attributed to actual fecal coliform removal. The estimated rate of removal of 1.52 d(-1) was significantly higher than die-off rates determined by previous researchers at similarly low temperatures in laboratory batch experiments, indicating the potential importance of other removal mechanisms, such as predation or sedimentation. PMID:20580053

Mitch, Azalea A; Gasner, Katherine C; Mitch, William A

2010-06-12

29

Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity relating to fish in wastewaters discharged from the Vilnius treatment plant.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of untreated raw (RWW) and treated wastewaters (TWW) samples from Vilnius wastewater treatment plant was assessed using fish (rainbow trout) at different stages of development. The survival of larvae and fish exposed to RWW in short-term and longterm tests reduced, whereas gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and relative body mass increase of larvae decreased significantly. The long-term exposure of fish to TWW induced significant decreases in white blood cell count and significant increases in micronuclei in blood of treated Oncorhynchus mykiss. The physical, chemical analysis of oil products (C??-C??), benzo(a)pyrene, suspended solids, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg) in RWW demonstrated that the concentrations of xenobiotics and some heavy metals did not exceed their Maximum Permissible Concentrations in the sewerage system and concentrations of substances in TWW corresponded to their criteria for effluents discharged into receiving waters. PMID:20729589

Vosylien?, M Z; Kazlauskien?, N; Baršien?, J; Andreik?nait?, L; Milukait?, A; Taujanskis, E

2010-01-01

30

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources...SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point...

2012-07-01

31

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553  

EPA Science Inventory

The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

32

Heavy metal removal from winery wastewater in the case of restrictive discharge regulation.  

PubMed

In most cases of winery effluent, the heavy metal content, especially zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), does not meet the limits for the discharge as imposed by the most restrictive regulations at international level (0.4 mgCu/L and 1.0 mgZn/L in the Italian regulations). An alternative for the reduction of Cu and Zn is the on-site pre-treatment of wastewater at the winery in order to meet the limits for the discharge into the public sewerage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a pre-treatment based on chemical precipitation with chelating agents (TMT: 2,4,6-trimercaptotriazine), for the reduction of Cu and Zn from raw winery wastewater. The chemical precipitation was optimised at lab-scale through jar tests in order to evaluate the optimal dosages. An average dosage equal to 0.84 mL of TMT (15%) for 1 mg of Cu removed was estimated. Furthermore, the efficiency of the on-site chemical pre-treatment was investigated at pilot scale. The results confirmed the feasibility of using TMT treatment for the reduction of Cu and Zn in order to meet the limits for discharge into the sewerage. Contextually to the removal of heavy metals, the chemical pre-treatment allowed us to obtain the reduction of particulate COD and TSS. Finally, the costs for the operation and the management of the on-site pre-treatment were evaluated. PMID:17849985

Andreottola, G; Cadonna, M; Foladori, P; Gatti, G; Lorenzi, F; Nardelli, P

2007-01-01

33

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.  

PubMed

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose-responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios. PMID:23634582

Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

2013-03-01

34

Biological nitrogen removal from industrial wastewater discharged from metal recovery processes.  

PubMed

The wastewater generated from the processes of recovering precious metals from industrial wastes contains high concentrations of acids and alkalis such as nitric acid and aqueous ammonia, and of salts such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Biological nitrogen removal from this wastewater was attempted by using a circulating bioreactor system equipped with an anaerobic packed bed and an aerobic three-phase fluidized bed. As a result of acclimating microorganisms with change of the hydraulic residence time, this system effectively removed nitrogen from diluted wastewater (T-N: from 2,000 to 4,000 g/m3), such that the total nitrogen concentration in the effluent met the sewage discharge control criteria in Japan (240 g/m3). The removal ratio of total nitrogen was 90% to 98% and that of ammonia was 80% to 92%. In addition, the characteristic equations for biological treatment were applied to this system on the assumption that both reactions of denitrification in the anaerobic reactor and nitrification in the aerobic reactor can be approximated to a first-order reaction. This simplified approach successfully led to a new analytical method for simulating the optimum volume ratio of anaerobic reactor to aerobic reactor for minimizing the total hydraulic residence time. PMID:11547981

Hirata, A; Nakamura, Y; Tsuneda, S

2001-01-01

35

Upgrading fertilizer production wastewater effluent quality for ammonium discharges through ion exchange with clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

It had previously been shown that ammonium selective natural zeolite clinoptilolite may be used successfully as an ion exchanger for ammonium removal and nitrogen control from domestic wastewater. The process had been reported to be acceptable either by itself alone or as an upgrade. In this work, the possibility of using clinoptilolite for ammonium removal from fertilizer production wastewater was investigated. The fertilizer plant under consideration was rather a non-typical one with a lower ammonium strength than what is normally expected, and a variable effluent concentration. Batch experiments were performed to assess the capacity of clinoptilolite towards ammonium removal from an industrial wastewater at two different pHs. Flow experiments for the characterization of system behavior under continuous feeding conditions at different contact times were conducted for breakthrough analysis. Both real and simulated fertilizer wastewater samples were investigated and the results have shown that the real one may successfully be represented by the simulated one. Experimental results have shown that surface capacities exceeding 14 mg ammonium g(-1) clinoptilolite could be attained, complete removal of ammonium may be achieved with empty bed contact times of 10 min or higher and ion exchange with clinoptilolite could be used successfully to comply with the effluent standards given for the fertilizer plant. PMID:18702292

Beler-Baykal, B; Allar, A D

2008-06-01

36

Breakdown and discharge regimes in standard and micrometer size dc discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an overview of our recent experimental studies of the breakdown and operation of non-equilibrium discharges in centimetre and micrometer size geometries is presented. In the centimetre size geometries, we focused on elementary processes and phenomenology in gases used for some of the currently most attractive applications of low temperature plasmas - fluorocarbon gases (CF4, CHClF2) and water vapour. Measurements were performed at electrode separation d = 1.1 cm, in a pressure range from 0.1 to 5 Torr. In the case of micro-discharges, the emphasis was on testing the validity of standard scaling laws and proper determination of scaling parameters pd and j/p2. This was done at electrode gaps of 200 and 500 ?m and pressures of 50 and 20 Torr in argon. The investigation is based on measurements of breakdown potentials (Paschen curves) and Volt-Ampere characteristics, supported by simultaneous ICCD imaging of the discharges.

Škoro, N.

2012-11-01

37

Starch Wastewater Treatment with Effective Microorganisms Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch wastewater has high turbidity and COD, heavy odor after anaerobic processing. Discharging this kind of sewage could cause serious environmental pollution, and therefore it need to be treated and reached the national standard before discharge. This experiment based on the specific characteristics of starch wastewater. The process was designed as follows: after anaerobic hydrolysis prior to degradation of refractory

Zhou Guizhong; Li Jia; Fan Huiju; Sun Jing; Zhao Xiaoqing

2010-01-01

38

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams...Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer...

2010-07-01

39

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams...Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer...

2009-07-01

40

Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges.  

PubMed

The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid production, gonadosomatic indices, histology [cellular development and intersex]) were assessed upstream and downstream of two municipal discharges. Fish [Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Rainbow Darters E. caeruleum] collected downstream of two municipal wastewater plants had the potential to have greater growth (longer and heavier) when compared to reference fish collections regardless of sex. Fish were not assimilating additional anthropogenic resources into energy storage (increased condition, liver somatic index). Impacts on ovarian development appeared to be minor with no differences in growth, steroid production or cellular development. Sewage exposed male fish were experiencing impairment in the capacity to produce testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in vitro, and in cellular development (GSI, intersex). Male darters of both species collected in the upstream agricultural region demonstrated no evidence of intersex whereas our urban reference sites had incidence of intersex of up to 20%. Rates of intersex were elevated downstream of both sewage discharges studied (33% and>60%, respectively). Lower rates of intersex at the intermediate sites, and then increases downstream of second sewage discharge suggests that fish populations have to potential to recover prior to exposure to the second sewage effluent. Pre-spawning darters demonstrated dramatically higher incidence of intersex in the spring at both urban reference sites (33% and 50%, respectively), and increased more so downstream of the near-field and far-field exposure sites (60% and 100%, respectively). These findings suggest that the compounds released in STP effluents have a tendency to act on the male reproductive system. These effects may become more pronounced as projected human population growth will require the aquatic environment to assimilate an increasing amount of sewage waste. PMID:21641296

Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Shires, K; Knight, B; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

2011-05-13

41

Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.  

PubMed

Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars. PMID:19542641

Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

2009-01-01

42

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

Ansley, Shannon L.

2002-02-20

43

Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China's Hunan Province  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

2011-01-01

44

Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.  

PubMed

China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

2012-06-14

45

Possible impact of treated wastewater discharge on incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli and coliform group bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics were investigated in the Tama River, a typical urbanized river in Tokyo, Japan, and at a wastewater treatment plant located on the river. The percentages of antibiotic resistance in the wastewater effluent were, in most cases, higher than the percentages in the river water, which were observed increasing downstream. Since

T. Iwane; T. Urase; K. Yamamoto

2001-01-01

46

Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

47

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

48

Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

2006-12-01

49

32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conducted at the Air Force base nearest...inconsistent with standards of discipline in the Air Force; or (3...reprimand. (D) Combat service. (E...a member of the Air Force, reflected...normal military standards of...

2009-07-01

50

32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conducted at the Air Force base nearest...inconsistent with standards of discipline in the Air Force; or ...reprimand. (D) Combat service. (E...a member of the Air Force, reflected...normal military standards of...

2010-07-01

51

40 CFR 467.44 - New source performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM...44 New source performance standards. Any new source subject...the following performance standards. The discharge of wastewater...all times. Subpart D Solution Heat Treatment Contact...

2013-07-01

52

40 CFR 467.54 - New source performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM...54 New source performance standards. Any new source subject...the following performance standards. The discharge of wastewater...all times. Subpart E Solution Heat Treatment Contact...

2013-07-01

53

Nutrient status of wastewater in a fertilizer-factory-waste discharge equalization basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of wastewaters from a fertilizer factory, producing NH3, urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P-K) fertilizer blends, were monitored in stages for 18 months to correspond with the various stages of production of the different fertilizer minerals.Analysis of physico-chemical parameters of the various wastewater categories gave the following results: temperature, 28·0–32·5°C; pH, 5·0–9·48; conductivity, 2·5–2900·0 ?mhos\\/cm; turbidity, 2·8–17·0

J. A. Ekundayo

1995-01-01

54

Effect of wastewater discharge on greenhouse gas fluxes from mangrove soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of wastewater on atmospheric fluxes of three greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N 2O), methane (CH 4) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from mangrove soils were investigated, and the differences among shrimp pond wastewater (SP), livestock wastewater (LS) and municipal (S) sewage were compared. The gas emissions from mangrove soils were significantly enhanced after wastewater irrigation and the highest emission of N 2O and CO 2 were obtained from SP. High N 2O emission was also found in S treatment, where fluxes varied from 13.42 to 16.78 ?mol m -2 h -1, but the CH 4 and CO 2 fluxes were as low as the control irrigated with tap water. Results of soil analyses indicated that the high N 2O emissions from mangrove soils receiving SP and S treatments were attributed to the denitrification and nitrification processes, respectively. The highest CH 4 flux was recorded in LS treatment (186.14-762.40 ?mol m -2 h -1), which also had the highest CO 2 flux. The fluxes measured during the non-irrigation period were lower than those measured 4 h after irrigation.

Chen, G. C.; Tam, N. F. Y.; Wong, Y. S.; Ye, Y.

2011-02-01

55

77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....

2012-06-08

56

Zero-discharge wastewater treatment facility for a 900-MWe GCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida Power and Light desires to examine the prospect of achieving zero liquid discharge from the gasification area of their proposed 900-MW coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant expansion at the Martin station. This report provides information about the technologies available, cost, and process selection methods, and recommends a preferred system for achieving zero liquid discharge from the gasification block.

R. M. Rosain; J. A. Dalan

1992-01-01

57

A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot?plant scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot?plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non?adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch

Ahlem Saddoud; Slim Abdelkafi; Fathi Aloui; Sami Sayadi

2010-01-01

58

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards.  

PubMed

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to < 10 organisms/ m3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented. PMID:23634586

Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A Whitman; Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A

2013-03-01

59

Assessment of the quality and toxicity of the discharges of a wastewater treatment plant and alternatives to improve its operation.  

PubMed

Wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies represent a serious ecological problem worldwide. In underdeveloped and developing countries wastewater treatment plants (WTP) only count with basic treatment, leading to the pollution of important aquatic reservoirs causing critical situations. In the present work, a one year evaluation of toxicity and main physical and chemical parameters of one of the major WTP of the state of Aguascalientes was conducted fortnightly, and to assess treatment alternatives for this WTP we tested: a) three white rot fungi (WRF), b) a photo-electrochemical process, c) ion-exchangers resins and activated carbon. The 3 WRF exhibited high COD removal from influents (72 - 95 %) but only Phanerochaete chrysosporium reached significant toxicity removals (70 and 55 %, for an influent and an effluent, respectively). Treatments with electrochemical advanced oxidation processes resulted with the highest toxicity and COD removals (96 % for both parameters) in comparison to biological and physicochemical treatments. Adsorption with activated carbon, zeolite and chelex ion-exchange resins removed 60 - 90 % of COD and 60 - 99 % toxicity. These results could be used to improve operation of the Industrial Park WTP and to plan future modifications to the plant. PMID:22375542

Robles-Vargas, Daniel; Montoya-Castillo, Sandra Margarita; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Jauregui-Rincón, Juan; Rodríguez-Valadez, Francisco Javier; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

2012-01-01

60

Treatment of domestic wastewater by an hydroponic NFT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate Datura innoxia plants. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analysed to

Nathalie Vaillant; Fabien Monnet; Huguette Sallanon; Alain Coudret; Adnane Hitmi

2003-01-01

61

77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...allowable concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters...

2012-06-13

62

Impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine and their metabolites on the quality of surface waters and groundwater.  

PubMed

The presence of the anesthetic lidocaine (LDC), the analgesic tramadol (TRA), the antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN) and the metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) was investigated in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, in surface waters and in groundwater. The analytes were detected in all effluent samples and in only 64% of the surface water samples. The mean concentrations of the analytes in effluent samples from WWTPs with wastewater from only households and hospitals were 107 (LDC), 757 (TRA), 122 (ODT), 160 (VEN) and 637 ng L(-1) (ODV), while the mean concentrations in effluents from WWTPs treating additionally wastewater from pharmaceutical industries as indirect dischargers were for some pharmaceuticals clearly higher. WWTP effluents were identified as important sources of the analyzed pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in surface waters. The concentrations of the compounds found in surface waters ranged from wastewater in the recipient water, the mean flow rate of the surface water, and the proximity of the sampling point to the WWTP discharge point. The dependence of the concentrations of the target compounds in the surface water on the distance between the sampling points and the points of WWTP discharge into the recipient rivers and streams indicates possible degradation of the compounds in the surface waters. Infiltration of the target analytes into groundwater was not observed. PMID:22446514

Rúa-Gómez, Paola C; Püttmann, Wilhelm

2012-03-26

63

Water withdrawals, wastewater discharge, and water consumption in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, 2005, and water-use trends, 1970-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, an estimated 49 percent of the water withdrawn for public supply in the basin was consumed, and the remaining 51 percent was returned to the hydrologic system through wastewater treatment systems. In 2005, an estimated 38 percent was consumed and 62 percent was returned to the hydrologic system. This contrast between water withdrawals and wastewater discharges for these years was caused primarily by below-average rainfall during 2000 (a dry year) and above-average rainfall during 2005 (a wet year).

Marelaa, Richard L.; Fanning, Julia L.

2011-01-01

64

40 CFR 418.15 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...discharged, after treatment to the standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or catastrophic precipitation events cause the water level to rise into the surge capacity. Process wastewater must be treated and discharged...

2012-07-01

65

Modeling wastewater discharge at the planning stage of a marine outfall system.  

PubMed

The possibility of marine discharge of a negatively buoyant industrial waste was evaluated by a modeling study using Killworth 3-D, which is the first version of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM). The Model was run with the recorded wind direction and speed on the cruise dates and the circulation patterns for surface and subsurface were found to be similar with the current meter measurements. Model scenarios have been set-up in order to estimate the intensity and direction of the currents in the Nemrut Bay under the condition of wind blowing from a definite direction for a long time. MOM model has been run for four major wind directions, each having duration of 10 days and the behavior of the discharge plume in the worst case has been traced. Also, the behavior of the discharge plume in the real case has been estimated by using the wind data of the region. According to the model results, impact of trace elements that compose the discharge effluent is limited both in time and space. It is concluded that trace elements will leave the Bay in a short time due to the short residence times. PMID:21713476

Esen, Esin; Sayin, Erdem; Uslu, Orhan; Eronat, Canan

2011-06-29

66

Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage

Pasinee Reopanichkul; R. W. Carter; Suchai Worachananant; C. J. Crossland

2010-01-01

67

40 CFR 420.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.54 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2012-07-01

68

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from...

2012-07-01

69

40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

70

40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2011-07-01

71

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

72

Impact assessment of treated\\/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater\\/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving\\/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet

Kunwar P Singh; Dinesh Mohan; Sarita Sinha; R Dalwani

2004-01-01

73

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subpart for that wastewater stream. Partially soluble HAP are...soluble HAP in each wastewater stream using process knowledge...soluble HAP in a wastewater stream. (2) You are not required...combustion unit or hazardous waste treatment unit, and you...

2012-07-01

74

Impact of urban wastewater discharges on the sediments of a small Mediterranean river and associated coastal environment: assessment of estrogenic and dioxin-like activities.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean region includes many small coastal rivers about which little is known concerning organic contaminant loads in their sediment. This study was designed to assess organic contamination in one of these small coastal rivers (Lez River) and associated coastal sediments. Levels of alkylphenols (APs), polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments of the Lez River and two coastal lagoons impacted by wastewater discharges. In parallel, sediment surrounding a recently built submarine outfall that discharges treated wastewater, from an area encompassing some 450,000 inhabitants, into the sea was monitored a year after the beginning of emission via the outfall. Finally, these sediments were characterized by screening estrogenic, PAH-like and dioxin-like activities using in vitro bioassays. Both chemical analyses and bioassays revealed that wastewater inputs were a source of organic contamination of sediments from the Lez and lagoons, which still persisted 2 years after the discharges were stopped. APs could explain a small proportion of the overall estrogenic activities (up to 31%), suggesting that other estrogenic compounds were also present in the sediments. PAHs explained a great share (83% on average) of the EROD induction potency of the extracts. This survey should be the first step in the long-term monitoring of these sites. PMID:20162265

David, A; Gomez, E; Aït-Aïssa, S; Rosain, D; Casellas, C; Fenet, H

2010-02-17

75

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Schwing, Carl M.

76

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

77

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

78

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Schwing, Carl M.

79

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

Schwing, Carl M.

80

Will stringent total nitrogen wastewater treatment plant discharge regulations achieve stream water quality goals?  

PubMed

The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) proposed the in-stream numeric nutrient criteria as 2 mg TN per L and 0.16 mg TP per L for warm surface waters and 0.40 mg TN per L and 0.11 mg TP per L for cold surface waters. Consequently the department presented the nutrient limits for the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as annual averages of 0.7 mg TP per L and 5.7 mg TIN per L and quarterly averages of 1.0 mg TP per L and 9.0 mg TIN per L. Implementing stringent nutrient reduction at point sources is unlikely to result in improvements to the environment without non-point source controls. In this study, total nitrogen (TN) load inputs from known point source, WWTPs, and other non-point sources at six sub-basins of the Cache La Poudre (CLP) River Basin were estimated and compared under various hydrologic conditions. Significant loading exceedance from the proposed limits was observed during lower flow conditions and other sources dominated during events when the exceedance was observed except for one point. The point receives direct TN inputs from a WWTP which has the highest TN concentration in its effluent among all WWTPs in the study area; however, TN loads entered the point from other sources were significant during higher flow conditions. TN loads in the CLP River were simulated to determine whether the loads meet the proposed in-stream limits in a case in which all WWTPs comply with the proposed regulations for WWTPs. From this study, it was observed that reducing TN concentrations only at WWTPs merely impacts total TN loads in the river. PMID:23032438

Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H

2012-11-01

81

77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...

2012-09-10

82

Waste Sludge Characteristics of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Compared with Environmental Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. On the other hand, this sludge has benefits for plants and soils. Thereupon, land application of sludge has received much attention

AR Mesdaghinia; M Panahi Akhavan; F Vaezi; K Naddafi; GH Moosavi

83

Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 ?g L? 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 ?g L? 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L? 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 ?g L? 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 ?g L? 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 ?g L? 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

2014-01-01

84

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards...discharge of wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this...CathodesâNSPS. Pollutant or pollutant property... (4) Subpart EâAir ScrubbersâNSPS....

2011-07-01

85

Removal of sulphide in anaerobically treated tannery wastewater by wet air oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic treatment of tannery wastewater in high rate close type reactors leaves sulphide in the range 31–795 mg\\/l, COD 395–1886 mg\\/l, BOD 65–450 mg\\/l and TOC 65–605 mg\\/l. Thus post anaerobic treatment of wastewater was required to meet discharging standard. High sulphide concentration present in treated wastewater may render aerobic biological treatment unsuitable. Hence, it became essential to include sulphide

G. Sekaran; K. Chitra; M. Mariappan; K. V. Raghavan

1996-01-01

86

An Engineering Instance on the Emission Reduction of Coal Mine Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at solving common problems existing in the treatment of coal mine wastewater, coagulation\\/SBR process was designed for the treatment of coal mine wastewater based on the precious investigation of water quality, quantity, and the original process. The results indicated that the effluent reached the I-class criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). This water treatment process run stably

Junfeng Wu; Pingge Dian

2012-01-01

87

QUALITY OF PALOUSE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT AND IMPACT OF DISCHARGE TO THE NORTH FORK PALOUSE RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The Washington State Department of Ecology conducted a limited Class II inspection and receiving water survey at Palouse Wastewater Treatment Plant (17060108) from September 28 to October 1, 1987. Treatment efficiency was good, considering facility age and design. Several chang...

88

Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs. PMID:14761695

Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh; Sinha, Sarita; Dalwani, R

2004-04-01

89

A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively. PMID:21121456

Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2010-11-01

90

Removal of nutrients and micropollutants treating low loaded wastewaters in a membrane bioreactor operating the automatic alternate-cycles process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity to produce treated wastewaters with high quality standards for both discharge or reusing, implies the adoption of very effective processes in the field of biological wastewater treatment. The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR) has showed the capacity to remove COD, BOD, N, P and suspended solids as well as heavy metals and organic micropollutants so to obtain reusable water.

Francesco Fatone; David Bolzonella; Paolo Battistoni; Franco Cecchi

2005-01-01

91

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...That Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

2012-07-01

92

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

2012-07-01

93

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must...to store a Group 1 wastewater stream Maintain a fixed roof...vent. 2. Group 1 wastewater stream a. Convey using hard-piping...the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR...

2011-07-01

94

Regulating colored textile wastewater by 3\\/31 wavelength admi methods in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewater from textile dyeing facilities is difficult to treat satisfactorily because of high compositional variability and high color intensity. To reduce colored effluents discharged into watercourses, the government of Taiwan adopted the Effluent True Color Standard in 1998. The true color discharge limit is 400 American Dye Manufactures Institute (ADMI) units. The adopted analytical method is the ADMI Tristimulus

C. M Kao; M. S Chou; W. L Fang; B. W Liu; B. R Huang

2001-01-01

95

Wastewater reuse in Mediterranean semi-arid areas: The impact of discharges of tertiary treated sewage on the load of polar micro pollutants in the Llobregat river (NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of sewage-borne micro contaminants in environmental waters is directly related to the discharge of treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the flow rate of the receiving river waters. Mediterranean rivers, in particular, are characterized by important fluctuations in the flow rates and heavy pollution pressures resulting from extensive urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This translates into

Marianne Köck-Schulmeyer; Antoni Ginebreda; Cristina Postigo; Rebeca López-Serna; Sandra Pérez; Rikke Brix; Marta Llorca; Miren López de Alda; Mira Petrovi?; Antoni Munné; Lluís Tirapu; Damià Barceló

2011-01-01

96

Standardization of the perchlorate discharge assay for thyroid toxicity testing in rats.  

PubMed

The perchlorate discharge assay (PDA) is potentially of high diagnostic value to distinguish between direct and indirect thyroid toxicity mechanisms, provided that standard treatment times are established and positive controls yield reproducible results. Therefore the PDA was evaluated after 2 and/or 4 weeks of treatment with positive control compounds in rats. Phenobarbital, Aroclor 1254 and beta-naphthoflavone (indirect toxic mechanism) enhanced thyroidal radioiodide accumulation, and the administration of potassium perchlorate had no effect on thyroid: blood (125)I ratio. Phenobarbital caused follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the thyroid and centrilobular hypertrophy in the liver, without effects on serum triiodotyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)) levels. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were moderately increased. Propylthiouracil (direct toxic mechanism) caused severe thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, reduced serum T(3) and T(4) levels and increased serum TSH levels, and reduced thyroidal radioiodide accumulation; perchlorate administration significantly reduced thyroid: blood (125)I ratio, demonstrating an iodide organification block. Potassium iodide (direct toxic mechanism) virtually blocked thyroidal radioiodide accumulation, without significant effects on serum T(3), T(4), and TSH levels and a microscopic correlate for higher thyroid weights. Thus, positive controls yielded reproducible results and we conclude that both the 2- and 4-week PDA is suitable to distinguish between direct and indirect thyroid toxicity mechanisms. PMID:17573170

Coelho-Palermo Cunha, G; van Ravenzwaay, B

2007-05-10

97

Simulation of water quality and the effects of waste-water effluent on the South Platte River from Chatfield Reservoir through Denver, Colorado. Water Resources Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projected increases in population and discharges of wastewater effluent in the Denver metropolitan area makes compliance with water-quality standards increasingly difficult and necessitates controlling discharges of wastewater effluent to the South Platte River. In 1989, the State of Colorado adopted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's QUAL2E water-quality model as the preferred method for estimating effects of effluent on Colorado rivers.

J. E. Paschal; D. K. Mueller

1991-01-01

98

The role of wastewater treatment in protecting water supplies against emerging pathogens.  

PubMed

Traditionally, regulators, dischargers, and even water suppliers believed that wastewater discharge meeting the levels of 200 cfu/ 100 mL of fecal coliforms in wastewater effluent was sufficient to protect against downstream microbial effects. However, these beliefs are now being challenged by emerging pathogens that are resistant to standard water and wastewater treatment processes, exhibit extended survival periods in the environment, can adversely affect sensitive subpopulations, and require extremely low doses for human infection. Based on this new information, it is estimated that discharges of emerging pathogens from conventional wastewater treatment plants as far as 160 km upstream and cumulative amounts of wastewater discharge ranging from 2 to 20 ML/d have the potential to reach a water supply intake in a viable state at significant concentrations that could exceed regulatory limits for drinking water supplies, increase endemic risk from drinking water, and/or require additional drinking water treatment. Wastewater dischargers may be able mitigate this potential effect and achieve upwards of 6 log combined removal and inactivation of emerging pathogens to mitigate drinking water effects by using alternative treatment processes, such as filtration or UV light disinfection, or optimizing these processes based on site-specific conditions. PMID:17469654

Crockett, Christopher S

2007-03-01

99

Body composition in preterm infants fed standard term or enriched formula after hospital discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  \\u000a Background: Most preterm infants are still preterm and have a low birth weight when they are discharged from the hospital. An important\\u000a issue is whether the long-term consequences of early growth restriction can be diminished by nutritional intervention in preterm\\u000a infants after discharge from the hospital. Aim: To evaluate differences in growth and in weight gain composition of preterm

M. De Curtis; C. Pieltain; J. Rigo

2002-01-01

100

The treatment of organic bearing wastewater in the chemical industry using critical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent effluent limitations imposed by the EPA on a large sector of the U.S. chemical industry will mandate more stringent standards for wastewater treatment prior to discharge. As a result of these new regulations, cost-effective processes designed to remove priority pollutants and other non-biodegradable organics from industrial wastewater will be in significant demand. On November 5, 1987, the EPA published

McGovern

1988-01-01

101

Influences of wastewater discharges on the water quality of Mamas?n dam watershed in Aksaray, Central Anatolian part of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. Municipal governments in Aksaray City play a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection problems. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land, and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. A large part of Aksaray City uses Mamas?n dam water as its primary source for drinking water. Several point sources of contamination may result from direct wastewater discharges from Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamas?n dam watershed. Relevant studies were carried out for monitoring the eutrophication process, which usually occurs in the static water mass of the Mamas?n dam lake. This process may be caused by the continual increase in nutrients and decrease of O2 levels, causing anaerobic conditions. Stimulated algae growth in these water bodies consequently reduces water quality. Hydrochemical parameters were evaluated to estimate the types of pollution sources, the level of pollution, and its environmental impacts on the Mamas?n dam drinking water reservoir.

Elhatip, Hatim; Güllü, Özlem

2005-10-01

102

Silane versus silicon tetrafluoride in the growth of microcrystalline silicon films by standard radio frequency glow discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si) films produced by standard radio frequency glow discharge from SiH4 or SiF4 precursors were studied. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman spectroscopy and time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) were used for their characterisation. Although modelling of SE spectra shows that ?c-Si films with crystalline fractions up to 100% can be deposited from both types of precursors, we

Y. Djeridane; A. Abramov; P. Roca i Cabarrocas

2007-01-01

103

Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total phosphorus was 0.023 mg/L, indicating the lake is borderline mesotrophic-eutrophic, or has moderate to high concentrations of phosphorus, whereas the average summer chlorophyll a concentration was 3.3 mg/L and water clarity, as measured with a Secchi depth, was 10.4 ft, both indicating mesotrophic conditions or that the lake has a moderate amount of algae and water clarity. Although actions have been taken to eliminate the wastewater discharges, the bottom sediment still has slightly elevated concentrations of several pollutants from wastewater discharges, lumber operations, and roadway drainage, and a few naturally occurring metals (such as iron). None of the concentrations, however, were high enough above the defined thresholds to be of concern. Based on nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, the productivity (algal growth) in Mercer Lake should typically be limited by phosphorus; therefore, understanding the phosphorus input to the lake is important when management efforts to improve or prevent degradation of the lake water quality are considered. Total inputs of phosphorus to Mercer Lake were directly estimated for MY 2008-09 at about 340 lb/yr and for a recent year with more typical hydrology at about 475 lb/yr. During these years, the largest sources of phosphorus were from Little Turtle Inlet, which contributed about 45 percent, and the drainage area near the lake containing the adjacent urban and residential developments, which contributed about 24 percent. Prior to 1965, when there was no sewage treatment plant and septic systems and other untreated systems contributed nutrients to the watershed, phosphorus loadings were estimated to be about 71 percent higher than during around 2009. In 1965, a sewage treatment plant was built, but its effluent was released in the downstream end of the lake. Depending on various assumptions on how much effluent was retained in the lake, phosphorus inputs from wastewater may have ranged from 0 to 342 lb. Future highway and stormwater improvements have been identified in the Mercer Infrastructure Improvement Project, and if they

Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

2012-01-01

104

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

105

Upgrading Vienna's wastewater treatment plant - linking point source emissions to Environmental Quality Standards.  

PubMed

The new water quality protection approach of the EU combines the control of emissions with instream Environmental Quality Standards (=EQS). Since 1 April 2006 and actually relevant in the version of 2010 in Austria, priority substances from list A of the EUROPEAN DIERECTIVE 76/464 and further EQS of relevant chemical substances (list B), identified by a national risk assessment, have to be reached to achieve a good ecological state in the surface water (Edict for Water Quality Standards, 2006; changes to the Edict for Water Quality Standards 2010). The practical assessment of these substances after point source emissions is prescribed in the Edict, but rarely carried out. In this paper, two substances, namely: (1) ammonium (list B); and (2) nonylphenol, an endocrine disrupting compound (list A) are presented to discuss: (i) the improvement of treatment efficiency due to the upgrade of a large Waste Water Treatment Plant (=WWTP); (ii) the relevance of mixing processes and modelling as a method to control EQS after point source emissions; and (iii) the improvement of water quality in the ambient surface waters. It is shown that the improved treatment in the case of nonylphenol leads to emission values which fall below the EQS, making an assessment unnecessary. In the case of ammonium emission, values are significantly reduced and violation of EQS is avoided, while mixing modelling is shown to be a suitable instrument to address the resulting instream concentrations at different border conditions. PMID:22437028

Gabriel, Oliver; Ruzicka, Katerina; Kreuzinger, Norbert

2012-01-01

106

Partitioning of endocrine disrupting compounds in inland waters and wastewaters discharged into the coastal area of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  In the Water Framework Directive 2000\\/60\\/EC, environmental objectives for the proper quality of inland, surface, transitional,\\u000a coastal, and ground waters have been set. Member states are required to identify chemical pollutants of significance in the\\u000a water bodies, to establish emission control measures, and to achieve quality standards. A specific category of pollutants\\u000a are the compounds that may

Anastasia Arditsoglou; Dimitra Voutsa

2010-01-01

107

Standardization of the transmission line pulse (TLP) methodology for electrostatic discharge (ESD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardization of the methodology of transmission line pulse (TLP) testing has become a necessary reality as it becomes a common place practice in the ESD discipline. This paper discusses the development and method of a TLP standard practice.

Steven H. Voldman; Robert Ashton; Jon Barth; David Bennett; Joseph Bernier; M. Chaine; J. Daughton; E. Grund; M. Farris; H. Gieser; L. G. Henry; M. Hopkins; H. Hyatt; M. I. Natarajan; P. Juliano; T. J. Maloney; B. McCaffrey; L. Ting; E. Worley

2003-01-01

108

Modeling karst spring discharge in relation to standardized precipitation indices: a new method for forecasting water scarcity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Umbria Region (Central Italy) approximately the 35% of water for human use comes from 30 karst springs different in discharge, recharge time and storage capacity. Only 16 of these springs are currently monitored by the Regional Environmental Protection Agency and only five out of these 16 are monitored since 1998. For the remaining 14 springs only very few information is usually available: the long term average annual outflow and the long term average minimum outflow. In this context it is fundamental for management purposes to study the relations between the evolution of the rainfall input overall the basin and the distribution in time and space of the stored resources, in relation to the present or future basin climatic conditions. The main objective of this study is to develop a method to generate long term hydrographs for the springs of which only a very few information is available (i.e. an estimate of the average discharge and of the average minimum annual discharge), consistent with the precipitation regimen. To this goal, a new method has been proposed, grounded on three main points: a. capture from the available precipitation and discharge data the main statistics describing the relations between rainfall regimen and outflow for karst springs in the study area; b. verify how far these relations can be generalized to similar springs in the region; c. use them for generating synthetic outflow time series coherent with the precipitation time evolution at basin scale. The method can be summarized in seven steps: 1. Validation of the outflow model, based on the assumption that the yearly spring hydrograph is divided in one linear continuous recharge phase, starting at the end of the previous recession phase, and one exponential continuous discharge phase starting at the end of the recharge; thus for each hydrologic year the hydrograph is completely described by the maximum and minimum outflow and the duration of the recharge and discharge phases (called "outflow parameters"). 2. Computation of the linear correlation coefficients between the observed long term average outflow parameters. 3. Computation of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at local and basin scale for the period 1952-2010. 4. Correlations SPI - outflow parameters. For each spring, the correlation coefficient between each outflow parameter and the basin standardized precipitation indices at different aggregation time have been computed, to assess which aggregation time step n of the SPI best correlates with each outflow parameter. 5. Assessment of the variability in time of the spring parameters, assigned assuming that the standard deviation of each generic parameter is proportional to the standard deviation of the SPI. 6. Validation of the generation method. Synthetic hydrographs for the monitored springs have been generated, to be compared to the observed . 7. Generation of synthetic time series. Using the information from steps 1-6, an estimate of the average discharge and of the average minimum annual discharge, synthetic hydrographs related to the observed precipitation regimen have been generated for a generic unknown spring. This method doesn't expect to fully replace monitoring activities; however it could be used to generate a reasonable estimate of single spring hydrographs, when a large number of similar spring exist in the same region, having only detailed information on the main ones.

Romano, E.; Del Bon, A.; Petrangeli, A. B.; Preziosi, E.

2012-04-01

109

Rates of Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Vicinity of a Coal-Coking Wastewater Discharge  

PubMed Central

To facilitate predictions of the transport and fate of contaminants at future coal conversion facilities, rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected in the vicinity of a coal-coking treated wastewater discharge from November 1977 through August 1979. Six radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were incubated with sediment and water samples; 14CO2, cell-bound 14C, and polar transformation products were isolated and quantified. Whereas 14CO2 and bound 14C were major transformation products in sediment assays, soluble polar 14C dominated transformation in water samples. Mean rate constants (measured at 20°C) in sediments collected downstream from the effluent outfall were 7.8 × 10?2 h?1 (naphthalene), 1.6 × 10?2 h?1 (anthracene), and 3.3 × 10?3 h?1 [benz(a)anthracene], which corresponded to turnover times of 13, 62, and 300 h, respectively. No unequivocal evidence for transformation of benzo(a)pyrene or dibenz(a,h)anthracene was obtained. Only naphthalene and anthracene transformations were observed in water samples; rate constants were consistently 5- and 20-fold lower, respectively, than in the corresponding sediment samples. The measured rate constants for anthracene transformation in July 1978 sediment samples were not related to total heterotroph numbers. In late July 1978, the effluent was diverted from the primary study area; however, no differences were observed either in transformation rate constants or in the downstream/upstream sediment rate constant ratio. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continuous inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons result in an increased ability within a microbial community to utilize certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because transformation rates remained elevated for more than 1 year after removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source, microbial communities may shift only slowly in response to changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations.

Herbes, Stephen E.

1981-01-01

110

The effects of irrigation waste-water disposal in a former discharge zone of the Murray Basin, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Murray Basin in southeastern Australia, saline waste irrigation waters are often discharged to natural depressions and saline lakes as a salinity and land management strategy. At the Noora disposal basin in South Australia the waste irrigation water (EC = 17-19 dS m-1) has formed a lens in the top of the highly saline (50-80 dS m-1) regional groundwater (Parilla Sands) aquifer. Using salinity and environmental isotopes of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) the lens has been shown to extend about 500 m in a northwesterly direction from the disposal pond.The major effects of this lens have been: (1) to cause upwards displacement of the regional ground water over an area of about 285 km2, implying increased evaporation from areas surrounding the lens; (2) to reduce evaporation of regional ground water from the central low-lying area.Electromagnetic induction techniques for detecting preferred flowpaths away from the basin were rendered ineffective in this environment because of lithologic variations within the dune system. However, examination of bore-logs and groundwater gradients indicated that there was little evidence of stratigraphic control of mound development.Salinity in the Parilla Sands aquifer was closely related to the depth of the water table from the soil surface. Shallow (2-4 m) water tables were affected by recharge and evaporation to a much greater extent than ground water located below the higher dunes. There was, however, an almost instantaneous pressure response throughout the whole groundwater system to changes induced in the low-lying areas. Analyses of piezometric data showed that there was a seasonal variation imposed on the groundwater mound development. Corrected mean annual water-table increments and estimates of the mound volume and area were derived from a Theis response curve of the water table rise associated with the mound alone. Calculations using fitted parameters from the Theis analyses also suggested high transmissivity values, but are subject to uncertainties in limited data on specific yield.Although comparison of the mound volume and the disposed volume indicates extensive losses, isotopic and salinity data do not support substantial evaporation of the disposal water. However, there is evidence that the already more saline regional waters are subject to increased evaporation in topographic lows which come within the influence of the elevated water table. Hence the problem to be faced in the future is the contamination of the River Murray system by Parilla Sands water rather than from waste water leaking laterally from the disposal basin. results from this study show that the effect of disposal of the waste water is dominated by the density of the water relative to the regional waters. The assesment of the environmental impact of water disposal at other sites should, therefore, give careful consideration to this aspect, which is not adequately incorporated into groundwater models in current use.

Chambers, L. A.; Williams, B. G.; Barnes, C. J.; Wasson, R. J.

1992-08-01

111

Selecting Tier III Water Column Toxicity Standards for CDF Discharges: Statistical Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This technical note describes problems inherent in interpreting water column toxicity tests and in selecting toxicity standards for evaluation of effluent and runoff resulting from upland placement of dredged material in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). The current procedure for comparing mixing zone elutriate concentration calculations with water column toxicity test results (employing 0.01(LC50) as the water quality standard) is

Joan U. Clarke; Paul R. Schroeder; Jeffery A. Steevens

112

Operational strategies for a small wastewater treatment plant using OUR, microscopic analysis, and toxicity test.  

PubMed

This study was focused on determining the optimal operational conditions of a small domestic wastewater treatment plant (SWP) with a flow rate of 1000 m3 d(-1) using oxygen uptake rate (OUR) data, microscopic analyses, and effluent toxicity testing with Daphnia magna in parallel to wastewater characterization. Chemical analyses of nine samples, taken from different points of the treatment plant over a nine months period, presented strong domestic wastewater characteristics. The plant performance for meeting discharge standards was not sufficient enough for TP parameter. Aeration capacity and sludge recycle ratio were adjusted to improve the performance of the system and to prevent any operational problems, such as bulking. Although the inflow was 100% toxic, effluent toxicity following treatment was decreased to 5%. Filamentous bacteria were in "excessive" amount. The dominant filamentous bacteria species were determined as Nostocoioda limicola II. Reevaluation of the discharge limits with respect to nutrient removal, geographic location, and receiving water quality subject to treatment effluent discharges. PMID:14524685

Meriç, S; Ovez, S; Kaptan, D; Orhon, D

2003-01-01

113

Risk assessment of wastewater disinfection  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the following: detailed examination of the risks of different types of wastewater disinfection used today; risks of onsite use, transportation, and discharge of disinfected effluents; and disinfection methods considered include chlorination, chlorination/dechlorination, ozonation, UV radiation.

Hulby, D.; Chappell, W.; Lanning, J.; Maltempo, M.; Chiras, D.; Morris, J.

1985-01-01

114

TA6 -- PSRO(Professional Standards Review Organizations) Hospital Discharge Data Set (PHDDS) Training Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document, one in a series dealing with professional standards review organizations (PSRO's), presents training information pertinent to the functions of review coordinators. Review coordinators must communicate with hospital personnel and submit repo...

1976-01-01

115

Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard

Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

116

Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

NONE

1995-08-03

117

Report on the Evaluation of Wastewater Discharges from Raw Cane Sugar Mills on the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; Environmental Effects; Public Health Effects; Energy Requirements; Evaluation of Control Technologies; Economic Impact of Providing Wastewater Treatment; Cost and Effluent Reduction Benefits; Permitting and Water Quality S...

1989-01-01

118

Reducing the total discharge from a large WWTP by separate treatment of primary effluent overflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

At many large wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) the increased hydraulic load, caused by combined sewer systems during storm events, results in primary effluent overflow when the capacity of further treatment is exceeded. Due to stringent effluent standards, regulating the total discharge from the WWTPs, the Rya WWTP in Göteborg and the Sjölunda WWTP in Malmö will have to reduce the

N. Hanner; A. Mattsson; C. Gruvberger; U. Nyberg; H. Aspegren; O. Fredriksson; A. Nordqvist; B. Andersson

119

Arcata Integrated Wastewater Treatment, Reclamation, and Salmon Ranching Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pacific salmon smolts have been reared in saline ponds fertilized with domestic wastewaters. An artificial homestream is to be created from the discharge of a marsh-lake system to be developed with reclaimed wastewater. This proposed salmon ranching metho...

G. H. Allen R. A. Gearheart

1978-01-01

120

[Characteristics and loads of key sources of pollutions discharged into Beishi River, Changzhou City].  

PubMed

Choosing the Beishi river, Changzhou City as the study area, the sewage generation, pollutants characteristics and sewage discharge in catchment area of Beishi river were conducted, detailed investigated and monitored. After using pollution coefficients, the yearly loads of all sources of pollutions were calculated to determine the highest sewage. The results showed that: except pH, the high concentration of SS, COD, BOD5, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP discharged from MSW collecting houses, MSW transfer stations, public toilets and dining in Changzhou city far exceeded the "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard" (GB 8978-1996) and "Effluent Discharged into the City Sewer Water Quality Standards" (CJ 3082-1999). Among which: the highest concentration of COD discharged from MSW transfer stations was up to 51 700 mg/L, while the ammonia nitrogen and TN were as high as 1 616 mg/L and 2 044 mg/L in the toilet wastewater. In addition to this, the ratio of wastewater discharged directly into the river through storm water pipe network was higher from MSW houses, MSW transfer stations, public toilets, dining and other waste in Changzhou city. The 125.2 t/a of COD and 40.53 t/a of BOD5 were the two highest concentrations of various sources of pollution. The highest annual polluting loads discharged into Beishi river is dining, followed by the sanitation facilities. Therefore, cutting pollution control of food and sanitation facilities along the river is particularly urgent. PMID:21250438

Li, Chun-Ping; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Ai-Mei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Fan, Xiu-Juan; Ye, Bin

2010-11-01

121

Study of atmospheric discharges caracteristics using with a standard video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study is showed some preliminary statistics on lightning characteristics such as: flash multiplicity, number of ground contact points, formation of new and altered channels and presence of continuous current in the strokes that form the flash. The analysis is based on the images of a standard video camera (30 frames.s-1). The results obtained for some flashes will be compared to the images of a high-speed CCD camera (1000 frames.s-1). The camera observing site is located in São José dos Campos (23°S,46° W) at an altitude of 630m. This observational site has nearly 360° field of view at a height of 25m. It is possible to visualize distant thunderstorms occurring within a radius of 25km from the site. The room, situated over a metal structure, has water and power supplies, a telephone line and a small crane on the roof. KEY WORDS: Video images, Lightning, Multiplicity, Stroke.

Ferraz, E. C.; Saba, M. M. F.

122

Development and optimization of a sequencing batch reactor for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from abattoir wastewater to meet irrigation standards.  

PubMed

A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for the treatment of abattoir wastewater to produce effluent with desirable nitrogen and phosphorus levels for irrigation. The SBR cycle consisted of an anaerobic phase with wastewater feeding, a relatively short aerobic period (allowing full ammonium oxidation), a second anoxic period with feeding, followed by settling and decanting. This design of operation allowed biological nitrification and denitrification via nitrite, and therefore with reduced demand for aeration and COD for nitrogen removal. The design also allowed ammonium, rather than oxidized nitrogen, being the primary nitrogen species in the effluent. Biological phosphorus removal was also achieved, with an effluent level desirable for irrigation. A high-level of nitrite accumulation (40 mg N/L) in the reactor caused inhibition to the biological P uptake. This problem was solved through process optimization. The cycle time of the SBR was reduced, with the wastewater load per cycle also reduced, while the daily hydraulic loading maintained. This modification proved to be an effective method to ensure reliable N and P removal. N(2)O accumulation was measured in two experiments simulating the anoxic phase of the SBR and using nitrite and nitrate respectively as electron donors. The estimated N(2)O emissions for both experiments were very low. PMID:20389009

Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

2010-01-01

123

Wastewater reuse in Mediterranean semi-arid areas: The impact of discharges of tertiary treated sewage on the load of polar micro pollutants in the Llobregat river (NE Spain).  

PubMed

The presence of sewage-borne micro contaminants in environmental waters is directly related to the discharge of treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the flow rate of the receiving river waters. Mediterranean rivers, in particular, are characterized by important fluctuations in the flow rates and heavy pollution pressures resulting from extensive urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This translates into contamination levels in these rivers often higher than those in other larger European basins. The present work provides an overview of the occurrence of five groups of organic contaminants (131 compounds) namely pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, polar pesticides, estrogens, alkylphenols and related ethoxylates in WWTP tertiary treatment effluents. Data gathered during a period of water reuse carried out in the lower stretch of the Llobregat river (NE Spain), in the surroundings of the town of Barcelona as a consequence of the severe drought that took place along the years 2007-2008 are presented as illustrative example. In general, measured concentrations of the target compounds were in the low to mid ngL(-1) range. The total concentration of each compound class downstream to the discharge point was similar or slightly higher than that found upstream. Regarding the loads calculated for each compound, the relative contribution from the river upstream and the tertiary effluent were highly compound depending with no apparent trend. However, estimation of the overall bulk loads for each compound class determined in the Llobregat river showed the following rank order: pharmaceuticals>alkylphenols>pesticides>illicit drugs?estrogens. PMID:21115189

Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Ginebreda, Antoni; Postigo, Cristina; López-Serna, Rebeca; Pérez, Sandra; Brix, Rikke; Llorca, Marta; de Alda, Miren López; Petrovi?, Mira; Munné, Antoni; Tirapu, Lluís; Barceló, Damià

2010-11-27

124

Skimming oily wastewater  

SciTech Connect

As large generators of oily wastewater tighten effluent controls, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is targeting smaller generators. Some of the firms receiving their attention are smaller manufacturing plants, automotive garages, mobile equipment service shops and truck farms. Many of these firms do not have access to a sanitary sewer system that will accept oily wastewater. One EPA concern is that oily wastewater will find its way into an underground aquifer that is a source of drinking water. Many oily wastes contain organic and inorganic chemicals in concentrations that exceed the primary drinking water standards established by the Safe Drinking Water Act. So the focus of one EPA program is aimed at preventing contamination of groundwater by controlling oil wastewater at the generator`s site.

Hobson, T.

1996-10-01

125

Process for the purification of acidic metal-bearing waste waters to permissible discharge levels with recovery of marketable metal products  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Acidic metal-bearing wastewaters are treated to produce a finished water of sufficient purity to meet discharge standards while recovering metals removed in forms which are commercially valuable. The metals are selectively precipitated, either in a batch or in a continuous system, for removal of individual metal products in a specific sequence of steps from the wastewater. In each step, the pH is adjusted to the specific pH range and sulfide ion is introduced to precipitate the metals, excepting the removal of ferric iron and aluminum which is achieved using hydroxide precipitation. Bioconversion process using unique equipment converts sulfate in the wastewater to the hydrogen sulfide gas required for the precipitation process. This bioconversion process reduces the sulfate in the wastewater so that the water can be directly discharged or used for agricultural applications.

Burckle; John (Cincinnati, OH); Govind; Rakesh (Cincinnati, OH); Kawahara; Fred (Ft. Wright, KY); Scharp; Richard (Cincinnati, OH); Tabak; Henry (Cincinnati, OH)

2007-10-09

126

WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT IN A NIGERIAN LEPER COLONY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater from infected leprosy patients is expected to contain considerably higher concentrations of pathogens than standard domestic wastewater and, therefore, is more infectious. Isolation of lepers' is thought to prevent the spread of a wide range of infectious diseases that could potentially be contacted through direct or indirect exposure from an infected person's wastewater in the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate

Akinwale O. Coker; Johnson R. Oluremi; Rebecca A. Adeshiyan; Mynepalli K. Sridhar; Morenike E. Coker; Colin A. Booth; Jennifer A. Millington; Jamal M. Khatib

2011-01-01

127

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Laposata, Mark

128

Biological detoxification of precious metal processing wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological treatment plant is utilized at the Homestake Mine in Lead, SD, to effect detoxification of a daily discharge of 4 million gallons of wastewater. The wastewater matrix requiring treatment contains cyanide, ammonia, toxic heavy metals, and a variable component of toxic chemicals associated with extractive metallurgy and mining operations. Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are used to attach the

James L. Whitlock

1990-01-01

129

Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continuing depletion of fresh water resources, focus has shifted more toward water recovery, reuse, and recycling, which require an extension of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Downstream external factors like stricter compliance requirements for wastewater discharge, rising treatment costs, and spatial constraints necessitate renewed investigation of alternative technologies. Coupled with biological treatment processes, membrane technology has gained considerable attention due

C. Visvanathan; R. Ben Aim; K. Parameshwaran

2000-01-01

130

PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility  

SciTech Connect

This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP`s liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use.

Hirzel, D.R.

1995-05-11

131

Flavour Industry Wastewater Management Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study is carried out to propose an appropriate treatment technology for wastewater discharged from a flavor production\\u000a factory. Industrial wastewater discharged from this factory ranges between 50–70 m3\\/d with an average value of 60 m3\\/d. The major source of pollution in this factory is due to cleaning of the vessels therefore the treatment has been carried\\u000a out on the

Fayza A. Nasr; Nagwa M. Badr; Hala S. Doma

2006-01-01

132

Engineering report for interim solids removal modifications of the Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (SPWTF) treats wastewater from the Y-12 Plant coal yard, steam plant, and water demineralizer facility. The facility is required to comply with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) standards prior to discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The existing facility was designed to meet Best Available Technology (BAT) standards and has been in operation since 1988. The SPWTF has had intermittent violations of the NPDES permit primarily due to difficulties in complying with the limit for total iron of 1.0 ppM. A FY-1997 Line Item project, SPWTF Upgrades, is planned to improve the capabilities of the SPWTF to eliminate non-compliances with the permit limits. The intent of the Interim Solids Removal Modification project is to improve the SPWTF effluent quality and to provide pilot treatment data to assist in the design and implementation of the SPWTF Upgrades Line Item Project.

NONE

1995-04-01

133

Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.  

PubMed

Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. PMID:19102584

Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

2009-05-01

134

Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.  

PubMed

It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated. PMID:19955626

Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

2009-01-01

135

Biological tannery wastewater treatment using two stage UASB reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater discharged from tannery industries is highly complex, concentrated, and toxic. In view of the varying nature of discharged wastewater and the numerous small industries in Egypt, there is a need for highly efficient treatment processes that are simple to operate and have low\\/reasonable construction and operation costs. This study investigated the possibility of applying innovative low cost biological treatment

Mahmoud A. El-Sheikh; Hazem I. Saleh; Joeseph R. Flora; Mahmoud R. AbdEl-Ghany

2011-01-01

136

40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within...be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be monitored at the point of discharge...

2010-07-01

137

40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within...be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be monitored at the point of discharge...

2009-07-01

138

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Algal Cultivation Using Wastewater Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater discharged from a steel- making plant with the aim of developing an economically feasible system to remove ammonia from wastewater and from Ñue gas simultaneously. Since CO 2 no phosphorus compounds existed in wastewater, external phosphate (15É3È 46É 0gm ~3) was added to the wastewater. After adaptation to 5% (v\\/v) the CO 2 ,

Sun Bok Lee; Jong Moon Park

1997-01-01

139

Organic contaminants of emerging concern in sediments and flatfish collected near outfalls discharging treated wastewater effluent to the Southern California Bight.  

PubMed

To investigate the occurrence and bioaccumulation of organic contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) near four major wastewater ocean outfalls in the Southern California Bight, more than 75 pharmaceutical and personal care products, current-use pesticides, and industrial/commercial chemicals were analyzed in sediment and liver tissues of hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although most CECs targeted were infrequently detected or not detectable, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate) were detected in all sediments at median (maximum) concentrations of 5.1 (8.6), 30 (380), and 121 (470) µg/kg, respectively. In the liver, 4-NP and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99 were detected in >90% of samples at median (maximum) concentrations of 85 (290) and 210 (480) µg/kg, respectively. The sedative diazepam was detected in all liver samples, but was infrequently detected in sediments. Sediment and liver concentrations across outfall locations ranged over several orders of magnitude and were elevated relative to a reference site. Relative to sediment, accumulation in liver of PBDEs 47 and 99 was comparable to that for legacy organochlorines, confirming their high bioaccumulation potential and suggesting their inclusion in future tissue monitoring studies. Mean tissue PBDE and diazepam concentrations were higher in livers from male versus female P. verticalis, suggesting that gender differences also be considered in designing such studies. PMID:22987513

Maruya, Keith A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Kwon, Jeong W; Xia, Kang; Armbrust, Kevin L

2012-10-16

140

COD fractionation and biological treatability of mixed industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at a centralized wastewater treatment plant that receives discharges from nearly 160 industries. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was fractionated for two objectives: delineation of the limits of the activated sludge process being used at the plant, and evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the treated effluent. Physico-chemical analyses, respirometric and biodegradation tests, as well as COD fractionation were carried out. Molasses-wastewaters were determined to be the major contribution to the plant. The influent was dark brown in color, with a relatively high content of both organics (2503 mg/L COD) and salts (5459 ?S/cm conductivity), but a low biochemical oxygen demand (568 mg/L BOD(5)) and BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.24). The degradability of the organics was limited by the high content of inert soluble COD (S(I)). The COD fractionation pattern was 40-20-40% for S(I), X(I) (inerts) and S(H) (soluble hydrolyzable), respectively. More than 90% BOD(5) removal was obtained, which was sufficient for the plant to meet the national Standards. However, the effluent discharged into the river was intensely colored and polluted (>1000 mg/L COD, >5000 ?S/cm), emphasizing the need for legislation regulating COD, color and salinity, and for upgraded treatment methods worldwide for molasses wastewaters. PMID:22996003

Fall, C; Millán-Lagunas, E; Bâ, K M; Gallego-Alarcón, I; García-Pulido, D; Díaz-Delgado, C; Solís-Morelos, C

2012-09-17

141

Performance of COD removal from oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater using iron electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the feasibility of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement from oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater. The process variables, including applied voltage, electrolyte concentration and temperature, were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and temperature on electric energy consumption were evaluated. Under the optimum balance of variables, satisfactory COD removal efficiency and relatively low energy consumption were achieved. The optimum electrolyte concentration, applied voltage, and temperature were found to be 200 mg/L NaCl, 20 V, and 25 degrees C, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD concentration in oxide-CMP wastewater decreased by more than 90%, resulting a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg/L). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. COD removal rates obtained during the electrocoagulation process can be described using a pseudo-kinetic model. The present study results show that the kinetic data fit the pseudo first-order kinetic model well. Finally, the morphology and composition of the sludge produced were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectra (EDS). PMID:19847717

Wang, Chih-Ta; Chou, Wei-Lung

2009-10-01

142

Epileptiform discharges induced by combined application of bicuculline and 4-aminopyridine are resistant to standard anticonvulsants in slices of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) has previously been reported to produce different patterns of epileptiform discharges in entorhinal cortex-hippocampal-slices. Here we describe that 4-AP induced epileptiform activity in the EC becomes insensitive to anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital) when GABAergic transmission is blocked by bicuculline. We propose that the activities induced by 4-aminopyridine and bicuculline may provide an in

C. Brückner; K. Stenkamp; H. Meierkord; U. Heinemann

1999-01-01

143

Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.  

PubMed

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-06-29

144

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-01-01

145

Towards a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment and disposal.  

PubMed

We propose a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment systems and use it to quantitatively compare the performance of Chilean wine-making operations. The benchmarking model integrates three components: the influent characteristics, the wastewater treatment alternatives, and the location constraints. Four performance levels may be defined when plotting the available data of the wine production versus the ratio of wastewater to wine, for the French, US, and Chilean industries. Knowing where a certain system lies in this diagram helps to quantify the gap between the current and a target performance, and to set performance goals for planned expansions. The analysis of construction and operating costs of treatment systems currently in operation in Chile shows that similar compliance levels can be achieved at remarkably different costs. A steep decrease in the unitary cost is observed as wastewater flow increases; yet, the treatment alternative for achieving that cost may change. Further selection is obtained when location constraints are considered, including stringent discharge standards and proximity to urban settlements. The application of this simple benchmark model to three Chilean winery facilities shows how it produces meaningful quantitative and qualitative results. However, there is still ample room to improve this benchmarking model by considering additional complexity, including technical detail in the treatment options and costs related to technology conversion. PMID:17849990

Aybar, M; Carvallo, M; Fabacher, F; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

2007-01-01

146

Treatment of solvent-refined coal wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Effective wastewater treatment is essential to the successful operation of coal-conversion facilities. Process wastewater streams from these facilities will require treatment before reuse or discharge to the environment. Current treatment technology is considered generally applicable to coal-conversion wastewaters, but its effectiveness in the treatment of specific coal-conversion wastewaters has not been demonstrated on a large scale. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has previously investigated treatment methods for coal gasification and liquefaction wastewaters to provide data for the design and operation of commercial-scale units. In continuation of our coal-conversion processes, we now report on the effectiveness of a treatment train and selected-component unit operations for Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-I) process wastewater.

Drummond, C.J.; Noceti, R.P.; Walters, J.G.

1982-02-01

147

The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a

Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt; Daniel D. Snow; Teyona Damon; Johnette Shockley; Kyle Hoagland

2009-01-01

148

Microalgae and wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The performance of microalgae aquaculture wastewater treatment system predominated mainly by Scenedesmus and Chlorella was assessed. Treatment induced a progressive reduction in both COD and BOD to values below the discharge limits. Different patterns were obtained for removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, and ammonia; however, the algal culture efficiencies reached 100% in their removal by the end of the treatment period. The applied aquatic systems demonstrated percentage reduction of heavy metals in the range between 52.3 and 100% in the batch system and 64.2 and 100% in the continuous system. Wastewater supported algal growth by inducing the incorporation of a significantly higher content of the individual amino acids Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, and Tyr, and a markedly higher level of Pro. However, His, Lys, and Arg were markedly reduced compared to their levels in synthetic-medium-grown algae. PMID:7498057

Hammouda, O; Gaber, A; Abdel-Raouf, N

1995-08-01

149

Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

Conn, K. E.; Siegrist, Prof. , R. L.; Barber, L. B.; Brown, G. K.

2007-01-01

150

Pancreatitis - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis, or swelling of the pancreas You may have ...

151

Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2009-01-01

152

Managing commercial and light-industrial discharges to POTWs  

SciTech Connect

Discharging commercial and light-industrial wastewater to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) is risky business. Pretreating wastewater using traditional methods may leave a wastestream's originator vulnerable to fines, civil and criminal punishment, cleanup costs, and cease-and-desist orders. EPA has tightened regulations applying to discharges from POTWs, which, in turn, are looking to industrial and commercial discharge sources to determine responsibility for toxic contaminants. Although EPA in the past focused on large point sources of contamination, the Agency has shifted its emphasis to smaller and more diverse nonpoint sources. One result is that POTWs no longer act as buffers for light-industrial and commercial wastewater dischargers.

Fink, R.G. (RGF Environmental Group, West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

1993-02-01

153

Wastewater Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)|

Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

1978-01-01

154

Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge;; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge;Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy- discharge; Cyclotrons- discharge; Linear accelerator- discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge

155

Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission. PMID:22564037

Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

2012-05-29

156

[Treatment of high-concentration butyl-acrylate-production wastewater by A three-phase biological fluidized bed reactor].  

PubMed

The butyl-acrylate-production wastewater was treated by a three-phase biological fluidized bed reactor. The influences of acrylic acid concentrations, p-toluenesulfonic acid concentrations, volumic load and hydraulic retention time on pollutants removal efficiencies were investigated. It was indicated that the reactor was suitable for the treatment of butyl-acrylate-production wastewater at a high loading rate. Acrylic acid of 100 mg/L or p-toluenesulfonic acid of 50 mg/L in the influent can inhibit the unacclimated microorganisms in the fluidized bed reactor. The inhibition effects were eliminated after an acclimation of two weeks. Acrylic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid could be removed completely at COD loading rates up to 11.56-13.56 kg/(m3 x d). The effluent COD could satisfy the demand of Class II in Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996) at COD loading rates up to 8.86 kg/(m3 x d) when influent COD concentration is below 2000 mg/L. When the influent COD concentration was increased to 9550-11,800 mg/L(acrylic acid of 6244 mg/L and p-toluenesulfonic acid of 1000 mg/L), the effluent COD was 271-360 mg/L, which satisfied the demand of Class III in Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996) at COD loading rates of 7.96-9.83 kg/(m3 x d). PMID:21780595

Fan, Zhi-qing; Song, Yu-dong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Liang, Han-dong

2011-05-01

157

Guidance manual for battery-manufacturing pretreatment standards. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The manual provides guidance to POTWs on the application and enforcement of the categorical pretreatment standards for the battery manufacturing category. It is estimated that there are 255 battery manufacturing plants in the United States. Of the 255 identified battery manufacturing plants, 22 are direct dischargers, 150 are indirect dischargers, and 83 plants do not discharge wastewater. The manual is divided into 5 parts: (1) Introduction; (2) Battery Manufacturing Categorical Standards (subcategorization of cadmium; calcium; lead; leclanche; lithium; magnesium; zinc); (3) Treatment Technologies (end-of-pipe; in-process control technologies); (4) Requirements of the General Pretreatment Regulations (monitoring; reporting; recordkeeping); (5) Application of Battery Manufacturing Categorical Pretreatment Standards. There are three appendices: Appendix A = Glossary of Terms; Appendix B = PSES and PSNS For Battery Manufacturing Subcategories; and Appendix C = List of EPA and State Pretreatment Coordinators.

Not Available

1987-08-01

158

Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant  

SciTech Connect

Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

Shah, A.R. [Motorola SCG, McDowell, MD (United States). Environmental, Safety, and Industrial Hygiene Dept.; Ploeser, J.H. [Phoenix Water Services Dept., AZ (United States). Water Conservation Office

1999-08-01

159

Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg\\/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when considering the higher lipid concentrations in the discharged effluents. Typical industries that generate lipids-containing wastewaters are dairy, edible oil and fat refinery,

H. Ching-Shyung

1997-01-01

160

[Adsorbable organic halogen compounds and bio-toxicity in hospital wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

Adsorbable organic halogen compounds (AOX) exist persistently in the aquatic environment, and accumulate in the food chain. Some of them are toxic for humans and other organisms. However, hospital wastewater is considered as an important source of AOX in municipal wastewater. The aim of this study was to evaluate the generation of AOX both in a raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from a membrane sequencing batch reactor, also the effect of cR t value and the bio-toxicity were investigated. The results show that the removal of AOX in the hospital wastewater is 63.6% after treated by the membrane sequencing batch reactor, and the contribution of membrane rejection accounts for 14.5%. The concentration of AOX in the raw hospital wastewater is much higher than that of the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor at the same value of cR t for its higher chlorine-demands. Along with the increasing of cR t value, the fitting curves of AOX present exponential growth for the raw hospital wastewater, while linearity relation for the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor. To meet the requirement for indicative microorganism (fecal coliform) in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Medical Organization (GB 18466-2005), the demands of cR t value for the raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor are 5.5 (mg x h)/L and 0.0075 (mg x h)/L respectively, the bio-toxity by acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna are 40.39 microg/L (K2Cr2O7) and 8.96 microg/L (K2Cr2O7), and correspondingly the concentration of AOX produced are 607.1 microg/L and 102.5 microg/L. PMID:18268982

Sun, Ying-xue; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke-li; Gu, Ping

2007-10-01

161

Economics of Wastewater Treatment and Recycling: An Investigation of Conceptual Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of continuous droughts, the search for alternative water sources and increasing environmental restrictions on discharge of treated wastewater into natural water bodies, treated wastewater recycling offers a potential solution. In this paper the methods needed to assess the questions - to what extent treated wastewater can complement the existing water sources in different sectors and at what

Mekala Gayathri Devi; Brian Davidson; Anne-Maree Boland

2007-01-01

162

Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Wastewater: Constituents, Effects, and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reuse is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for conservation of limited resources of freshwater and as a mean of safeguarding the aquatic environment due to contaminants present in wastewater. Although secondary and tertiary treated wastewater is often discharged into surface waters, it cannot be reused without further treatment. One of the parameters of concern for human and environmental

H. K. Shon; S. Vigneswaran; S. A. Snyder

2006-01-01

163

EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE TERTIARY WASTEWATER FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Conventional methods for treatment of municipal wastewaters frequently produced effluents that will not meet local discharge requirements. Granular media filters are being installed to provide teritary treatment for increased removals of suspended solids and BOD. This report prov...

164

Tracing treated wastewater in an inland catchment using anthropogenic gadolinium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge of treated wastewater into natural water bodies occurs worldwide; if drinking water is then extracted downstream, there is potential for micropollutants that are not fully mineralized in the wastewater treatment process to enter municipal drinking water. In Australia, drinking water treatment is typically a mixture of basic technologies such as flocculation and slow sand filtration; technologies that are

Michael Glen Lawrence; David Guimerà Bariel

2010-01-01

165

Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water pollution is one of the serious environmental problems in urban centers in Nepal due to the discharge of untreated wastewater into the river-system, turning them into open sewers. Wastewater treatment plants are almost non-existent in the country except for a few in the Kathmandu Valley and even these are not functioning well. Successful implementation of a few constructed

R. R. Shrestha; R. Haberl; J. Laber; R. Manandhar; J. Mader

166

Heart pacemaker - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; Biventricular pacemaker - discharge

167

Radical prostatectomy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... retropubic prostatectomy - discharge; Radical perineal prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; ...

168

Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

2001-05-01

169

Development of a biofilm-MBR for shipboard wastewater treatment: The effect of process configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct discharge of wastewater from ships is prohibited by the International Maritime Organization, especially discharge of oily bilge water. This study aims to develop a compact onboard integrated wastewater treatment system for all the wastewater streams on ships, including grey water, black water and bilge water, using biofilm-MBR technology. Both dead-end side-stream and recycle side-stream configurations of a biofilm-MBR

Cheng Sun; TorOve Leiknes; Jan Weitzenböck; Bernt Thorstensen

2010-01-01

170

Study of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater in an Urban Agglomeration in Romania  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants.

Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P.

2012-01-01

171

Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.  

PubMed

The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. PMID:23270957

de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

2012-12-01

172

Hungry microbes eat away wastewater sludge problem  

SciTech Connect

Accumulations of diluted resin solids and sludge in an equalization pond were reducing a White City, Ore., chemical plant`s wastewater treatment capacity by 90%. Dyno Polymers, a division of Norway-based Dyno Industries, manufacturers formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins for the wood products industry. High-solids and biosolids bulking in the plant`s aeration pond overloaded the clarifier, and an overabundance of solids in the excess-wastewater holding pond made pumping nearly impossible. The plant`s drains carry production wastewater, truck washout water and equipment rinsewater flows to a central sump. The wastewater is pumped to the facility`s biological treatment system, where it enters an equalization pond and flows to an aeration pond equipped with two 50-horsepower aerators. The water then flows to a clarifier, where solids are settled out and removed before the water is reused or discharged to a public sewer system.

Kratch, K.

1995-09-01

173

Treatment of tannery wastewater by chemical coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop a treatment system that can effectively reduce the concentration of pollutants in tannery wastewater to environmentally acceptable levels and that can greatly reduce the cost of discharging the effluents. Aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride were used as a coagulant in the process. The influence of pH and coagulant dosages on the coagulation

Z Song; C. J Williams; R. G. J Edyvean

2004-01-01

174

Wastewater ponds and subsequent UV disinfection - a lean cost option for agricultural wastewater reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through their ability to significantly reduce pathogen levels of sewage, wastewater pond systems have to be taken into consideration as part of treatment concepts for reuse of sewage as irrigation water in agriculture, particularly in rural areas. But as pond effluent is seasonally variable and regularly does not fulfil relevant microbiological quality standards for wastewater reuse, there is a need

T. Fuhrmann; K.-U. Rudolph

175

Hydrodynamic Classification of Submerged Multiport-Diffuser Discharges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A submerged multiport diffuser is a linear structure consisting of many closely spaced ports, or nozzles, through which wastewater effluent is discharged at high velocity into the receiving water body. In many respects, multiport diffusers offer an attrac...

G. H. Jirka P. J. Akar

1991-01-01

176

Experience in operation of microfilters for aftertreatment of wastewater from ryazan petroleum refinery  

SciTech Connect

Describes an experimental-commercial microfiltration unit consisting of 5 microfilters of the MFOs 3x5 type (4 operating filters and a reserve), pumps to feed the filtered water for filter washing, and pumps to take off the washwater. Notes that increasingly stringent requirements on the quality of treated wastewater discharged to receiving bodies aremaking it necessary to aftertreat the wastewater by filtration. Finds that the specific throughput of the examined microfilters during testing was about 15 m/sup 3//(m/sup 2/ x h). Concludes that the relatively low capacity of these filters is due to design features of the braided-weave filter screens. Suggests that the operating indices of the microfilters may be improved by the use of suitable filter screens, particularly screens conforming to the standard GOST 6613-73.

Egorov, A.K.; Frolova, A.P.; Koloskova, V.K.; Yusupov, E.A.

1982-11-01

177

Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants  

PubMed Central

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

2012-01-01

178

Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants.  

PubMed

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40-90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

Phillips, P J; Chalmers, A T; Gray, J L; Kolpin, D W; Foreman, W T; Wall, G R

2012-04-27

179

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

180

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

181

Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200?ng/L to 500?ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2460-2468. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23893650

Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

2013-09-06

182

Decolorization of Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public demand for color-free waste discharge to receiving waters and tougher color standards have made decolorization of a variety of industrial wastes a top priority. Unfortunately, with the complicated color-causing compounds, the decolorization of these wastes is a difficult and challenging task. This article first describes the background information of dye molecules and dye waste characteristics. The methods for

Oliver J. Hao; Hyunook Kim; Pen-Chi Chiang

2000-01-01

183

Seasonally loaded waste stabilisation ponds: a novel application for intermittent discharge.  

PubMed

This research examined the use of a single facultative pond for treatment of an intermittent discharge from a UK campsite. The system was monitored over an 11-month period to determine the optimum time for discharge in terms of quality standards. The results showed that based on organic strength, discharge was possible in winter between November and March but February was the optimum to meet nutrient and suspended solids requirements. The pond showed rapid acclimatisation to the influent wastewater, with biochemical oxygen demand removal rates during the filling period of around 60 kg ha(-1) day(-1) and removal efficiencies of ?95% after maturation. The system proved simple to operate. A major design factor is the requirement for storage of net incoming precipitation, which may provide dilution of residual pollutants but requires additional system capacity. PMID:22925861

Whalley, C P; Heaven, S; Banks, C J; Salter, A M

2012-01-01

184

GE, we bring good things to hor ellipsis. [Compliance with industrial pretreatment standards  

SciTech Connect

The General Electric, Plastic Technology Division's research and development facility in Pittsfield, Mass., generates an industrial process wastewater that was formerly discharged to the local publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) with no treatment other than equalization and pH adjustment. The plant's wastewater contains three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), suspended solids, and high levels of oil and grease, among other wastes, which are generated in a series by pilot-scale plastic manufacturing facilities with wide variations in flow and concentrations. These discharges require rigorous treatment before being disposed to the local sewer to comply with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1987 categorical standards (40 CFR, Parts 403 and 414) that govern industrial wastewater discharged from the organic chemical, plastics, and synthetic fibers (OCPSF) industries. Treatment processes capable of achieving these regulated objectives routinely, reliably, and cost-effectively were evaluated in a pilot-scale treatability study. Special consideration was given to the impact of oil and grease on conventional treatment processes. The results proved air stripping as the best means of removing VOCs and the effectiveness of a unique phase separation and removal evaluation program.

Gates, S.R. (Camp Dresser and McKee, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Gates, R.W. (General Electric Plastics Technology Div., Pittsfield, MA (United States))

1991-11-01

185

Wastewater treatment at the Houghton Lake wetland: Hydrology and water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon-treated wastewater was discharged to a natural peatland to remove nutrients. For thirty consecutive years, an average of 600,000m3 of treated water was discharged to the Porter Ranch peatland near the community of Houghton Lake, Michigan. This discharge was seasonal, commencing no sooner than May 1 and ending no later than October 31. During the winter half-year, treated wastewater was

Robert H. Kadlec

2009-01-01

186

Removal and recovery of phosphorus in wastewater by superconducting high gradient magnetic separation with ferromagnetic adsorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of eutrophication for semi-enclosed bays and ponds is serious and important challenge. In spite of the advanced wastewater treatment, typically 1mg\\/L phosphorus is discharged into public water bodies from wastewater treatment plants. The total amount of the discharged water is so large that the further improvement of the removal efficiency of phosphorus in the discharged water is demanded. On

T. Ishiwata; O. Miura; K. Hosomi; K. Shimizu; D. Ito; Y. Yoda

2010-01-01

187

A chemically enhanced biological process for lowering operative costs and solid residues of industrial recalcitrant wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative process based on ozone-enhanced biological degradation, carried out in an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR – Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor), was tested at pilot scale for tannery wastewater treatment chosen as representative of industrial recalcitrant wastewater. The results have shown that the process was able to meet the current discharge limits when the biologically treated wastewater was

Claudio Di Iaconi; Guido Del Moro; Marco De Sanctis; Simona Rossetti

2010-01-01

188

Influence of residual organic macromolecules produced in biological wastewater treatment processes on removal of pharmaceuticals by NF\\/RO membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been given to pollution of the water environment by pharmaceutical compounds discharged from wastewater treatment plants. High-pressure driven membranes such as a nanofiltration (NF) membrane and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane are considered to be effective for control of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment. In practical applications of NF\\/RO membranes to municipal wastewater treatment, feed water for the

Katsuki Kimura; Tomonori Iwase; Shusuke Kita; Yoshimasa Watanabe

2009-01-01

189

Vaginal Discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

190

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2008-01-28

191

Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.  

PubMed

This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. PMID:20399551

Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

2010-08-01

192

A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

Nhapi, Innocent

193

Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

2004-01-01

194

Effects of micronutrient niacin on treatment efficiency of textile wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile wastewater is well known as one of the wastewaters to be most difficultly treated. The effects of niacin on textile\\u000a wastewater treatment efficiency were studied by continuous addition of 1.0 mg·L?1 niacin, the physical and chemical indexes of the water samples, such as COD, ammonia and dehydrogenase activities, were analyzed\\u000a every day with standard methods, and obvious improvement in

Liang Wei; Hu Hongying; Gu Xin; Che Yuling; Wang Hui; Guo Yufeng; Song Yudong

2006-01-01

195

A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of saline (>2% w\\/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost?effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes.

Yeyuan Xiao; Deborah J. Roberts

2010-01-01

196

Sarnia-Lambton Association: Wetland Treatment of Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes the functions and values of wetlands, and includes keywords and illustrations. Wetlands have received wastewater discharges from many different situations in the past, but only recently have they been recognized as potentially cost-efficient treatment systems. They can effectively remove or convert large quantities of pollutants from point sources (municipal and industrial wastewaters) and non-point sources (mine, agricultural and urban runoff).

2001-06-12

197

Supply-chain environmental effects of wastewater utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter describes a comprehensive modeling framework and the Wastewater-Energy Sustainability Tool (WWEST) designed for conducting hybrid life-cycle assessments of the wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge infrastructure in the United States. Results from a case study treatment plant which produces electricity using methane offgas are discussed. The case study system supplements influent with 'high-strength organic waste' to augment electricity production.

Jennifer R. Stokes; Arpad Horvath

2010-01-01

198

Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

Wpsu

2008-11-20

199

Catalytic ozonation-biological coupled processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing refractory chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds*  

PubMed Central

A treatability study of industrial wastewater containing chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs) by a catalytic ozonation process (COP) with a modified Mn/Co ceramic catalyst and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. A preliminary attempt to treat the diluted wastewater with a single SBR resulted in ineffective removal of the color, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Next, COP was applied as a pretreatment in order to obtain a bio-compatible wastewater for SBR treatment in a second step. The effectiveness of the COP pretreatment was assessed by evaluating wastewater biodegradability enhancement (the ratio of biology oxygen demand after 5 d (BOD5) to COD), as well as monitoring the evolution of TOC, carbon oxidation state (COS), average oxidation state (AOS), color, and major pollutant concentrations with reaction time. In the COP, the catalyst preserved its catalytic properties even after 70 reuse cycles, exhibiting good durability and stability. The performance of SBR to treat COP effluent was also examined. At an organic loading rate of 2.0 kg COD/(m3·d), with hydraulic retention time (HRT)=10 h and temperature (30±2) °C, the average removal efficiencies of NH3-N, COD, BOD5, TOC, and color in a coupled COP/SBR process were about 80%, 95.8%, 93.8%, 97.6% and 99.3%, respectively, with average effluent concentrations of 10 mg/L, 128 mg/L, 27.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L, and 20 multiples, respectively, which were all consistent with the national standards for secondary discharge of industrial wastewater into a public sewerage system (GB 8978-1996). The results indicated that the coupling of COP with a biological process was proved to be a technically and economically effective method for treating industrial wastewater containing recalcitrant CNACs.

Li, Bing-zhi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

2010-01-01

200

Scale-up of BDD anode system for electrochemical oxidation of phenol simulated wastewater in continuous mode.  

PubMed

Scale-up of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system is significant to the practical application of electrochemical oxidation in bio-refractory wastewater treatment. In this study, the performance of a smaller BDD anode (24 cm(2)) system in continuous mode electrochemical oxidation of phenol simulated wastewater was first investigated and well described by the response surface methodology (RSM). Furthermore, the RSM was extended to examine the scale-up feasibility of BDD anode systems with similar configurations. It was demonstrated that both COD degradation efficiency and specific energy consumption could be expected at the same level even as the system was enlarged over 100 times, which implied that BDD anode system could be successfully scaled up through controlling the same retention time, current density, initial COD, and conductivity conditions. Based on this study, a larger BDD anode (2904 cm(2)) system was constructed and systematic measurements were made on its performance in electrochemical oxidation of phenol simulated wastewater. Very good agreement was found between measured and predicted results by RSM. At the optimized conditions, the larger BDD anode system could easily reduce the COD of phenol simulated wastewater from 633 mg L(-1) to 145 mg L(-1) (<150 mg L(-1), National Discharge Standard of China) during 80 min with specific energy consumption only 31 kWh kgCOD(-1). PMID:20832933

Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna; Jiang, Yi

2010-08-21

201

Wastewater cleanup: Put activated-sludge treatment to work  

SciTech Connect

Strict wastewater treatment and discharge limits continue to challenge wastewater treatment systems. For industrial wastewater, the selected system must not only meet regulatory requirements, but must also be flexible enough to handle the variations in volume, flowrate and pollutant load that typify industrial effluent streams. At existing industrial sites, the selection of a wastewater treatment system is also impacted by constraints, such as limited space or the desire to minimize downtime or process interruptions. Meanwhile, for municipalities, wastewater treatment requirements are often made or complicated by the need to add a disinfection step to destroy waterborne pathogens in the discharge stream. Biological treatment processes, based on the use of activated sludge, have long been used to degrade organic contaminants in municipal and industrial wastewater. For years, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been used to treat wastewater using activated sludge. However, in recent years, the variable depth reactor (VDR) has emerged as an alternative system, by addressing some of the shortcomings of the SBR.

Scroggins, D. [Pollution Control, Inc., Florence, KY (United States); Deiters, S. [Diffused Gas Technologies, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

202

Case Studies from Turkey: Xenobiotic-containing Industries, Wastewater Treatment and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenobiotic compounds are widely used in several industries; hence they frequently appear in industrial wastewaters. It is\\u000a a well-known fact that even the discharge of conventionally treated wastewater may have adverse effects on the receiving water\\u000a environment. Turkey, a developing EU applicant country, has many industrial sectors producing large amounts of xenobiotic-containing\\u000a wastewaters. The problem is only enlarged by the

E. Pehlivanoglu-Mantas; G. Insel; O. Karahan; E. Ubay Cokgor; D. Orhon

2008-01-01

203

Zero discharge programs require careful planning  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations, increasing scarcity of fresh water supplies and rising costs of clean water production have contributed to greater water conservation throughout the country. Reduced or zero discharge programs have become much more commonplace at electric utilities, chemical process industries and manufacturing facilities. Water conservation can be a very complicated issue, with methods varying considerably from site to site. The issues that influence water reduction programs include: quality, quantity and cost of fresh water available to the plant; quality of water needed for various plant processes; ability to recycle wastewater streams to other plant processes; techniques for water treatment; capital, operations, maintenance and labor costs, and floor space and construction requirements for water treatment equipment, pilot testing of proposed treatment methods and environmental restrictions on the quantity and quality of any wastewater that may be discharged. This article describes several water discharge programs available to address the complex needs of each unique plant site.

Buecker, B.

1997-05-01

204

30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures...and to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures...

2013-07-01

205

30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures...and to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures...

2013-07-01

206

32 CFR 70.8 - Discharge review procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review procedures. 70.8 Section 70.8...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.8 Discharge review procedures. (a) Application for...

2010-07-01

207

32 CFR 70.8 - Discharge review procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Discharge review procedures. 70.8 Section 70.8...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.8 Discharge review procedures. (a) Application for...

2009-07-01

208

Guidance for Planning the Location of Water Supply Intakes Downstream from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to present information and guidelines relevant to the location of surface water supply intakes downstream from municipal wastewater discharges. Decisions on the location of water supply intakes must be made by informed profes...

P. Tobin

1978-01-01

209

Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers  

EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

210

Results of Small-Scale Tests for Removing Mercury from ORNL Process Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) received a new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit from the state of Tennessee in 1997. This permit reduced the limit for mercury in the effluent from the Process Wastewater Treatment Complex...

P. A. Taylor K. T. Klasson

1999-01-01

211

Life Cycle Assessment of Biological Nutrient Removal Wastewater Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in wastewater treatment over the past 150 years have improved public health and local water quality. Recently however, society has begun to consider the wider environmental implications of these improvements. This paper uses life cycle assessment to quantitatively compare the environmental costs and benefits of different wastewater treatment technologies and standards. It is demonstrated that there exists a broader

Jeff Foley; David de Haas; Ken Hartley; Paul Lant

212

Surface chemistry parameters in ecological cleanup of oily wastewater. [Coalesces filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily wastewater that accumulates on ships must be freed of oil before discharge overboard to comply with environmental regulations. Current technology employs coalescer filters, usually composed of glass fibers held together by resinous binders. Emulsified oil droplets adhere to the fibers and coalesce, thus separating the oil from the effluent water. However, surfactants in the wastewater interfere with the separation.

1976-01-01

213

Pilot-Plant Demonstration of Wet Oxidation for Treatment of Shipboard Wastewaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two processes were demonstrated: (1) Acidic wet oxidation of wastewater and direct discharge of the effluent; and (2) ammoniacal wet oxidation and recycling of toilet flushings. Fifty-gallon batches of wastewater were treated in a full-scale (20-man) prot...

D. W. Bridges W. M. Fassell

1975-01-01

214

Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. In this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. Five pilot units were vegetated with Canna indica, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Iris pseudacorus, and

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2007-01-01

215

Dissolved organics in tannery wastewaters and their alteration by a combined anaerobic and aerobic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolved organic load of tannery wastewater and of the effluents of an anaerobic and aerobic treatment were investigated over a 2 yr period. The average dissolved organic carbon content (DOC) of raw wastewater is 900 mg 1?1, corresponding to a discharge of 23 kg DOC t?1 raw hide. The two step biological treatment removes an average 85% of the

Thorsten Reemtsma; Martin Jekel

1997-01-01

216

Wastewater reuse: A sanitation and management strategy for the Mediterranean coastal areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater agricultural reuse has two main aspects. It is capable of preventing the discharge of wastewater treatment plant effluents in receiving waters and it is also a way to increase water resources. The controlled agricultural reuse has not been developed until now, either in Languedoc or in Catalonia, but is expected a quick development due to several circumstances: the growing

F. Brissaud; C. Rodier; M. Lasala; M. Salgot

1991-01-01

217

Decontamination of wastewaters containing synthetic organic dyes by electrochemical methods: A general review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents of a large variety of industries usually contain important quantities of synthetic organic dyes. The discharge of these colored compounds in the environment causes considerable non-aesthetic pollution and serious health-risk factors. Since conventional wastewater treatment plants cannot degrade the majority of these pollutants, powerful methods for the decontamination of dyes wastewaters have received increasing attention over the past decade.

Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle; Enric Brillas

2009-01-01

218

Hybrid anion exchanger for trace phosphate removal from water and wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout recent decades, the wastewater treatment industry has identified the discharge of nutrients, including phosphates and nitrates, into waterways as a risk to natural environments due to the serious effects of eutrophication. For this reason, new tertiary treatment processes have abounded; these processes generally utilize physico–chemical and biological methods to remove nutrients from secondary wastewaters. The disadvantages of such methods

Lee M. Blaney; Suna Cinar; Arup K. SenGupta

2007-01-01

219

Nanofiltration of wastewater from the fishmeal industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewaters generated in fishmeal production, the average flow rates of which are 1100m3\\/h for a plant capacity of 100 ton fish\\/h, bear a high organic load, and therefore should not be discharged directly into the sea without a suitable treatment in order to prevent negative impacts in the environment. On the other hand, these effluents contain a significant amount

MariaDiná Afonso; RodrigoBórquez Yañez

2001-01-01

220

Hip fracture - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

221

Nipple discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Discharge from breasts; Milk secretions; Lactation - abnormal; Witch's milk; Galactorrhea; Inverted nipple; Nipple problems ... such as anise and fennel Widening of the milk ducts Sometimes, babies can have nipple disharge. Your ...

222

Assessing the potentials of Lemna minor in the treatment of domestic wastewater at pilot scale.  

PubMed

Water crisis is one of the most serious problems faced by the world today. Phytoremediation is one of the serious efforts towards sustainability. Macrophyte-based wastewater treatment systems have several potential advantages compared with conventional treatment systems. Duckweeds (Lemna spp., Spirodela spp., Wolffia spp.) are small, green freshwater, free-floating aquatic plants. The primary objective of this work was to analyze the role of duckweeds in organic waste and nutrient removal from domestic wastewater being generated from hostels of Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi (India). Interesting results were obtained in which the BOD value reduced by 94.45% and the level of orthophosphate at the end of the work was found to be reduced by 79.39%. The duckweeds flourished well during the experimental period in the pH range of 7 to 8; it can be said that, other factors remaining favorable, the optimum pH for duckweed growth ranges from 7 to 8. Therefore, it can be concluded that this treatment can be successfully carried out on a large scale. Also, it is a low-cost solution to wastewater treatment problems and could satisfy the discharge standards. PMID:21823047

Priya, Anima; Avishek, Kirti; Pathak, Gopal

2011-08-09

223

Investigations into Using the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for Municipal? and Industrial Wastewater Toxicity Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This investigative study assesses the ease and usefulness of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for identifying contributors to effluent toxicity within an industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) system.\\u000a Several different types of industries, including fiberglass manufacturing, paper packaging, and yarn dyeing, discharge effluent\\u000a into the municipal wastewater treatment plant, which in turn discharges into a local creek. A

D. R. Hitchcock; M. C. Black; P. L. Williams

1997-01-01

224

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wastewaters, Surface Waters, and Oysters from an Urban Riverine System?  

PubMed Central

The antibiotic resistance (AR) patterns of 462 Escherichia coli isolates from wastewater, surface waters, and oysters were determined. Rates of AR and multiple-AR among isolates from surface water sites adjacent to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge sites were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those among other isolates, whereas the rate of AR among isolates from oysters exposed to WWTP discharges was low (<10%).

Watkinson, A. J.; Micalizzi, G. B.; Graham, G. M.; Bates, J. B.; Costanzo, S. D.

2007-01-01

225

40 CFR 421.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Copper Subcategory § 421.66 Pretreatment standards for new sources...new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in secondary copper process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not exceed...

2012-07-01

226

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.46 Pretreatment standards for...for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall...

2012-07-01

227

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2011-07-01

228

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2011-07-01

229

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

230

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2011-07-01

231

Non-storm water discharges technical report  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

Mathews, S.

1994-07-01

232

Estimating hyperconcentrated flow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining flow discharge in torrential mountain floods can help in managing flood risk. However, standard methods of estimating discharge have significant uncertainties. To reduce these uncertainties, Bodoque et al. developed an iterative methodological approach to flow estimation based on a method known as the critical depth method along with paleoflood evidence. They applied the method to study a flash flood that occurred on 17 December 1997 in the Arroyo Cabrera catchment in central Spain. This large flow event, triggered by torrential rains, was complex and included hyperconcentrated flows, which are flows of water mixed with significant amounts of sediment.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-02-01

233

Water-quality assessment and wastewater-management alternatives for Dardenne Creek in St Charles County, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of water in the 15 mile downstream reach of Dardenne Creek in St. Charles County, Missouri, was assessed to determine if it met the Missouri water quality standards. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and total ammonia failed to meet water quality standards downstream from the Harvester-Dardenne and St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plants. The QUAL-II SEMCOG water quality model was calibrated and verified using two independent data sets from Dardenne Creek. Management alternatives using current, design capacity, and future expansion wastewater discharges from the St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plant were evaluated. Results of the computer simulation indicate that a nitrification-type advanced-treatment facility installed at the plant would produce a 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand of 10 mg/L. An effluent limit of 5.0 mg/L of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand would further improve the water quality of Dardenne Creek; however, an additional treatment process, such as sand filtration, would be needed to meet this criterion. (USGS)

Berkas, W. R.; Lodderhose, J. R.

1985-01-01

234

The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation. PMID:17923147

Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

2007-10-17

235

40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for...wastewater stream or residual contains organic hazardous air pollutants that are to be treated in...

2013-07-01

236

Detection of Partial Discharges at High Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details a partial discharge measurement detection model that has been used to produce a test circuit suitable for detection of partial discharge at high frequencies. The circuit is designed to identify partial discharges in different insulating samples stressed by non-standard (including high frequency sine-waves and square waves). This is particularly important for the testing of equipment used in

F. Alrumayan; I. Cotton

2006-01-01

237

EFFECTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SEAWATER DILUTION IN REDUCING LETHAL TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TO SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW AND PINK SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was conducted to determine the effects of treatment and seawater dilution of municipal wastewater on marine organisms. n experimental facility was built in southeast Florida that provided both unchlorinated and chlorinated effluent from three standard treatments: primar...

238

ASSESSING MERCURY LEVELS IN THE WASTEWATER OF AN AGING RESEARCH LABORATORY BUILDING  

PubMed Central

Increasingly stringent restrictions on mercury concentrations in wastewater discharge may be problematic for aging research laboratory facilities. Relatively high levels of mercury compounds may exist and concentrate deep in the plumbing system and their sediments, resulting in elevated wastewater concentrations. This study was conducted to assess total mercury levels in an aging laboratory building wastewater system. Wastewater outflow, sink trap water, and pipe sediment samples were collected from the building. The Jerome 431™ Mercury Vapor Analyzer was assessed as a tool for screening lab sink trap drains for mercury deposition. Results revealed that the three day average for mercury discharge from this single structure, if not diluted by other waters, would be above the local total release parameters to the wastewater treatment plant. The sink traps did not contain a majority of the mercury; however, the pipe sediment and outflow samples revealed consistently elevated concentrations.

Ragan, Gregory A.; Gregory Alvord, W.

2007-01-01

239

Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater.  

PubMed

The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater. PMID:23009792

Won, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

2012-08-10

240

HF wastewater remediation by electrocoagulation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater from surface treatment of silicon wafers is rich in fluoride ions. This is attributed to the use of hydrofluoric acid in huge quantities during stripping operation. Lime precipitation is insufficient to comply with environmental standards. In this work, the electrocoagulation (EC) was used for polishing treatment after neutralizing step. Synthetic solutions were used for the investigation into main operational

S. Aoudj; A. Khelifa; N. Drouiche; M. Hecini

2012-01-01

241

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

242

Treatment of Oily Wastewater Using Dissolved Air Flotation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil\\/water emulsion is found in the wastewater effluent streams coming from various sources, such as the petroleum refineries, the discharge of bilge and ballast water, workshops, petrol stations, rolling mills and from edible oil and soap factories. The oil recovery process adopted will depend on how the oil is present in the water stream. Oil can be found as free

M. Hanafy; H. I. Nabih

2007-01-01

243

Phosphorus retention by wetlands soils used for treated wastewater disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands function as buffers for nutrients loaded from terrestrial ecosystems through drainage and surface discharges. The objectives of our study were to (1) determine the P retention capacity of representative wetland soils being used for disposal of treated wastewater and (2) relate P retention characteristics to selected physicochemical properties to evaluate likely mechanisms of P removal to the solls. Intact

P. M. Gale; K. R. Reddy; D. A. Graetz

1994-01-01

244

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse

Edris Bazrafshan; Ferdos Kord Mostafapour; Mehdi Farzadkia; Kamal Aldin Ownagh; Amir Hossein Mahvi

2012-01-01

245

Human health implications of clinically relevant bacteria in wastewater habitats.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to reflect on the multiple roles of bacteria in wastewater habitats with particular emphasis on their harmful potential for human health. Indigenous bacteria promote a series of biochemical and metabolic transformations indispensable to achieve wastewater treatment. Some of these bacteria may be pathogenic or harbour antibiotic resistance or virulence genes harmful for human health. Several chemical contaminants (heavy metals, disinfectants and antibiotics) may select these bacteria or their genes. Worldwide studies show that treated wastewater contain antibiotic resistant bacteria or genes encoding virulence or antimicrobial resistance, evidencing that treatment processes may fail to remove efficiently these bio-pollutants. The contamination of the surrounding environment, such as rivers or lakes receiving such effluents, is also documented in several studies. The current state of the art suggests that only some of antibiotic resistance and virulence potential in wastewater is known. Moreover, wastewater habitats may favour the evolution and dissemination of new resistance and virulence genes and the emergence of new pathogens. For these reasons, additional research is needed in order to obtain a more detailed assessment of the long-term effects of wastewater discharges. In particular, it is important to measure the human and environmental health risks associated with wastewater reuse. PMID:23508533

Varela, Ana Rita; Manaia, Célia M

2013-03-19

246

Simulation of the wastewater temperature in sewers with TEMPEST.  

PubMed

TEMPEST is a new interactive simulation program for the estimation of the wastewater temperature in sewers. Intuitive graphical user interfaces assist the user in managing data, performing calculations and plotting results. The program calculates the dynamics and longitudinal spatial profiles of the wastewater temperature in sewer lines. Interactions between wastewater, sewer air and surrounding soil are modeled in TEMPEST by mass balance equations, rate expressions found in the literature and a new empirical model of the airflow in the sewer. TEMPEST was developed as a tool which can be applied in practice, i.e., it requires as few input data as possible. These data include the upstream wastewater discharge and temperature, geometric and hydraulic parameters of the sewer, material properties of the sewer pipe and surrounding soil, ambient conditions, and estimates of the capacity of openings for air exchange between sewer and environment. Based on a case study it is shown how TEMPEST can be applied to estimate the decrease of the downstream wastewater temperature caused by heat recovery from the sewer. Because the efficiency of nitrification strongly depends on the wastewater temperature, this application is of practical relevance for situations in which the sewer ends at a nitrifying wastewater treatment plant. PMID:18547935

Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

2008-01-01

247

Wastewater services for small communities.  

PubMed

Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent. PMID:12793663

Gray, S; Booker, N

2003-01-01

248

Wastewater desalination in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desalination of secondary effluents in Israel by use of advanced IMS technology has been considered as a major water supply option since different IMS technologies evolved in the last several years for a variety of desalination applications like desalination of brackish surface, seawater and the more challenging — secondary wastewater.A comprehensive research work on advanced wastewater treatment at the Shafdan’s

P. Glueckstern; M. Priel; E. Gelman; N. Perlov

2008-01-01

249

Alternative wastewater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative wastewater systems have been developed not only to broaden the wastewater disposal technology but also to offer efficient alternatives to conventional sewers, septic tanks, sludge disposal, and water pollution problems. Economic tradeoffs are achieved using sewage grinders and small?diameter pressure sewers which require increased energy but permit development in hilly or rocky terrain. Vacuum sewers offer water conservation

Rein Laak; Roger E. Machmeier

1982-01-01

250

Skimming oily wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

As large generators of oily wastewater tighten effluent controls, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is targeting smaller generators. Some of the firms receiving their attention are smaller manufacturing plants, automotive garages, mobile equipment service shops and truck farms. Many of these firms do not have access to a sanitary sewer system that will accept oily wastewater. One EPA concern

Hobson

1996-01-01

251

Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate, contrast media, corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and metabolites of several substances. For analysis of micropollutants, water samples were spiked with internal standards before solid-phase-extraction (SPE) and the analysis was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/MS-MS). Quantification limits were in the range of 1-28 ng/l for river water and 200-650 ng/l for untreated wastewater. Once the concentrations and loads of micropollutants in the infiltrating waters are known and compared to those in the spring water, one might distinguish and quantify the portions of water infiltrating from the different sources in the catchment area.

Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

2013-04-01

252

Tennis elbow surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... had surgery to repair a tendon in your elbow. The surgeon made a cut (incision) over the ...

253

Sustainable Water Conservation and Wastewater Reuse in a Palm Oil Mill: A Case Study in Southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palm oil industry is one of the major agro-industries in Southern Thailand. It requires a large amount of water for its operation and discharges consider- able quantities of wastewater. This creates a serious threat to the environment and sources of potable water. This study proposes recommendations for water conservation and reuse and improvement of wastewater treatment facilities to overcome

SHING TET LEONG; SAMORN MUTTAMARA; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

254

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

255

Electrochemical oxidation of wastewater - opportunities and drawbacks.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation by means of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes generates a very efficient oxidizing environment by forming hydroxyl radicals, providing effective water purification for elimination of persistent pollutants. In this project the degradation rates of organic and inorganic substances are investigated. Experiments were performed in laboratory and pilot scale with synthetic and industrial wastewaters. Performance parameters were evaluated in terms of total organic carbon/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, specific energy consumption and current efficiency. The integration of this advanced oxidation technology combined with conventional technology was then applied in a wastewater treatment concept of landfill leachate. The raw leachate with a low biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio was electrochemically oxidized to prepare the purified leachate for discharge into a sewage system or a receiving water body. The cost estimation regarding operation and capital costs addresses the economics for the treatment of heavily polluted effluents. PMID:24037171

Woisetschläger, D; Humpl, B; Koncar, M; Siebenhofer, M

2013-01-01

256

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...roof. (D) There are holes, tears, cracks or gaps in the rim seal or seal fabric...joint, lid, cover, or door has a crack or gap, or is broken. (ii) The...manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open...

2010-07-01

257

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...roof. (D) There are holes, tears, cracks or gaps in the rim seal or seal fabric...joint, lid, cover, or door has a crack or gap, or is broken. (ii) The...manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open...

2013-07-01

258

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...roof. (D) There are holes, tears, cracks or gaps in the rim seal or seal fabric...joint, lid, cover, or door has a crack or gap, or is broken. (ii) The...manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open...

2009-07-01

259

40 CFR 464.24 - New source performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...d) Grinding Scrubber Operations. No discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. (e) Investment Casting. NSPS Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average...

2009-01-01

260

40 CFR 464.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...18 (d) Grinding Scrubber Operations. No discharge of process wastewater pollutants to a POTW. (e) Investment Casting. PSES Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average...

2010-07-01

261

Runaway discharges in TCABR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found in experiments carried out in Tokamak Chauffage Alfvén Brésilien (TCABR) that two regimes of runaway discharges (RADs) with very different characteristics are possible. The RAD-I regime, which is similar to that observed in other tokamaks, can be obtained by a gradual transfer from a normal resistive to a RAD by decreasing the plasma density. This regime can be well understood using the Dreicer theory of runaway generation. The total toroidal current contains a substantial resistive component and the discharge retains some features of standard tokamak discharges. The second runaway regime, RAD-II, was recently discovered in the TCABR tokamak (Galvão R.M.O. et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1181). The RAD-II regime starts just from the beginning of the discharge, provided that certain initial conditions are fulfilled and, in this case, the runaway tail carries almost the full toroidal current. The background plasma is cold and detached from the limiter due to the recombination process. The primary Dreicer process is suppressed in the RAD-II and the secondary avalanche process dominates, even at the start-up phase, in the generation of the toroidal current. It is possible to trigger a transition from the RAD-I to the RAD-II regime using plasma cooling by gas puffing. The experimental results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions based on the runaway avalanche process.

Kuznetsov, Yu. K.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Bellintani, V., Jr.; Ferreira, A. A.; Fonseca, A. M. M.; Nascimento, I. C.; Ruchko, L. F.; Saettone, E. A. O.; Tsypin, V. S.; Usuriaga, O. C.

2004-05-01

262

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2012-02-01

263

Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L(-1) (<100 mg L(-1), the National Discharge Standard of China). More importantly, the destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters. PMID:21377794

Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna

2011-03-05

264

Tubal ligation - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge ... You had tubal ligation (or "tying the tubes") surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. ...

265

Lung surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... had open surgery or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). You may have had one of these common ...

266

Physicochemical quality of an urban municipal wastewater effluent and its impact on the receiving environment.  

PubMed

The physicochemical qualities of the final effluents of an urban wastewater treatment plant in South Africa were assessed between August 2007 and July 2008 as well as their impact on the receiving watershed. The pH values across all sampling points ranged between 6.8 and 8.3, while the temperature varied from 18°C to 25°C. Electrical conductivity (EC) of the samples was in the range of 29-1,015 ?S/cm, and turbidity varied between 2.7 and 35 NTU. Salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) varied from 0.36 to 35 psu and 16 to 470 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of the other physicochemical parameters are as follows: chemical oxygen demand (COD, 48-1,180 mg/L); dissolved oxygen (DO, 3.9-6.6 mg/L); nitrate (0.32-6.5 mg NO?? as N/L); nitrite (0.06-2.4 mg NO?? as N/L); and phosphate (0.29-0.54 mg PO?³? as P/L). pH, temperature, EC, turbidity, TDS, DO, and nitrate varied significantly with season and sampling point (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), while salinity varied significantly with sampling point (P<0.01) and COD and nitrite varied significantly with season (P<0.05). Although the treated effluent fell within the recommended water quality standard for pH temperature, TDS, nitrate and nitrite, it fell short of stipulated standards for other parameters. The result generally showed a negative impact of the discharged effluent on the receiving watershed and calls for a regular and consistent monitoring program by the relevant authorities to ensure best practices with regard to treatment and discharge of wastewater into the receiving aquatic milieu in South Africa. PMID:19921451

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E O; Okoh, Anthony I

2009-11-17

267

Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer  

SciTech Connect

Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

2009-03-15

268

Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

Dieu, B

2001-01-01

269

Preliminary survey of PERC stormwater discharges into lick run  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storm water system of the PERC--ERDA site is connected to drains from laboratories where effluents from experimental coal conversion processes are generated. This study gathers preliminary quantitative flow and compositional data of effluent storm and process-laboratory wastewater from the ERDA site (the Bureau of Mines and MESA effluents are not considered). It is concluded that the ERDA discharge in

R. D. Neufeld; S. K. Sain

1978-01-01

270

Net Changes in Antibiotic Concentrations Downstream from an Effluent Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown the occurrence of antibiotics and degradation products in streams; however, relatively little work has applied a functional perspective to antibiotic transport and uptake. Th is study examined net changes in antibiotic concentrations downstream from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effl uent discharge and estimated net uptake length (S net ), net uptake velocity ( v f-net

Brian E. Haggard; Leslie D. Bartsch

2009-01-01

271

Pollutant removal in a multi-stage municipal wastewater treatment system comprised of constructed wetlands and a maturation pond, in a temperate climate.  

PubMed

A multi-stage municipal wastewater treatment system is proposed to comply with Mexican standards for discharge into receiving water bodies. The system is located in Santa Fe de la Laguna, Mexico, an area with a temperate climate. It was designed for 2,700 people equivalent (259.2 m3/d) and consists of a preliminary treatment, a septic tank as well as two modules operating in parallel, each consisting of a horizontal subsurface-flow wetland, a maturation pond and a vertical flow polishing wetland. After two years of operation, on-site research was performed. An efficient biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (94-98%), chemical oxygen demand (91-93%), total suspended solids (93-97%), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (56-88%) and fecal coliform (4-5 logs) removal was obtained. Significant phosphorus removal was not accomplished in this study (25-52%). Evapotranspiration was measured in different treatment units. This study demonstrates that during the dry season wastewater treatment by this multi-stage system cannot comply with the limits established by Mexican standards for receiving water bodies type 'C'. However, it has demonstrated the system's potential for less restrictive uses such as agricultural irrigation, recreation and provides the opportunity for wastewater treatment in rural areas without electric energy. PMID:22097088

Rivas, A; Barceló-Quintal, I; Moeller, G E

2011-01-01

272

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-09-01

273

Experimental study of forced circulation evaporator in zero discharge desalination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero discharge desalination process is the most promising technology to prevent salinity and thermal shocks to ecosystem by effluent streams of desalination unit drained into the sea. Pretreatment, solar pond and forced circulation crystallizer are the major steps of one option to provide the purposes of zero discharge desalination process. Reduction of total hardness of wastewater occurs in pretreatment unit

Farshad Farahbod; Dariush Mowla; M. R. Jafari Nasr; Mohammad Soltanieh

274

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

275

Case study: Integrating membrane processes with evaporation to achieve economical zero liquid discharge at the Doswell Combined Cycle Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

New restrictive permitting, operating and environmental requirements placed on independent power producers, utility power plants, chemical processing plants, refineries and other industrial installations are mandating zero liquid discharge of wastewater to sewers, rivers, deep wells and the like. Economic reclamation and reuse of wastewater is becoming essential. Since the mid-70's, vapor compression evaporation has been the preferred means to achieve

Anita Seigworth; Rodi Ludlum; Eugene Reahl

1995-01-01

276

Research on Separation Dying and Oiling Wastewater from Tannery by Polyethersulphone Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyether sulphone membrane was used to treat tannery dying and oiling wastewater and the technological condition of separation unit was optimized. The optimum condition for polyether sulphone membrane treating the wastewater is pressure 0.12~0.15MPa, the cross flow velocity 1.2~ 1.5 m.s -1 , pH5.5~ 6.0. BOD5 of outflow wastewater. The result of treatment can reach the national second-class standard. The

Rong Lu; Wenxin Li

2011-01-01

277

The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step.

Rytwo, Giora

2012-01-01

278

The use of clay-polymer nanocomposites in wastewater pretreatment.  

PubMed

Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges ("coagulation") and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent ("flocculation"). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as "coagoflocculants" for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step. PMID:22454607

Rytwo, Giora

2012-02-15

279

[Effect of pilot UASB-SFSBR-MAP process for the large scale swine wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

In this paper, a treatment process consisted of UASB, step-fed sequencing batch reactor (SFSBR) and magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation reactor (MAP) was built to treat the large scale swine wastewater, which aimed at overcoming drawbacks of conventional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process and SBR treatment process, such as the low denitrification efficiency, high operating costs and high nutrient losses and so on. Based on the treatment process, a pilot engineering was constructed. It was concluded from the experiment results that the removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+) -N and TP reached 95.1%, 92.7% and 88.8%, the recovery rate of NH4(+) -N and TP by MAP process reached 23.9% and 83.8%, the effluent quality was superior to the discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (GB 18596-2001), mass concentration of COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, TP and SS were not higher than 135, 116, 43, 7.3 and 50 mg x L(-1) respectively. The process developed was reliable, kept self-balance of carbon source and alkalinity, reached high nutrient recovery efficiency. And the operating cost was equal to that of the traditional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. So the treatment process could provide a high value of application and dissemination and be fit for the treatment pf the large scale swine wastewater in China. PMID:23745404

Wang, Liang; Chen, Chong-Jun; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang

2013-03-01

280

Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.  

PubMed

Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems. PMID:23376111

Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

2013-01-29

281

A Characterization of Selected Endocrine Disruptor Compounds in a Portuguese Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic compounds that are able to disrupt the endocrine system of wildlife species are a major cause for concern and\\u000a have led to a demand for new screening methods. The identification and quantification of endocrine disruptor compounds at\\u000a wastewater treatment plant is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of wastewater treatment plant discharges\\u000a into the environment. This study

R. MaurÍcio; M. Diniz; M. Petrovic; L. Amaral; I. Peres; D. Barceló; F. Santana

2006-01-01

282

Evaluation of iron ochre from mine drainage treatment for removal of phosphorus from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of polluting discharges from abandoned coal mines in the UK currently produces ca 30,000ty?1 of hydrous iron oxides (“ochre”), for which there is no major end-use, but which has previously been shown to have potential for removing P from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The efficiency of ochre for P removal from wastewater was investigated in experiments at two sites

K. E. Dobbie; K. V. Heal; J. Aumônier; K. A. Smith; A. Johnston; P. L. Younger

2009-01-01

283

A desert wetland created by wastewater flows: current trends and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las Vegas Wash is an artificial wetland supported mostly by discharges of wastewaters from sewage treatment plants. Conflicting\\u000a interests among municipal, recreational, and down-river users make the Las Vegas Wash a focal point in current management\\u000a disputes regarding the need for advanced wastewater treatment, desert wetland habitat for wildlife, and salinity control measures.\\u000a Water quality investigations were performed from July

Franklin A. Morris; Larry J. Paulson

1982-01-01

284

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in effluents from wastewater treatment plants and receiving streams in Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water, suspended particulate matter, pore water, and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic\\u000a hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Yongding New River, South Drainage Canal and North Drainage Canal, which receive most of wastewater\\u000a from industrial city of Tianjin. PAH concentrations in effluent samples of wastewater treatment plants (WTP) discharging into\\u000a the South Drainage Canal and North Drainage Canal

Weixiao Qi; Huijuan Liu; Jiuhui Qu; Chengzhi Hu; Huachun Lan; Michael Berg; Huimin Ren; Wei Xu

2011-01-01

285

The removal of nutrients from non-point source wastewater by a hybrid bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing nutrients from non-point source wastewater. The proposal involves a hybrid bioreactor comprised of sequential anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic (A2\\/O) processes and an eco-ditch being constructed and applied in a suburban area, Kunming, south-western China, where wastewater was discharged from an industrial park and suburban

Yonghong Wu; Zhengyi Hu; Linzhang Yang; Bruce Graham; Philip G. Kerr

2011-01-01

286

Antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of quebracho phenolics ( Schinopsis balansae) recovered from tannery wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quebracho extracts are used in tannery due to their high concentration of phenolics. The Mexican tannery industry uses around 450kg\\/m3 of which, 150kg\\/m3 remains in wastewaters and are discharged in drain pipe systems or rivers. The quebracho phenolics recovered from tannery wastewater (QPTW) was characterized by HPLC. The antimutagenic and antioxidant activities as well as the microbiological quality were evaluated.

Raúl Marín-Martinez; Rafael Veloz-García; Rafael Veloz-Rodríguez; Salvador H. Guzmán-Maldonado; Guadalupe Loarca-Pina; Anabertha Cardador-Martinez; Lorenzo Guevara-Olvera; Rita Miranda-López; Irineo Torres-Pacheco; Cristina Pérez Pérez; Guadalupe Herrera-Hernández; Francisco Villaseñor-Ortega; Mario González-Chavira; Ramón G. Guevara-Gonzalez

2009-01-01

287

Treatment of wastewater from the meat industry applying integrated membrane systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents investigations into the treatment of wastewater from the meat industry applying three hybrid processes in the following combinations: ultrafiltration–reverse osmosis, coagulation–reverse osmosis, coagulation–ultrafiltration–reverse osmosis. Neither coagulation nor ultrafiltration enabled a sufficient removal of pollutants from the wastewater, which, as a result, could not be discharged into receiving water due to elevated pollution indices. However, an additional treatment

Jolanta Bohdziewicz; Ewa Sroka

2005-01-01

288

Removal of zinc and nickel ions by complexation–membrane filtration process from industrial wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial wastewater streams contain toxic metal cations, for example, Ni2+, Zn2+, etc. or their oxyanions in up to few hundred mg\\/dm3, which must be removed before water recycling or discharging directly into surface waters. The conventional processes to treat this kind of wastewater are, e.g. chemical precipitation, ion exchange, membrane separations (such as electrodialysis, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration),

Gábor Borbély; Endre Nagy

2009-01-01

289

Turning calcium carbonate into a cost-effective wastewater-sorbing material by occluding waste dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Over the years, organic pollution in the environment has aroused people’s concern worldwide, especially persistent organic\\u000a pollutants (POPs). Particularly in developing countries, plenty of concentrated organic wastewaters treated noneffectively\\u000a are discharged into aquatic environments from chemical, textile, paper-making, and other industries to seriously threaten\\u000a the surface and drinking water. The conventional wastewater treatment techniques are often helpless

Dan-Hua Zhao; Hong-Wen Gao

2010-01-01

290

WASTEWATER IRRIGATION AT TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Municipal wastewater from the City of Tallahassee, Florida, which has received secondary treatment was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of wastewater renovation without pollution of groundwater or surface water through land application to forage crops by sprinkler irrigation...

291

HEALTH ASPECTS OF WASTEWATER AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency arranged for several studies, by universities or research institutions, to gather information on health effects associated with wastewater aerosols. Five studies were conducted at wastewater treatm...

292

Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more effective at improving HRQOL or patient satisfaction. Compared with usual care, there was low quality evidence that the discharge planning plus postdischarge support is more effective at reducing readmissions but not more effective at reducing hospital LOS or mortality. There was very low quality evidence that it is more effective at improving HRQOL or patient satisfaction. Plain Language Summary Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in their health status and multiple transitions between care settings and care providers (e.g., hospital to home). Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. A review of the effects of different discharge plans was conducted. After searching for relevant studies, 11 studies were found that compared discharge planning with routine discharge care. This review indicates that: Individualized discharge planning reduces initial hospital length of stay and subsequent readmission to hospital but does not reduce mortality. The effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) or patient satisfaction is uncertain. Discharge planning plus postdischarge support reduces readmissions but does not reduce the initial hospital length of stay or mortality after discharge. The effect on HRQOL or patient satisfaction is uncertain.

McMartin, K

2013-01-01

293

Supply-chain environmental effects of wastewater utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter describes a comprehensive modeling framework and the Wastewater-Energy Sustainability Tool (WWEST) designed for conducting hybrid life-cycle assessments of the wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge infrastructure in the United States. Results from a case study treatment plant which produces electricity using methane offgas are discussed. The case study system supplements influent with 'high-strength organic waste' to augment electricity production. The system balance is 55 kg of greenhouse gases per million liters of wastewater. Sensitivity analysis confirms that reusing biogas from anaerobic digestion for electricity reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by nine times. When biogas is captured and reused for electricity, material production (e.g., chemicals and pipes) and the corresponding supply chains, rather than energy production, are responsible for most of the environmental effects. When biogas is flared, the material and energy production contributions are similar.

Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

2010-01-01

294

Performance of an intensive pond system treating municipal wastewater in a cold region.  

PubMed

A full-scale intensive pond system (IPS) with shorter HRT was designed, constructed and operated in Jining, Inner-Mongolia for the treatment of municipal wastewater, which is a mixed domestic and industrial wastewater characterized by quite high SS and lower BOD5/COD ratio values or lower biodegradability. Therefore, the pond system was designed as an integrated intensive pond system (IIPS) consisting of settling/anaerobic pond (SAP), intensified anaerobic pond (IAP), facultative pond (FP), and polishing ponds (PPs). In order to improve the performance of the IPS, some intensified measures were made, including inlet and outlet even-distribution systems of each unit pond, package of biofilm carrier in IAP for the increase and even distribution of biomass; overflow waterfalls on the dikes between unit ponds for the increase of DO in pond water, gravel filtration dike (or dam) for removing suspended solids including algae, which have improved the performance of the IPS remarkably in terms of removal of main pollutants, such as SS, COD, BOD5, TN, NH3-N, TP and total bacteria. The final effluent from the IPS in warm seasons from May to October were SS 7.2-10.8 mg/L, BOD5 8.5-19.6 mg/L, COD 44.1 - 76.5 mg/L, and NH3-N 1.5-10.2 mg/L, which well meet Chinese national discharge standard (2nd class) of secondary municipal wastewater treatment plants, i.e. BOD5 and SS 30 mg/L respectively, COD 100 mg/L, and NH3-N 25 mg/L. PMID:16114663

Wang, B; Qi, P; Wang, L; Lu, W; Liu, S; Zhao, F

2005-01-01

295

Reducing the total discharge from a large WWTP by separate treatment of primary effluent overflow.  

PubMed

At many large wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) the increased hydraulic load, caused by combined sewer systems during storm events, results in primary effluent overflow when the capacity of further treatment is exceeded. Due to stringent effluent standards, regulating the total discharge from the WWTPs, the Rya WWTP in Göteborg and the Sjölunda WWTP in Malmö will have to reduce the impact of primary effluent overflow. Separate, high rate, precipitation processes operated only during high flow conditions have been investigated in pilot units at the two WWTPs. Precipitation in existing primary settlers operated at a surface loading of 3.75 m/h removed phosphorus to 0.35 mg/l. The Actiflo process was also shown to remove suspended solids and phosphorus well. BOD was reduced by 50-60%. With such processes the overall effluent concentrations from the plants can be reduced significantly. Key upgrading features are small footprints, short start up time and high efficiency. PMID:15553471

Hanner, N; Mattsson, A; Gruvberger, C; Nyberg, U; Aspegren, H; Fredriksson, O; Nordqvist, A; Andersson, B

2004-01-01

296

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents in selected streams in northern Arkansas, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, collected data in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many constituents of emerging environmental concern, in selected streams in northern Arkansas. Samples were collected in March and April 2004 from 17 sites located upstream and downstream from wastewater- treatment plant effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkansas and at 1 stream site in a relatively undeveloped basin in north-central Arkansas. Additional samples were collected at three of the sites in August 2004. The targeted organic wastewater constituents and sample sites were selected because wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharge provides a potential point source of these constituents and analytical techniques have improved to accurately measure small amounts of these constituents in environmental samples. At least 1 of the 108 pharmaceutical or other organic wastewater constituents was detected at all sites in 2004, except at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas. The number of detections generally was greater at sites downstream from municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges (mean = 14) compared to sites not influenced by wastewatertreatment plants (mean = 3). Overall, 42 of the 108 constituents targeted in the collected water-quality samples were detected. The most frequently detected constituents included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene.

Galloway, Joel M.; Haggard, Brian E.; Meyers, Michael T.; Green, W. Reed

2005-01-01

297

Frequency analysis of river water quality using integrated urban wastewater models.  

PubMed

In recent years integrated models have been developed to simulate the entire urban wastewater system, including urban drainage systems, wastewater treatment plants, and receiving waterbodies. This paper uses such an integrated urban wastewater model to analyze the frequency of receiving water quality in an urban wastewater system with the aim of assessing the overall system performance during rainfall events. The receiving water quality is represented by two indicators: event mean dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and event mean ammonium concentration. The compliance probability of the water quality indicators satisfying a specific threshold is used to represent the system performance, and is derived using the rainfall events from a series of 10 years' rainfall data. A strong correlation between the depth of each rainfall event and the associated volume of combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges is revealed for the case study catchment, while there is a low correlation between the intensity/duration of the rainfall event and the volume of the CSO discharges. The frequency analysis results obtained suggest that the event mean DO and ammonium concentrations have very different characteristics in terms of compliance probabilities at two discharging points for CSO and wastewater treatment plant effluent, respectively. In general, the simulation results provide an understanding of the performance of the integrated urban wastewater system and can provide useful information to support water quality management. PMID:22643404

Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

2012-01-01

298

Treatment of dairy wastewater by water hyacinth.  

PubMed

The present study addresses potential of water hyacinth for treating small-scale dairy wastewater to satisfy effluent standards for disposal into public sewers. The batch experiments were conducted on dairy wastewater using reactor with water hyacinth and without water hyacinth. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was varied from 507 mg/L to 4,672 mg/L and the maximum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) adopted was 8 days. The loss of water due to evapo-transpiration and evaporation was also measured. The water hyacinth system performed better when initial COD concentration was maintained less than 1,672 mg/L for six days HRT. The performance of water hyacinth system was more effective than reference by 30% to 45% for COD removal. However, water hyacinth had no significant impact in reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The evapo-transpiration loss was almost double than the evaporation loss. The first order reaction kinetics was applicable and reaction rate parameters were estimated for various organic strengths of wastewater. The reaction rate parameters for water hyacinth system were three times higher than a system without water hyacinth and also found to vary with initial COD values. Water hyacinth can be adopted to treat dairy wastewater from small-scale dairy effectively for disposal into public sewers. PMID:19237765

Munavalli, G R; Saler, P S

2009-01-01

299

The effect of ozone on tannery wastewater biological treatment at demonstrative scale.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results obtained during an investigation aimed at transferring to the demonstrative scale an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR--Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) integrated with ozonation for the efficient treatment of tannery wastewater. The results show that the integrated process was able to achieve high removal efficiencies for COD, TSS, TKN, surfactants and colour with residual concentrations much lower than the current discharge limits. Furthermore, the process was characterised by a very low sludge production (i.e., 0.1 kg dry sludge/m(3) of treated wastewater) with interesting repercussions on treatment costs (about 1 euro per m(3) of wastewater). PMID:19577926

Di Iaconi, Claudio; Ramadori, Roberto; Lopez, Antonio

2009-07-04

300

RO feed pretreatment and flat cell tests for SRC-I wastewater  

SciTech Connect

To assess the feasibility of reverse osmosis (RO) in the SRC-I Demonstration Plant, Catalytic, Inc. conducted tests on biologically treated wastewaters generated during other studies. The efficacy of the post-bio-oxidation treatment steps, including tar acid precipitation, filtration, softening, carbon adsorption, and ozonation, was first evaluated to determine if these steps met the requirements recommended by RO membrane manufacturers. The pretreated wastewaters were then used to run 400-h RO flat cell tests. As a secondary objective, the studies were conducted to generate samples for toxicology testing, since the treated wastewaters might at times be discharged into the river. 12 references, 50 figures, 20 tables.

Watt, J.C.; Cahill, C.J.; Cowan, W.F.; Schwoyer, W.K.L.

1984-03-01

301

Concussion - adults - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... Healing or recovering from a concussion takes time. It may take ... You may be irritable, have trouble concentrating, be unable to ...

302

Uterine artery embolization - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Uterine fibroid embolization - discharge; UFE - discharge; UAE - discharge ... You had uterine artery embolization (UAE). UAE is a procedure to treat ... the blood supply of the fibroids was blocked. This caused ...

303

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children usually receive ...

304

Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

2007-07-01

305

Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceuticals, Personal-Care Products, Organic Wastewater Compounds, and Pesticides in the Lower Tallapoosa River Watershed near Montgomery, Alabama, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthetic and natural organic compounds derived from agricultural operations, residential development, and treated and untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater discharges can contribute contaminants to surface and ground waters. To determine the occur...

A. C. Gill A. K. McPherson C. J. Oblinger E. T. Furlong M. T. Meyer

2007-01-01

306

A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

307

2009 CSREES National Water Conference; St. Louis, MO Installation Curriculum for Small Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A training course discussing the best practice standards for onsite wastewater treatment system installation processes has been developed through a multi-state collaborative effort facilitated through the Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment. Cooperative Extension groups in Texas, Minnesota, Rhode Island, and North Carolina have joined together to develop the training manual and associated presentation materials to go along with

Bruce Lesikar; Rebecca Melton; Nancy Deal; George Loomis; David Kalen; David Lindbo

2009-01-01

308

A growth-irrigation scheduling model for wastewater use in forest production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying wastewater and sludge to land for remediation has been recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method to recycle nutrient and organic matter and conserve water resources. The level of sewage treatment can range from simple primary treatment using a lagoon to tertiary treatment using a standard wastewater treatment plant. Small communities are selecting primary treatment and

M. S. Al-Jamal; T. W. Sammis; J. G. Mexal; G. A. Picchioni; W. H. Zachritz

2002-01-01

309

Abundance and Population Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria That Inhabit Canal Sediments Receiving Effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants†  

PubMed Central

A polyphasic, culture-independent study was conducted to investigate the abundance and population structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in canal sediments receiving wastewater discharge. The abundance of AOB ranged from 0.2 to 1.9% and 1.6 to 5.7% of the total bacterial fraction by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Clone analysis and restriction endonuclease analysis revealed that the AOB communities influenced by the wastewater discharge were dominated by Nitrosomonas, were similar to each other, and were less diverse than the communities outside of the immediate discharge zone.

Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Maki, Hideaki; Kawabata, Sumiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo; Ando, Haruo; Kawai, Toshio; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Kohata, Kunio; Watanabe, Masataka

2006-01-01

310

Quantification of long-term wastewater impacts on karst groundwater resources in a semi-arid environment by chloride mass balance methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of chloride as an environmental tracer in a semi-arid karst environment.Evaluation of long-term chloride time series 1938-2012.Rising chloride concentration trend for many karst springs shows wastewater impact.Groundwater recharge calculated by chloride mass balance ranges from 25% to 50%.Wastewater contribution to spring discharge of up to 20%.

Schmidt, Sebastian; Geyer, Tobias; Marei, Amer; Guttman, Joseph; Sauter, Martin

2013-10-01

311

Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and shifting of environmental loads in the wastewater treatment sector. Part I: Case study of the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material that is separated from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants has to be transferred from the water phase to the atmosphere, lithosphere, and\\/or biosphere (and also the technosphere). After the initial discharges into the different environmental media (and the technosphere), there are further ‘inter?sphere’ leakages or redirections. However, these happen over protracted periods of time and have not been

G. Venkatesh; Helge Brattebo

2009-01-01

312

Wastewater treatment at the Houghton lake wetland: Soils and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the sediment and soils responses in a very long-running study of the capacity of a natural peatland to remove nutrients from treated wastewater. Data are here presented and analyzed from three decades of full-scale operation (1978–2007), during which large changes in the wetland soils occurred. An average of 600,000m3y?1 of treated water was discharged each warm season

Robert H. Kadlec

2009-01-01

313

Effect of Kima drain wastewaters on Nile river waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged from the Kima drain (Aswan, Egypt) on the quality of the Nile river waters is described by measuring the concentrations of inorganic nonmetals (free CO2, CO32?, HCO3?, OH?, Cl?, SO42?, PO43?, NO2?, NO3?, SiO2, COD, DO, and pH value), metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), and

M. E. Soltan

1995-01-01

314

Consider Fenton`s chemistry for wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

The chemical process industries (CPI) must treat wastewaters containing a wide variety of contaminants, ranging from toxic organics like phenol, benzene, other aromatics, formaldehyde, and amines, to inorganics such as sulfite, sulfide, mercaptans, and cyanide, to heavy metals such as hexavalent chrome. These wastewaters also have a wide range of concentrations and combinations of contaminants. The streams must be treated as inexpensively as possible and in a safe manner, preferably by processes that are easy to operate on-site and that require a minimum of labor and technical know-how. And, of course, the ultimate goal of this treatment is that the treated water meet all federal, state, and local discharge regulations. One available wastewater treatment technology that few engineers seem to be familiar with is the Fenton reactor. In this advanced oxidation process, toxic wastewater is reacted with inexpensive ferrous sulfate catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in a simple, nonpressurized (typically batch) reactor to yield (if reacted to completion) carbon dioxide and water. This article offers guidance on the use of this process by first explaining the mechanisms of Fenton`s chemistry and then outlining how to apply it to industrial wastewater treatment.

Bigda, R.J.

1995-12-01

315

Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textile dyeing processes consume large amount of water, steam and discharge filthy and colored wastewater. A pilot scale e-beam plant with an electron accelerator of 1 MeV, 40 kW had constructed at Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) in 1997 for treating 1,000 m3 per day. Continuous operation of this plant showed the preliminary e-beam treatment reduced bio-treatment time and resulted in more significant decreasing TOC, CODCr, and BOD5. Convinced of the economics and efficiency of the process, a commercial plant with 1 MeV, 400 kW electron accelerator has constructed in 2005. This plant improves the removal efficiency of wastewater with decreasing the retention time in bio-treatment at around 1 kGy. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility in DDIC and the treatment capacity is 10,000 m3 of wastewater per day. The total construction cost for this plant was USD 4 M and the operation cost has been obtained was not more than USD 1 M per year and about USD 0.3 per each m3 of wastewater.

Han, Bumsoo; Kyu Kim, Jin; Kim, Yuri; Seung Choi, Jang; Young Jeong, Kwang

2012-09-01

316

Quantification of diarrhea risk related to wastewater contact in Thailand.  

PubMed

Wastewater reuse contributes to closing the nutrient recycling loop as a sustainable way of managing water resources. Bangkok has over a thousand man-made drainage and irrigation canals for such purposes. Its use for agricultural and recreational purposes has a long tradition in rural and peri-urban areas. However, the continuation of these practices is increasingly questioned since potential health risks are an issue if such practices are not appropriately managed. The microbial and chemical quality of canal water has considerably deteriorated over the last decade, mainly because of discharged, untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. It is important to understand the health risks of wastewater reuse and identify risky behaviors from the most highly exposed actors promote the safe use of wastewater. This study assessed diarrhea infection risks caused by the use of and contact with wastewater in Klong Luang municipality, a peri-urban setting in Northern Bangkok, using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wastewater samples were collected from canals, sewers at household level, and vegetables grown in the canals for consumption. Samples were also collected from irrigation water from the agricultural fields. Two protozoa, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, were quantified and analyzed by real-time PCR, exposure assessment was conducted, and finally, the risk of infection due to contact with wastewater in different scenarios was calculated. The results showed that canal water and vegetables were heavily contaminated with G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Infection risk was high in tested scenarios and largely exceeded the acceptable risk given by WHO guidelines. PMID:22311100

Ferrer, Aleix; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob

2012-02-07

317

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require a considerable length of time to complete, and do not discriminate between ...

318

Ecotoxicological characterization of tannery wastewater in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Tanning industries are one of the main economic activities in Bangladesh. It has been well documented that wastewater discharged from tanneries without appropriate treatment results in detrimental effects on the ecosystem. No ecotoxicity evaluation of any aquatic environment in Bangladesh has been conducted so far. In this study a battery of toxicity bioassays and chemical analysis were carried out from water samples obtained from three sampling points: upstream from discharging site on River Buriganga (S1), raw wastewater effluent (S2), and downstream the discharging sluice gate (S3), in the Hazaribagh tannery area of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. While S1 and S3 water samples did not show significant toxicity in the bioassays tested, S2 exhibited high acute toxicity to the bacterium Vibrio fischeri (15-min Microtox test, EC50 = 9.8%), the higher plant Lactuca sativa (5-day root elongation inhibition test, EC50 = 14.2%), and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (24-hour mobility test, EC50 = 31.5%). The results suggested that the raw wastewater effluent had detrimental effects on broad spectrum of organisms in the aquatic ecosystem and bacterium was the most sensitive. The chemical analysis revealed that sample S2 contained an extremely high concentration of chromium (47 g l(-1)). Additionally microbiological analysis indicated that the sampling area is impacted by fecal pollution, increasing the environmental health risk for its inhabitants. PMID:21186722

Arias-Barreiro, C R; Nishizaki, H; Okubo, K; Aoyama, I; Mori, I C

2010-07-01

319

Municipal wastewater effluents as a source of listerial pathogens in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: a concern of public health importance.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 x 10(0) and 1.2 x 10(5) cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59-75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5-91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. PMID:20623030

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E O; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

2010-05-12

320

Hybrid Sargassum-sand sorbent: A novel adsorbent in packed column to treat metal-bearing wastewaters from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

Laboratory batch and column experiments were carried out to examine the efficiency of algal-based treatment technique to clean-up wastewaters emanating from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Chemical characterization revealed the extreme complexity of the wastewater, with the presence of 14 different metals under very low pH (pH = 1.1), high conductivity (6.98 mS/cm), total dissolved solid (4.46 g/L) and salinity (3.77). Batch experiments using Sargassum biomass indicated that it was possible to attain high removal efficiencies at optimum pH of 4.0. Efforts were also made to continuously treat ICP-OES wastewater using up-flow packed column. However, swelling of Sargassum biomass leads to stoppage of column. To address the problem, Sargassum was mixed with sand at a ratio of 40: 60 on volume basis. Remarkably, the hybrid Sargassum-sand sorbent showed very high removal efficiency towards multiple metal ions with the column able to operate for 11 h at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Metal ions such as Cu, Cd, and Pb were only under trace levels in the treated water until 11 h. The results of the treatment process were compared with trade effluent discharge standards. Further the process evaluation and cost analysis were presented. PMID:23947707

Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M

2013-01-01

321

Documentation of Mandated Discharge Summary Components in Transitions from Acute to Subacute Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Joint Commission mandates that six components be present in all U.S. hospital discharge summaries. Despite the critical importance of discharge summaries in care transitions and patient safety, no studies have examined how well discharge summaries adhere to Joint Commission standards. Methods: Joint Commission-mandated discharge summary components were specifically defined and abstracted from discharge summaries for all hip fracture,

Amy J. H. Kind; Maureen A. Smith

322

Development of an odor wheel classification scheme for wastewater.  

PubMed

Overall, in the air pollution control field, odor concentration and intensity as well as hedonic rating have been well studied to the point where some level of standardization is being developed or is already in place. However, there has been no standardization with respect to odor quality characterization. There is now sufficient understanding of the types of odorous compounds that can arise from wastewater treatment processes to develop an odor classification scheme. This article presents the first wastewater odor wheel or classification scheme that should form the foundation for the evolution of odor quality data reporting with links to chemical causes. PMID:15237626

Burlingame, G A; Suffet, I H; Khiari, D; Bruchet, A L

2004-01-01

323

Wastewater energy recycling method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an auxiliary process and method for use in wastewater treatment plants, modifying conventional primary and secondary treatment, to condition the effluent for use as agricultural irrigation water containing liquified fertilizer and soil amendment materials. Primary sludge and skimmed materials are comminuted and added to the volume of organic materials available for secondary treatment. A bacterial inoculum is

L. G. Erickson; H. E. Worne

1979-01-01

324

Concentration of norovirus during wastewater treatment and its impact on oyster contamination.  

PubMed

The concentrations of Escherichia coli, F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNA bacteriophage), and norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI) and norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) in wastewater were monitored weekly over a 1-year period at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) providing secondary wastewater treatment. A total of 49 samples of influent wastewater and wastewater that had been treated by primary and secondary wastewater treatment processes (primary and secondary treated wastewater) were analyzed. Using a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), the mean NoV GI and NoV GII concentrations detected in effluent wastewater were 2.53 and 2.63 log(10) virus genome copies 100 ml(-1), respectively. The mean NoV concentrations in wastewater during the winter period (January to March) (n = 12) were 0.82 (NoV GI) and 1.41 (NoV GII) log units greater than the mean concentrations for the rest of the year (n = 37). The mean reductions of NoV GI and GII during treatment were 0.80 and 0.92 log units, respectively, with no significant difference detected in the extent of NoV reductions due to season. No seasonal trend was detected in the concentrations of E. coli or FRNA bacteriophage in wastewater influent and showed mean reductions of 1.49 and 2.13 log units, respectively. Mean concentrations of 3.56 and 3.72 log(10) virus genome copies 100 ml(-1) for NoV GI and GII, respectively, were detected in oysters sampled adjacent to the WWTP discharge. A strong seasonal trend was observed, and the concentrations of NoV GI and GII detected in oysters were correlated with concentrations detected in the wastewater effluent. No seasonal difference was detected in concentrations of E. coli or FRNA bacteriophage detected in oysters. PMID:22367079

Flannery, John; Keaveney, Sinéad; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Doré, William

2012-02-24

325

Planning for NPDES Permit compliance to meet changing stream standards at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In New Mexico, the application of water quality based effluent limitations in NPDES Permit has recently begun, as the pre-1987 technology-based permits are expiring and permittees are attempting to renew their permits. Water quality standards and water quality-related effluent limitations can require levels of treatment considerable higher than those required by technology-related effluent limitations. The Clean Water Act does not set specific minimums for state standards, instead the regulations require that such standards specify and protect appropriate water uses (e.g, water suppley fisheries, wildlife, irrigation and recreation) and set specific numerical criteria where possible to attain these ends. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has begun an aggressive program to meet the more stringent effluents limitations of the future. The Laboratory`s current NPDES Permit allows discharge of effluent from approximately 130 separate outfalls into ephemeral streams. Similar quality outfalls are grouped into eight categories with each category having set effluent limits. LANL`s near-future compliance strategy includes outfall elimination through the consolidation of outfalls of the same category, and the elimination of non-essential discharges. Also, LANL is planning the development of managed wetlands as a means to improve the local riparian habitat, and to contain effluent discharges within the Laboratory boundary. The longer-term strategy calls for reducing effluent discharges to zero. Zero discharge will be achieved through land application/irrigation and conservation through effluent re-use with evaporation of non-reusable discharges. One reuse program is currently underway, where sanitary wastewater effluent is recycled and used in a number of cooling water applications. Other reuse options may include recycling once-through cooling water through a number of process.

McInnis, J.; Rae, S.

1994-03-01

326

Review of the treatment of seafood processing wastewaters and recovery of proteins therein by membrane separation processes — prospects of the ultrafiltration of wastewaters from the fish meal industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewaters generated in fish meal production (average flow rates of 1100 m3\\/h for a plant capacity of 100 ton fish\\/h) contain a high organic load, and therefore they should not be discharged directly into the sea without effective treatment in order to prevent a negative impact on the environment. On the other hand, these effluents contain a large amount

Maria Diná Afonso; Rodrigo Bórquez

2002-01-01

327

Effluent management for a metal finishing industry aiming zero discharge conditions.  

PubMed

Technical applicability of zero discharge conditions is evaluated for the specific case of a large metal finishing industry located within the protection zone of a surface water body designated as a potential source for domestic water supply. Within the context of a sound water management strategy, a detailed process profile of the plant is established with relevant balance between water demand and wastewater generation. Quality restrictions for various water uses are identified. Wastewater flows are segregated depending on significant quality parameters. A comprehensive treatment scheme is defined for optimum wastewater recycle and reuse. Source allocation is made for the reuse of different streams of recycled wastewater. The study indicates that wastewater reuse can only be implemented with an efficiency of around 85-90% for the selected industry. PMID:16849126

Babuna, Fatos Germirli; Kabdasli, Isik; Sözen, Seval; Orhon, Derin

2006-01-01

328

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source subject to this subpart...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater...020 Subpart A Solution Heat Treatment Contact...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 467.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in § 403.7, any new source subject to this subpart...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of process wastewater...29 Subpart B Solution Heat Treatment Contact...

2013-07-01

330

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source subject to this subpart...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater...95 Subpart D Solution Heat Treatment Contact...

2013-07-01

331

Securing Agricultural Land for Wastewater Irrigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the result of a study on the methods and their impacts for securing agricultural land for a municipal wastewater irrigation system. Emphasis is on wastewater irrigation rather than wastewater disposal. Nine major methods of securing l...

1977-01-01

332

Construction of Wastewater Facilities, Fort Worth, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes federal grant assistance to aid in the construction of additional wastewater treatment facilities at the Village Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility site. The expanded facility is expected to treat the wastewater generated in the foll...

1974-01-01

333

75 FR 54873 - Notice of Availability of Final NPDES General Permits MAG910000 and NHG910000 for Discharges From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...limitations, standards, prohibitions, and management practices for remediation facilities discharging treated contaminated groundwater. Owners and/or operators of facilities with remediation discharges, including those currently authorized to...

2010-09-09

334

Nonequilibrium in Fluorescent Lamp Discharges.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical fluorescent lamps are low pressure discharge devices comprised of a few mTorr of Hg and a few Torr of rare gas such as Ar. It has long been customary to simulate fluorescent lamp behavior with computer models based on the concept of equilibrium, meaning that energy given to electrons by the axial electric field is exactly balanced by elastic and inelastic collisions with neutral atoms in each volume element of the discharge [1]. The purpose of this work is to examine conditions for which equilibrium is expected to prevail in fluorescent lamps. Qualitatively, the criterion for equilibrium to prevail is that electron energy relaxation length be small compared with characteristic dimension of the discharge [2]. Quantitatively, the criterion is that divergence of radial energy flow be small compared with Joule heating, so that Joule heating and collision loss are equal in each volume element of the discharge [3]. Based on application of this criterion to fluorescent lamp discharges, it is concluded that lamps of standard diameter are very likely not in equilibrium and lamps of smaller diameter are almost certainly not in equilibrium. [1]R. B. Winkler, J. Wilhelm, & R. Winkler, Annalen der Physik 40, 90 & 119 (1983); M. Yousfi, G. Zissis, A. Alkaa, & J. J. Damelincourt, Phys. Rev. A 42, 978 (1990). [2]J. L. Blank, Phys. Fluids 11, 1686 (1968). [3]J. H. Ingold, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5932 (1997).

Michael, J. D.; Ingold, J. H.

1999-10-01

335

A practical and user-friendly toxicity classification system with microbiotests for natural waters and wastewaters.  

PubMed

Various types of toxicity classification systems have been elaborated by scientists in different countries, with the aim of attributing a hazard score to polluted environments or toxic wastewaters or of ranking them in accordance with increasing levels of toxicity. All these systems are based on batteries of standard acute toxicity tests (several of them including chronic assays as well) and are therefore dependent on the culturing and maintenance of live stocks of test organisms. Most systems require performance of the bioassays on dilution series of the original samples, for subsequent calculation of L(E)C50 or threshold toxicity values. Given the complexity and costs of these toxicity measurements, they can only be applied in well-equipped and highly specialized laboratories, and none of the classification methods so far has found general acceptance at the international level. The development of microbiotests that are independent of continuous culturing of live organisms has stimulated international collaboration. Coordinated at Ghent University, Belgium, collaboration by research groups from 10 countries in central and eastern Europe resulted in an alternative toxicity classification system that was easier to apply and substantially more cost effective than any of the earlier methods. This new system was developed and applied in the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Flemish community in Belgium and central and eastern Europe. The toxicity classification system is based on a battery of (culture-independent) microbiotests and is particularly suited for routine monitoring. It indeed only requires testing on undiluted samples of natural waters or wastewaters discharged into the aquatic environment, except for wastewaters that demonstrate more than 50% effect. The scoring system ranks the waters or wastewaters in 5 classes of increasing hazard/toxicity, with calculation of a weight factor for the concerned hazard/toxicity class. The new classification system was applied during 2000 by the participating laboratories on samples of river water, groundwaters, drinking waters, mine waters, sediment pore waters, industrial effluents, soil leachates, and waste dump leachates and was found to be easy to apply and reliable. PMID:14608609

Persoone, Guido; Marsalek, Blahoslav; Blinova, Irina; Törökne, Andrea; Zarina, Dzidra; Manusadzianas, Levonas; Nalecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Tofan, Lucica; Stepanova, Nadejda; Tothova, Livia; Kolar, Boris

2003-12-01

336

[Application of wastewater land treatment technique to the construction of ecological engineering in sand land].  

PubMed

In this paper studies on the feasibility of harmlessness and resource of wastewater, which was discharged from a thermal power plant, by using slow rate filtration of land treatment technique for the fast recovery of vegetation in the Kubuqi sand land were carried out. The selected arbor, shrub and herbage in the land treatment system were poplar (Populus alba Var. Pyramidalis bunge), seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and sweet clover (Melilotus suaveolens) respectively. Three levels of wastewater hydraulic loading were designed in the field pilot experiment. They were high plot with 3000 mm/a irrigation (H), medium plot with 1500 mm/a irrigation (M) and low plot (L) with small volume of irrigation only used in the period of transplant seedlings. The performance indicate that the purification function of power plant wastewater by pre-treatment through combination of precipitation pool with storage ponds is effective and therefore the effluent after pretreatment can be used to irrigation vegetation. The experiment results show that the volume of tree crown for poplar in H plot and M plot was up to 1.07 and 2.21 times comparing with L plot respectively. The annual yield (dry weight) of sweet clover in H plot and M plot was up to 2.33 and 3.0 times comparing with L plot respectively. The height of seabuckthorn in H zone and M plot was up to 1.08 and 1.32 times comparing with L plot respectively. There is direct proportion between growth status of vegetation and hydraulic loading of irrigation. The contents of heavy metals for sweet clover (Cd 0.021 mg/kg, Pb<0.001 mg/kg, Cr <0.01 mg/kg, As 0.043 mg/kg) are much lower than the food standards of grain and vegetables, therefore the sweet clover for raising livestock is safe. Wastewater in this area is valuable source. Its reasonable utilization can contribute important benefits in economy and ecology in the ecological construction and developing effective agriculture and animal husbandry. PMID:16124473

Li, Pei-jun; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Sun, Tie-heng; Tai, Pei-dong; Chang, Shi-jun; Xiong, Xian-zhe; Li, Ying-mei

2005-05-01

337

Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies.  

PubMed

In the past, emission standard indicators have been adopted by environmental regulation authorities in order to preserve the quality of a receiving water body. Such indicators are based on the frequency or magnitude of a polluted discharge that may be continuous or intermittent. In order to properly maintain the quality of receiving waters, the Water Framework Directive, following the basic ideas of British Urban Pollution Manual, has been established. The Directive has overtaken the emission-standard concept, substituting it with the stream-standard concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on the self-depurative characteristics of receiving waters. Stream-standard assessment requires the deployment of measurement campaigns that can be very expensive; furthermore, the measurement campaigns are usually not able to provide a link between the receiving water quality and the polluting sources. Therefore, it would be very useful to find a correlation between the quality status of the natural waters and the emission-based indicators. Thus, this study is aimed to finding a possible connection between the receiving water quality indicators drawn by environmental regulation authorities and emission-based indicators while considering both continuous (i.e. from the wastewater treatment plants) and intermittent pollution discharges (mainly from combined sewer overflows). Such research has been carried out by means of long-term analysis adopting a holistic modelling approach. The different parts of the integrated urban drainage system were modelled by a parsimonious integrated model. The analysis was applied to an ephemeral river bounding Bologna (Italy). The study concluded that the correlation between receiving water quality and polluting emissions cannot be generally stated. Nevertheless, specific analyses on polluting emissions were pointed out in the study highlighting cause-effect link between polluting sources and receiving water quality. PMID:20351441

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

338

Assessment of De Facto Wastewater Reuse across the U.S.: Trends between 1980 and 2008.  

PubMed

De facto wastewater reuse is the incidental presence of treated wastewater in a water supply source. In 1980 the EPA identified drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) impacted by upstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges and found the top 25 most impacted DWTPs contained between 2% and 16% wastewater discharges from upstream locations (i.e., de facto reuse) under average streamflow conditions. This study is the first to provide an update to the 1980 EPA analysis. An ArcGIS model of DWTPs and WWTPs across the U.S. was created to quantify de facto reuse for the top 25 cities in the 1980 EPA study. From 1980 to 2008, de facto reuse increased for 17 of the 25 DWTPs, as municipal flows upstream of the sites increased by 68%. Under low streamflow conditions, de facto reuse in DWTP supplies ranged from 7% to 100%, illustrating the importance of wastewater in sustainable water supplies. Case studies were performed on four cities to analyze the reasons for changes in de facto reuse over time. Three of the four sites have greater than 20% treated wastewater effluent within their drinking water source for streamflow less than the 25th percentile historic flow. PMID:23957863

Rice, Jacelyn; Wutich, Amber; Westerhoff, Paul

2013-09-18

339

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater, WWTPs effluents and in the recipient waters of Beijing, China.  

PubMed

In this study, surface water samples from the Wenyu River and the North Canal, effluent from major wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing, and wastewater from open sewers that discharge directly into the river system were collected and analyzed for 16 priority USEPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentrations of these 16 PAHs ranged from 193 to 1790 ng/L in river surface waters, 245 to 404 ng/L in WWTP effluents, and 431 to 2860 ng/L in the wastewater from the small sewers. The WWTP effluent was the main contributor of dissolved PAHs to the river, while wastewater from the small sewers contributed both dissolved and suspended particulate matter-associated PAH to the river as indicated by the high dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate matter contents in the wastewater. Although the flow from each open sewer was small, a PAH discharge as high as 44 kg/year could occur into the river from these types of sewers. This amount was equivalent to about 22 % of the PAH loads discharged into the North Canal downstream from Beijing, whereas the remainder was mainly released by the major WWTPs in Beijing. PMID:23292225

Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Qu, Jiuhui

2013-01-06

340

Treatability testing of KILnGAS and Texaco coal gasification wastewaters: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of treatability testing of wastewater from two coal gasification plants: the 600-tpd KILnGAS rotary-kiln gasifier in East Alton, Illinois, and the 1000-tyd Texaco entrained-flow gasifier at the Cool Water facility in Daggett, California. The wastewater was collected during steady-state operation of the gasifiers and shipped in barrels to the testing laboratory for characterization and treatment. Solvent extraction, steam stripping, biological treatment, granular activated carbon adsorption, ozonation, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, cooling tower evaporation, and wet air oxidation were evaluated in terms of their ability to meet the project's effluent quality targets. Preliminary process design criteria were also developed. Two sets of effluent discharge targets as well as a zero effluent discharge condition were established as goals for the testing. All of the effluent targets were met by the combination of processes used in the treatability testing program, with the exception of cyanide and COD for the KILnGAS wastewater and cyanide under one of the discharge conditions for the Texaco wastewater. These targets could likely be met by additional process steps or by further treatment with the processes tested. This test program confirmed that the principal containmants in these coal gasification wastewaters can be reduced to low concentrations by use of commercially proven treatment processes. 15 refs., 50 figs., 93 tabs.

Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J.; Zeien, C.T.; Moe, T.A.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.; Stephan, D.J.

1988-07-01

341

Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review.  

PubMed

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. PMID:19458999

Carey, Richard O; Migliaccio, Kati W

2009-05-21

342

Psychiatric Discharge Process  

PubMed Central

Background. Integration of research evidence into clinical nursing practice is essential for the delivery of high-quality nursing care. Discharge planning is an essential process in psychiatric nursing field, in order to prevent recurrent readmission to psychiatric units. Objective. The purpose of this paper is to perform literature overview on psychiatric discharge planning, in order to develop evidence-based practice guideline of psychiatric discharge plan. Methods. A search of electronic databases was conducted. The search process aimed to locate different levels of evidence. Inclusion criteria were studies including outcomes related to prevention of readmission as stability in the community, studies investigating the discharge planning process in acute psychiatric wards, and studies that included factors that impede discharge planning and factors that aid timely discharge. On the other hand, exclusion criteria were studies in which discharge planning was discussed as part of a multi faceted intervention and was not the main focus of the review. Result. Studies met inclusion criteria were mainly literature reviews, consensus statements, and descriptive studies. All of these studies are considered at the lower levels of evidence. Conclusion. This review demonstrated that discharge planning based on general principles (evidence based principles) should be applied during psychiatric discharge planning to make this discharge more effective. Depending on this review, it could be concluded that effective discharge planning includes main three stages; initial discharge meeting, regular discharge meeting(s), and leaving from hospital and discharge day. Each stage of them has requirements should be accomplished be go to the next stage.

Alghzawi, Hamzah M.

2012-01-01

343

Study of the behaviour of mutagens in wastewater and emission gas from a municipal incinerator evaluated by means of the Ames assay.  

PubMed

We have investigated the mutagenic activity of extracts from the wastewater of sewage treatment plants in municipal waste incinerators and evaluated the relative contribution of various routes of emission from the incinerator to the total output of mutagens. The mutagenicity of wastewater extracts from a complete combustion incinerator was 10% of that from an incomplete combustion unit. About 90% of all the mutagens produced in a municipal incinerator are discharged into the atmosphere as emission gases, and 10% are disposed of in the wastewater treatment plants. Most of the mutagens in wastewater treatment plants are not decomposed by normal aeration times, but are removed by adsorption onto suspended solids. PMID:3685939

Kamiya, A; Ose, Y

1987-09-01

344

Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

1987-01-01

345

Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and compare it to another, and to mix an effluent in a receiving water to estimate bioavailability in the near- and far-field. As part of this project, a study was undertaken to evaluate methylmercury and reactive mercury in wastewater effluents. Effluent samples from 7 municipal wastewater plants from around the Unites States were collected weekly over a ten week period from late June through August of 2008. These data represent the first comprehensive study of bioavailable mercury in wastewater effluents and have not been published elsewhere. Initial data suggest that bioavailable (methyl plus reactive) mercury is less than 30 percent of total unfiltered mercury. Reactive mercury percentages (relative to dissolved total mercury) are somewhat higher than were initially predicted from theoretical calculations. This presentation will overview the project as a whole with a focus on the bioavailability study of these 7 wastewater plants.

Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

2008-12-01

346

ANALYSES BY CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION OF CHLORIDES FROM WASTEWATERS THAT CONTAINS HEAVY METALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Romanian legislation trough its standards recommend to analyze the chlorides from wastewaters using the method of standard Mohr titration. A very facile and selective method is proposed for fast determination of chloride from wastewaters resulted from galvanization processes, by conductometric titration using AgNO3. The method allows to analyze the chlorides over the range 177.5 ÷ 17750 mg Cl-\\/l

Laura BULGARIU; Brindusa ROBU; Doina BILBA; M. MACOVEANU

347

A focus on pressure-driven membrane technology in olive mill wastewater reclamation: state of the art.  

PubMed

Direct disposal of the heavily polluted effluent from olive oil industry (olive mill wastewater, OMW) to the environment or to domestic wastewater treatment plants is actually prohibited in most countries, and conventional treatments are ineffective. Membranes are currently one of the most versatile technologies for environmental quality control. Notwithstanding, studies on OMW reclamation by membranes are still scarce, and fouling inhibition and prediction to improve large-scale membrane performance still remain unresolved. Consequently, adequately targeted pretreatment for the specific binomium membrane-feed, as well as optimized operating conditions for the proper membranes, is today's challenge to ensure threshold flux values. Several membrane materials, configurations and pore sizes have been elucidated, and also different pretreatments including sedimentation, centrifugation, biosorption, sieving, filtration and microfiltration, various types of flocculation as well as advance oxidation processes have been applied so far. Recovery of potential-value compounds, such as a variety of polyphenols highlighting oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, has been attempted too. All this research should constitute the starting point to proceed with OMW purification beyond recycling for irrigation or depuration for sewer discharge, with the aim of complying with standards to reuse the effluent in the olive oil production process, together with cost-effective recovery of added-value compounds. PMID:23109564

Ochando-Pulido, J M; Martinez-Ferez, A

2012-01-01

348

A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.  

PubMed

Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design. PMID:22699329

Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

2012-01-01

349

CROSSFLOW ULTRAFILTRATION OF OILY WASTEWATER FROM VEGETABLE OIL INDUSTRY USING INORGANIC MEMBRANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetal oil industry produces large volumes of aqueous effluents in many of the operations involved in oil solvent extraction and crude oil refining processes. Therefore, these generated waste-waters should not be discharged without a suitable treatment in order to prevent negative impacts in the environment and allow the recovery of high added value products. At present, membrane separation processes

G. Z. Baralla; M. A. Matte

350

REVISE AND UPDATE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DESIGN MANUAL FOR THE LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Land treatment is a reliable engineering process for wastewater management. It has been practiced in a number of modes, including crop and landscape irrigation (i.e., reuse); as a treatment process with collection and direct or indirect discharge of treated to surface water (i.e...

351

Comparison of small mammal species diversity near wastewater outfalls, natural streams, and dry canyons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilizes water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to compare nocturnal small mammal communities at wet areas created by wastewater outfalls with communities in naturally created wet and dry areas. Thirteen locations within LANL boundaries were selected for small mammal mark-recapture trapping. Three

D. F. Raymer; J. R. Biggs

1994-01-01

352

Pharmaceutical residues in wastewater treatment works effluents and their impact on receiving river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various pharmaceutical residues are being discharged from wastewater treatment works (WTW) effluents, the impact of which on river water quality is of high relevance to environmental risk assessment. The concentrations of eleven pharmaceutical compounds were determined in three WTWs in England, and the river Ouse receiving effluents from Scaynes Hill WTW. Results show that five compounds propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, indomethacine

J. L. Zhou; Z. L. Zhang; E. Banks; D. Grover; JiaQian Jiang

2009-01-01

353

Reactive dye house wastewater treatment. Use of hybrid technology: Membrane, sonication followed by wet oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address problems associated with treatment of an aqueous waste stream from a reactive dye house, a model dye, turquoise blue CI25, was studied. A hybrid technology, membrane separation followed by sonication and wet oxidation, has been demonstrated to treat the wastewater for reuse and discharge. Experiments were first performed with the reactive dye solution in water. A nanofiltration membrane

Atul D. Dhale; Vijaykumar V. Mahajani

1999-01-01

354

Reuse potential of urban wastewater treatment plant effluents in Turkey: a case study on selected plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the current situation of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP) in Turkey. Results of a detailed survey on the performance of four selected plants were given both in terms of influent and effluent quality and in comparison with the current legislation on discharge limits to receiving waters. All the selected plants were operating efficiently especially according to conventional

Idil Arslan-Alaton; Aysegul Tanik; Suleyman Ovez; Gulen Iskender; Melike Gurel; Derin Orhon

2007-01-01

355

Anaerobic treatment of protein, lipid and carbohydrate containing wastewaters using the EGSB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industries such as margarine, meat packing, dairy, slaughterhouse, edible oil (palm and olive oil) generate large amount of effluents. Strict environment laws in numerous countries has forced these agro-industries to apply suitable wastewater treatment in order to reduce the organic pollution load before discharging the effluents to receiving waters. Anaerobic treatment comprises a very attractive and suitable method for these

R. Petruy

1999-01-01

356

Greywater treatment as an option for effective wastewater management in small communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of four different investigations where greywater is treated with low technology as achieved a constructed wetland and a gravel and sand filter as well as with a high-tech option: the membrane bioreactor. The applications are perfectly suited to be operated in remote areas or small communities with tourist depending variation of discharged wastewater flows. The

René Scheumann; Fabio Masi; Bouchaib El Hamouri; Matthias Kraume

2009-01-01

357

Simulation of Contaminant Transport to Mitigate Environmental Effects of Wastewater in River Ravi  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 ABSTRACT: River Ravi has turned into a sludge carrier for Lahore city. More than 28 m 3 \\/sec wastewater is being disposed off into it without any treatment. On the other hand, the discharge in the river Ravi is highly variable ranging from 10 m 3 \\/sec to 3,000 m 3 \\/sec. Low flows in the river increases the

M. M. Saeed; A. Bahzad

2006-01-01

358

Water quality in the shingle creek basin, Florida, before and after wastewater diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shingle Creek is a major inflow to Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. Water quality and the trophic status of Lake Tohopekaliga are affected strongly by the water quality of Shingle Creek. This report documents 10 yr of water quality data in Shingle Creek at the lake outfall; for a pre- (October 1981-December 1986) and a post-wastewater discharge (January 1987-September 1991) removal period.

1994-01-01

359

Characterizing the Passage of Personal Care Products Through Wastewater Treatment Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment facilities use secondary treatment to stabilize the effect of discharged effluent on receiving waters by oxidizing biodegradable organic matter and reducing suspended solids and nutrients. The process was never specifically intended to remove trace quantities of xenobiotics, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceu- ticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Nevertheless, European studies performed at bench-scale or at

Joan Oppenheimer; Roger Stephenson; Arturo Burbano; Li Liu

360

Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia: A Greenhouse Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation with untreated wastewater from several industrial, commercial, and domestic discharges for decades caused accumulation of various heavy metals and metalloids in soils along the Akaki River in Ethiopia. Assessment of environmental threats and the potential phytoremediation of the soils require understanding of the toxic elements’ uptake and distribution in plant parts. Hence, a greenhouse study was performed to examine

Daniel Fitamo; Seyoum Leta; Gurja Belay; Bekele Lemma; Mats Olsson

2011-01-01

361

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

362

Toxic effects of wastewater from various phases of monosodium glutamate production on seed germination and root elongation of crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make a comprehensive assessment on monosodium glutamate (MSG) wastewater pollution, a pollution exposure experiment was\\u000a carried out on the seed germination and root elongation of wheat, Chinese cabbage and tomato by using the wastewater discharged\\u000a from different processing phases of MSG production. The results showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships\\u000a between the inhibitory rates of wheat seed

Rui Liu; Qixing Zhou; Lanying Zhang; Hao Guo

2007-01-01

363

Determination of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and solid samples from an Italian wastewater treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust procedure for the determination of 16 US EPA PAHs in both aqueous (e.g. wastewaters, industrial discharges, treated effluents) and solid samples (e.g. suspended solids and sludge) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is presented. Recovery experiments using different percentages of organic modifier, sorbents and eluting solvent mixtures were carried out in Milli-Q water (1000mL) spiked with a mixture

F. Busetti; A. Heitz; M. Cuomo; S. Badoer; P. Traverso

2006-01-01

364

Preferred stream discharges for salmon spawning and rearing in Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream discharges preferred by salmon for spawning were determined from relationships between discharge and spawnable area at 84 study reaches on 28 streams in Washington. Preferred discharges for spawning were found statistically equivalent for chinook, pink, and chum salmon. Regression equations developed for estimating discharges preferred by these species for spawning at other stream sites had standard errors of estimate of 40 percent where a relationship with toe-of-bank channel width was used, and 55 percent where basin drainage area was used. Similarly, equations for estimating the preferred discharge for spawning by sockeye and coho salmon (also statistically equivalent) had standard errors of 48 percent using channel width and 61 percent using drainage area. In general, the discharges preferred for spawning by salmon ranged in magnitude from about 0.3 to 11 times the median monthly mean discharges for September and October and about 0.1 to 6 times the median monthly means for November and December--the four months when spawning is greatest. Stream discharges preferred by salmon for rearing were determined from relationships between discharge and wetted perimeter at the study reaches. Those discharges ranged from about 0.7 to 4 times the median monthly mean discharge for September, when low flows are usually most limiting on the rearing capacity of streams. Equations developed for estimating preferred rearing discharges at other stream sites had standard errors of 57 percent using channel width and 81 percent using drainage area. (Woodard-USGS).

Swift, C. H.

1977-01-01

365

Elbow replacement - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Total elbow arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic elbow replacement - discharge ... You had surgery to replace your elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics). The surgeon made an incision (cut) in the back of your upper or lower arm and ...

366

Application of UV disinfection in municipal wastewater treatment plants for agricultural use of reclaimed wastewater in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the UV disinfection efficiency based on wastewater quality parameters such as suspended solids, UV transmittance, and initial coliform concentrations (total and fecal coliform) was examined and the appropriate UV-C doses for providing the fecal and total coliform values declared at different regulations and standards for agricultural reuse were investigated. The study was carried out in a UV

Serkan Evcimen; Aslihan Kerc

2011-01-01

367

Tidal Pumping and the Fate of Wastewater Nutrients in the Florida Keys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient-rich wastewater from injection wells in the Florida Keys has been implicated in the eutrophication of coastal waters and, through long-distance subsurface transport, the degradation of offshore coral reefs. The flowpath of such wastewater in the saline aquifer system of the Keys is determined not only by the local geology, but more significantly by the differential hydraulic head applied by the two distinct tidal signals on either side of the island chain. While the Atlantic Ocean to the south exhibits typical oceanic tides, the constrained Florida Bay tidal signal to the north is significantly damped as compared to the oceanic tide and has a higher mean value. This system of tides presumably results in a reversing groundwater flow regime in which wastewater plumes are tidally pumped across the Keys with net flow to the Atlantic Ocean \\(the "tidal pumping mechanism" of Halley et al., 1997, Develop. Sedimentol. 54: 217-248\\). We have performed a quantitative analysis of the tidal pumping mechanism using FEFLOW, a commercially available 3-dimensional finite-element model designed to simulate variable density flow and reactive contaminant transport. We find that the tidal-pumping mechanism does indeed influence the transport of wastewater plumes in the subsurface. However, the buoyancy of the low-salinity wastewater plume dominates transport when injection volumes are large, bringing wastewater to the surface in the near-vicinity of injection and discharging it to nearby canals or coastal zones. Discharging wastewaters have variably reduced nutrient loads depending on travel times (for nitrate) and pathlengths (for phosphate) because of biogeochemical transformation in the subsurface (denitrification and adsorption/precipitation, respectively). The interface between nitrate-rich wastewaters and sulfide-rich groundwaters may be supporting a chemoautotrophic bacterial community in the bedrock of the Florida Keys.

Bachmann, M.; Kump, L.

2003-12-01

368

Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in effluent-dominated streams in Northeastern Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-nine stream-water samples and 14 municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharge samples in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were analyzed for 55 compounds collectively described as organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). Stream-water samples were collected upstream, in, and downstream from WWTF discharges in urban and rural areas during base-flow conditions. The effect of secondary treatment processes on OWC occurrence was evaluated by collecting eight samples from WWTF discharges using activated sludge and six from WWTFs samples using trickling filter treatment processes. Samples collected directly from WWTF discharges contained the largest concentrations of most OWCs in this study. Samples from trickling filter discharges had significantly larger concentrations of many OWCs (p-value < 0.05) compared to samples collected from activated sludge discharges. OWC concentrations decreased significantly in samples from WWTF discharges compared to stream-water samples collected from sites greater than 2000??m downstream. Upstream from WWTF discharges, base-flow samples collected in streams draining predominantly urban watersheds had significantly larger concentrations of cumulative OWCs (p-value = 0.03), caffeine (p-value = 0.01), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p-value < 0.01) than those collected downstream from more rural watersheds.

Lee, C. J.; Rasmussen, T. J.

2006-01-01

369

Economic analysis of effluent limitation guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment industry  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the economic and financial effects and the benefits of compliance with the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Centralized Waste Treatment (CWT) industry. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has measured these impacts in terms of changes in the profitability of waste treatment operations at CWT facilities, changes in market prices to CWT services, and changes in the quantities of waste management at CWT facilities in six geographic regions. EPA has also examined the impacts on companies owning CWT facilities (including impacts on small entities), on communities in which CWT facilities are located, and on environmental justice. EPA examined the benefits to society of the CWT effluent limitations guidelines and standards by examining cancer and non-cancer health effects of the regulation, recreational benefits, and cost savings to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) to which indirect-discharging CWT facilities send their wastewater.

Wheeler, W.

1998-12-01

370

Corona discharge processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of corona discharge induced plasmas and unipolar ions are reviewed. Corona process applications emphasize one of two aspects of the discharge: the ions produced or the energetic electrons producing the plasma. The ion identities depend on the polarity of the discharge and the characteristics of the gas mixture, specifically on the electron attaching species. The electron energies depend on

J.-S. Chang; P. A. Lawless; T. Yamamoto

1991-01-01

371

Micro hollow cathode discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Hollow cathode discharges are glow discharges with the cathode fall and negative glow confined in a cavity in the cathode. For the discharge to develop the cathode hole dimensions must be on the order of the mean free path. By reducing the cathode hole dimensions it is therefore possible to increase the pressure. Stable

K. H. Schoenbach; F. E. Peterkin; R. Verhappen

1995-01-01

372

Inputs of total and labile trace metals from wastewater treatment plants effluents to the Seine River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seine river basin has long been impacted by metal inputs from the Paris area, but the water quality has been gradually improving for the last 20 years. Among all metal pollution sources (surface runoff, industries), urban wastewater discharge has been shown to significantly contribute, during low-flow periods, to metal fluxes of the River Seine. This paper assesses the current wastewater contribution to metal inputs in the Seine river basin, based on sampling of nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Seven metals were targeted (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb) during dry weather periods. Since total and dissolved concentrations alone are not relevant enough for an ecological risk assessment, labile metals (free + weekly complexed) were also measured by means of DGT (diffusive gradient in thin film technique). Results show that WWTPs greatly reduce total metal concentrations but reduce labile metal concentrations only slightly. Estimations made for direct total metal inputs in the River Seine via treated effluent discharge confirm the decrease observed for the 1994-1995 period. Labile metals released by WWTP were also considered by comparing fluxes in the effluent discharge of two different WWTPs to those flowing in the receiving river. Fluxes discharged by the largest plant were similar to those measured in the river during low-flow periods whereas they were negligible for the smaller one. Nevertheless, labile metal concentrations in both discharges were similar and the wastewater discharge's contribution to labile fluxes in receiving waters seems to depend mostly on the relative significance of the discharge flow compared to the receiving water flow.

Buzier, Rémy; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Keirsbulck, Marion; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

373

Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Nepal.  

PubMed

Surface water pollution is one of the serious environmental problems in urban centers in Nepal due to the discharge of untreated wastewater into the river-system, turning them into open sewers. Wastewater treatment plants are almost non-existent in the country except for a few in the Kathmandu Valley and even these are not functioning well. Successful implementation of a few constructed wetland systems within the past three years has attracted attention to this promising technology. A two-staged subsurface flow constructed wetland for hospital wastewater treatment and constructed wetlands for treatment of greywater and septage is now becoming a demonstration site of constructed wetland systems in Nepal. Beside these systems, five constructed wetlands have already been designed and some are under construction for the treatment of leachate and septage in Pokhara municipality, wastewater in Kathmandu University, two hospitals and a school. This paper discusses the present condition and treatment performance of constructed wetlands that are now in operation. Furthermore, the concept of the treatment wetlands under construction is also described here. With the present experience, several recommendations are pointed out for the promotion of this technology in the developing countries. PMID:11804122

Shrestha, R R; Haberl, R; Laber, J; Manandhar, R; Mader, J

2001-01-01

374

Standards and Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)|

Gross, S. P.

1978-01-01

375

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)|

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

376

Biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of physicochemical and biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the activated sludge process was performed in an oxidation ditch. The physicochemical study using different coagulants revealed that all the coagulants used are not effective and their doses required were very high for COD reduction. In the biological oxidation study, it was found that the wastewater could be processed

S. P. Mayabhate; S. K. Gupta; S. G. Joshi

1988-01-01

377

Method for treating contaminated wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethylnitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultraviolet induced chlorination treatment of the wastewater.

Fochtman, E.G.; Forbes, F.S.; Koch, R.L.

1983-09-06

378

Method for treating contaminated wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethylnitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultraviolet induced chlorination treatment of the wastewater.

E. G. Fochtman; F. S. Forbes; R. L. Koch

1983-01-01

379

Oily wastewater treatment using ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of the oily and greasy wastewater of Tehran refinery using an ultrafiltration (UF) system was experimentally studied. In the experiments, a polysulfone (PS) (30 kDa) and a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (20 kDa) and the API wastewater of Tehran refinery as membranes and feed were used, respectively. Effects of different operating parameters such as transmembrane pressure (TMP), cross flow velocity (CFV),

Abdolhamid Salahi; Toraj Mohammadi; Ali Rahmat Pour; Fatemeh Rekabdar

2009-01-01

380

Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aq...

E. N. Coppola J. Rine

2002-01-01

381

Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus.  

PubMed

In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies. PMID:23393987

Laohaprapanon, S; Kaczala, F; Salomon, P S; Marques, M; Hogland, W

382

Wastewater treatment method and apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

According to this wastewater treatment apparatus, wastewater can be treated by novel action by a foaming tank 7 in comparison with a treatment method solely using a biological treatment tank 1 constituting an aeration tank. That is, wastewater can be treated by action achieved by combining (1) action solely of a biological treatment tank 1 and (2) action of a foaming tank 7. Specific action in this foaming tank 7 includes supply of dissolved oxygen to wastewater and oxidation by bubbled air (micro air) under a favorable condition with a shallow water depth. According to this wastewater treatment apparatus, energy to be consumed can be saved and toxic chemical substances such as dimethylformamide as a toxic chemical substance can be completely decomposed by unlimited microorganisms.

Yamasaki; Kazuyuki (Hiroshima, JP); Chujo; Kazumi (Kagawa-ken, JP)

2004-11-30

383

A novel treatment technique for DMSO wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an efficient treatment technique for wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO, (CH3)2SO], a compound used as a photoresist stripping solvent in semiconductor manufacturing processes. Generally, wastewater containing organic compounds can be treated biologically, but with DMSO wastewater, biological treatment is not available because noxious compounds are produced that harm the environment. Here, we present an effective DMSO wastewater

Tatsuya Koito; Masafumi Tekawa; Arata Toyoda

1998-01-01

384

Glutaraldehyde in Hospital Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutaraldehyde (GA) solutions are widely used in hospitals to disinfect reusable fiber-optic endoscopes. These solutions are\\u000a dumped after use in the aquatic environment without any particular safety precautions. Taking into account the quantity of\\u000a GA consumed daily and the released water volume, the predicted hospital wastewater concentration was estimated at 0.50 mg\\/L.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a To measure the real GA concentration present in

B. Jolibois; M. Guerbet; S. Vassal

2002-01-01

385

Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge  

SciTech Connect

Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V. [National Research Nuclear University Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15

386

An Evaluation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Concentrations Up and Downstream of the Irwin Creek and Sugar Creek Wastewater Treat ment Plants in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1998-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal coliform bacteria cause water quality problems for many urban areas across the United States. The objective of this study is to determine if the Irwin Creek and Sugar Creek wastewater treatment plants, located near Charlotte in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, contribute significantly to the fecal coliform concentrations in the creeks. Fecal coliform densities in the wastewater effluent discharged from

Porché Spence; Jasper Harris

387

EVALUATION OF THE ABILITY OF CHLORINE TO INACTIVATE SELECTED ORGANISMS FROM THE BIOFILM OF A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIMULATOR FOLLOWING A LONG-TERM WASTEWATER CROSS-CONNECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking water distribution system simulator (DSS) from the U.S. EPA was operated with a direct cross-connection of 0.3% wastewater to system volume per day for 70 d. During the cross-connection, tap water, wastewater, and system discharge water were monitored to ensure that ...

388

Decolourisation of textile wastewater in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Azo dye decolourisation can be easily achieved by biological reduction under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) for the decolourisation of dyeing wastewater containing azo dyes. The reactive orange 16 was used as model of an azo dye. The results demonstrated that very high decolourisation (higher than 99%) can be achieved by SAMBRs. Although decolourisation was not significantly influenced by the azo dye concentrations up to 3.2 g L(-1), methane production was greatly inhibited (up to 80-85%). Since volatile fatty acids accumulated in the treatment system with the azo dye concentration increase, methanogenes seem to be the most sensitive microbial populations of the anaerobic ecological community. The results demonstrated that anaerobic process combined with membrane filtration can deal with highly concentrated wastewaters that result from stream separation of industrial discharges. PMID:22613894

Spagni, Alessandro; Casu, Stefania; Grilli, Selene

2012-04-26

389

Energy consumption model for wastewater treatment process control.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment must satisfy discharge requirements under specified constraints and have minimal operating costs (OC). The operating results of wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs) have significantly focused on both the energy consumption (EC) and effluent quality (EQ). To reflect the relationship between the EC and EQ of WWTPs directly, an extended Elman neural network-based energy consumption model (EENN-ECM) was studied for WWTP control in this paper. The proposed EENN-ECM was capable of predicting EC values in the treatment process. Moreover, the self-adaptive characteristic of the EENN ensured the modeling accuracy. A performance demonstration was carried out through a comparison of the EC between the benchmark simulation model No.1 (BSM1) and the EENN-ECM. The experimental results demonstrate that this EENN-ECM is more effective to model the EC of WWTPs. PMID:23202574

Huang, Xiaoqi; Han, Honggui; Qiao, Junfei

2013-01-01

390

Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities  

SciTech Connect

PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2011-04-01

391

Radiation Treatment of Wastewater, (11). Treatment of Dye Wastewaters and Its Cost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-energy electron treatment of wastewaters from dyeing factories (in Kiryu city, Gunma Prefecture) was investigated in a series on wastewater treatment by radiation. Experiments were made on decoloration of printing and dip dyeing wastewaters using a d...

W. Kawakami S. Hashimoto T. Miyata A. Sakumoto T. Tokunaga

1978-01-01

392

High salinity wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The shock effect, survival and ability of activated sludge to acclimatize to wastewater containing different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 were investigated under laboratory conditions. To accomplish this, the potential penetration of a sewage system by seawater as a consequence of storm surge flooding was simulated. The experiments were conducted using activated sludge taken from the aeration tank of a communal wastewater treatment plant and adding different concentrations up to 40 g/L of NaCl and 4.33 g/L of Na2SO4. The effects of salinity on the activated sludge were monitored for 5 weeks based on the values of pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sludge volume, sludge volume index, electrokinetic potential, respirometric measurements and enzymatic activity. The addition of salt sharply reduced or completely inhibited the microbial activity in activated sludge. When salt concentrations were below 10 g/L NaCl, microorganisms were able to acclimatize in several weeks and achieve the same initial activity as in raw sludge samples. When the salt concentration was above 30 g/L NaCl, the acclimatization process was very slow or impossible. PMID:24056440

Linari?, M; Marki?, M; Sipos, L

2013-01-01

393

REGULATION, GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS - IS SCIENCE WINNING?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plethora of Acts from the Commonwealth and State governments, the proliferation of regulations enacted without parliamentary debate and the guidelines raised under the spectre of informed scientific opinion compete with the Australian Standard (AS\\/NZS 1547:2000) for on-site wastewater management principles and outcomes. Many objections have been raised by worthy scientists and wastewater professionals to government guidelines that are not

Robert van de Graaff; Robert Patterson; Joe Whitehead

394

Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

2011-06-01

395

A comparative study on the anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance during the treatment of domestic wastewaters of various origins.  

PubMed

This study examined the practical performance of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane coupled to an anaerobic bioreactor, for treatment of raw domestic wastewater (RDW), at a pilot-scale plant. Wastewaters used in this study originated from two different domestic wastewater treatment plans (DWTPs) (Sfax and Ksour Essef). During the treatment in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) of the RDW originating from Sfax DWTP, the bioreactor did not reach its stationary phase because the anaerobic biomass was unable to adapt to the wastewater. This was explained by the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and a possible contamination of Sfax wastewater by industrial discharges. However, the treatment of RDW originating from Ksour Essef (DWTP) was successful. In both cases, the treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. The quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The phytotoxicity and the microtoxicity tests, using Lepidium sativum and Vibrio fischeri respectively, demonstrated that wastewater from Sfax exhibited higher toxicity than that from Ksour Sssef. PMID:17067125

Saddoud, A; Ellouze, M; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

2006-09-01

396

Effect of loading rate and HRT on the removal of cephalosporin and their intermediates during the operation of a membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.  

PubMed

The viability of treating high-concentration antibiotic wastewater by an anaerobic membrane bioreactor was studied using submerged flat sheet membrane. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time on the removal of cephalosporin derivative, viz. cephalexin, and the intermediates 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) and acyl group (phenyl acetic acid) in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor with enhanced biodegradation using the bioaugmentation technique. The pharmaceutical industry is looking for alternatives to either direct disposal of 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid and phenyl acetic acid, or further degradation and disposal, which will essentially require additional costs and maintenance. The present regulatory standard, implemented at a global level, does not allow for such disposal alternatives and hence the present study was aimed at the complete removal of the intermediates 7-ADCA and phenyl acetic acid prior to discharge. PMID:19886426

Saravanane, R; Sundararaman, S

2009-09-01

397

Low pressure hydrogen discharges  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a fluid-plasma model of the free-fall regime of maintenance of high-frequency discharges in hydrogen. The obtained results are for the radial profiles of the concentrations and the velocities of electrons, positive H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} ions, negative H{sup -} ions, potential of the radial dc electric field, and electron temperature. The importance of the directed motion of the charged particles in the radial dc electric field, the negative ion behavior in the discharge, and the description of the discharge characteristics by continuous radial profiles, which smoothly cover the total cross section of discharge, are stresses. A strong impact of the negative ions on the formation of the self-consistent discharge structure is shown. The discussions are in terms of changing gas pressure and electron concentration at the discharge axis.

Paunska, Ts.; Schlueter, H.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Department of Applied Physics, Technical University-Sofia, BG-1000 (Bulgaria)

2006-02-15

398

INITIAL MIXING CHARACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL OCEAN DISCHARGES. VOLUME 1. PROCEDURES AND APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the behavior of plumes generated when wastewater is discharged at depth into waters of greater density. Volume I contains analytical solutions and descriptions of five mathematical models that provide the initial dilution and rise-height of the plume for a va...

399

Toxicity identification in metal plating effluent: Implications in establishing effluent discharge limits using bioassays in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of complexity and diversity of toxicants in effluent, chemical analysis alone gives very limited information on identifying toxic chemicals to test organisms. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques have been widely used to identify toxicants in various samples including industrial wastewater as well as natural waters. In response to new regulation for effluent discharge in Korea, which will be effective

Eunhee Kim; You-Ree Jun; Hun-Je Jo; Seung-Bo Shim; Jinho Jung

2008-01-01

400

Ozone generation by silent electric discharge and its application in tertiary treatment of tannery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leather industry produces large quantities of wastewater with high pollution levels, which has to be treated before disposal. Ozone produced by silent electric discharge has been used in water treatment for disinfection and oxidation for removal of color, odor, hydrogen sulfide, iron and manganese since the early 1900s, and it is used extensively in developed countries. The use of ozone

P. A. Balakrishnan; A. Arunagiri; P. G. Rao

2002-01-01

401

Understanding Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Its Influence on California Coastal Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a mechanism for bringing nonpoint source pollution to the coast. This is particu- larly true in areas where urban or agri- cultural practices pollute groundwa- ter. This project sought to under- stand some of the effects of SGD on coastal water quality at Stinson Beach in Marin County, a community in which residents' wastewater

Alexandria Boehm; Adina Paytan; K. Yamahara

402

Removal and recovery of phosphorus in wastewater by superconducting high gradient magnetic separation with ferromagnetic adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevention of eutrophication for semi-enclosed bays and ponds is serious and important challenge. In spite of the advanced wastewater treatment, typically 1 mg/L phosphorus is discharged into public water bodies from wastewater treatment plants. The total amount of the discharged water is so large that the further improvement of the removal efficiency of phosphorus in the discharged water is demanded. On the other hand, recently phosphorus has become increasingly recognized as the important strategic material due to the global food problem. Therefore, the recovery and recycling of phosphorus is also important issue.In this work, removal and recovery of phosphorus from treated wastewater by High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) with ferromagnetic zirconium ferrite adsorbent were studied. Phosphorus in the treated wastewater could be removed from 1.12 mg/L to 0.03 mg/L by the HGMS system with 500 mg/L zirconium ferrite adsorbent for 5 min in adsorption time. The magnetic separation speed achieved 1 m/s at 1 T which was necessary for practical use. We also confirmed that phosphorus could be desorbed from zirconium ferrite adsorbent by alkali treatment in a short time.

Ishiwata, T.; Miura, O.; Hosomi, K.; Shimizu, K.; Ito, D.; Yoda, Y.

2010-11-01

403

Human pharmaceuticals in wastewaters from urbanized areas of Argentina.  

PubMed

The study contributes with a first survey of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewaters discharging into fresh and estuarine waters from areas with varying degrees of urbanization of Argentina. Analyses were done on the soluble fraction by HPLC-MS after SPE extraction. In all of the samples were detected caffeine and ibuprofen within the range of 0.9-44.2 and 0.4-13.0 ?g/L, and lower levels of carbamazepine, atenolol and diclofenac between 0.2-2.3, 0.2-1.7 and <0.03-1.2 ?g/L, respectively. Profiles of compounds were similar in all studied locations. PMID:23229304

Elorriaga, Yanina; Marino, Damián J; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Ronco, Alicia E

2012-12-11

404

Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration  

SciTech Connect

Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

1991-01-01

405

Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration  

SciTech Connect

Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

1991-12-31

406

Health Aspects of Wastewater Aerosols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Health Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency arranged for several studies, by universities or research institutions, to gather information on health effects associated with wastewater aerosols. Five studies were condu...

H. R. Pahren W. Jakubowski

1981-01-01

407

COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal wastewater sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. C...

408

Wastewater Applications in Forest Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under proper design and management, a forest ecosystem in the central United States should renovate municipal wastewater as long or longer than conventional agricultural systems, especially when design limitations are hydraulic loading rate, heavy metals,...

H. L. McKim W. E. Sopper D. Cole W. Nutter D. Urie

1982-01-01

409

Method for Treating Contaminated Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethyl-nitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultravi...

E. G. Fochtman R. L. Koch F. S. Forbes

1983-01-01

410

Immobilized reactor for rapid destruction of recalcitrant organics and inorganics in tannery wastewater.  

PubMed

The wastewater discharged from tanneries lack biodegradability due to the presence of recalcitrant compounds at significant concentration. The focal theme of the present investigation was to use chemo-autotrophic activated carbon oxidation (CAACO) reactor, an immobilized cell reactor using chemoautotrophs for the treatment of tannery wastewater. The treatment scheme comprised of anaerobic treatment, sand filtration, and CAACO reactor, which remove COD, BOD, TOC, VFA and sulphides respectively by 86%, 95%, 81%, 71% and 100%. Rice bran mesoporous activated carbon prepared indigenously and was used for immobilization of chemoautotrophs. The degradation of xenobiotic compounds by CAACO was confirmed through HPLC and FT-IR techniques. PMID:16158605

Kumar, A Ganesh; Sekaran, G; Swamalatha, S; Rao, B Prasad

2005-01-01

411

Decolorization and biodegradability of photocatalytic treated azo dyes and wool textile wastewater.  

PubMed

The photodegradation and biodegradability have been investigated for four non-biodegradable commercial azo dyes, Reactive YellowKD-3G, Reactive Red 15, Reactive Red 24, Cationic Blue X-GRL, an indicator. Methyl Orange, and one industrial wool textile wastewater, using TiO2 suspensions irradiated with a medium pressure mercury lamp. The color removal of dyes solution and dyeing wastewater reached to above 90% within 20-30 min. of photocatalytic treatment. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was found to increase, while chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) decreased, so that the ratio of BOD5/COD of the wastewater increased from original zero up to 0.75. The result implies that photocatalytic oxidation enhanced the biodegradability of the dye-containing wastewater and therefore relationship between decolorization and biodegradability exists. When the color disappeared completely, the wastewater biodegraded normally and could be discharged for further treatment. The experimental results demonstrate that it is possible to combine photocatalysis with conventional biological treatment for the remedy of wastewater containing generally non-biodegradable azo dyes. PMID:10576110

Hu, C; Wang, Y

1999-11-01

412

A review on chemical coagulation/flocculation technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters.  

PubMed

Textile industry is one of the most chemically intensive industries on the earth and the major polluter of potable water. It generates huge quantities of complex chemical substances as a part of unused materials including dyes in the form of wastewater during various stages of textile processing. The direct discharge of this wastewater into environment affects its ecological status by causing various undesirable changes. As environmental protection becomes a global concern, industries are finding novel solutions for developing technologies that can diminish the environmental damage. However, colour removal from textile wastewater by means of cheaper and environmental friendly technologies is still a major challenge. In this manuscript, several options of decolourisation of textile wastewater by chemical means have been reviewed. Based on the present review, some novel pre-hydrolysed coagulants such as Polyaluminium chloride (PACl), Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl), Polyferrous sulphate (PFS) and Polyferric chloride (PFCl) have been found to be more effective and suggested for decolourisation of the textile wastewater. Moreover, use of natural coagulants for textile wastewater treatment has also been emphasised and encouraged as the viable alternative because of their eco-friendly nature. PMID:22054582

Verma, Akshaya Kumar; Dash, Rajesh Roshan; Bhunia, Puspendu

2011-10-05

413

Biological treatment of nitrogen-rich refinery wastewater by partial nitritation (SHARON) process.  

PubMed

Wastewater discharges containing high nitrogen levels can be toxic to aquatic life and cause eutrophication. In this study, the application of the SHARON (Single reactor for High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the treatment of refinery wastewater (sour water) was evaluated, in view of its coupling with the ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) process. A Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor was initially fed with a synthetic medium, and the applied NH4-N concentration and wastewater/synthetic medium ratio were progressively increased up to 2000 mgN/L and 100%, respectively. Despite the high potential toxic effect of the real wastewater, overall SHARON performance did not decrease with the increasing real wastewater/synthetic medium ratio, and biomass showed progressive acclimation to the toxic compounds in the real wastewater, as demonstrated by toxicity assessments. NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiency were around 50% and 65%, respectively. Moreover, the effluent was characterized by a NO2-N/NH4-N ratio of 0.9 +/- 0.01 and low nitrate concentration (<30 mgN/L), in line with the requirements for the subsequent treatment by the ANAMMOX process. PMID:22988604

Milia, S; Cappai, G; Perra, M; Carucci, A

414

Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.  

PubMed

Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design. PMID:19759449

Smith, B R

2009-01-01

415

Endocrine disruptors in dairy wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water contamination by endocrine disruptors is of great concern, even at the nanogram level, due to adverse health risks for\\u000a wildlife and humans. Some agricultural practices producing slurry and wastewater are responsible for contamination by natural\\u000a steroid hormones. The production and fate of hormones depends on animal type, management and waste treatment system. Statistical\\u000a surveys have shown that wastewater produced

Kai Cai

416

Post-Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System to assess patient recovery and discharge after colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether discharge scoring criteria are as safe as clinical criteria for discharge decision and allow for earlier discharge. METHODS: About 220 consecutive outpatients undergoing colonoscopy under sedation with Meperidine plus Midazolam were enrolled and assigned to 2 groups: in Control-group (110 subjects) discharge decision was based on the clinical assessment; in PADSS-group (110 subjects) discharge decision was based on the modified Post-Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System (PADSS). Measurements of the PADDS score were taken every 20 min after colonoscopy, and patients were discharged after two consecutive PADSS scores ? 9. The investigator called each patient 24-48 h after discharge to administer a standardized questionnaire, to detect any delayed complications. Patients in which cecal intubation was not performed and those who were not found at follow-up phone call were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (7 in Control-group and 6 in PADSS-group) were excluded from the study. Recovery from sedation was faster in PADSS-group than in Control-group (58.75 ± 18.67 min vs 95.14 ± 10.85 min, respectively; P < 0.001). Recovery time resulted shorter than 60 min in 39 patients of PADSS-group (37.5%), and in no patient of Control-group (P < 0.001). At follow-up phone call, no patient declared any hospital re-admission because of problems related to colonoscopy and/or sedation. Mild delayed post-discharge symptoms occurred in 57 patients in Control-group (55.3%) and in 32 in PADSS-group (30.7%). The most common symptoms were drowsiness, weakness, abdominal distension, and headache. Only 3 subjects needed to take some drugs because of post-discharge symptoms. CONCLUSION: The Post-Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System is as safe as the clinical assessment and allows for an earlier patient discharge after colonoscopy performed under sedation.

Trevisani, Lucio; Cifala, Viviana; Gilli, Giuseppe; Matarese, Vincenzo; Zelante, Angelo; Sartori, Sergio

2013-01-01

417

Genotoxicity evaluation of hospital wastewaters.  

PubMed

In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients reach the wastewater. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be a possible cause of the cancers observed in the last decades. Genotoxicity tests are an excellent means to study the toxicity and the risk associated with these releases. This paper points out the areas of concern for hospital wastewater disposal and reports the findings of genotoxicity tests for hospital effluents from 3 major hospitals in Delhi, namely All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Apollo and Escorts. Mutagenicity of hospital wastewaters from effluent treatment plants (before and after treatment) was studied. The results of this study show that the genotoxicity of hospital wastewaters is highly reduced after the treatment process. This study calls for establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. The results of this study call for further detailed study in this area. PMID:19524298

Gupta, Preeti; Mathur, N; Bhatnagar, P; Nagar, P; Srivastava, S

2009-06-12

418

Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available\\u000a techniques of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. The IPPC Directive requires that for direct\\u000a dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. Within the study, the\\u000a whole effluent assessment

Stefan Gartiser; Christoph Hafner; Christoph Hercher; Kerstin Kronenberger-Schäfer; Albrecht Paschke

2010-01-01

419

Silent discharge gas laser  

SciTech Connect

A silent discharge gas laser comprises an earthing electrode and a high voltage electrode whose discharge surface is covered with a dielectric and a power source for applying an ac high frequency high voltage to excit a laser gas. The power source periodically and intermittently applies high frequency voltage to turn on and off to give high peak value.

Ogawa, S.; Tabata, N.; Yagi, S.

1982-05-11

420

Calculating Stream Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Streamflow, or discharge, is defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the volume of water flowing past a fixed point in a fixed unit of time. The discharge of a stream can be affected by many things, including topography and channel morphology. How

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

421

Discharge Measurement of Streamflow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are divided into small groups. Each group chooses a channel cross section and makes a discharge measurement both using a current meter and a surface float. Students share the data collected in the lab but each student calculates discharge on their own and answers related questions. Designed for a geomorphology course

Cowan, Ellen A.

422

Community nurses & discharge planning.  

PubMed

The role of community nurses in discharge planning for elderly patients leaving hospital is of increasing importance in the wake of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990. Community nurses can play a key role in contributing to pre-discharge assessments and in providing continuing post-discharge assessment and care. The Nursing Research Unit at the University of Edinburgh conducted a survey early in 1993, just prior to implementation of the Community Care Act in Scotland, to ascertain the views and experiences of a national 1 in 3 sample of community nurses relating to the discharge of elderly people from acute hospitals. This article presents the results of that survey and offers recommendations regarding the role of community nurses in discharge planning for elderly patients. PMID:8155537

Worth, A; Tierney, A; Lockerbie, L

423

40 CFR 414.110 - Applicability; description of the subcategory of indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point Sources § 414.110 Applicability; description of the subcategory of indirect discharge...

2012-07-01

424

40 CFR 461.43 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...forth below: (1) Subpart DâFoliar Battery Miscellaneous WashâNSPS. Pollutant...process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 464.34 - New source performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ferrous Casting Subcategory § 464.34 New source performance...wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. (e) Investment Casting. (1) Applicable to plants that...

2010-07-01

426

40 CFR 464.34 - New source performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ferrous Casting Subcategory § 464.34 New source performance...wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. (e) Investment Casting. (1) Applicable to plants that...

2009-01-01

427

Home next day: early discharge of children following appendicectomy.  

PubMed

Fifty-six children in two groups were discharged within 24 hours of an uncomplicated appendicectomy. While the children in the first group (N = 21) were visited by a nurse at home within 24 hours of discharge, the second group (N = 35) just received telephone calls. The cohort was evaluated by telephone interviews two weeks after discharge. All children fulfilling the discharge standards were discharged safely within 24 hours of surgery. Any physical complaints post-discharge were considered minor. The nurses were able to provide reassurance to the families, give advice and deal with minor problems. As a result the families felt safe and reassured, and in only one case did the fragility of parental confidence become obvious. This study has demonstrated the safety of discharging these children within 24 hours of surgery and the value to nursing contacts in enabling the families to care for their children at home. PMID:17709356

Pfeil, Michael; Mathur, Azad; Singh, Shalini; Morris, Chris; Green, Gill; Kulkarni, Milind

2007-09-01

428

Environmentally-induced discharges on solar arrays in geosynchronous orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis into the conditions necessary for environmentally induced inverted voltage gradient discharges in geosynchronous satellite solar arrays is conducted. This analysis shows that fused silica coverglass arrays can discharge in encounters with high-current-density, moderate-energy substorms. Discharges can also occur in a relaxation phase of a standard design substorm environment. After six months in space, when the Kapton thermal blankets

N. John Stevens; Michael R. Jones

1993-01-01

429

Anoxic transformations of wastewater organic matter in sewers - process kinetics, model concept and wastewater treatment potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sewer is an integral part of the urban wastewater system: the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant and the local receiving waters. The sewer is a reactor for microbial changes of the wastewater during transport, affecting the quality of the wastewater and thereby the successive treatment processes or receiving water impacts during combined sewer overflows. This paper presents the results

S. Abdul-Talib; T. Hvitved-Jacobsen; J. Vollertsen; Z. Ujang

2002-01-01

430

Wastewater Characteristics and Appropriate Method for Wastewater Management in the Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hospitals generate relatively large quantities of wastewater that may contain various potentially hazardous materials; therefore the proper management of hospital wastewater is essential. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the quality and quantity of wastewater in the hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran, were studied and the suitable method for wastewater management in the hospitals was

AR Mesdaghinia; K Naddafi; R Nabizadeh; R Saeedi; M Zamanzadeh

431

Use of constructed wetland systems with Arundo and Sarcocornia for polishing high salinity tannery wastewater.  

PubMed

Treatment of tannery wastewater is problematic due to high and variable concentrations of complex pollutants often combined with high salinity levels. Two series of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with Arundo donax and Sarcocornia fruticosa were set up after a conventional biological treatment system operating at a tannery site. The aim of the CWs was polishing organics and nitrogen from the high salinity effluent (2.2-6.6 g Cl(-) L(-1)). Both plant species established and grew well in the CW. Arundo, however, had more vigorous growth and a higher capacity to take up nutrients. The CWs were efficient in removing COD and BOD(5) with removal efficiencies varying between 51 and 80% for COD (inlet: 68-425 mg L(-1)) and between 53 and 90% for BOD(5) (inlet: 16-220 mg L(-1)). Mass removal rates were up to 615 kg COD ha(-1) d(-1) and 363 BOD(5) kg ha(-1) d(-1). Removal efficiencies were 40-93% for total P, 31-89% for NH(4)(+) and 41-90% for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen. CW systems planted with salt tolerant plant species are a promising solution for polishing saline secondary effluent from the tannery industry to levels fulfilling the discharge standards. PMID:22115512

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Quitério, Paula V B; Silva, Gabriela; Crispim, Luís F C; Brix, Hans; Moura, Sandra C; Castro, Paula M L

2011-11-04

432

Degradation of Dye Wastewater by ns-Pulse DBD Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two plasma reactors have been developed and used to degrade dye wastewater agents. The configuration of one plasma reactor is a comb-like extendable unit module consisting of 5 electrodes covered with a quartz tube and the other one is an array reactor which is extended from the unit module. The decomposition of wastewater by ns pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma have been carried out by atomizing the dyeing solutions into the reactors. During experiments, the indigo carmine has been treated as the waste agent. The measurements of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) are carried out to demonstrate the decomposition effect on the wastewater. It shows that the decoloration rate of 99% and the COD degradation rate of 65% are achieved with 15 min treatment in the unit reactor. The effect of electrical parameters on degradation has been studied in detail. Results from the array reactor indicate that it has a better degradation effect than the unit one. It can not only totally remove the chromogenic bond of the indigo carmine solution, but also effectively degrade unsaturated bonds. The decoloration rate reaches 99% after 10 min treatment, the decomposition rate of the unsaturated bond reaches 83% after 60 min treatment, and the COD degradation rate is nearly 74%.

Gao, Jin; Gu, Pingdao; Yuan, Li; Zhong, Fangchuan

2013-09-01

433

Evaluation and applicability of water quality and nutrients removal by coastal wetlands receiving treated municipal wastewater and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the water quality of the wetland that received treated municipal wastewater for 40 years and its application for nutrients removal and wetland restoration. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To assess the water quality impact of the study, wetland sampling sites were selected to represent the receiving wetland, wetland background, effluent discharge point, and

Chih-Yang Hu; Guang Jin; A. J. Englande Jr

2011-01-01

434

High-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient operating temperatures: A review on benefits and drawbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current knowledge on high-rate anaerobic sewage treatment at ambient operating temperatures while presenting the benefits and drawbacks. Since domestic sewage is reported as the main point-source pollutant on a global scale, its treatment deserves ample research. In most of the cities and towns of some developing countries, wastewater produced in households is still discharged into the

Cigdem Yangin Gomec

2010-01-01

435

FATE OF TOXIC AND NONCONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS WITHIN THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Field studies were undertaken to determine the fate of toxic and nonconventional pollutants present in the wastewaters discharged from the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. A sampling and analysis program was conducted at two deink mills and a groundwood fine paper mill. Each...

436

Effluent analysis of wastewater generated in the manufacture of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. 1. characterization study  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters resulting from the production and purification of TNT were characterized. Over 30 nitroaromatic compounds were identified and quantified over a 1-yr sampling period. Sources of the identical compounds were predicted on the basis of the operation of the manufacturing process. This work serves as the primary step in an evaluation program to assess the environmental impact of a complex industrial discharge.

Spanggord, R.J. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA); Gibson, B.W.; Keck, R.G.; Thomas, D.W.; Barkley, J.J. Jr.

1982-04-01

437

Prevention of marine environment pollution at the tourism regions by the application of a simple method for the domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse pollution generated from the coastal tourism areas is one of the significant threats for the marine environment. Besides the accommodation facilities discharging the generated wastewater into the sea without any treatment, the summer resorts of the coastal areas also deteriorate the coastal waters. Since most of the summer resorts do not have any sewage system, it is difficult to

Günay Kocasoy; Hatice ?mer Mutlu; B. Aylin Zeren Alagöz

2008-01-01

438

A study on skin problems among people engaged in wastewater-fed culture of water spinach in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (preliminary result)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Boeng Cheung Ek lake is located west of Phnom Penh city where wastewater from industrial factories, urban area and rain-water run-off is discharged into the lake without any treatment. In the area, the farmers' main income is from growing water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in the lake. This study reports preliminary findings of skin problems among people engaged wastewater-fed culture

Vuong Tuan Anh; Phung Dac Cam; Phan Thu Phuong; Wim van der Hoek; Chan Vicheth; Anders Dalsgaard

439

Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

440

Micropollutants Produced by Disinfection of Wastewater Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to th...

R. L. Jolley R. B. Cumming N. E. Lee J. E. Thompson L. R. Lewis

1981-01-01

441

Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will assist wastewater utilities with the condition assessment of their deteriorating wastewater collections systems, and will support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyâ??s (EPA) Program Offices with addressing proposed capacity, management, operation and mainte...

442

Calcium Phosphate Precipitation in Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precipitation of calcium phosphate from both synthetically derived wastewater and from actual wastewater was investigated. An amorphous tricalcium phosphate was the steady state solid phase that controlled dissolved phosphate residuals. The solubility of ...

A. B. Menar D. Jenkins

1972-01-01

443

Mammoth Cave Area Wastewater Facilities, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Final Environmental Impact Statement addresses proposed wastewater facilities for the Mammoth Cave Area cities of Horse Cave, Cave City, Park City and Munfordville, Kentucky and the Mammoth Cave National Park. Eight wastewater management alternatives...

1981-01-01

444

Phosphate Removal from Industrial and Municipal Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphorus removal was evaluated at several points in a conventional wastewater treatment process. Samples were taken from a secondary plant utilizing a high rate trickling filter on municipal wastewater. Treatment of settled primary effluent, secondary e...

R. C. Ahlert M. L. Granstrom M. A. Slam

1980-01-01

445

On-site wastewater technologies in Australia.  

PubMed

Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented. PMID:11700668

Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K

2001-01-01

446

Glow discharge detector  

DOEpatents

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01

447

Nitrogen Control Through Decentralized Wastewater Treatment: Process Performance and Alternative Management Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

Decentralized or onsite wastewater treatment (OWT) systems have long been implicated in being a major source of N inputs to surface and ground waters and numerous regulatory bodies have promulgated strict total N (TN) effluent standards in N-sensitive areas. These standards, howe...

448

In-situ liquid storage capacity measurement of subsurface wastewater absorption system products.  

PubMed

A method is presented for measuring the in-situ liquid storage capacity of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) products. While these products vary in composition, geometry, and porosity, they all have the same function: to provide a conduit for the flow of effluent from a septic tank to and through a trench so that infiltration into the soil can occur. A functional SWIS must also provide temporary liquid storage. Storage is necessary for periods when discharge from the septic tank exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. Storage is also important during times when the soil in and around the trench is saturated. Many states now have regulatory requirements pertaining to storage volume, and these requirements commonly establish the traditional gravel-pipe system as the standard for minimally acceptable volume. Raliable comparisons between various alternative products and gravel have been difficult or impossible, because there has been no standard method for measuring storage volume. Some products have been evaluated under realistic field conditions; others have been evaluated under theoretical or ideal conditions. The protocol developed by the study reported here can serve as a common, accurate basis for comparisons. A 3-foot-deep trench was excavated, and the bottom was leveled. Markers (nails or rods) were attached to the products to indicate the invert and full-volume heights. The products were then enclosed in plastic, placed in a trench, and covered with soil. A 4-inch-diameter pipe extended from the product to the surface to allow metered additions of water into the products and precise determinations when the systems had been filled to capacity. Four plastic chambers, three expanded polystyrene (ESP) products, two multipipe arrangements, and a standard gravel-pipe system were evaluated. The standard gravel-pipe system held 10.2 gal/ft Three of the four plastic chambers stored from 100 to 130 percent of what the standard system held. The multipipe systems held 80 and 90 percent of the standard. The ESP bundles held less than 75 percent of the standard, with the most commonly used configuration storing about 60 percent. The rigid products were found to store amounts that agreed with their companies' reported values. The ESP products retained less than company reported values. These differences illustrate the need for a standard protocol for measuring storage volume. PMID:17091738

Quisenberry, Virgil; Brown, Philip; Smith, Bill; Hallahan, Dennis F

2006-11-01

449

A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. PMID:22035931

Grantham, Theodore E; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

2011-10-14

450

Ozone/UV treatment to enhance biodegradation of surfactants in industrial wastewater. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

The new owners of a surfactant manufacturing plant wanted to triple production but were limited by the plant`s wastewater treatment capacity. Mass balance calculations indicated that little aerobic biodegradation was occurring in the plant`s wastewater treatment system. Literature reviews and laboratory tests confirmed that as much as 60% of the plant`s products might resist aerobic biodegradation. Overall chemical losses, both solid and aqueous, were estimated at 3.8% of theoretical. Organic loadings to the wastewater treatment system were 170 kg/d of which 50 kg/d reached the biological treatment system. Pollution prevention measures have allowed a > 20% increase in production levels with a > 30% decrease in effluent volume and no increase in discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A new dissolved air flotation (DAF) system removes 70% of the organic loading. Sludge volumes are lower by an order of magnitude than with the clarifier/drum-filter process it replaced.

Cline, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sullivan, P.F. [Specialty Industrial Products, Inc., Spartanburg, SC (United States); Lovejoy, M.A.; Collier, J. [Sun River Innovations, Ltd., Lexington, KY (United States); Adams, C.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1996-10-01

451

Determination of levels of current drugs in hospital and urban wastewater.  

PubMed

A rapid, sensitive and highly specific HPLC-MS/MS method with direct on-line preparation was applied for the determination of 20 common pharmaceuticals in hospital and urban wastewater. Median drug concentrations were quite similar in the majority of samples, cerca 1 ?g L?¹ ranging from 0.06 to 2.67 ?g L?¹ in both water. Pharmaceutical hospital contribution, below 1 %, was negligible, as compared to the huge amount in the municipal plant flow. Due to only partial elimination in the plant, hundreds of kilograms of harmful waste per year are discharged in the River Seine. Therefore, to reduce potential human and environmental exposure, a topic of major concern, an efficient drug treatment procedure should be used at the municipal plant stage in order to reduce urban wastewater pollution. The HPLC-MS/MS method could be a very useful tool to optimize the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment process. PMID:23807682

Saussereau, Elodie; Lacroix, Christian; Guerbet, Michel; Cellier, Dominique; Spiroux, Joël; Goullé, Jean-Pierre

2013-06-27

452

Survival study of enterotoxigenic Escherichia colistrain in seawater and wastewater microcosms.  

PubMed

In order to survey osmotic and oligotrophic stress consequence on pathogenic enterobacteria discharged in marine areas, we examined enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and a reference (Ecoli O126:B16) strains during their survival (47 days) in wastewater microcosms, submerged in natural seawater and maintained in laboratory conditions. The results revealed that the survival time for the two strains was prolonged when bacterial cells were previously incubated in wastewater, with less cellular membrane damage. In addition, the wild clinical E. coli strain showed a better survival capacity than the reference E. coli strain one. For both, we noted some modifications in biochemical profiles relatively to the initial state, notably when they were previously incubated in wastewater microcosm. PMID:23461140

Boukef Ben Omrane, I; El Bour, M; Mejri, S; Mraouna, R; Got, P; Troussellier, M; Boudabous, A

2011-01-01

453

40 CFR 467.24 - New source performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... The pH shall be maintained within the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times except for those situations when this waste stream is discharged separately and without commingling with any other wastewater in which case the pH shall be within...

2011-07-01

454

Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review. PMID:20083294

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

2010-01-18

455

Newborn phenylketonuria (PKU) Guthrie (BIA) screening and early hospital discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent policies of early discharge of postpartum mothers and their infants has raised concerns of possible decreased sensitivity in Guthrie bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) phenylketonuria (PKU) screening resulting in missed cases. In order to assess the potential impact of early discharge from hospital on neonatal screening for PKU and its variants, we performed 18 standard BIA screening tests on 11

W. B. Hanley; H. Demshar; M. A. Preston; A. Borczyk; W. E. Schoonheyt; J. T. R. Clarke; A. Feigenbaum

1997-01-01

456

Gaseous Discharge Super-High-Frequency Noise Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive column of an electrical discharge through argon it utilized as a source of random fluctuations to provide a standard noise source for microwave frequencies. It is shown that the waveguide may be matched to the discharge with very low reflection over the entire recommended transmission bandwidth of the waveguide without the utilization of tuned elements. Further, when the

Harwick Johnson; K. R. Deremer

1951-01-01

457

Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH3-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater.  

PubMed

A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH(3)-N varying daily 4016-13,093 mg-COD L(-1) and 156.4-650.2 mg-NH(3)-N L(-1), amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L(-1), respectively; Almost all the COD, NH(3)-N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L(-1), 9.4 mg-NH(3)-N L(-1) and 2.6±0.8 mg-amoxicillin L(-1) in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated in this paper. The results show that biodegradation, adsorption and hydrolysis are the major mechanisms for amoxicillin removal. PMID:21974848

Chen, Zhaobo; Wang, Hongcheng; Ren, Nanqi; Cui, Minhua; Nie, Shukai; Hu, Dongxue

2011-09-17

458

40 CFR 444.18 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wastewater pollutants into a POTW must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Standards for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, titanium and zinc are the same as the corresponding limitation...

2011-07-01

459

Biological treatment of Hygas coal gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month experimental study was performed to assess biological treatability characteristics of Hygas coal gasification process pilot plant wastewater comprised of cyclone and quench condensates. The study evaluated treatability characteristics of ammonia stripped and unstripped wastewater at full strength and at 1:1 dilution. It was determined that minimum pretreatment required for biological oxidation consisted of reducing wastewater alkalinity, and

R. G. Luthy; J. T. Tallon

1978-01-01

460

Pathogens in urban wastewaters suitable for reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban wastewaters, including domestic wastewater, grey water and roof-collected rain water, are all potential sources of water, which can be reused in an effort to conserve limited water resources. Urban wastewaters may contain a range of pathogenic microorganisms, which are of concern for water reuse due to the potential for pathogen transmission from reuse applications. In particular, regardless of the

Gideon P. Winward; Lisa M. Avery; Tom Stephenson; Paul Jeffrey; Kristell S. Le Corre; Lorna Fewtrell; Bruce Jefferson

2009-01-01

461

Chloride removal from Eshidiya phosphate mining wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of industrial wastewater from Eshidiya phosphate mining was studied in this work for reuse possibilities. The wastewater contains sediments and chloride ions. The removal of chloride from the industrial wastewater by adsorption using Amberlite IRA-402 was investigated via batch and continuous adsorptions. In the batch adsorption, the amount of chloride removal reached about 82.5%. The equilibrium data for chloride

Mousa K. Abu-Arabi; Sadeq Emeish; Banan I. Hudaib

2012-01-01

462

Wet air oxidation of propellant wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet Air Oxidation studies have been conducted on a number of propellant wastewaters, to assess destruction levels of specific propellant components. OTTO fuel, used as a torpedo propellant, and hydrazine based rocket fuels were propellants of interest. OTTO fuel wastewaters contain substantial amounts of propylene glycol dinitrate. Hydrazine based rocket fuel wastewaters contain hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. Laboratory Wet

T. L. Randall; W. M. Copa; M. J. Deitrich

1985-01-01

463

Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

464

Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance  

SciTech Connect

This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)

Tucker, B.J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Salem, NH (United States); Arndt, S. [Safety and Ecology Corporation, Maywood, NJ (United States)

2007-07-01

465

Arc Discharge Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes models for the high energy pulsed arc discharge