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1

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2011-07-01

2

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2014-07-01

3

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2013-07-01

4

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2010-07-01

5

Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

1940-01-01

6

33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158...250 Standard discharge connection. Each reception facility...have a standard discharge connection that— (a) Meets § 155...Attaches to each hose or pipe that removes bilge...

2010-07-01

7

WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of waste-water and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described...

8

Zero discharge: A dual solution to wastewater disposal and water supply problems  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general overview of zero discharge as a means for: (1) eliminating costly wastewater treatment upgrades in response to increasingly stringent discharge regulations and (2) providing additional water supplies. The concept of zero discharge is relatively new, having been prompted primarily by updated discharge regulations for wastewater treatment plants which can mandate additional, expensive plant modifications. As planners evaluate the costs of complying with stringent new discharge regulations, attention has been drawn to eliminating these costs by removing the discharge from the receiving stream and utilizing it for alternative, water supply purposes. In addition to the overview of zero discharge, which is covered in the first half of the paper, a discussion also is provided of zero discharge in New Mexico and the potential for this concept to become a significant component of water resources planning in the state.

Duren, F.K. Jr. [Montgomery Watson, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Leder, C. [Molzen-Corbin and Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

9

[Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].  

PubMed

A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

2004-03-01

10

Assessment of effluent contaminants from three facilities discharging Marcellus Shale wastewater to surface waters in Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Unconventional natural gas development in Pennsylvania has created a new wastewater stream. In an effort to stop the discharge of Marcellus Shale unconventional natural gas development wastewaters into surface waters, on May 19, 2011 the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) requested drilling companies stop disposing their wastewater through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This research includes a chemical analysis of effluents discharged from three WWTPs before and after the aforementioned request. The WWTPs sampled included two municipal, publicly owned treatment works and a commercially operated industrial wastewater treatment plant. Analyte concentrations were quanitified and then compared to water quality criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MCLs and "human health criteria." Certain analytes including barium, strontium, bromides, chlorides, total dissolved solids, and benzene were measured in the effluent at concentrations above criteria. Analyte concentrations measured in effluent samples before and after the PADEP's request were compared for each facility. Analyte concentrations in the effluents decreased in the majority of samples after the PADEP's request (p < .05). This research provides preliminary evidence that these and similar WWTPs may not be able to provide sufficient treatment for this wastewater stream, and more thorough monitoring is recommended. PMID:23458378

Ferrar, Kyle J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Christen, Charles L; Mulcahy, Ned; Malone, Samantha L; Sharma, Ravi K

2013-04-01

11

Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. PMID:23886540

Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

2013-10-01

12

Potential impacts of discharging tertiary-treated wastewater into Port Royal Sound, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An assessment of physical characteristics of Port Royal Sound was combined with the results of a dye tracer study and with data collected from a previous environmental study to describe the impact on the water quality from discharging tertiary treated wastewater into the sound. Calculated velocities for the time of maximum velocity in the tidal cycle ranged from 2.32 ft/sec near the bottom to 4.65 ft/sec near the surface of the sound in a cross section in the vicinity of a proposed wastewater outfall. Vertical velocity distributions calculated for the time of maximum velocity were similar at all stations at which velocities were measured except the station in shallow water near the shore. A recent bathymetric chart of the vicinity of the proposed outfall indicates that a bar extends farther along the northern shore of Hilton Head Island than indicated on earlier nautical charts of Port Royal Sound. Continued extension of this bar could alter the impact on water quality from discharge of treated wastewater into the sound. Further study may be needed to monitor changes in the bar if the outfall is located between the bar and Hilton Head Island. Conservative calculations based on the results of the dye tracer study indicate that the discharge of 10.9 million gallons/day of wastewater having concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids of 15 mg/L will result in a maximum cumulative increase in concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand of < 0.01 mg/L and no increase in concentrations of suspended solids at high slack tide in the part of Port Royal Sound most affected by the proposed wastewater discharge. (Author 's abstract)

Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

1985-01-01

13

A COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES FOR DISCHARGING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a study to meet the following congressional directive: 8Within available funds, the conferees direct EPA to conduct a relative risk assessment of deep well injection, ocean disposal, surface discharge, and aquifer recharge of treated effluent in South Florida,...

14

WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 2. SIX MILL ENGINEERING REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of wastewater and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described ...

15

In-situ production of ozone and ultraviolet light using a barrier discharge reactor for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor consisting of water-filled dielectric tube electrodes was used for the treatment\\u000a of wastewater. The inner dielectric tube, which acted as the discharging electrode, was filled with an aqueous electrolyte\\u000a solution. The outer dielectric tube, which served as the other electrode, was in contact with the wastewater, which was grounded.\\u000a The present reactor system was

Jin-Oh Jo; Y. S. Mok

2009-01-01

16

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

17

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2014-07-01

18

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

19

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2012-07-01

20

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2014-07-01

21

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water...

2013-07-01

22

FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

Crockett, A.B.

1994-04-01

23

Recovery of astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, studies were carried out to extract astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin and to reveal the scavenging effect of the obtained pigment on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Different ratios of dichloromethane/methanol (V/V) were used to extract astaxanthin. When the ratio of dichloromethane/methanol was 2:8 and the ratio between the mixed organic solvent (dichloromethane/methanol, 2:8, V/V) and wastewater was 1:1, the highest yield of pigment was obtained (8.4 mg/50 mL). The concentration of free astaxanthin in the obtained pigment analyzed by HPLC was 30.02%. The obtained pigment possessed strong scavenging ability on DPPH radical and IC50 was 0.84mg/ml.

Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Shengfeng; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

2012-06-01

24

Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.  

PubMed

Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O?) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O? which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na?B?O? as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200 min when the discharge power was 170 W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na?B?O? because B?O?(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O?. The main reason was that O? can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

2014-08-01

25

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553  

EPA Science Inventory

The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

26

Zero-discharge wastewater treatment facility for a 900-MWe GCC power plant  

SciTech Connect

Florida Power and Light desires to examine the prospect of achieving zero liquid discharge from the gasification area of their proposed 900-MW coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant expansion at the Martin station. This report provides information about the technologies available, cost, and process selection methods, and recommends a preferred system for achieving zero liquid discharge from the gasification block. The recommended system consists of primary clarification and vapor compression evaporation, followed by carbon adsorption post-treatment of the evaporator distillate. Dry solids are produced from the evaporator concentrate with a crystallizer/centrifuge combination. The system recovers 99 percent of the wastewater as pure distillate vater. The predicted capital cost for the 265-gpm system is $12.5 million; the predicted operating costs are $18.60/1000 gallons. Both costs are in 1990 dollars. Promising treatment technologies to examine for future designs are cooling tower treatment and freeze crystallization.

Rosain, R.M.; Dalan, J.A. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-05-01

27

Degradation of palm oil refinery wastewaters by non-thermal gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

The gliding electric discharge in humid air is a source of activated species forming (e.g. (•)OH, (•)NO and their derivatives H2O2, ONO2H and NO3H) which are present in a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. These species are able to degrade organic pollutants in palm oil refinery wastewaters (PORW). The increase in acidity (pH decrease), conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) and the decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of PORW samples exposed to the discharge are reported. More than 50% TOC abatement is obtained for 15 min treatment in batch conditions with a laboratory reactor. The organic pollutants of PORW, i.e. mainly fatty acids are degraded according to a pseudo first-order reaction (k*?=?0.06 min(-1)). Post discharge reactions are also observed after having switched off the discharge, which suggests that the pseudo first-order (k???0.05 min(-1)) degradation reactions should be attributed to the diffusion of soluble reactive species, e.g. H2O2 and ONOOH in the liquid target. PMID:23229278

Mountapmbeme-Kouotou, P; Laminsi, S; Acayanka, E; Brisset, J-L

2013-07-01

28

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.  

PubMed

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose-responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios. PMID:23634582

Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

2013-03-01

29

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-?m size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose–responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios.

Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

2013-01-01

30

A laboratory assessment of the impact of brewery wastewater discharge on sulfide and methane production in a sewer.  

PubMed

The impact of brewery wastewater discharge on sulfide and methane production in a sewer was assessed. Experiments were carried out on laboratory scale sewer reactors consisting of both an experimental and a control reactor. The control reactor was intermittently fed with real fresh sewage while the experimental reactor was fed with a mixture of brewery and domestic wastewater at two different proportions (10 and 25% v/v). 10% v/v discharge of brewery wastewater increased the H2S and CH4 production rates in the sewer reactor by 40% and 30%, respectively. When the brewery wastewater fraction was increased to 25% v/v, the H2S production rate of the experimental reactor decreased to the level of the control reactor. In contrast, the CH4 production rate maintained at a level that was 30% higher than that in the control reactor. These results indicate that the discharge of brewery wastewater into sewers can give negative impacts in relation to odour and corrosion management of the systems and will increase the greenhouse gas emissions from sewers. The study also reveals that the impact of trade waste on the biological reactions in sewers is complex, and requires careful experimental assessment in each case. PMID:22335103

Sudarjanto, Gatut; Sharma, Keshab R; Gutierrez, Oriol; Yuan, Zhiguo

2011-01-01

31

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2013-07-01

32

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2012-07-01

33

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2014-07-01

34

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2010-07-01

35

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2011-07-01

36

Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.  

PubMed

During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800 m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800 m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica. PMID:25173596

Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

2014-10-15

37

Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged.

Liu, Yan; Yang, Li; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

2014-12-01

38

Effects of a nearshore wastewater discharge: Water column and sediment pore water toxicity  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between water column and sediment pore water toxicity was investigated near a municipal-industrial wastewater discharge in southern Texas. Toxicity associated with effluent distributions in the water column are known to vary in both time and space. Toxicity of sediment, however, is often more stable over time. Sediment can serve as a long-term integrator of toxicity in areas subject to chronic exposure of effluents. This study addressed the relationship between water column toxicity and that found in the sediments on both spatial and temporal scales. Four 2 Km transacts were established around a nearshore wastewater outfall. Eight stations along each transact were sampled for both surface waters and sediment pore water toxicity. Toxicity was determined using a modified sea urchin fertilization test. Surface waters were sampled and tested for eight consecutive months, while sediment pore waters were sampled on three occasions over the length of this study. Results have shown that toxicity in receiving waters was a good indicator to trace movements of the highly variable effluent plume. The distribution of effluent in the water column, and hence water column toxicity, was primarily driven by local wind conditions. Toxicity in sediment porewater was, much less variable and more evenly distributed over the study site. Sediment pore water toxicity was also a good predictor of the distribution of benthic infaunal invertebrates over much of the study site.

Krause, P.R. [MEC Analytical Systems, Inc., Tiburon, CA (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Survey, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

39

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. he objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded "wastewater" samples u...

40

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

41

Assessment of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) health indicators in relation to domestic wastewater discharges in suburbs of Houston, USA.  

PubMed

Personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can impact aquatic organisms. Health indicators were compared for mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) collected above and below WWTP discharges from five streams in suburban areas of the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA. Specimens were evaluated for reproductive, morphological, and histological indicators. Several indicators revealed significant spatial and temporal variation; however, possibly because of their mobility, fish collected upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plants did not reveal consistent trends based on the endpoints examined. CEC concentrations in water samples from stream reaches below WWTP discharges were quantified for the first time in the Houston Metropolitan area. The 18 CECs detected in stream water had concentrations lower than values currently reported to impact fish. Future research should examine caged fish at each site and fish collected over longer stream reaches that receive successive discharges from WWTP and stronger CEC gradients. PMID:24615506

Watkins, Crystal D; Winemiller, Kirk O; Mora, Miguel A; Du, Bowen; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W; Phalen, David

2014-07-01

42

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...stream or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (i) One megagram total source mass flow...

2014-07-01

43

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

44

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

Ansley, Shannon L.

2002-02-20

45

Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

2011-01-01

46

Definitional-mission report for a feasibility study and conceptual design for the management of domestic and industrial waste-water discharges in the city of Merida, State of Yucatan, Mexico. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The recommended project provides a good opportunity for a U.S. consulting firm to initiate the much needed municipal and industrial wastewater management facilities in Merida, State of Yucatan, Mexico and institute U.S. technology as the standard of preference for pollution control design, construction and equipment. The main objectives of the project are to: Evaluate all current data regarding wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems in the study area; Develop an Industrial Wastewater Discharge Inventory; Develop an inventory of existing domestic wastewater disposal systems; Establish baseline and future conditions; Evaluate non-conventional collection, treatment and disposal systems; Evaluate alternative wastewater management scenarios and conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of all options; Investigate financing options for the proposed project's implementation plan; Investigate cost recovery options (user's rates); Recommend a step implementation plan that is compatible with the proposed financing and cost recovery methods; and Develop technical and financial outputs that meet local standards as well as those accepted by international lending institutions.

Not Available

1992-08-01

47

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

Petrasek, Al, Jr.

48

Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

49

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment...Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHH, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63—Emission...

2010-07-01

50

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment...Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHH, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63—Emission...

2011-07-01

51

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

52

Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay  

E-print Network

In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

Schroer, Lee Allen

2014-05-07

53

Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

2002-02-01

54

Treatment of domestic wastewater by an hydroponic NFT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate Datura innoxia plants. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analysed to

Nathalie Vaillant; Fabien Monnet; Huguette Sallanon; Alain Coudret; Adnane Hitmi

2003-01-01

55

33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. 155.430...Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. (a) All oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above must...

2014-07-01

56

Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

Odeh, M.

2003-01-01

57

77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....

2012-06-08

58

Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

2005-01-01

59

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

60

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards.  

PubMed

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to < 10 organisms/ m3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented. PMID:23634586

Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A Whitman; Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A

2013-03-01

61

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.

2013-01-01

62

33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tanks. The discharge connection must have the following...diameter=according to pipe outside diameter...the discharge shore connection, for the discharge...the standard discharge connection requirement of paragraph...be designed to accept pipes up to a maximum...

2010-07-01

63

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ??g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ??g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 ??g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 ??g/L The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

2005-01-01

64

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2014-07-01

65

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

66

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2011-07-01

67

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2012-07-01

68

77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...allowable concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters...

2012-06-13

69

Observations on the Estrogenic Activity and Concentration of 17?-Estradiol in the Discharges of 12 Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is very little information on the overall level of estrogenic activity, or concentrations of specific hormonal compounds\\u000a in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in Australia, compared with Europe, Japan, and North America. To partly address\\u000a this, in 2004, water samples were collected as “grab” or “spot” samples from 12 WWTP facilities across southern Victoria at\\u000a the point at which

C. Mispagel; G. Allinson; M. Allinson; F. Shiraishi; M. Nishikawa; M. R. Moore

2009-01-01

70

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

2014-10-01

71

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

Schwing, Carl M.

72

The behaviour and fate of Nitrate and Phosphate present in treated wastewater when discharged to the Chalk aquifer of SE England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chalk aquifer of South East England is a major groundwater resource and regionally supplies up to 70% of all water abstracted for potable purposes. The two main pressures on groundwater resources are considered to be climate change and population growth. As the demand for water increases, so does the volume of wastewater that has to be treated to acceptable levels before being discharged back into the environment. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is form of groundwater resource management whereby water is pumped or injected into the ground and allowed to percolate through to the saturated zone before being abstracted at a later date. By injecting water into the ground during periods of high precipitation (i.e. winter months) an increased volume of water is made available for later abstraction (i.e. during summer months) helping water resource planners better manage the supply demand balance. In the case of using treated wastewater as a source for artificial recharge, there is little published research on the behaviour and fate of the main contaminants of concern that are found in treated wastewater when they are discharged to the principal aquifer (the Chalk) of SE England. Nitrate and Phosphate are listed (amongst others) as the main contaminants of concern that are present in treated wastewater and discharged to the Chalk aquifer when this practice occurs. The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of treated wastewater for artificial recharge has been extensively studied in both the field and laboratory to better assess how sustainable this practice is in terms of risk of pollution to the groundwater body. The results of the laboratory programme include breakthrough curves for Nitrate and Phosphate in the Chalk matrix under unsaturated and saturated conditions. Whilst Nitrate is shown not to be sorbed in the Chalk matrix, a proportion of the Phosphate is shown to be retained. The proportion of Phosphate that is retained is less than the total retention capacity of the Chalk matrix and the mechanisms that control this are reported. The laboratory and field data will be compared and geochemical models used to upscale to catchment level. This will allow for a better assessment of the risk of pollution occurring at the groundwater body and how sustainable the use of treated wastewater is as a source for ASR in Chalk catchments to be made.

Phillips, Richard; Smith, Martin; Pope, David

2013-04-01

73

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

Mason, George J.

74

77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...

2012-09-10

75

QUALITY OF PALOUSE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT AND IMPACT OF DISCHARGE TO THE NORTH FORK PALOUSE RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The Washington State Department of Ecology conducted a limited Class II inspection and receiving water survey at Palouse Wastewater Treatment Plant (17060108) from September 28 to October 1, 1987. Treatment efficiency was good, considering facility age and design. Several chang...

76

Environmental harm assessment of a wastewater discharge from Hammerfest LNG: a study with biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus sp.) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).  

PubMed

Biologically treated wastewater (WW) from the Hammerfest LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant is discharged to the sea. A study using biomarkers in mussels and Atlantic cod was performed to examine whether this discharge meets a zero harmful emission requirement. Caging of mussels close to the outfall and exposure of mussels and fish to WW in the laboratory were conducted, and a suite of contaminant responsive markers was assessed in exposed animals. In mussels the markers included chemical contaminant levels, haemocyte lysosomal instability and nucleus integrity, cellular energy allocation, digestive gland and gonad histopathology and shell-opening behaviour. In fish, biliary PAH metabolites and gill histopathology biomarkers were measured. A consistent cause-effect relationship between WW treatments and markers measured in test animals was not found. The results therefore indicate that the WW emission is unlikely to represent a significant stress factor for the local marine environment under the conditions studied. PMID:23419752

Beyer, Jonny; Aarab, Nadia; Tandberg, Anne Helene; Ingvarsdottir, Anna; Bamber, Shaw; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Camus, Lionel; Velvin, Roger

2013-04-15

77

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

Barry, J.P. [J. P. Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

78

Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate ranged from 5.1 to 6.1 mg/L and were 4 to 7 times larger than concentrations at the nearest upstream site on Monument Creek, site 07103970 (MoCr_Woodmen). The source of these larger dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations has not been identified, but the fact that all measurements had elevated dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations indicates a relatively constant source. Most stormflow concentrations of dissolved trace elements were smaller than concentrations from base-flow or normal-flow samples. However, median concentrations of total arsenic, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc generally were much larger during periods of stormflow than during base flow or normal flow. Concentrations of dissolved and total copper, total manganese, total nickel, dissolved and total selenium, and dissolved and total zinc ranged from 3 to 27 times larger at site 07103707 (FoCr_8th) than site 07103700 (FoCr_Manitou) during base flow, indicating a large source of trace elements between these two sites. Both of these sites are located on Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek. The likely source area is Gold Hill Mesa, a former tailings pile for a gold refinery located just upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, and upstream from site 07103707 (FoCr_8th). Farther downstream in Fountain Creek, stormflow samples for total copper, manganese, lead, nickel, and zinc were larger at the downstream site near the city of Security, site 07105800 (FoCr_Security), than at the upstream site near Janitell Road, site 07105530 (FoCr_Janitell), compared with other main-stem sites and indicated a relatively large source of these metals between the two sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace-element loads substantially increased during stormflow. Suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields associated with stormflow were significantly larger than those associated with normal flow. The Apr

Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

2007-01-01

79

A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively. PMID:21121456

Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2010-11-01

80

Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 2: Influence of tree species and water characteristics on wastewater discharges  

SciTech Connect

The concentration patterns of a number of compounds in the inlet water and wastewater from sprinkling of timber from Scotch pine and Norway spruce have been studied. The timber was separated with respect to species and sprinkled with water from a eutrophic or an oligotrophic receiving water for 18 weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), distillable phenols, resin acids, bacterial phospholipid fatty acids, organic and inorganic phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur, and a number of metal ions were monitored in the inlet water and wastewater. The toxicity of the wastewater was estimated during the first 2 weeks using a Microtox{reg_sign} test and appeared to decline in parallel with DOC. Most compounds showed both an environmental net load and an absorption by the timber, the loads being smaller and the absorption larger when using eutrophic water. At both sites the loads were generally largest during the first 2 weeks and larger in magnitude at the oligotrophic site and in the spruce wastewater. The initial growth of the bacterial biomass in the pile system was slower at the oligotrophic site, and the results indicated that a rapid growth of the bacterial biomass reduces the initial environmental loads and that this process is associated with the nutrient status of the receiving water.

Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-09-01

81

Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network.  

PubMed

In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients, reach the wastewater. This form of elimination may generate risks for aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to present: (i) the steps of an ecological risk assessment and management framework related to hospital effluents evacuating into wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without preliminary treatment; and (ii) the results of its application on wastewater from an infectious and tropical diseases department of a hospital of a large city in southeastern France. The characterization of effects has been made under two assumptions, which were related to: (a) the effects of hospital wastewater on biological treatment process of WWTP, particularly on the community of organisms in charge of the biological decomposition of the organic matter; (b) the effects on aquatic organisms. COD and BOD5 have been measured for studying global organic pollution. Assessment of halogenated organic compounds was made using halogenated organic compounds absorbable on activated carbon (AOX) concentrations. Heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc) were measured. Low most probable number (MPP) for faecal coliforms has been considered as an indirect detection of antibiotics and disinfectants presence. For toxicity assessment, bioluminescence assay using Vibrio fischeri photobacteria, 72-h EC50 algae growth Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 24-h EC50 on Daphnia magna were used. The scenario allows to a semi-quantitative risk characterization. It needs to be improved on some aspects, particularly those linked to: long term toxicity assessment on target organisms (bioaccumulation of pollutants, genotoxicity, etc.); ecotoxicological interactions between pharmaceuticals, disinfectants used both in diagnostics and in cleaning of surfaces, and detergents used in cleaning of surfaces; the interactions into the sewage network, between the hospital effluents and the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:15621348

Emmanuel, E; Perrodin, Y; Keck, G; Blanchard, J-M; Vermande, P

2005-01-14

82

40 CFR 422.55 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste...discharged whenever the water level equals or exceeds...process wastewater from a calcium sulfate storage pile...in combination with a water recirculation...

2011-07-01

83

40 CFR 422.55 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste...discharged whenever the water level equals or exceeds...process wastewater from a calcium sulfate storage pile...in combination with a water recirculation...

2010-07-01

84

Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.  

PubMed

Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

2012-12-01

85

ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTEWATERS ON REDEAR SUNFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Static bioassays of 24 hours' duration were performed on samples of wastewaters provided by 22 domestic petroleum refiners. These wastewaters represent three types of water discharges prevalent to this industry: process wastewaters prior to dilution with other streams; API separa...

86

Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.  

PubMed

In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production. PMID:24759540

Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

2014-01-01

87

Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.  

PubMed

Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product. PMID:19712652

Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

2009-01-01

88

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

Barry, J.P. [J.P. Barry Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

89

[Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].  

PubMed

Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward. PMID:24015572

Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

2013-05-01

90

Pretreatment of industrial discharges to publicly owned treatment works (POTW)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion covers a brief survey of federal regulations establishing standards for the pretreatment of pollutants discharged into POTW's; the experience of the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) in dealing with the pretreatment of heavy metals in industrial and commercial discharges; a study and analysis by Seattle Metro of organic priority pollutants in wastewater including identification sources; and POTW treatment control technology for organic priority pollutants in Seattle Metro.

Ongerth, J.E.; Dewalle, F.B.

1980-08-01

91

Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.  

PubMed

This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 ?g L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 ?g L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater. PMID:24185070

Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

2013-01-01

92

Calibration of double focusing Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry instruments with pin-shaped synthetic standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of two commercially available glow discharge double focusing mass spectrometers, the VG 9000 and Element GD, is described using synthetic pin standards pressed from solution doped copper and zinc matrices. A special pressing die was developed for this purpose and optimal results were obtained with the highest possible pressures, i.e., 95 kN·cm - 2 . This calibration approach permits the determination of trace element mass fractions down to ?g·kg - 1 with small uncertainties and additionally provides traceability of the GD-MS results in the most direct manner to the SI (International System of Units). Results were validated by concurrent measurements of a number of compact copper and zinc certified reference materials. The impact of the sample pin cross-section (circular or square) was investigated with the use of a new pin-sample holder system for the Element GD. The pin-sample holder was designed by the manufacturer for pin-samples having circular cross-section; however, samples with square pin cross-section were also shown to provide acceptable results. Relative Sensitivity Factors for some 50 analytes in copper (VG 9000, Element GD) and zinc matrices (VG 9000) are presented. The field of applicability of GD-MS may be considerably extended via analysis of pin geometry samples based on their ease of preparation, especially with respect to the accuracy and traceability of the results and the enhanced number of analytes which can be reliably calibrated using such samples.

Gusarova, T.; Methven, B.; Kipphardt, H.; Sturgeon, R.; Matschat, R.; Panne, U.

2011-11-01

93

Development and optimization of constructed mangrove wetland systems for treatment of municipal wastewater.  

E-print Network

??The discharge of untreated or partially treated municipal wastewater deteriorates coastal and marine ecosystems. Conventional wastewater treatment methods are often too complicated and too expensive… (more)

Wu, Yan (??)

2008-01-01

94

Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the soils. The rice grain produced in the polluted paddy fields are highly contaminated by heavy metals, with concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn being 14.1 mg kg-1, 21.4 mg kg-1, 0.55 mg kg-1, 16.3 mg kg-1 and 38.5 mg kg-1 on average, respectively. According to our investigations, the rate of rice with Cd exceeding the national allowable limit (0.2 mg kg-1) reaches 59.6% of the total in the county; that with Cd higher than 1 mg kg-1, called as Cd Rice, reaches 11.1%. This suggests that wastewater irrigation caused by indigenous mining has led to the severe heavy metal pollution of farming land in Hunan province. Moreover, toxic metals in the soils have been accumulated in rice grain and do harm to human health.

Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

2013-04-01

95

The effects of irrigation waste-water disposal in a former discharge zone of the Murray Basin, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Murray Basin in southeastern Australia, saline waste irrigation waters are often discharged to natural depressions and saline lakes as a salinity and land management strategy. At the Noora disposal basin in South Australia the waste irrigation water ( EC = 17-19 dS m-1) has formed a lens in the top of the highly saline (50-80 dS m -1) regional groundwater (Parilla Sands) aquifer. Using salinity and environmental isotopes of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) the lens has been shown to extend about 500 m in a northwesterly direction from the disposal pond. The major effects of this lens have been: (1) to cause upwards displacement of the regional ground water over an area of about 285 km 2, implying increased evaporation from areas surrounding the lens; (2) to reduce evaporation of regional ground water from the central low-lying area. Electromagnetic induction techniques for detecting preferred flowpaths away from the basin were rendered ineffective in this environment because of lithologic variations within the dune system. However, examination of bore-logs and groundwater gradients indicated that there was little evidence of stratigraphic control of mound development. Salinity in the Parilla Sands aquifer was closely related to the depth of the water table from the soil surface. Shallow (2-4 m) water tables were affected by recharge and evaporation to a much greater extent than ground water located below the higher dunes. There was, however, an almost instantaneous pressure response throughout the whole groundwater system to changes induced in the low-lying areas. Analyses of piezometric data showed that there was a seasonal variation imposed on the groundwater mound development. Corrected mean annual water-table increments and estimates of the mound volume and area were derived from a Theis response curve of the water table rise associated with the mound alone. Calculations using fitted parameters from the Theis analyses also suggested high transmissivity values, but are subject to uncertainties in limited data on specific yield. Although comparison of the mound volume and the disposed volume indicates extensive losses, isotopic and salinity data do not support substantial evaporation of the disposal water. However, there is evidence that the already more saline regional waters are subject to increased evaporation in topographic lows which come within the influence of the elevated water table. Hence the problem to be faced in the future is the contamination of the River Murray system by Parilla Sands water rather than from waste water leaking laterally from the disposal basin. results from this study show that the effect of disposal of the waste water is dominated by the density of the water relative to the regional waters. The assesment of the environmental impact of water disposal at other sites should, therefore, give careful consideration to this aspect, which is not adequately incorporated into groundwater models in current use.

Chambers, L. A.; Williams, B. G.; Barnes, C. J.; Wasson, R. J.

1992-08-01

96

Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

97

Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

98

Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

99

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

100

Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1975-01-01

101

Technology for recovering phosphorus from incinerated wastewater treatment sludge.  

PubMed

A bench-top study of phosphorus-recovering technology from ash associated with incinerated wastewater (sewage) treatment sludge was conducted by adding sulfuric acid to ashes for the elution of phosphorus. With the exception of lead, which is insoluble in sulfuric acid, when the pH of the ash fell below 2.0, phosphorus and various heavy metals in the ash were extracted. The study found that, when alkalis were added to adjust the pH of the ash extract to 4.0, phosphorus was subsequently recovered via filtration. Furthermore, when alkalis were added to adjust the pH to 10, the recovery of various heavy metals was observed. In addition, disposal of the remaining solution (wastewater), which consists of a relatively low concentration of salts, is not considered to be a significant issue since it is within wastewater discharge standards and has been found to be useful as an acid-treating substance. PMID:11419755

Takahashi, M; Kato, S; Shima, H; Sarai, E; Ichioka, T; Hatyakawa, S; Miyajiri, H

2001-07-01

102

5.1. Reproduction of standard deviations and autocorrelation Extreme river discharges in the Meuse basin are mostly caused by prolonged heavy  

E-print Network

5. RBsulrs 5.1. Reproduction of standard deviations and autocorrelation Extreme river discharges in the Meuse basin are mostly caused by prolonged heavy rainfall in winter. The reproduction of the standard, the quality of reproduction of sr,a is much better than in the straightforward 6-h simulations. For the same

Stoffelen, Ad

103

The effect of wastewater discharge on biomass production and nutrient content of Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum in the Nakivubo wetland, Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

The nutrient content of representative plant parts and biomass production in the Nakivubo wetland, correlation of these with the wastewater flow patterns and determination of nutrient uptake, storage and biomass production of Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) and Miscanthidium violaceum was studied. On average papyrus vegetation under the influence of wastewater had higher nutrient content in the above ground biomass (1.6% N and 0.23% P on dry weight basis) than those not affected (0.98% N and 0.18% P). The biomass varied between 3,529-5,844 g/m2 and 883-1,156 g/m2 in the two respective sites. The juvenile plants of papyrus and Miscanthidium had higher concentrations of P and N in their organs compared to the mature ones. Considering the nutrients stored by the dominant vegetation and the current flow patterns of wastewater in the Nakivubo wetland, harvesting of the above ground biomass once a year, would remove 7.7% of the N input and 15.8% of the P input of the annual total load entering the wetland. However, if the wetland is bio-manipulated and the wastewater flow distributed over the whole wetland, up to 70% nitrogen and 76% phosphorus would be removed by harvesting above ground papyrus biomass. PMID:14621169

Kansiime, F; Nalubega, M; van Bruggen, J J A; Denny, P

2003-01-01

104

Stroke - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Cerebrovascular disease - discharge; CVA - discharge; Cerebral infarction - discharge; Cerebral hemorrhage - discharge; Ischemic stroke - discharge; Stroke - ischemic - discharge; Stroke secondary to atrial ...

105

Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

Ward, R. D.

1974-01-01

106

Control of odour emission in wastewater treatment plants by direct and undirected measurement of odour emission capacity.  

PubMed

Odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be the main causes of disturbance noticed by the exposed population and have relevant impacts on both tourism economy and land costs. Odour impact from WWTPs is generated by primary and secondary odour emissions. Primary odour emissions are related especially to the wastewater type and variability discharged into the sewer and directed to the WWTP, and to the wastewater collection and sewage system. Secondary odours are related to the treatment units of the plant. Several studies describe the key role of primary odour emissions and how they are strongly related to odour impacts of WWTPs. In this way, a opportune characterization of the emission capacity of primary odour could be an effective way to control odour emission in the WWTPs. In this study the odour emission capacity (OEC) of different domestic sewers was described and investigated; a correlation between the OEC and the main physical-chemical parameters of wastewater quality was also carried out. Results of this study identify the optimum conditions for sampling and measuring OEC in wastewaters and define its dependence by wastewater quality. These results can contribute to setting the standards for the maximum odourant content of wastewater that are discharged into the publicly owned sewage system. PMID:22907444

Zarra, T; Giuliani, S; Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

2012-01-01

107

40 CFR 420.14 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...such systems generate process wastewaters and those...are co-treated with process wastewaters from by-product...for water used for the optimization of coke plant biological...shall be no discharge of process wastewater...

2010-07-01

108

Study of atmospheric discharges caracteristics using with a standard video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study is showed some preliminary statistics on lightning characteristics such as: flash multiplicity, number of ground contact points, formation of new and altered channels and presence of continuous current in the strokes that form the flash. The analysis is based on the images of a standard video camera (30 frames.s-1). The results obtained for some flashes will be compared to the images of a high-speed CCD camera (1000 frames.s-1). The camera observing site is located in São José dos Campos (23°S,46° W) at an altitude of 630m. This observational site has nearly 360° field of view at a height of 25m. It is possible to visualize distant thunderstorms occurring within a radius of 25km from the site. The room, situated over a metal structure, has water and power supplies, a telephone line and a small crane on the roof. KEY WORDS: Video images, Lightning, Multiplicity, Stroke.

Ferraz, E. C.; Saba, M. M. F.

109

Microalgae and wastewater treatment  

PubMed Central

Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

2012-01-01

110

Microalgae and wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

2012-07-01

111

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Laposata, Mark

112

TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATIONS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A policy to develop water-quality-based permit limitations for toxic pollutants entering treatment plants is being developed because, even with efficient removal of conventional pollutants, significant amounts of toxic substances are being discharged through the Nation's wastewat...

113

Improving electroflotation in coke-industry wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of water resources is of great ecological importance. The runoff of unpurified or incompletely purified wastewater to surface water bodies is extremely undesirable. However, polluted wastewater is formed at every stage of the production cycle: mineral extraction, enrichment, processing, industrial use, and waste disposal. According to statistical data, wastewater discharge to natural water resources is very different for different

V. I. Il’in

2008-01-01

114

Plutonium discharges to the sanitary sewer: Health impacts at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest discharger of sewage treated by the Livermore Water Reclamation (LWRP), contributing approximately 7% by volume of the LWRP influent LILNL operations, as potential sources both of industrial pollutants and radioactivity, are therefore of particular concern to the LWRP. For this reason, LLNL has maintained vigorous wastewater discharge control and monitoring programs. In particular, the monitoring program has demonstrated that, except in a few rare instances, the concentration of contaminants in LLNL effluent have always remained below the appropriate regulatory standards. The exceptions have generally been due to inadvertent discharges of metals-bearing solutions produced by metal plating or cleaning operations.

Balke, B.K.

1993-04-16

115

ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2011-01-01

116

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Algal Cultivation Using Wastewater Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater discharged from a steel- making plant with the aim of developing an economically feasible system to remove ammonia from wastewater and from Ñue gas simultaneously. Since CO 2 no phosphorus compounds existed in wastewater, external phosphate (15É3È 46É 0gm ~3) was added to the wastewater. After adaptation to 5% (v\\/v) the CO 2 ,

Sun Bok Lee; Jong Moon Park

1997-01-01

117

Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

2009-01-01

118

Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.  

PubMed

Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. PMID:19102584

Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

2009-05-01

119

[Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].  

PubMed

As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery. PMID:24946624

Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

2014-04-01

120

COD fractionation and biological treatability of mixed industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at a centralized wastewater treatment plant that receives discharges from nearly 160 industries. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was fractionated for two objectives: delineation of the limits of the activated sludge process being used at the plant, and evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the treated effluent. Physico-chemical analyses, respirometric and biodegradation tests, as well as COD fractionation were carried out. Molasses-wastewaters were determined to be the major contribution to the plant. The influent was dark brown in color, with a relatively high content of both organics (2503 mg/L COD) and salts (5459 ?S/cm conductivity), but a low biochemical oxygen demand (568 mg/L BOD(5)) and BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.24). The degradability of the organics was limited by the high content of inert soluble COD (S(I)). The COD fractionation pattern was 40-20-40% for S(I), X(I) (inerts) and S(H) (soluble hydrolyzable), respectively. More than 90% BOD(5) removal was obtained, which was sufficient for the plant to meet the national Standards. However, the effluent discharged into the river was intensely colored and polluted (>1000 mg/L COD, >5000 ?S/cm), emphasizing the need for legislation regulating COD, color and salinity, and for upgraded treatment methods worldwide for molasses wastewaters. PMID:22996003

Fall, C; Millán-Lagunas, E; Bâ, K M; Gallego-Alarcón, I; García-Pulido, D; Díaz-Delgado, C; Solís-Morelos, C

2012-12-30

121

Organic contaminants of emerging concern in sediments and flatfish collected near outfalls discharging treated wastewater effluent to the Southern California Bight.  

PubMed

To investigate the occurrence and bioaccumulation of organic contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) near four major wastewater ocean outfalls in the Southern California Bight, more than 75 pharmaceutical and personal care products, current-use pesticides, and industrial/commercial chemicals were analyzed in sediment and liver tissues of hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although most CECs targeted were infrequently detected or not detectable, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate) were detected in all sediments at median (maximum) concentrations of 5.1 (8.6), 30 (380), and 121 (470) µg/kg, respectively. In the liver, 4-NP and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99 were detected in >90% of samples at median (maximum) concentrations of 85 (290) and 210 (480) µg/kg, respectively. The sedative diazepam was detected in all liver samples, but was infrequently detected in sediments. Sediment and liver concentrations across outfall locations ranged over several orders of magnitude and were elevated relative to a reference site. Relative to sediment, accumulation in liver of PBDEs 47 and 99 was comparable to that for legacy organochlorines, confirming their high bioaccumulation potential and suggesting their inclusion in future tissue monitoring studies. Mean tissue PBDE and diazepam concentrations were higher in livers from male versus female P. verticalis, suggesting that gender differences also be considered in designing such studies. PMID:22987513

Maruya, Keith A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Kwon, Jeong W; Xia, Kang; Armbrust, Kevin L

2012-12-01

122

Performance of COD removal from oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater using iron electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the feasibility of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement from oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater. The process variables, including applied voltage, electrolyte concentration and temperature, were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and temperature on electric energy consumption were evaluated. Under the optimum balance of variables, satisfactory COD removal efficiency and relatively low energy consumption were achieved. The optimum electrolyte concentration, applied voltage, and temperature were found to be 200 mg/L NaCl, 20 V, and 25 degrees C, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD concentration in oxide-CMP wastewater decreased by more than 90%, resulting a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg/L). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. COD removal rates obtained during the electrocoagulation process can be described using a pseudo-kinetic model. The present study results show that the kinetic data fit the pseudo first-order kinetic model well. Finally, the morphology and composition of the sludge produced were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectra (EDS). PMID:19847717

Wang, Chih-Ta; Chou, Wei-Lung

2009-10-01

123

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-01-01

124

Towards a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment and disposal.  

PubMed

We propose a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment systems and use it to quantitatively compare the performance of Chilean wine-making operations. The benchmarking model integrates three components: the influent characteristics, the wastewater treatment alternatives, and the location constraints. Four performance levels may be defined when plotting the available data of the wine production versus the ratio of wastewater to wine, for the French, US, and Chilean industries. Knowing where a certain system lies in this diagram helps to quantify the gap between the current and a target performance, and to set performance goals for planned expansions. The analysis of construction and operating costs of treatment systems currently in operation in Chile shows that similar compliance levels can be achieved at remarkably different costs. A steep decrease in the unitary cost is observed as wastewater flow increases; yet, the treatment alternative for achieving that cost may change. Further selection is obtained when location constraints are considered, including stringent discharge standards and proximity to urban settlements. The application of this simple benchmark model to three Chilean winery facilities shows how it produces meaningful quantitative and qualitative results. However, there is still ample room to improve this benchmarking model by considering additional complexity, including technical detail in the treatment options and costs related to technology conversion. PMID:17849990

Aybar, M; Carvallo, M; Fabacher, F; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

2007-01-01

125

Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge;; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge;Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy- discharge; Cyclotrons- discharge; Linear accelerator- discharge; Lineacs - discharge; ...

126

Brain surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Craniotomy - discharge; Surgery - brain - discharge; Neurosurgery - discharge; Craniectomy - discharge; Stereotactic craniotomy - discharge; Stereotactic brain biopsy - discharge; Endoscopic craniotomy - discharge

127

Full-scale blending treatment of fresh MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater in a wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 2 g/L and CaO 25 g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3 months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60 mg/L), BOD5 (<20 mg/L), ammonium (<8 mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5 mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters. PMID:25052339

Ye, Zhi-Long; Xie, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lanhua; Wang, Ziwen; Wu, Wenhua; Zhao, Fuyi; Xie, Xiaoming; Huang, Shiqing; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Shaohua

2014-11-01

128

40 CFR 420.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...such systems generate process wastewaters and those...are co-treated with process wastewaters from by-product...for water used for the optimization of coke plant biological...shall be no discharge of process wastewater...

2010-07-01

129

40 CFR 420.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...such systems generate process wastewaters and those...are co-treated with process wastewaters from by-product...for water used for the optimization of coke plant biological...shall be no discharge of process wastewater...

2010-07-01

130

Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

2007-01-01

131

Reusing Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates how peat filtration beds at Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky purify and conserve wastewater and eliminate one cause of non-point-source water pollution.

Ket

2011-01-11

132

Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

2014-12-01

133

Managing commercial and light-industrial discharges to POTWs  

SciTech Connect

Discharging commercial and light-industrial wastewater to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) is risky business. Pretreating wastewater using traditional methods may leave a wastestream's originator vulnerable to fines, civil and criminal punishment, cleanup costs, and cease-and-desist orders. EPA has tightened regulations applying to discharges from POTWs, which, in turn, are looking to industrial and commercial discharge sources to determine responsibility for toxic contaminants. Although EPA in the past focused on large point sources of contamination, the Agency has shifted its emphasis to smaller and more diverse nonpoint sources. One result is that POTWs no longer act as buffers for light-industrial and commercial wastewater dischargers.

Fink, R.G. (RGF Environmental Group, West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

1993-02-01

134

Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries  

SciTech Connect

The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

1981-02-01

135

Reliability analysis of a wastewater treatment plant using fault tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

The reliability of a wastewater treatment plant is a critical issue when the effluent is reused or discharged to water resources. Main factors affecting the performance of the wastewater treatment plant are the variation of the influent, inherent variability in the treatment processes, deficiencies in design, mechanical equipment, and operational failures. Thus, meeting the established reuse/discharge criteria requires assessment of plant reliability. Among many techniques developed in system reliability analysis, fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the popular and efficient methods. FTA is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed. In this study, the problem of reliability was studied on Tehran West Town wastewater treatment plant. This plant is a conventional activated sludge process, and the effluent is reused in landscape irrigation. The fault tree diagram was established with the violation of allowable effluent BOD as the top event in the diagram, and the deficiencies of the system were identified based on the developed model. Some basic events are operator's mistake, physical damage, and design problems. The analytical method is minimal cut sets (based on numerical probability) and Monte Carlo simulation. Basic event probabilities were calculated according to available data and experts' opinions. The results showed that human factors, especially human error had a great effect on top event occurrence. The mechanical, climate, and sewer system factors were in subsequent tier. Literature shows applying FTA has been seldom used in the past wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) risk analysis studies. Thus, the developed FTA model in this study considerably improves the insight into causal failure analysis of a WWTP. It provides an efficient tool for WWTP operators and decision makers to achieve the standard limits in wastewater reuse and discharge to the environment. PMID:25487461

Taheriyoun, Masoud; Moradinejad, Saber

2015-01-01

136

Use of commercial plant species in a hydroponic system to treat domestic wastewaters.  

PubMed

The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate wooly digitalis (Digitalis lanata Ehrh.) and foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L.). These plants are medicinal and produce cardenolide compounds. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analyzed to determine the various parameters relating to water quality. The legal discharge levels for total suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reached for the two tested plants after 48 h of wastewater treatment; the removal was 82, 93, and 79%, respectively, for wooly digitalis and 92, 92, and 84%, respectively, for foxglove. Similar results were obtained during a 6-mo period although the sewage composition varied widely. The system tended to be unable to remove N and P to concentrations below regulated levels. Compared with the nutrient solution composition, the wastewater was more concentrated in Na+ and Cl- and less in N, K+, and Ca2+. These variations can lead to the decline of wooly digitalis plants. Foxglove developed a significant root system to increase mineral absorption wastewater being used as the unique nutritive source. After 10 wk all the wooly digitalis seedlings were dead. Despite this fact, however, the root system remained in place for a significant time (< 4 mo), thus continuing to filter wastewater and to be used as a bacterial support thus making it possible to have a security period to replace the dead plants. PMID:15074822

Vaillant, Nathalie; Monnet, Fabien; Sallanon, Huguette; Coudret, Alain; Hitmi, Adnane

2004-01-01

137

Lung surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - ...

138

Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - discharge

139

Challenge of psychrophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment is an attractive option for wastewaters that are discharged at moderate to low temperature. The expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor has been shown to be a feasible system for anaerobic treatment of mainly soluble and pre-acidified wastewater at temperatures of 5–10°C. An organic loading rate (OLR) of 10–12 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic meter

Gatze Lettinga; Salih Rebac; Grietje Zeeman

2001-01-01

140

Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission. PMID:22564037

Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

2012-09-01

141

Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.  

PubMed

Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996). PMID:20088213

Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

2009-12-01

142

Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant  

SciTech Connect

Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

Shah, A.R. [Motorola SCG, McDowell, MD (United States). Environmental, Safety, and Industrial Hygiene Dept.; Ploeser, J.H. [Phoenix Water Services Dept., AZ (United States). Water Conservation Office

1999-08-01

143

Gallstones - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic cholecystitis - discharge; Dysfunctional gallbladder - discharge; Choledocholithiasis - discharge; Cholelithiasis - discharge ... You have gallstones, hard, pebble-like deposits that formed ... gallbladder. You may have had an infection in your gallbladder. ...

144

Characterisation of medical-waste sterilisation-plant wastewater and a preliminary study of coagulation-flocculation treatment options.  

PubMed

Wastewater from a medical-waste sterilisation plant (MWSP) contains unique pollutants and requires on-site treatment to prevent contamination of the municipal sewage system and receiving water bodies. Therefore, to meet the prescribed discharge standards and comply with the legal regulations, pre-treatment must be applied to MWSP wastewater. In this study, the capabilities of coagulation-flocculation processes were investigated for MWSP wastewater treatment. Processes using ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and aluminium sulfate as coagulants were characterised. During the coagulation experiments, seven different coagulant dosages and four different pH values were evaluated to determine the optimum coagulant dosage and pH value. The highest removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was obtained using 300 mg/L of ferric chloride at pH 10. A COD removal of about 60% as well as considerable reductions in the amounts of suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus were realised. PMID:20651429

Ozkan, O; Mihçiokur, H; Azgin, S T; Ozdemir, O

2010-01-01

145

Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg\\/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when considering the higher lipid concentrations in the discharged effluents. Typical industries that generate lipids-containing wastewaters are dairy, edible oil and fat refinery,

H. Ching-Shyung

1997-01-01

146

EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE TERTIARY WASTEWATER FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Conventional methods for treatment of municipal wastewaters frequently produced effluents that will not meet local discharge requirements. Granular media filters are being installed to provide teritary treatment for increased removals of suspended solids and BOD. This report prov...

147

ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

148

Wastewater treatment manual for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

The three-volume Wastewater Treatment Manual for GCC Power Plants presents a programmed methodology for the informed user to conceive and develop, size, and cost a wastewater treatment system for the gasification and gas cleanup areas of an integrated gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant. Based on the limited information likely to be available at the conceptual level of GCC project development (e.g., gasifier type and coal analysis), the manual first provides information on how to characterize gasification wastewaters from moving-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes. It then provides information on applicable wastewater discharge standards and effluent reuse criteria as a means of establishing the treatment system performance goals. Given these data, the user is guided through a series of worksheets and examples in the development of one or more conceptual-level process flowsheets for an appropriate wastewater treatment system. Detailed information is provided for 28 wastewater treatment processes that may have applicability in a variety of flowsheet configurations. Another series of worksheets allows the calculation of flow and material balances that permit the conceptual-level sizing of treatment equipment. Order-of-magnitude capital and operating costs are calculated from cost curves based on these sizing criteria. Worksheets also are provided for the calculation of levelized revenue requirements, which affords a relatively fast and easy means by which to compare the costs of altemative process flowsheets. Two annotated examples are provided for the Texaco and Shell gasification processes as a means of fully conveying the manual's methodology. Each example illustrates the characterization of wastewater sources, the development of a treatment process flowsheet, sizing of the necessary equipment, and the development of cost estimates

Rosain, R.M.; Davis, M.W.; York, R.J.; Craveiro de Sa, F.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

149

Wastewater treatment manual for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

The three-volume Wastewater Treatment Manual for GCC Power Plants presents a programmed methodology for the informed user to conceive and develop, size, and cost a wastewater treatment system for the gasification and gas cleanup areas of an integrated gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant. Based on the limited information likely to be available at the conceptual level of GCC project development (e.g., gasifier type and coal analysis), the manual first provides information on how to characterize gasification wastewaters from moving-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes. It then provides information on applicable wastewater discharge standards and effluent reuse criteria as a means of establishing the treatment system performance goals. Given these data, the user is guided through a series of worksheets and examples in the development of one or more conceptual-level process flowsheets for an appropriate wastewater treatment system. Detailed information is provided for 28 wastewater treatment processes that may have applicability in a variety of flowsheet configurations. Another series of worksheets allows the calculation of flow and material balances that permit the conceptual-level sizing of treatment equipment. Order-of-magnitude capital and operating costs are calculated from cost curves based on these sizing criteria. Worksheets also are provided for the calculation of levelized revenue requirements, which affords a relatively fast and easy means by which to compare the costs of alternative process flowsheets. Two annotated examples are provided for the Texaco and Shell gasiflcation processes as a means of fully conveying the manual's methodology. Each example illustrates the characterization of wastewater sources, the development of a treatment process flowsheet, sizing of the necessary equipment, and the development of cost estimates.

Rosain, R.M.; Davis, M.W.; York, R.J.; Craveiro de Sa, F.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

150

Wastewater Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn't treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before ... is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

151

Assessing the feasibility of wastewater recycling and treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment units.  

PubMed

Wastewater reuse can significantly reduce environmental pollution and save the water sources. The study selected Cheng-Ching Lake water treatment plant in southern Taiwan to discuss the feasibility of wastewater recycling and treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment units. The treatment units of this plant include wastewater basin, sedimentation basin, sludge thickener and sludge dewatering facility. In this study, the treatment efficiency of SS and turbidity were 48.35-99.68% and 24.15-99.36%, respectively, showing the significant removal efficiency of the wastewater process. However, the removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are limited by wastewater treatment processes. Because NH(3)-N, TOC and COD of the mixing supernatant and raw water are regulated raw water quality standards, supernatant reuse is feasible and workable during wastewater processes at this plant. Overall, analytical results indicated that supernatant reuse is feasible. PMID:17503196

Lou, Jie-Chung; Lin, Yung-Chang

2008-02-01

152

Evaluation of rural wastewater treatment processes in a county of eastern China.  

PubMed

With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in China, wastewater treatment in rural areas has become an increasing national concern. The selection of appropriate treatment processes closely based on the actual local status is crucial for the prevention of water quality deterioration in rural areas of China. This study presents a full year survey on the performances of various rural wastewater treatment processes at a county level in eastern China including seven three-chamber septic tanks (ST), five micro-power biological facilities (MP), seven constructed wetlands (CW), three stabilization ponds (SP) and five centralized activated sludge treatment plants (AS). It was found that although ST could remove a notable portion of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)), it was ineffective in reducing nutrients and pathogens. Reliability and stability analyses showed that the centralized AS and decentralized CW processes outperformed the SP and MP processes. There were obvious discrepancies between the mean design concentrations, which ensure that 95% of the effluents meet the discharge standards, and the actual effluent concentrations determined for each process. The expected compliance with the tentatively adopted second-grade discharge standards (GB 18918-2002) was unsatisfactory for most of the water quality parameters examined, indicating an urgent need to design more practical discharge standards for decentralized treatment processes. Based on an overall assessment of reliability, stability and cost-effectiveness, the centralized AS was suitable for densely populated towns while the decentralized CW was suitable for sparsely populated villages. PMID:22378384

Dong, Hui-Yu; Qiang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Dong; Jin, Hui

2012-07-01

153

[Degradation kinetics for Fhhh strain in PTA wastewater].  

PubMed

Degradation kinetics of the purified terephthalic acid (PTA) petrochemical wastewater with the functional strain Fhhh was conducted in this research. Inputting the values of the 6 kinetics parameters obtained from the test, the values of the natural parameter and the values of the standard parameters for discharging wastewater into the environmental biotechnological informatics software (Ebis), the minimum reactor volume (Vmin) required and the specific degradation rate (qA) were calculated based on the activated sludge process. The minimum value of Vmin was 1309 m3 as well as the highest value of qA was 0.0136 h-1 among the Fhhh preparations kept in three different methods. The highest value of Fhhh qA was 4 fold of that of the native bacterium YZ1, and higher than that of the data published by 4 researchers and lower than that of by 2 researchers. The results show that Fhhh has the obvious potential for the degradation of PTA wastewater. PMID:14768577

Cheng, Shupei; Zhang, Xuxiang; Shi, Lei; Qu, Mengmeng; Zhou, Tao; Hao, Chunbo; Yan, Jun

2003-11-01

154

Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 1. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the first of two volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Background; (2) Summary of Wastewater Management Regulations; (3) Current and Historic Conditions; (4) Projections and Development of Design Criteria; (5) Wastewater Treatment Plant Site Selection; (6) Applicable Technologies; (7) Development, Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives; (8) Environmental Impact; (9) Conceptual Design of Selected Alternative; (10) Project Financing; (11) Project Implementation.

NONE

1996-03-01

155

Knee arthroscopy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Knee scope - arthroscopic lateral retinacular release - discharge; Synovectomy - discharge; Patellar debridement - discharge; Meniscus repair - discharge; Lateral release - discharge; Collateral ligament repair – discharge; Knee surgery - discharge

156

Study of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater in an Urban Agglomeration in Romania  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants. PMID:22919336

Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P.

2012-01-01

157

Radical prostatectomy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

158

Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

2011-06-01

159

Implementation of China`s three synchronizations policy: Case studies of wastewater treatment measures at new and renovated factories  

SciTech Connect

The Three Synchronizations Policy requires that the design, construction, and operation of a new factory, or an existing factory that expands or changes production processes, be synchronized with the design, construction and operation of appropriate waste treatment facilities. Under this policy, when a new factory is designed, wastewater treatment facilities must be included as part of the overall factory design: when the factory is constructed, the wastewater treatment facilities must be constructed along with construction of the production facilities; and finally, when the factory begins to operate, the waste treatment facilities must begin operation as well. This research includes case studies of wastewater treatment measures at sixteen factories in the Pearl River Delta Region of China. Implementation of the Three Synchronizations Policy is examined in detail for two of the factories: Fengfu Weaving and Dyeing Plant and Zhongguan Printing and Dyeing Plant. The results of this research suggest that the Three Synchronizations Policy has been an effective means of forcing new and renovated factories to comply with wastewater discharge standards, mainly because the Three Synchronizations Policy gives environmental protection bureaus authority to regulate at each step of a new industrial facility`s development. In practice, this authority has been exercised through formalizing the {open_quotes}synchronizations{close_quotes} into a management system with specific regulatory requirements, each of which requires EPB approval. EPBs ran stall operation by withholding its approval of certification of a factory`s wastewater treatment facilities; EPBs also use fines and limited time treatment orders to enforce the Three Synchronizations Policy. The research results demonstrate that the Three Synchronizations Policy was more important than the Pollutant Discharge Fee Program in motivating existing factories to build wastewater treatment facilities.

Sinkule, B.J.

1994-03-01

160

Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ?8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removed<25% of DON and DOC without selectivity. PAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

2011-10-01

161

Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants  

PubMed Central

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

2012-01-01

162

Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

2012-01-01

163

Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200?ng/L to 500?ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. PMID:23893650

Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

2013-11-01

164

Effects of volumetric load in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm treating industrial saline wastewater.  

PubMed

Mustard tuber wastewater is of high salinity ([Cl(-1)]?=?18?23?g?L(-1)), high organic content (chemical oxygen demand, COD?=?4000?±?100?L(-1)) and biodegradability (BOD5/COD???0.5). The anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) pre-treatment, an important step to meet national discharge standard, was applied to reduce much of the organics in mustard tuber wastewater. The experiment for the effect of the volumetric load on ASBBR treating mustard tuber wastewater was conducted at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and volumetric exchange ratios (?). The ASBBR operating at 50% biomass density, 30?°C, influent COD concentration of 4000?±?100?mg?L(-1) and pH value of 7.0?±?0.2, the effluent COD concentration increased from 0.22 to 4?kgCOD?m(-3)d(-1) when the volumetric load increased from 100 to 1520?mg?L(-1). The effluent COD concentration differed when adopted different HRT and ? under the same volumetric load. And given certain influent levels, a higher performance of ASBBR could be achieved at a lower value of HRT and ?. The optimal operational load could be determined by limiting the COD concentration under different discharge conditions, based on the results obtained in experiments. PMID:25220359

Chai, Hong-Xiang; Chen, Wei; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jian

2015-03-01

165

Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.  

PubMed

Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ?PAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

2014-09-01

166

Management of wastewater from soap and food industries: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper presents the wastewater management of an industrial complex which produces different products, i.e. soap, perfume extract, macaroni, jam and juices. A continuous monitoring programme for departmental as well as final effluents was carried out for almost 3 months. Characterization of the composite wastewater from both soap and food processing plants indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by COD and BOD values. Moreover, effluent from the soap manufacturing plant contains significant concentrations of oil and grease amounting to 563 mg l-1. Soap manufacturing effluent and the combined wastes discharged from the whole industrial complex were subjected to different treatment processes, namely dissolved air flotation, chemical coagulation-sedimentation, and biological treatment via a completely mixed activated sludge process. Although coagulation using alum followed by sedimentation removed 52% of COD, residual values did not comply with the regulatory standards. Biological treatment of the composite combined wastewater significantly removed the organic contaminants in wastewater. Average residual BOD, COD, oil and grease values were 30, 92 and 8.3 mg l-1 respectively. Based on the laboratory results a final process design was developed. PMID:3685948

el-Gohary, F A; Abo-Elela, S I; Ali, H I

1987-10-01

167

Biosensor-based control of nitrification inhibitor in municipal wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The effect of potassium cyanide (KCN) on nitrification processes in municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied by batch nitrification tests, which indicated that nitrification processes tend to be inhibited at a lower KCN concentration than the present discharge standard to sewerage. The experiment of the biosensor using nitrifying bacteria was also conducted for continuous monitoring of nitrification inhibitor in influent wastewater, and demonstrated that the biosensor can detect KCN at as low as EC10 of the abovementioned batch nitrification test. Moreover, to determine the effectiveness of application of the biosensor to avoid the impact of KCN due to an accidental spillage in a sewerage system, KCN was intentionally injected into the experimental models of activated sludge process equipped both with and without the biosensor. The model with the biosensor that could detect KCN could divert the wastewater including KCN to a refuge tank, which resulted in the avoidance of upset of the activated sludge process. On the other hand, the model without the biosensor was upset in the nitrification process due to KCN. Such differences demonstrate the effectiveness of the biosensor applied to countermeasures of an accidental spillage of toxic chemicals to avoid upset of nitrification in municipal wastewater treatment plants. PMID:16722087

Okayasu, Y; Tanaka, H; Inui, T; Tanaka, Y

2006-01-01

168

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

169

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

170

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

171

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

172

Heart valve surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Aortic valve replacement - discharge; Aortic valvuloplasty - discharge; Aortic valve repair - discharge; Replacement - aortic valve - discharge; Repair - aortic valve - discharge; Ring annuloplasty - discharge; Percutaneous ...

173

Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Supracervical hysterectomy - discharge; Removal of the uterus - discharge; Laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; Total laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; TLH - discharge; Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy - discharge

174

Wastewater generated during cleaning\\/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater

S. Laohaprapanon; F. Kaczala; P. S. Salomon; M. Marques; W. Hogland

2012-01-01

175

40 CFR 1700.8 - Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established. 1700.8 Section...AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES...

2010-07-01

176

40 CFR 1700.7 - No-discharge zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No-discharge zones. 1700.7 Section 1700...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE...

2010-07-01

177

Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.  

PubMed

This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59,000-270,000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

2014-02-01

178

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2009-01-01

179

40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

2010-07-01

180

40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

2012-07-01

181

40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

2014-07-01

182

40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

2011-07-01

183

40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

2013-07-01

184

Capping air emissions from wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Industrial and municipal wastewater plants alike are confronting new regulations governing air emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). The 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) gave the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) power to set national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and establish deadlines for compliance. Although the ACC reduced many pollutant emissions, 20 years later, many cities had not achieved NAAQS for ozone, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Also, due to controversy and legal challenges to risk-based standards, EPA had regulated only seven hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The 1990 CAAA specifically list HAPs and require EPA to set standards for all major sources of those pollutants. The new regulations will involve extensive site monitoring to quantify emissions at wastewater facilities. Monitoring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and HAPs requires knowledge of testing protocols.

Van Durme, G.P. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States))

1993-09-01

185

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before this activity the students will have heard about groundwater and water resources through lecture to give them a background on where our drinking water comes from. The activity involves a tour of the local wastewater treatment plant where the students told about the treatment processes and shown the treatment facility. They are also introduced to the water quality testing done at the plans and they learn about the energy usage/management at the plant. As part of the activity they write up a paper on the processes in the treatment process from the time water enters the plant until it exits. The students are encouraged before hand to ask questions to ensure that they gather the needed information. This always means that each tour has a slightly different content based on these questions.

Bianca Pedersen

186

Wastewater characterization survey, Plattsburgh AFB, New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAFOEHL conducted a survey characterizing the wastewater in the Plattsburgh AFB sanitary, storm, and surface-water discharges from the base and determining if applicable discharge standards are being violated. A total of 31 sampling sites were evaluated including 12 sanitary, 13 surface, and 6 storm-water sources. Priority pollutants were found in samples from the sanitary and storm sewers and in the streams leaving the base. Recommendations were: (1) Combustible-gas detection sytems should be installed in lift stations. (2) A comprehensive hazardous-waste survey should be conducted to identify the source of the contaminants. (3) Respirators should be worn by personnel entering the wet well of lift stations, Building 2291. (4) Alternates for achieving better oil/water separation should be investigated. (5) The possibility of cross connections between the sanitary and storm systems should be investigated. (6) Oil/water separators discharge should be determined and should be connected to the sanitary sewer system. (7) Streams should be monitored for ammonia to avoid aquatic toxicity problems. (8) The BOD/COD ration should be determined by monitoring these parameters in the stream flowing through Copeland Oil property. (9) Additional analysis should be conducted on the seepage from the marina beach area. (10) A hazardous-material training program should be instituted.

Binovi, R.D.; Riojas, A.H.; Spakowicz, M.R.

1987-05-01

187

40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.137 Process wastewater provisions—oil-water...

2011-07-01

188

Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.  

PubMed

Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

2013-01-01

189

Nipple discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Discharge from breasts; Milk secretions; Lactation - abnormal; Witch's milk; Galactorrhea; Inverted nipple; Nipple problems ... such as anise and fennel Widening of the milk ducts Sometimes, babies can have nipple discharge. Your ...

190

40 CFR 403.13 - Variances from categorical pretreatment standards for fundamentally different factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wastewater: (2) The volume of the User's process wastewater and effluent discharged; ...to the User's equipment or facilities; processes employed; process changes; and engineering aspects of the application of control...

2013-07-01

191

40 CFR 403.13 - Variances from categorical pretreatment standards for fundamentally different factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wastewater: (2) The volume of the User's process wastewater and effluent discharged; ...to the User's equipment or facilities; processes employed; process changes; and engineering aspects of the application of control...

2012-07-01

192

Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.  

PubMed

Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. PMID:24583525

Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

2014-05-01

193

Standardizing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

2009-02-04

194

Pediatric heart surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

195

A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of saline (>2% w\\/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost?effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes.

Yeyuan Xiao; Deborah J. Roberts

2010-01-01

196

40 CFR 465.15 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory...standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2010-07-01

197

40 CFR 465.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory...standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2010-07-01

198

40 CFR 465.35 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Basis Material Subcategory...standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2010-07-01

199

40 CFR 465.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Basis Material Subcategory...standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2010-07-01

200

40 CFR 465.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Galvanized Basis Material Subcategory...standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2010-07-01

201

40 CFR 465.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Galvanized Basis Material Subcategory...standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2010-07-01

202

Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.  

PubMed

Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a need to better integrate water reuse into core water governance frameworks in order to effectively address the challenges and harness the potential of this vital resource for environmental health protection. The paper also presents a blueprint for future water governance and public policies for the protection of environmental health. PMID:22093903

Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

2012-04-01

203

Review of the wastewater situation in Morocco.  

PubMed

Recent estimations of the wastewater production of Morocco amounted to 370 million m3 per year, and this is expected to increase to 900 million m3 by the year 2020. In most cases wastewater is discharged directly into the environment, either to the sea via short outfalls or onto farmland for irrigation or infiltration. Major improvements in the quality of wastewater are needed urgently because of the strong migration of the rural population towards the towns and the very rapid demographic expansion. Studies for Sanitation Master Plans for the main towns are currently in progress and are a first step towards meeting these requirements. Development of a national master plan for liquid sewage is a way of extending this procedure over the whole territory. PMID:10842842

Mandi, L

2000-01-01

204

Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China. PMID:24650528

Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

2014-05-01

205

Catalytic ozonation-biological coupled processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing refractory chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds*  

PubMed Central

A treatability study of industrial wastewater containing chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs) by a catalytic ozonation process (COP) with a modified Mn/Co ceramic catalyst and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. A preliminary attempt to treat the diluted wastewater with a single SBR resulted in ineffective removal of the color, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Next, COP was applied as a pretreatment in order to obtain a bio-compatible wastewater for SBR treatment in a second step. The effectiveness of the COP pretreatment was assessed by evaluating wastewater biodegradability enhancement (the ratio of biology oxygen demand after 5 d (BOD5) to COD), as well as monitoring the evolution of TOC, carbon oxidation state (COS), average oxidation state (AOS), color, and major pollutant concentrations with reaction time. In the COP, the catalyst preserved its catalytic properties even after 70 reuse cycles, exhibiting good durability and stability. The performance of SBR to treat COP effluent was also examined. At an organic loading rate of 2.0 kg COD/(m3·d), with hydraulic retention time (HRT)=10 h and temperature (30±2) °C, the average removal efficiencies of NH3-N, COD, BOD5, TOC, and color in a coupled COP/SBR process were about 80%, 95.8%, 93.8%, 97.6% and 99.3%, respectively, with average effluent concentrations of 10 mg/L, 128 mg/L, 27.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L, and 20 multiples, respectively, which were all consistent with the national standards for secondary discharge of industrial wastewater into a public sewerage system (GB 8978-1996). The results indicated that the coupling of COP with a biological process was proved to be a technically and economically effective method for treating industrial wastewater containing recalcitrant CNACs. PMID:20205304

Li, Bing-zhi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

2010-01-01

206

Numerical modeling of ozone production in direct current corona discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has many industrial uses, including treatment of municipal water, wastewater, cooling towers, industrial process water, effluent water treatment, food processing, through to water fit for consumption and marine life. In this paper, we study the ozone production by negative electric corona discharge, witch involves passing the feed of gas, air rich, through an electrical discharge. This is done by

K. Yanallah; S. Hadj Ziane; A. Belasri; Y. Meslem

2006-01-01

207

Wastewater reclamation for use in snow-making within an alpine resort in Australia--resource rather than waste.  

PubMed

The Mt Buller Alpine Resort is located approximately 200 km north of Melbourne, in Victoria, Australia. A wastewater treatment plant services the resort and currently treats to advanced nutrient removal standards. The treated effluent is presently discharged into the Howqua River. Most Australian ski resorts are not blessed with abundant snow cover on a regular basis. Artificial snow allows most of the popular ski runs to operate for the whole of the season. At the Mt Buller resort, snow-making is presently limited by lack of water supply in the catchment. The conditions at Mt Buller resort present a unique opportunity to utilise reclaimed wastewater to allow increased snow-making capacity. It is one of the unique opportunities where the wastewater is valued as a resource rather than merely viewed as a waste problem. Wastewater reclamation for snow-making will require additional treatment for pathogen removal. It is proposed that following advanced nutrient removal, the effluent will require further treatment, including membrane ultrafiltration, so as to ensure a minimum of four barriers for pathogen removal. Pilot plant operation of a membrane ultrafiltration system commenced in June 2000 and will continue until the end of 2001, to primarily demonstrate the extent of pathogen removal. PMID:12381004

Tonkovic, Z; Jeffcoat, S

2002-01-01

208

Design and risk assessment tool for vegetative treatment areas receiving agricultural wastewater: Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) are commonly being used as an alternative method of agricultural process wastewater treatment. However, it is also apparent that to completely prevent discharge of pollutants to the surrounding environment, settling of particulates and bound constituents from overland flow through VTAs is not sufficient. For effective remediation of dissolved agricultural pollutants, VTAs must infiltrate incoming wastewater. A

Joshua W. Faulkner; Zachary M. Easton; Wei Zhang; Larry D. Geohring; Tammo S. Steenhuis

2010-01-01

209

Treatment of domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale natural treatment system in central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is severe degradation of the water quality of the Texcoco River in central Mexico as a result of discharges of raw sewage from communities into the watershed. Constructed wetlands may be appropriate technologies for treating the domestic wastewater generated by small communities in central Mexico. To assess the removal of pollutants from wastewater, we constructed a pilot-scale treatment wetland

Marco A. Belmont; Eliseo Cantellano; Steve Thompson; Mark Williamson; Abel Sánchez; Chris D. Metcalfe

2004-01-01

210

Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced with aerobic digestion for sludge that is intended for land application. PMID:24239827

Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

2014-02-01

211

Development of a cost function for wastewater treatment systems with fuzzy regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy linear regression analysis is performed to study the cost function of wastewater that is developed by using a pool of data from 26 municipal wastewater treatment systems in Taiwan. The choice of a primary or more higher wastewater treatment process is intimately related to financial, land availability, effluent standards and managerial factors. Especially, financial consideration plays an important

Ching-Gung Wen; Chih-Sheng Lee

1999-01-01

212

Potential endocrine disrupting organic chemicals in treated municipal wastewater and river water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Select endocrine disrupting organic chemicals were measured in treated wastewater from Chicago, IL, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, Detroit, MI, and Milwaukee, WI, and in the Des Plaines, Illinois, and Minnesota Rivers during the fall of 1997 and the spring of 1998. Emphasis was given to alkylphenolpolyethoxylate (APEO) derived compounds, although 17-??-estradiol, bisphenol A, caffeine, total organic carbon, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other compounds also were measured. Contaminants were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) with methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The extracts were derivatized to form the methyl esters of alkylphenolethoxycarboxylates (APEC), and EDTA was isolated by evaporation and derivatized to form the tetrapropyl ester. The mass spectra of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) compounds are complex and show variations among the different ethoxylate and carboxylate homologs, reflecting variations in the ethylene oxide chain length. Recoveries for target compounds and surrogate standards ranged from 20-130%, with relative standard deviations of 9.9-53%. Detection limits for the various compounds ranged from 0.06-0.35 ??g/L. Analysis of the wastewater effluents detected a number of compounds including NP, NPEO, OP, OPEO, NPEC, caffeine, and EDTA at concentrations ranging from <1-439 ??g/L, with EDTA and NPEC being most abundant. There was variability in compound distributions and concentrations between the various sewage treatment plants, indicating differences in treatment type and influent composition. Several wastewater-derived compounds were detected in the river samples, with EDTA and NPEC persisting for considerable distance downstream from wastewater discharges, and NP and NPEO being attenuated more rapidly.

Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Zaugg, S.D.

2000-01-01

213

32 CFR 724.902 - Propriety of the discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Propriety of the discharge. 724.902 Section 724.902 National...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Standards for Discharge Review § 724.902 Propriety of the...

2010-07-01

214

32 CFR 724.901 - Objective of discharge review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objective of discharge review. 724.901 Section 724.901...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Standards for Discharge Review § 724.901 Objective of...

2010-07-01

215

Enantioselective determination of representative profens in wastewater by a single-step sample treatment and chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This manuscript describes, for the first time, the simultaneous enantioselective determination of ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen in wastewater based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method uses a single-step sample treatment based on microextraction with a supramolecular solvent made up of hexagonal inverted aggregates of decanoic acid, formed in situ in the wastewater sample through a spontaneous self-assembly process. Microextraction of profens was optimized and the analytical method validated. Isotopically labeled internal standards were used to compensate for both matrix interferences and recoveries. Apparent recoveries for the six enantiomers in influent and effluent wastewater samples were in the interval 97-103%. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were obtained (0.5-1.2ngL(-1)) as a result of the high concentration factors achieved in the microextraction process (i.e. actual concentration factors 469-736). No analyte derivatization or evaporation of extracts, as it is required with GC-MS, was necessary. Relative standard deviations for enantiomers in wastewater were always below 8%. The method was applied to the determination of the concentrations and enantiomeric fractions of the targeted analytes in influents and effluents from three wastewater treatment plants. All the values found for profen enantiomers were consistent with those previously reported and confirmed again the suitability of using the enantiomeric fraction of ibuprofen as an indicator of the discharge of untreated or poorly treated wastewaters. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it applicable to the assessment of the enantiomeric fate of profens in the environment. PMID:25618675

Caballo, C; Sicilia, M D; Rubio, S

2015-03-01

216

WASTEWATER AND RECLAIMED WATER IRRIGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigation with reclaimed water from municipal wastewater treatment plants and wastewater from municipal and agricultural sources is becoming more widespread and adopted. The design and operation of irrigation systems utilizing wastewater and reclaimed water has some very important differences from ...

217

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Shunt - ventriculoperitoneal - discharge; VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge ... cranky or irritable Redness, swelling, bleeding, or increased discharge from the incision Vomiting that does not go ...

218

Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you are unable to urinate. You have a discharge from your vagina that has a bad odor. ...

219

Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Occurrence and behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Hospital wastewater in Hanoi is usually not treated and this untreated wastewater is directly discharged into one of the wastewater channels of the city and eventually reaches the ambient aquatic environment. The concentrations of the FQs, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) in six hospital wastewaters ranged from 1.1 to 44 and from 0.9 to 17 micrgl(-1), respectively. Total FQ loads to the city sewage system varied from 0.3 to 14 g d(-1). Additionally, the mass flows of CIP and NOR were investigated in the aqueous compartment in a small wastewater treatment facility of one hospital. The results showed that the FQ removal from the wastewater stream was between 80 and 85%, probably due to sorption on sewage sludge. Simultaneously, the numbers of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were measured and their resistance against CIP and NOR was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration. Biological treatment lead to a 100-fold reduction in the number of E. coli but still more than a thousand E. coli colonies per 100ml of wastewater effluent reached the receiving water. The highest resistance was found in E. coli strains of raw wastewater and the lowest in isolates of treated wastewater effluent. Thus, wastewater treatment is an efficient barrier to decrease the residual FQ levels and the number of resistant bacteria entering ambient waters. Due to the lack of municipal wastewater treatment plants, the onsite treatment of hospital wastewater before discharging into municipal sewers should be considered as a viable option and consequently implemented. PMID:18485444

Duong, Hong Anh; Pham, Ngoc Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Tung; Hoang, Thi Thuong; Pham, Hung Viet; Pham, Van Ca; Berg, Michael; Giger, Walter; Alder, Alfredo C

2008-06-01

220

TREATMENT OF PACKINGHOUSE WASTEWATER BY INTERMITTENT SAND FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A full scale wastewater treatment system consisting of a novel extended aeration unit and intermittent sand filter was demonstrated. The treatment system was designed to meet the special needs of small plants and to meet future industrial discharge limitations. With a hydraulic l...

221

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

222

Separation of Tritium from Wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

JEPPSON, D.W.

2000-01-25

223

Does zinc in livestock wastewater reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mangrove soils?  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) affects nitrogen cycling but the effect of Zn in wastewater on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil has not been reported. This study compared N2O emissions from mangrove soil receiving livestock wastewater containing various Zn(2+) concentrations and evaluated how long the effects of Zn would last in these soil-wastewater microcosms. Significant increases in N2O flux were observed soon after the discharge of wastewater with a low Zn content. On the other hand, the flux was reduced significantly in the wastewater with high Zn levels but such inhibitory effect was not observed after tidal flushing. Continuous monitoring of the N2O fluxes also confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Zn was confined within a few hours and the fluxes recovered in 6-9 h after the wastewater was completely drained away. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of Zn on N2O fluxes occurred immediately after wastewater discharge and disappeared gradually. In the surface soil, nitrate levels increased with the addition of wastewater but there was no significant accumulation of NH4(+)-N, irrespective of the Zn content in the wastewater. The study also showed that nitrification potential and immediate N2O emissions were inhibited by high Zn levels in the soil, but the total oxidation of ammonium to nitrate was not affected. PMID:25171729

Chen, Guang C; Tam, Nora F Y; Ye, Yong

2014-11-15

224

Wastewater pretreatment at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

SciTech Connect

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida provides berthing services for US military ships and submarines including the storage and pretreatment of various types of onboard wastewater. CCAFS required an upgrade to the current pretreatment processes to adequately treat shipboard, bilge and missile tube wastewaters prior to discharge to a new base sewage treatment plant. A wastewater characterization showed that the nature of the onboard wastewaters is quite unique and highly variable. Due to the unusual characteristics of these wastewaters, treatability testing was performed on representative samples of these wastewater to simulate pH adjustment, gravity oil separation and dissolved air flotation (DAF). Based on the results of that readability tests and other design requirements, three pretreatment systems were designed, one for each type of wastewater. Due to the location and the high profile nature of the project, several special design issues were involved including special aesthetics requirements, environmental restrictions, special clear zones from munitions storage and multiple review agencies. The project was completed within the required schedule and budget constraints.

Garrett, D.W.; Zanoni, P.D.

1999-07-01

225

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentrationMODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM. (1999). Grey-box modelling of pollutant loads from a sewer system. UrbanWater, 1(1), 71­78. Paper D

226

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

., and Poulsen, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutantMODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM., and Poulsen, N. K. (1999). Grey­box modelling of pollutant loads from a sewer system. UrbanWater, 1(1), 71

227

Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Aortobifemoral bypass - discharge; Femoropopliteal - discharge; Femoral popliteal - discharge; Aorta-bifemoral bypass - discharge; Axillo-bifemoral bypass - discharge; Ilio-bifemoral bypass - discharge

228

Prostate resection - minimally invasive - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Laser prostatectomy - discharge; Transurethral needle ablation - discharge; TUNA - discharge; Transurethral incision - discharge; TUIP - discharge; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate - discharge; ...

229

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2014-07-01

230

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2014-07-01

231

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

232

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2011-07-01

234

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2014-07-01

235

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

236

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2014-07-01

237

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2010-07-01

238

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

239

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2011-07-01

240

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2012-07-01

241

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

242

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

243

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2012-07-01

244

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2010-07-01

245

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2013-07-01

246

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2012-07-01

247

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

248

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2012-07-01

249

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

250

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

251

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

252

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

253

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2011-07-01

254

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

255

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

256

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2013-07-01

257

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

258

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2010-07-01

259

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

260

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2013-07-01

261

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2011-07-01

262

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

263

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2010-07-01

264

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2014-07-01

265

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

266

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2011-07-01

267

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2010-07-01

268

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

269

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2013-07-01

270

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

271

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

272

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

273

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2012-07-01

274

40 CFR 1700.9 - No-discharge zones by State prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No-discharge zones by State prohibition. 1700...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE...

2010-07-01

275

40 CFR 1700.10 - No-discharge zones by EPA prohibition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No-discharge zones by EPA prohibition. 1700...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE...

2010-07-01

276

Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate, contrast media, corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and metabolites of several substances. For analysis of micropollutants, water samples were spiked with internal standards before solid-phase-extraction (SPE) and the analysis was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/MS-MS). Quantification limits were in the range of 1-28 ng/l for river water and 200-650 ng/l for untreated wastewater. Once the concentrations and loads of micropollutants in the infiltrating waters are known and compared to those in the spring water, one might distinguish and quantify the portions of water infiltrating from the different sources in the catchment area.

Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

2013-04-01

277

Retrospective analyses of inputs of municipal wastewater effluent and coupled impacts on an urban lake.  

PubMed

A retrospective review and analysis are presented of the evolution of treatment, point of discharge considerations, and constituent loading from the Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (Metro), and the coupled water quality effects on the receiving urban lake (Onondaga Lake, New York) from the early 1970s to 2010. The analysis is based on long-term monitoring of the discharge, Onondaga Lake, and a nearby river system considered as a potential alternate to receive the effluent. The Metro discharge is extraordinarily large relative to the lake's hydrologic budget, representing approximately 25% of the total inflow, greater than for any other lake in the United States. The large loads of nitrogen and phosphorus received from the facility resulted in severe water quality effects in the lake during the early portion of record, including (1) violations of standards to protect against toxic effects of ammonia and nitrite, (2) violations of the water clarity standard for swimming safety, (3) exceedances of a limit for the summer average concentration of total phosphorus in the upper waters, and (4) lakewide violations of the oxygen standard during fall turnover. The effects of Metro were compounded by effects of discharges from soda ash/chlor-alkali and pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The sedimentary record of the lake indicates that even greater levels of cultural eutrophication prevailed before the monitoring commenced. Dramatic improvements in the water quality of the lake were achieved in recent years by implementing advanced treatment technologies. Exceedances of receiving water limits in the lake were eliminated, with the exception of the total phosphorus limit. A zebra mussel invasion compromised the oxygen resources and assimilative capacity of the nearby river for more than 15 years. This eliminated an option, previously supported by managers, of full diversion of the Metro effluent to the river. PMID:23409450

Effler, Steven W; O'Donnell, Susan M; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Matthews, David A; Auer, Martin T

2013-01-01

278

Electrochemical oxidation of wastewater - opportunities and drawbacks.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation by means of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes generates a very efficient oxidizing environment by forming hydroxyl radicals, providing effective water purification for elimination of persistent pollutants. In this project the degradation rates of organic and inorganic substances are investigated. Experiments were performed in laboratory and pilot scale with synthetic and industrial wastewaters. Performance parameters were evaluated in terms of total organic carbon/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, specific energy consumption and current efficiency. The integration of this advanced oxidation technology combined with conventional technology was then applied in a wastewater treatment concept of landfill leachate. The raw leachate with a low biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio was electrochemically oxidized to prepare the purified leachate for discharge into a sewage system or a receiving water body. The cost estimation regarding operation and capital costs addresses the economics for the treatment of heavily polluted effluents. PMID:24037171

Woisetschläger, D; Humpl, B; Koncar, M; Siebenhofer, M

2013-01-01

279

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

280

WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH GRANT PROPOSAL Title: Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters: The Occurrence, Distribution, and Fate of Alkylphenol Polyethoxylates and Metabolites in Wastewater Treatment Facilities and Their Impact on Kansas River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater and its constituents are one of the major sources of surface water and groundwater pollution in the State of Kansas. Alkylphenol polyethoxylates, surfactants in domestic and industrial cleaning detergents, are usually discharged into sewers that transport these chemicals to wastewater treatment facilities. During conventional wastewater treatment, the alkylphenol polyethoxylates are aerobically degraded to alkylphenol mono- or di-ethoxylates and alkylphenols,

281

Treated wastewater as a source of sediment contamination in Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore waters collected from three coastal rivers and four coastal bays receiving wastewaters were assessed during a 2-year period. Rooted plants,

M. Lewis; D. Weber; B. Albrecht

2000-01-01

282

Greenhouse studies on the phytoextraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated

S. Madyiwa; M. J Chimbari; C. F Schutte; J Nyamangara

2003-01-01

283

Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

None

1983-10-01

284

Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were <1 mg/L; suggesting that >99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (<1.05-m soil profile depth). In the vadose zone of advanced system, heterotrophic and autrotrophic denitrification reduced nitrate-N concentrations to <0.12 mg/L, compared with >20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg/L) indicating enhanced P attenuation in the vadose zone of all systems.

Toor, G.; De, M.

2013-05-01

285

Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

2006-01-01

286

Prediction of the effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant of CASP using gray model and neural network.  

PubMed

When a domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWWTP) is put into operation, variations of the wastewater quantity and quality must be predicted using mathematical models to assist in operating the wastewater treatment plant such that the treated effluent will be controlled and meet discharge standards. In this study, three types of gray model (GM) including GM (1, N), GM (1, 1), and rolling GM (1, 1) were used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS) from the DWWTP of conventional activated sludge process. The predicted results were compared with those obtained using backpropagation neural network (BPNN). The simulation results indicated that the minimum mean absolute percentage errors of 43.79%, 16.21%, and 30.11% for BOD, COD, and SS could be achieved. The fitness was higher when using BPNN for prediction of BOD (34.77%), but it required a large quantity of data for constructing model. Contrarily, GM only required a small amount of data (at least four data) and the prediction results were analogous to those of BPNN, even lower than that of BPNN when predicting COD (16.21%) and SS (30.11%). According to the prediction, results suggested that GM could predict the domestic effluent variation when its effluent data were insufficient. PMID:19267211

Chen, Home-Ming; Lo, Shang-Lien

2010-03-01

287

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2012-02-01

288

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

289

Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.  

PubMed

Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

2013-01-01

290

Evaluation of municipal wastewater treatment plants with different technologies at Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain).  

PubMed

Eight small-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants were evaluated over a period of 19 months in the suburb of Las Rozas in Madrid (Spain). Four plants used compact extended aeration, two used conventional activated sludge, two used conventional extended aeration, one used a rotary biodisc reactor and the other used a peat bed reactor. The best results were obtained from the plants that used conventional technologies and the biodisc. Conventional activated sludge and extended aeration had higher removal efficiencies for ammonia, TSS, COD and BOD(5) and produced good quality final effluents for final disposal in accordance with the discharge standard. Empirical equations that correlated the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the effluents with the efficiencies of TSS, ammonia, COD and BOD(5) removals for all plants evaluated were obtained. The performance of the plants using compact extended aeration was affected more than those using conventional technologies or rotary biodisc when the capacity exceeded that of its initial design. PMID:16580126

Colmenarejo, M F; Rubio, A; Sánchez, E; Vicente, J; García, M G; Borja, R

2006-12-01

291

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AQUACULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The developmental status of the aquacultural alternative for treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the reduction or fate of pollutants in such areas as organics, solids, nutrients, heavy metals, residual hydrocarbons, and potentially ...

292

Residential Wastewater Treatment Systems  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Quality Medical Devices Pharma / Biotech Plastics Sustainability and Environment Water and Wastewater Services By Type ... NSF Mark Jobs and Careers Awards Commitment to Sustainability NSF in the Community NSF Online Locations Related ...

293

WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The CWA requires EPA to collect, evaluate, and disseminate technical information on various treatment technologies, management practices, and operating methods. Technical information has been/is/will be developed in such areas as wastewater treatment, wet ...

294

UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

295

Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

Dieu, B

2001-01-01

296

MIUS wastewater technology evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

Poradek, J. C.

1976-01-01

297

Biosorption of copper (II) from chemical mechanical planarization wastewaters.  

PubMed

Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization (Cu-CMP) is a critical step in integrated circuit (IC) device manufacturing. CMP and post-CMP cleaning processes are projected to account for 30-40% of the water consumed by IC manufacturers in 2003. CMP wastewater is expected to contain increasing amounts of copper as the industry switches from Al-CMP to Cu-CMP causing some IC manufacturers to run the risk of violating discharge regulations. There are a variety of treatment schemes currently available for the removal of heavy metals from CMP wastewater, however, many introduce additional chemicals to the wastewater, have large space requirements, or are expensive. This work explores the use of microorganisms for waste treatment. A Staphylococcus sp. of bacteria was isolated and studied to determine the feasibility for use in removing copper from Cu-CMP wastewater. A model Cu-CMP wastewater was developed and tested, as well as actual Cu-CMP wastes. Continuous-flow packed column experiments were performed to obtain adsorption data and show copper recovery from the waste. A predictive, empirical model was used to accurately describe Cu removal. Additionally, the immobilized cells were regenerated, allowing for the concentration and potential recovery of copper from the wastewater. PMID:14580729

Stanley, Leah C; Ogden, Kimberly L

2003-11-01

298

Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. PMID:25607676

Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

2015-01-01

299

Tubal ligation - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge ... You had tubal ligation (or "tying the tubes") surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. ...

300

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Resection and recession - discharge; Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... eyes. The medical term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children usually receive general anesthesia for this surgery. ...

301

Community-based wastewater treatment systems and water quality of an Indonesian village.  

PubMed

This paper examines the impact of community-based water treatment systems on water quality in a peri-urban village in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Water samples were taken from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), irrigation canals, paddy fields and wells during the dry and wet seasons. The samples were tested for biological and chemical oxygen demand, nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and Escherichia coli. Water quality in this village is affected by the presence of active septic tanks, WWTP effluent discharge, small-scale tempe industries and external sources. We found that the WWTPs remove oxygen-demanding wastes effectively but discharged nutrients, such as nitrate and ammonia, into irrigation canals. Irrigation canals had high levels of E. coli as well as oxygen-demanding wastes. Well samples had high E. coli, nitrate and total nitrogen levels. Rainfall tended to increase concentrations of biological and chemical oxygen demand and some nutrients. All our samples fell within the drinking water standards for nitrate but failed the international and Indonesian standards for E. coli. Water quality in this village can be improved by improving the WWTP treatment of nutrients, encouraging more villagers to be connected to WWTPs and controlling hotspot contamination areas in the village. PMID:24642445

Lim, H S; Lee, L Y; Bramono, S E

2014-03-01

302

HEALTH ASPECTS OF WASTEWATER AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency arranged for several studies, by universities or research institutions, to gather information on health effects associated with wastewater aerosols. Five studies were conducted at wastewater treatm...

303

Treatment of oilfield fracturing wastewater by a sequential combination of flocculation, Fenton oxidation and SBR process.  

PubMed

In this study, a combined process was developed that included flocculation, Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to treat oilfield fracturing wastewater (FW). Flocculation and Fenton oxidation were applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) organic load and to enhance biodegradability, respectively. For flocculation, the optimum conditions were: polymeric aluminium chloride dosage, 40 mg/L; polyacrylamide dosage, 4 mg/L; dilution ratio, 1:2 and stirring time, 30 min. For Fenton oxidation, a total reaction time of 60 min, a H?O?dosage of 2 m mol/L, with a [H?O?]/[FeSO?] ratio of 2 were selected to achieve optimum oxidation. Under these optimum flocculation and Fenton oxidation conditions, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 76.6%. Following pretreatment with flocculation and Fenton oxidation, the FW was further remediated using a SBR. Results show that COD was reduced to 92 mg/L, and the overall water quality of the final effluent could meet the class I national wastewater discharge standard of petrochemical industry of China. PMID:25176493

Yang, Jian; Hong, Liang; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Lin, Li-Fei

2014-01-01

304

Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal.The wetland was 6×3×0.4m. Water discharge was 1000ld?1

H. R. Hadad; M. A. Maine; C. A. Bonetto

2006-01-01

305

40 CFR 414.90 - Applicability; description of the subcategory of direct discharge point sources that use end-of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.90 Applicability...end-of-pipe biological treatment. The provisions of this...applicable to the process wastewater discharges resulting from...end-of-pipe biological treatment or installs...

2013-07-01

306

40 CFR 414.100 - Applicability; description of the subcategory of direct discharge point sources that do not use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.100 Applicability...end-of-pipe biological treatment. The provisions of this...applicable to the process wastewater discharges resulting from...end-of-pipe biological treatment and does not install...

2013-07-01

307

FISH TISSUE QUALITY IN NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO RECEIVING POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless o...

308

Analytical techniques for isolation and characterization of PPCPs in wastewater.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in medicines, cleaning agents, cosmetics, detergents, nutritional supplements and skin care products. These compounds get washed from the body and enter water systems ultimately winding up in the wastewater and aquatic environment. Even after wastewater treatment, PPCPs are retained and discharged in to the environment. Some of the commonly used PPCPs like cholesterol, caffeine, 1, 7 dimethylxanthine have been found in the detectable concentrations in sanitary wastewater. The PPCPs of interest viz. Cholesterol, Caffeine and 1,7 dimethylxanthine were isolated using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction system (SPE) analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) following USEPA 1694. The isolation and characterization of cholesterol, caffeine and 1,7 dimethylxanthine in simulated and field samples have been discussed in this paper. PMID:23505828

Agnihotri, Asmita; Aparajit, Niketa; Kashyap, S M; Singh, Kanchan; Thacker, Neeta

2011-10-01

309

Economy of precipitating agent application in municipal wastewater treatment facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purification by precipitation in this study is not considered primarily as a means of phosphate removal but as a method for reduction of suspended solids BOD and COD. A dynamic calculation procedure is used to allow for exact determination of time dependent variation of costs. The results show that costs of wastewater treatment by precipitation may equal those of conventional primary clarification and secondary biological treatment, especially with low-cost iron-II-salts in simultaneous precipitation and in larger plants ( 20,000 PF). Cost advantages may be accrued in smaller plants by using the more expensive trivalent salts in pre-precipitation as compared to conventional low-load biological treatment. This is due mainly to better effluent quality and, consequently, lower wastewater fees (Wastewater Discharge Act). If the precipitant is dosed temporarily only during periods of highest pollution the savings can be about 5 to 10%.

Neis, U.; Geppert, B.; Hahn, H. H.; Gleisberg, D.

1983-01-01

310

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

2009-10-01

311

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations  

PubMed Central

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

2009-01-01

312

Wastewater Disposal Facility in Colorado  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Oilfield waste arrives by tanker truck at a wastewater disposal facility near Platteville, Colo. After removal of solids and oil, the wastewater is injected into a deep well for permanent storage underground. This disposal process has the potential to trigger earthquakes, but very few wastewater dis...

313

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

314

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents in selected streams in northern Arkansas, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, collected data in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many constituents of emerging environmental concern, in selected streams in northern Arkansas. Samples were collected in March and April 2004 from 17 sites located upstream and downstream from wastewater- treatment plant effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkansas and at 1 stream site in a relatively undeveloped basin in north-central Arkansas. Additional samples were collected at three of the sites in August 2004. The targeted organic wastewater constituents and sample sites were selected because wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharge provides a potential point source of these constituents and analytical techniques have improved to accurately measure small amounts of these constituents in environmental samples. At least 1 of the 108 pharmaceutical or other organic wastewater constituents was detected at all sites in 2004, except at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas. The number of detections generally was greater at sites downstream from municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges (mean = 14) compared to sites not influenced by wastewatertreatment plants (mean = 3). Overall, 42 of the 108 constituents targeted in the collected water-quality samples were detected. The most frequently detected constituents included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene.

Galloway, Joel M.; Haggard, Brian E.; Meyers, Michael T.; Green, W. Reed

2005-01-01

315

Biological treatment of a seafood processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The seafood industry in Tampa is a multi-million dollar-per-year industry which heavily impacts the environment with large volumes of wastewater containing high concentrations of suspended solids and nitrogen. A 10 liter per day, bench-scale, wastewater treatment facility was designed, constructed, and operated for approximately eight (8) months to collect treat ability data on a seafood-processing wastewater. The bench-scale reactor consisted of a single-sludge, extended aeration, modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process for biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the wastewater. Influent and effluent data collected on the system included: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), pH, total phosphorus (TP), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, and temperature. All analyses were performed in accordance with Standard Methods (1992). Typical influent characteristics were: 900--4,000 mg/L COD, 45--110 mg/L TKN, 150--2,000 mg/L TSS, and 40--80 mg/L TP. Solids residence time (SRT) served as the primary control parameter with average STR's of 4.5, 6.4, 8.5, and 30.9 days observed during the study. The following biokinetic constants were determined from the data: a yield coefficient (Y) of 0.49 mg TSS/mg COD and an endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub e}) of 0.11 days{sup {minus}1}.

Mines, R.O. Jr.; Robertson, R.R. II

1998-07-01

316

30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation ponds, permanent and temporary impoundments, coal processing waste dams and embankments, and diversions shall be...

2010-07-01

317

30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation ponds, permanent and temporary impoundments, coal processing waste dams and embankments, and diversions shall be...

2010-07-01

318

Treatment of mixed domestic–industrial wastewater using cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company (ASDCO), Alexandria, Egypt has two primary treatment plants, the eastern and the western\\u000a wastewater treatment plants (EWTP and WWTP) that receive mixed domestic–industrial influents and discharge into L. Mariut.\\u000a The lake is subjected therefore to severe levels of pollution and dominated by members of cyanobacteria that can cope with\\u000a the high pollution load in the lake

Ebtesam El-Bestawy

2008-01-01

319

Consider Fenton`s chemistry for wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

The chemical process industries (CPI) must treat wastewaters containing a wide variety of contaminants, ranging from toxic organics like phenol, benzene, other aromatics, formaldehyde, and amines, to inorganics such as sulfite, sulfide, mercaptans, and cyanide, to heavy metals such as hexavalent chrome. These wastewaters also have a wide range of concentrations and combinations of contaminants. The streams must be treated as inexpensively as possible and in a safe manner, preferably by processes that are easy to operate on-site and that require a minimum of labor and technical know-how. And, of course, the ultimate goal of this treatment is that the treated water meet all federal, state, and local discharge regulations. One available wastewater treatment technology that few engineers seem to be familiar with is the Fenton reactor. In this advanced oxidation process, toxic wastewater is reacted with inexpensive ferrous sulfate catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in a simple, nonpressurized (typically batch) reactor to yield (if reacted to completion) carbon dioxide and water. This article offers guidance on the use of this process by first explaining the mechanisms of Fenton`s chemistry and then outlining how to apply it to industrial wastewater treatment.

Bigda, R.J.

1995-12-01

320

Ecotoxicological characterization of tannery wastewater in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Tanning industries are one of the main economic activities in Bangladesh. It has been well documented that wastewater discharged from tanneries without appropriate treatment results in detrimental effects on the ecosystem. No ecotoxicity evaluation of any aquatic environment in Bangladesh has been conducted so far. In this study a battery of toxicity bioassays and chemical analysis were carried out from water samples obtained from three sampling points: upstream from discharging site on River Buriganga (S1), raw wastewater effluent (S2), and downstream the discharging sluice gate (S3), in the Hazaribagh tannery area of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. While S1 and S3 water samples did not show significant toxicity in the bioassays tested, S2 exhibited high acute toxicity to the bacterium Vibrio fischeri (15-min Microtox test, EC50 = 9.8%), the higher plant Lactuca sativa (5-day root elongation inhibition test, EC50 = 14.2%), and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (24-hour mobility test, EC50 = 31.5%). The results suggested that the raw wastewater effluent had detrimental effects on broad spectrum of organisms in the aquatic ecosystem and bacterium was the most sensitive. The chemical analysis revealed that sample S2 contained an extremely high concentration of chromium (47 g l(-1)). Additionally microbiological analysis indicated that the sampling area is impacted by fecal pollution, increasing the environmental health risk for its inhabitants. PMID:21186722

Arias-Barreiro, C R; Nishizaki, H; Okubo, K; Aoyama, I; Mori, I C

2010-07-01

321

40 CFR 268.48 - Universal treatment standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.48 Universal treatment standards. (a) Table UTS identifies...constituents, along with the nonwastewater and wastewater treatment standard levels, that are used to...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 268.48 - Universal treatment standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.48 Universal treatment standards. (a) Table UTS identifies...constituents, along with the nonwastewater and wastewater treatment standard levels, that are used to...

2013-07-01

323

40 CFR 268.48 - Universal treatment standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.48 Universal treatment standards. (a) Table UTS identifies...constituents, along with the nonwastewater and wastewater treatment standard levels, that are used to...

2014-07-01

324

40 CFR 268.48 - Universal treatment standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.48 Universal treatment standards. (a) Table UTS identifies...constituents, along with the nonwastewater and wastewater treatment standard levels, that are used to...

2012-07-01

325

40 CFR 268.48 - Universal treatment standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.48 Universal treatment standards. (a) Table UTS identifies...constituents, along with the nonwastewater and wastewater treatment standard levels, that are used to...

2011-07-01

326

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...421.146 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except...the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass... (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. PSNS for...

2012-07-01

327

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...421.146 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except...the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass... (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. PSNS for...

2013-07-01

328

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...421.146 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except...the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass... (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. PSNS for...

2011-07-01

329

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...421.146 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except...the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass... (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. PSNS for...

2014-07-01

330

Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information; Fideicomiso para la ampliacion de infraestructura y eficientizacion del agua potable, drenaje sanitario y saneamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de saltillo, coahuila  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the second of two volumes. It contains the appendices and is divided into the following sections: (1) Appendix A - Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Regulations; (2) Appendix B - Flow Monitoring Program Results; (3) Appendix C - Partial Results for the First Monitoring Period; (4) Appendix D - Characterization Program; (5) Appendix E - Characterization Program Results; (6) Appendix F - Preliminary Treatment Unit Design and Cost Estimation; (7) Appendix G - List of Threatened and Endangered Species; (8) Appendix H - Cost Estimation for the Wastewater Treatment Plant; (9) Appendix I - Hydraulic and Cost Calculations for Interceptors; (10) Appendix J - Financial Feasibility Worksheets.

NONE

1996-03-01

331

Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

End ileostomy - colectomy or proctolectomy - discharge; Continent ileostomy - discharge; Ostomy - colectomy or proctolectomy - discharge; Restorative proctocolectomy - discharge; Ileal-anal resection - discharge; Ileal-anal pouch - discharge; J-pouch - ...

332

ANAEROBIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment differs from conventional aerobic treatment. The absence of oxygen leads to controlled conversion of complex organic pollutions, mainly to carbon dioxide and methane. Anaerobic treatment has favourable effects like removal of higher organic loading, low sludge production, high pathogen removal, biogas gas production and low energy consumption. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment can be an attractive option to conventional

B. Mrowiec; J. Suschka

333

Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

Haas, C.N. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago); McCreary, J.J.

1982-06-01

334

Wastewater polishing by a channelized macrophyte-dominated wetland and anaerobic digestion of the harvested phytomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Constructed wetlands (CW) offer a mechanism to meet regulatory standards for wastewater treatment while minimizing energy inputs. To optimize CW wastewater polishing activities and investigate integration of CW with energy production from anaerobic digestion we constructed a pair of three-tier ch...

335

A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

336

The pT-method as a Hazard Assessment Scheme for wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pT-method is an evaluation strategy for investigating the toxic effects of wastewaters. With this Hazard Assessment Scheme (HAS), wastewater is tested with standardized bioassays, using dilution series in geometric sequence with a dilution factor of two. Its toxic status is then equated with the first dilution stage at which the effluent is no longer toxic. The numerical designation of

Falk Krebs

337

A growth-irrigation scheduling model for wastewater use in forest production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying wastewater and sludge to land for remediation has been recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method to recycle nutrient and organic matter and conserve water resources. The level of sewage treatment can range from simple primary treatment using a lagoon to tertiary treatment using a standard wastewater treatment plant. Small communities are selecting primary treatment and

M. S. Al-Jamal; T. W. Sammis; J. G. Mexal; G. A. Picchioni; W. H. Zachritz

2002-01-01

338

Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

1967-01-01

339

The role of membrane processes in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reuse presents a promising solution to the growing pressure on water resources. However, wastewater reuse implementation faces obstacles that include insufficient public acceptance, technical, economic and hygienic risks and further uncertainties caused by a lack of awareness, accepted standards, uniform guidelines and legislation. So far, there are no supra-national regulations on water reuse in Europe and further development is

T. Wintgens; T. Melin; A. Schäfer; S. Khan; M. Muston; D. Bixio; C. Thoeye

2005-01-01

340

Occurrence and suitability of sucralose as an indicator compound of wastewater loading to surface waters in urbanized regions.  

PubMed

Urban watersheds are susceptible to numerous pollutant sources and the identification of source-specific indicators can provide a beneficial tool in the identification and control of input loads, often times needed for a water body to achieve designated beneficial uses. Differentiation of wastewater flows from other urban wet weather flows is needed in order to more adequately address such environmental concerns as water body nutrient impairment and potable source water contamination. Anthropogenic compounds previously suggested as potential wastewater indicators include caffeine, carbamazepine, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, and TCEP. This paper compares the suitability of a variety of anthropogenic compounds to sucralose, an artificial sweetener, as wastewater indicators by examining occurrence data for 85 trace organic compounds in samples of wastewater effluents, source waters with known wastewater point source inputs, and sources without known wastewater point source inputs. The findings statistically demonstrate the superior performance of sucralose as a potential indicator of domestic wastewater input in the U.S. While several compounds were detected in all of the wastewater effluent samples, only sucralose was consistently detected in the source waters with known wastewater discharges, absent in the sources without wastewater influence, and consistently present in septic samples. All of the other compounds were prone to either false negatives or false positives in the environment. PMID:21665241

Oppenheimer, Joan; Eaton, Andrew; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Haghani, Ali W; Jacangelo, Joseph G

2011-07-01

341

40 CFR 422.45 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory ...pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process wastewater...process wastewater from a calcium sulfate storage pile...in combination with a water recirculation...

2011-07-01

342

40 CFR 422.45 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory ...pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process wastewater...process wastewater from a calcium sulfate storage pile...in combination with a water recirculation...

2010-07-01

343

Changing needs for appropriate excreta disposal and small wastewater treatment methodologies or The future technology of small wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Recent developments will strongly influence the design and utilization of small wastewater treatment systems in the future, e.g. population increases in non-sewered rural areas and developing countries; increasing impairment of surface water quality; the construction of occupied high-rise buildings in metropolitan areas; the development of planned but somewhat isolated communities, growing shortages of water that mandate reuse of wastewaters. It is well known that there is a very strong linkage between wastewater disposal methods in rural areas and developing countries and the general health of the population. These problems could be greatly reduced or prevented by the utilization of well known excreta disposal and small wastewater treatment system technologies, but the development of more innovative on-site systems is needed. It is expected that future environmental and public health pressures in developed countries will require increasingly stringent effluent limitations for small and on-site wastewater disposal systems, based primarily on nutrient discharges. Both on-site and small-scale technologies are available for the more stringent requirements, but innovative and more economical designs are needed for wide-spread acceptance. Water reuse should be a consideration for the designs of these systems. Implementation and utilization of well known technologies are needed, but the obstacles are often more social and political than economical. PMID:14753512

Randall, C W

2003-01-01

344

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

345

Experimental and modeling study of pure terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater transport in the vadose zone.  

PubMed

PTA wastewater discharged from a factory was selected as the research object in this project and CODcr was selected as the characteristic pollution factor. Static adsorption and soil column leaching experiments of silty clay and clayey soil were carried out to study the adsorption, bio-degradation and dispersion coefficient of CODcr in PTA wastewater. Hydrus-1D was used to build the convection-diffusion model to demonstrate the migration of PTA wastewater in the vadose zone. The results indicate that silty clay and clayey soil in the vadose zone can adsorb, degrade and impede the contaminants in PTA wastewater; however, the coefficient of adsorption and degradation were very low, they were down to 0.0002 L g(-1), 0.0003 L g(-1) and 0.0097 d(-1), 0.0077 d(-1) for silty clay and clayey soil, respectively. Under the virtual condition that, wastewater in the sewage pool is 5 m deep, CODcr concentration is 4000 mg L(-1), vadose zone is 21 m, PTA wastewater will reach the phreatic surface after 20.87 years. When wastewater in the sewage pool is 7 m with other conditions unchanged, after 17.18 years PTA wastewater will reach groundwater. The results show that there is a higher pollution risk for groundwater if we do not take any anti-seepage measures. PMID:25524255

Wang, Cuiling; Liu, Changli; Pei, Lixin; Pang, Yajie; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Hongbing

2015-02-11

346

Characterization of the ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Biology Area process wastewater  

SciTech Connect

In order for proper treatment of the Biology Area process wastewater to be affected and that a Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) be met at the Y-12 Plant, both flow rates and potential wastewater-contained pollutants were measured. A two-phase sampling-and-analysis program determined that the only detrimental constituent in the wastewater is residual chlorine. In addition, flow-rate measurements indicated that the Biology Area discharge rates were decreasing with time as the Biology Division implemented a strict schedule for reducing its effluent flow rates and total pollutant loadings. As a result, the capital costs and potential annual operating costs were greatly reduced (by as much as $1 million and $750,000, respectively) by demonstrating that the Biology Area process wastewater could be sent to the City of Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility. A special treatment plant, to be built at the Y-12 Plant, would not be needed. Because of the presence of residual chlorine in the wastewater, the fragility of the wastewater solutions was tested over periods of 1 or 2 d to determine the best method of preserving the samples so that loss of the residual chlorine would be minimized. Refrigeration of the samples for as long as 8 h was found to be satisfactory; loss of residual chlorine in the wastewater was almost undetectable under these conditions. 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Armento, W.J.; Stephens, L.A.; Haught, C.F.; Blaise, D.E.

1989-01-01

347

Ankle replacement - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Ankle arthroplasty - total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... put in an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medication ...

348

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require a considerable length of time to complete, and do not discriminate between ...

349

Prostate brachytherapy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

350

ACL reconstruction - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

351

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...there must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas as a lifting means to ensure that...

2012-01-01

352

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...there must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas as a lifting means to ensure that...

2013-01-01

353

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...there must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas as a lifting means to ensure that...

2011-01-01

354

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...there must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas as a lifting means to ensure that...

2014-01-01

355

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...

356

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Brewery wastewater treatment using air-cathode  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Brewery wastewater treatment using air-cathode microbial fuel cells wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require a better understanding of how operational using actual wastewaters. The efficiency of wastewater treatment of a beer brewery wastewater

357

Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

2009-08-01

358

Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review.  

PubMed

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. PMID:19458999

Carey, Richard O; Migliaccio, Kati W

2009-08-01

359

Wastewater reuse with groundwater safeguard.  

PubMed

In Morocco, reuse of raw wastewater for irrigation is practised around the big cities without taking into account the sanitary and environmental concerns. All national institutions involved in wastewater problems are convinced of the need for wastewater treatment with extensive systems before it can be applied for agricultural reuse. Our experimental work on wastewater treatment using lagooning, macrophytic plants, reed beds, infiltration percolation or over-land flow showed that of all these extensive systems lead to an effluent classified into category B according to WHO guidelines. However, the amount of nitrogen largely exceeded the crops' requirements and could cause serious problems for groundwater. Using the DRASTIC method, a vulnerability map was established for groundwater in the plain surrounding the city of Marrakech. The estimates of nitrogen amounts from wastewater that can reach groundwater after crop uptakes showed that only the low vulnerability zone could be safely irrigated with the treated wastewater. The second zone of moderate vulnerability covering 50% of the area in the plain could receive the treated wastewater, but a careful program of irrigation is required to avoid nitrate contamination of groundwater. The third zone at a high vulnerability level should be protected, without any further irrigation using wastewater, even after extensive treatment. This new approach integrating the results of the preliminary vulnerability study of groundwater zones could constitute a helpful tool to improve management of regional projects of wastewater reclamation and reuse. PMID:10842817

Ouazzani, N; Lyakhloufi, S; Errouane, S; Boussaid, A

2000-01-01

360

Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

1998-07-01

361

75 FR 54873 - Notice of Availability of Final NPDES General Permits MAG910000 and NHG910000 for Discharges From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...limitations, standards, prohibitions, and management practices for remediation facilities discharging treated contaminated groundwater. Owners and/or operators of facilities with remediation discharges, including those currently authorized to...

2010-09-09

362

An investigation of the reaction kinetics of photocatalytic wastewater treatment using suspended titanium dioxide catalyst  

E-print Network

The goal of wastewater treatment is to remove compounds that may be harmful to the natural ecosystem or to humans. Although traditional treatment is fairly effective in meeting water quality standards, current technologies ...

Hotz, William Joseph, Jr

2014-01-01

363

40 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart G of... - Definitions of Terms Used in Wastewater Equations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Fig....

2010-07-01

364

Model Test of Proposed Loading Rates for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

State regulatory agencies set standards for onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS), commonly known as septic systems, based on expected hydraulic performance and nitrogen (N) treatment in soils of differing texture. In a previous study, hydraulic loading rates were proposed fo...

365

32 CFR 724.903 - Equity of the discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity of the discharge. 724.903 Section 724.903 National...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Standards for Discharge Review § 724.903 Equity of the...

2010-07-01

366

Modelling of partial discharge spectra measured with variable applied frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable Frequency Phase Resolved Partial Discharge Analysis (VF-PRPDA) is a newly developed method for partial discharge measurements. In this method the frequency of the applied voltage is variable and not fixed at the power frequency as in the standard PRPDA implementation. In this paper, simulations illuminate the frequency dependence of PD of a discharging cavity embedded in an otherwise homogeneous

U. Gafvert; H. Edin; C. Forssen

2003-01-01

367

Viability of increasing the tariff of freshwater for irrigation as a tool to stimulate wastewater reuse in the MENA region.  

PubMed

Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common tool to make reuse attractive. However, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is ineffectual due to farmers' access to freshwater for irrigation at low tariff. Therefore, increasing the prices of freshwater in such a way that does not jeopardize feasibility of agriculture would promote irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even at increased prices. On one hand, it increases the gap between the price of freshwater and that of reclaimed wastewater, making the later more attractive. On the other hand, it would be used as a financial resource for funding the investment costs of the infrastructure needed for conveyance and distribution of reclaimed wastewater. This paper studies the viability of increasing the prices of freshwater and reclaimed wastewater. The results show that irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even for restricted irrigation can be as profitable as, and sometimes better than, freshwater irrigation. Some of the permitted crops such as fruit trees can be more profitable than vegetables. Thus, it appears that the level of knowledge farmers and others on the benefits of reclaimed wastewater is still limited. PMID:18496015

Abu-Madi, M; Al-Sa'ed, R; Braadbaart, O; Alaerts, G

2008-01-01

368

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

369

Anaerobic treatment of protein, lipid and carbohydrate containing wastewaters using the EGSB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industries such as margarine, meat packing, dairy, slaughterhouse, edible oil (palm and olive oil) generate large amount of effluents. Strict environment laws in numerous countries has forced these agro-industries to apply suitable wastewater treatment in order to reduce the organic pollution load before discharging the effluents to receiving waters. Anaerobic treatment comprises a very attractive and suitable method for these

R. Petruy

1999-01-01

370

OCCURRENCE OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTHER ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONSTITUENTS IN SELECTED STREAMS IN NORTHERN ARKANSAS, 2004.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data was collected in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many chemicals that are an emerging concern. Samples were collected at17 sites upstream or downstream from municipal effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkans...

371

Ecological Effectiveness of Vetiver Constructed Wetlands in Treating Oil-Refined Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater produced from the oil refinery of the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro-Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants, therefore it cannot be discharged directly into river or sea unless being treated first. Four plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironia articutala we re planted in large containers as a ver tical flow wetland

Hanping Xia; Honghua Ke; Zhaoping Deng; Peng Tan; Shizhong Liu

372

TREATED WASTEWATER AS A SOURCE OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO NEAR-COASTAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore wa...

373

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta  

E-print Network

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds-flow in urbanizing watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Synoptic samples were collected and stream discharge was measured under base-flow conditions in 24 watersheds (12 with low and 12 with high OWTS density) 3 times

Arnold, Jonathan

374

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

375

REVISE AND UPDATE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DESIGN MANUAL FOR THE LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Land treatment is a reliable engineering process for wastewater management. It has been practiced in a number of modes, including crop and landscape irrigation (i.e., reuse); as a treatment process with collection and direct or indirect discharge of treated to surface water (i.e...

376

Utilization of a saltwater-marsh ecosystem for the management of seafood-processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of a cooperative study that examined the potential for using a saltwater wetland to manage seafood-processing wastewater. An irregularly flooded black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh located at Point aux Pins in coastal Alabama was selected for the study. The study determined that the application of seafood-processing wastewater to the marsh affected a number of the marsh's water-quality characteristics in direct relation to the wastewater loading rate. However, monitoring of the marsh flora and fauna showed virtually no impact at any of the experimental loading rates. As a result of the study a number of design and loading criteria are suggested for any future projects involving wastewater discharges to saltwater wetlands.

Not Available

1986-10-01

377

A focus on pressure-driven membrane technology in olive mill wastewater reclamation: state of the art.  

PubMed

Direct disposal of the heavily polluted effluent from olive oil industry (olive mill wastewater, OMW) to the environment or to domestic wastewater treatment plants is actually prohibited in most countries, and conventional treatments are ineffective. Membranes are currently one of the most versatile technologies for environmental quality control. Notwithstanding, studies on OMW reclamation by membranes are still scarce, and fouling inhibition and prediction to improve large-scale membrane performance still remain unresolved. Consequently, adequately targeted pretreatment for the specific binomium membrane-feed, as well as optimized operating conditions for the proper membranes, is today's challenge to ensure threshold flux values. Several membrane materials, configurations and pore sizes have been elucidated, and also different pretreatments including sedimentation, centrifugation, biosorption, sieving, filtration and microfiltration, various types of flocculation as well as advance oxidation processes have been applied so far. Recovery of potential-value compounds, such as a variety of polyphenols highlighting oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, has been attempted too. All this research should constitute the starting point to proceed with OMW purification beyond recycling for irrigation or depuration for sewer discharge, with the aim of complying with standards to reuse the effluent in the olive oil production process, together with cost-effective recovery of added-value compounds. PMID:23109564

Ochando-Pulido, J M; Martinez-Ferez, A

2012-01-01

378

Optimization of Fenton process for decoloration and COD removal in tobacco wastewater and toxicological evaluation of the effluent.  

PubMed

Decoloration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in tobacco wastewater by Fenton process has been optimized under 25 +/- 2 degrees C. The results showed that the optimal range of conditions were pH 4.13-4.66, Fe(2+) 0.29-0.34 g/L and H2O2 > or = 2.73 g/L. Within this range, up to 95% of colour and 90% of COD was removed. In an enlarged system, setting the optimal conditions as pH 4.50, Fe(2+) 0.34 g/L and H2O2 4.00 g/L, the colour removal rate was 96.03 +/- 2.57%, with COD removal rate of 93.30 +/- 2.92%. The residual COD of 73.67 +/- 19.70 mg/L in effluent had hit the State's first-class standard for the industrial discharge in China (< 100 mg/L COD, GB8978-1996). The ecological safety of Fenton process has also been evaluated. When reaction completed, the content of hydroxyl free radical (OH) was 3.26 +/- 0.44 mg/L. There was no inhibition of Fenton effluent in growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp. HF-1, Acinetobacter sp. TW and Sphingomonas sp. TY. No oxidative stress was induced on strain HF-1 by Fenton effluent. Thus, Fenton process was one of high-efficiency and ecologically safe strategy for tobacco wastewater advanced treatment. PMID:22049737

Wang, Meizhen; Yang, Guiqin; Feng, Huajun; Lv, Zhenmei; Min, Hang

2011-01-01

379

Stretched arc discharge in produced water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost.

Cho, Y. I.; Wright, K. C.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, D. J.; Rabinovich, A.; Fridman, A.

2015-01-01

380

Stretched arc discharge in produced water.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

2015-01-01

381

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

382

Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2013-06-01

383

Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

384

N-nitrosodimethylamine: a disinfectant byproduct and its occurrence in wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper will provide wastewater treatment utility professionals with a comprehensive synthesis of information pertinent to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) so that plant operators can make informed and cost-effective decisions regarding appropriate management techniques. A suspect disinfection byproduct, NDMA is a potential carcinogen and is presently under scrutiny from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency because it poses a threat to groundwaters from reclaimed wastewaters. Recognizing that the current state of knowledge pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of NDMA from wastewater treatment is in its infancy, the information presented in this paper is timely and will help utility professionals develop confidence toward controlling NDMA during wastewater treatment. Given the increased probability of the formation of NDMA using current wastewater treatment technologies and also in the complex matrices of the wastewaters subjected to UV treatment, the investigation of occurrence pathways and means of suppression of NDMA formation before and after treatment needs to be investigated. This paper also summarizes strategies to minimize exposure such as modifying treatment or instituting waste and agricultural management practices that minimize inorganic and organic nitrogen discharges to wastewaters. PMID:15508422

Siddiqui, Mohamed; Atasi, Khalil Z

2004-01-01

385

Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development, design and applications of electrochemical technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Particular focus was given to electrodeposition, electrocoagulation (EC), electroflotation (EF) and electrooxidation. Over 300 related publications were reviewed with 221 cited or analyzed. Electrodeposition is effective in recover heavy metals from wastewater streams. It is considered as an established technology with possible further development

Guohua Chen

2004-01-01

386

Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

387

Tidal Pumping and the Fate of Wastewater Nutrients in the Florida Keys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient-rich wastewater from injection wells in the Florida Keys has been implicated in the eutrophication of coastal waters and, through long-distance subsurface transport, the degradation of offshore coral reefs. The flowpath of such wastewater in the saline aquifer system of the Keys is determined not only by the local geology, but more significantly by the differential hydraulic head applied by the two distinct tidal signals on either side of the island chain. While the Atlantic Ocean to the south exhibits typical oceanic tides, the constrained Florida Bay tidal signal to the north is significantly damped as compared to the oceanic tide and has a higher mean value. This system of tides presumably results in a reversing groundwater flow regime in which wastewater plumes are tidally pumped across the Keys with net flow to the Atlantic Ocean \\(the "tidal pumping mechanism" of Halley et al., 1997, Develop. Sedimentol. 54: 217-248\\). We have performed a quantitative analysis of the tidal pumping mechanism using FEFLOW, a commercially available 3-dimensional finite-element model designed to simulate variable density flow and reactive contaminant transport. We find that the tidal-pumping mechanism does indeed influence the transport of wastewater plumes in the subsurface. However, the buoyancy of the low-salinity wastewater plume dominates transport when injection volumes are large, bringing wastewater to the surface in the near-vicinity of injection and discharging it to nearby canals or coastal zones. Discharging wastewaters have variably reduced nutrient loads depending on travel times (for nitrate) and pathlengths (for phosphate) because of biogeochemical transformation in the subsurface (denitrification and adsorption/precipitation, respectively). The interface between nitrate-rich wastewaters and sulfide-rich groundwaters may be supporting a chemoautotrophic bacterial community in the bedrock of the Florida Keys.

Bachmann, M.; Kump, L.

2003-12-01

388

Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

2006-01-01

389

Comparative assessment of municipal wastewater disposal methods in southeast Florida.  

PubMed

A comparative assessment of the risks of three effluent disposal alternatives currently available to wastewater utilities in Southeast Florida is presented in this paper. The alternatives are: deep well injection and ocean outfalls following secondary treatment, and surface water (canal) discharges following secondary wastewater treatment, filtration and nutrient removal. Water quality data, relative to disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent were gathered, along with water quality data on the receiving waters, from utilities. Comparisons and conclusions regarding potential health concerns associated with the three disposal alternatives are presented. The results indicated that health risks associated with deep wells were generally lower than those of the other two alternatives. The proximity of injection wells to aquifer storage and recovery wells was a determining factor relative to injection well risk. Urban ecological risks were also indicated to be lower, though impacts of urban water use/reuse to the Everglades were not studied. Additional data collection and analysis were recommended to understand the effects of wastewater management on the cycling of water, nutrients and other constituents on southeast Florida. In particular, it was recommended that monitoring of effluents for nitrosamines and pharmaceutically active substances be implemented on a broad scale. PMID:16274082

Bloetscher, Frederick; Englehardt, James D; Chin, David A; Rose, Joan B; Tchobanoglous, George; Amy, Vincent P; Gokgoz, Sinem

2005-01-01

390

Formation of halogenated organics during waste-water disinfection  

SciTech Connect

The research examined the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and total organic halides (TOX) during wastewater chlorination at three wastewater treatment plants in the central Piedmont of North Carolina. Secondary effluent samples were collected before and after the addition of chlorine at each of the three treatment facilities; chlorinated samples were taken from various locations within the chlorine contact chambers and at the plant discharge. Water samples were also collected upstream and downstream from two of the plant outfalls to determine the increase and persistence of THMs and TOX below each plant. TOX and THM formation was evaluated in terms of effluent wastewater quality (e.g., residual chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and ammonia concentration), chlorine dose, chlorine contacting system, methods of chlorine addition, and chlorine-to-ammonia ratio. The results showed that TOX was present in the unchlorinated wastewater and that additional TOX was formed immediately after chlorine addition. Small to insignificant amounts of THMS were detected. TOX formation did not increase with increasing contact time, due to the rapid depletion of free chlorine and the formation of combined chlorine in the chlorine contact chamber.

Singer, P.C.; Brown, R.A.; Wiseman, J.F.

1988-11-01

391

Study on application of biological iron sulfide composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing chromium (VI) and chromium reclamation.  

PubMed

In this study, the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of biological iron sulfide composites were investigated, which consist of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and its in situ synthesized nanosized iron sulfides. Then the application of the composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing high concentration Cr(VI) and reclaiming Cr were performed. It was found that SRB in composites still survived after being used to treat vanadium-extraction wastewater, which could reduce reaction products Fe3+ and sulphur into Fe2+ and S2 by using them as the electron accepters and thus regenerating biological iron sulfide composites. The SRB also could be resistant to 600 mgl(-1) Cr(VI) and reduce it gradually. Based on the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of the composites, a reduction-regeneration recirculation process for treating vanadium-extraction wastewater and reclamation of Cr was developed. The results indicated that the contaminants in effluent reached the Chinese discharge standard of pollutants for vanadium industry (GB 26452-2011), i.e. the concentration of total Cr(TCr) was less than 0.912 mgl(-1), Cr(VI) was less than 0.017 mgl(-1) and V was less than 0.260 mgl(-1). After 10 cycles of treatment, the Cr2O3 content in sludge reached 41.03%, and the ratio of Cr2O3/FeO was 7.35. The sludge reached the chemical and metallurgical (hydrometallurgy) grade of chromite ore and could be reclaimed. PMID:24620597

Xie, Yi-Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Li, Fu-De

2013-04-01

392

Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus.  

PubMed

In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies. PMID:23393987

Laohaprapanon, S; Kaczala, F; Salomon, P S; Marques, M; Hogland, W

2012-01-01

393

Mangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere Wastewater Treatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreat  

E-print Network

Mangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere Wastewater Treatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatmentTechnical Issues and Innovations Transformed the old Mangere Wastewater Treatment PlantTransformed the old Mangere Wastewater Treatment Plant 5 year project, treatment processes have been replaced5 year project, treatment

Prevedouros, Panos D.

394

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOEpatents

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1999-02-02

395

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOEpatents

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1990-01-01

396

Simpler radioactive wastewater processing.  

PubMed

José Canga Rodríguez, key account manager, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, EnviroChemie, and Volker Luh, CEO of EnviroDTS, describe the development, and recent successful application, of a new technology for dealing safely and effectively with the radioactive "wastewater" generated by patients who have undergone radiotherapy in nuclear medicine facilities. The BioChroma process provides what is reportedly not only a more flexible means than traditional "delay and decay" systems of dealing with this "by-product" of medical treatment, but also one that requires less plant space, affords less risk of leakage or cross-contamination, and is easier to install. PMID:22368885

Rodríguez, José Canga; Luh, Volker

2011-11-01

397

40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems...692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators...692-6. (b) Each oil-water separator...minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall...or reconstructed oil-water separator...second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater...

2014-07-01

398

Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biological electricity generation  

E-print Network

Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biological electricity generation B.E. Logan Department accomplishing wastewater treatment in processes based on microbial fuel cell technologies. When bacteria oxidize.4 £ 106 L of wastewater, a wastewater treatment plant has the potential to become a 2.3 MW power plant

399

Continuous Electricity Generation from Domestic Wastewater and  

E-print Network

Continuous Electricity Generation from Domestic Wastewater and Organic Substrates in a Flat Plate acclimated for 1 month using domestic wastewater or wastewater enriched with a specific substrate such as acetate. Average power density using only domestic wastewater was 72 ( 1 mW/m2 at a liquid flow rate of 0

400

Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - periperhal artiery - discharge

401

Quality of wastewater reuse in agricultural irrigation and its impact on public health.  

PubMed

This study is planned to perform a sanitary survey of the largest sewage treatment plant in Riyadh, KSA, fortnightly for 6 months to examine its effluent quality as an example for the growing dependence on reuse of treated municipal wastewater in agricultural irrigation purposes to cope with increasing water shortage. The biological and physico-chemical parameters of 12 wastewater samples from the plant were examined using standard methods. The physico-chemical analysis indicated that the surveyed municipal wastewater treatment plant contained some of the studied parameters, such as turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and residual chlorine above the maximum permissible wastewater limits set by the Saudi Standards. However, heavy metal concentrations in all samples were lower than the recommended standards. Total and faecal coliform counts were above the permissible limits indicating poor sanitation level. Fifty percent of all wastewater samples were contaminated with faecal coliforms but, surprisingly, Escherichia coli were only detected in 8.3 % of the samples. Regular monitoring and enhancement of microbial and physico-chemical parameters of the wastewater quality served by different wastewater treatment plants for reuse in agricultural irrigation is recommended to preserve the environment and public health. PMID:25085428

Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Ibrahim, Sahar Yassin

2014-11-01

402

Is nitrogen loading in wastewater more important than phosphorus? A historic review of the relationship between algae and macrophyte biomass and wastewater nutrient loading in the Bow River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of nutrient loading on biomass growth in wastewater-impacted rivers is important in understanding how to most effectively optimize wastewater treatment to avoid excessive biomass growth in the receiving water body. Nutrient loading is also affected by the nature of the effluent mixing in the river. This paper relates ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3) and total phosphorus (TP) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to epilithic algae and macrophyte biomass for determination of impacts of the WWTP on the Bow River ecosystem in Calgary, Alberta. Annual macrophyte biomass data and WWTP effluent nutrient data was analyzed for the years from 1981 - 2011. Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) was used to remove the influence of the river discharge from the biomass. The LOWESS method indicates that macrophytes do not grow beyond a maximum annual discharge of 300m3s-1. Algae biomass was most significantly correlated to daily mean discharge on sampling date and the LOWESS method indicates that they do not grow well beyond a daily mean discharge of 100m3s-1. Correlation analysis suggests that biomass in the Bow River is nitrogen limited. Epilithic algae are significantly correlated (p

Taube, Nadine; He, Jianxun; Ryan, Cathy; Valeo, Caterina

2014-05-01

403

Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.  

PubMed

Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)?: PO??P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

2014-01-01

404

Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: A review.  

PubMed

The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. PMID:25463585

Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

2015-02-01

405

Making wastewater environmentally sustainable: Innovative technology offers new possibilities for wastewater treatment  

E-print Network

Story by Katie Heinrich 16 tx H2O Summer 2013 Making wastewater environmentally sustainable Innovative technology o#30;ers new possibilities for wastewater treatment Municipal wastewater treatment plants may soon become more sustainable...

Heinrich, Katie

2013-01-01

406

Integrated biorefinery wastewater design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of their feedstock, all ethanol-producing biorefineries face the common challenges of treating their effluent efficiently and economically to meet local discharge requirements, and minimising their net water consumption. In terms of process integration, these twin requirements can be addressed by (i) improving existing secondary (i.e. biological) treatment methods to maximise COD reduction, (ii) incorporating a tertiary ‘polishing’ stage to

D. Ryan; A. Gadd; J. Kavanagh; G. W. Barton

2009-01-01

407

WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION AND PROCESS RELIABILITY FOR POTABLE WASTEWATER RECLAMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This research effort was initiated to quantify water quality criteria of importance in evaluating the performance of a wastewater treatment facility producing a product water potentially available for potable reuse. Additionally, the reliability of individual unit processes was e...

408

Organochlorine and organophosphoric insecticides, herbicides and heavy metals residue in industrial wastewaters in Cyprus.  

PubMed

Most industries in Cyprus possess permits either for disposal at central wastewater treatment plants (the treated effluent of which is reused or disposed into the sea), or discharge on soil, or reuse either for irrigation or groundwater recharge or discharge into the sea. A preliminary investigation undertaken by the University of Cyprus in regards to dangerous substances was the first step towards establishing a new licensing and monitoring system. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for the extraction of the selected pesticides from wastewaters. Gas chromatography with two different detection methods (ECD and FTD) was applied for the determination of 17 pesticides (12 organochlorine insecticides, 3 organophosphoric insecticides and 2 herbicides). In addition ICP and a mercury evaporation unit were used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the samples. The results revealed the presence of several priority substances in wastewaters, in most cases at concentrations well below the regulatory limits. Non-compliance was observed for a limited number of metals. Sixteen out of 17 organic substances that were monitored for 1-year period time were traced in different wastewater streams. What was found out is that there is a need to expand the analytical determinations and the monitoring to more wastewater streams and more priority substances, in order to safeguard the water resources in Cyprus. PMID:17174026

Fatta, D; Canna-Michaelidou, St; Michael, C; Demetriou Georgiou, E; Christodoulidou, M; Achilleos, A; Vasquez, M

2007-06-25

409

A comparative study on the anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance during the treatment of domestic wastewaters of various origins.  

PubMed

This study examined the practical performance of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane coupled to an anaerobic bioreactor, for treatment of raw domestic wastewater (RDW), at a pilot-scale plant. Wastewaters used in this study originated from two different domestic wastewater treatment plans (DWTPs) (Sfax and Ksour Essef). During the treatment in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) of the RDW originating from Sfax DWTP, the bioreactor did not reach its stationary phase because the anaerobic biomass was unable to adapt to the wastewater. This was explained by the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and a possible contamination of Sfax wastewater by industrial discharges. However, the treatment of RDW originating from Ksour Essef (DWTP) was successful. In both cases, the treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. The quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The phytotoxicity and the microtoxicity tests, using Lepidium sativum and Vibrio fischeri respectively, demonstrated that wastewater from Sfax exhibited higher toxicity than that from Ksour Sssef. PMID:17067125

Saddoud, A; Ellouze, M; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

2006-09-01

410

Carbamazepine and its metabolites in wastewater and in biosolids in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are discharged into the environment from domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we determined the distribution of the anti-epileptic drug, carbamazepine (CBZ), and its major metabolites and caffeine in both aqueous and solid phases through different treatment processes of a WWTP. A method was developed to extract samples of biosolids using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), coupled with cleanup of extracts using solid-phase extraction. Samples of biosolids and wastewater were analyzed for caffeine and CBZ and five of its metabolites, 10,11-dihydro-10,11-epoxycarbamazepine (CBZ-EP), 11-dihydro-10,11-epoxycarbamazepine (CBZ-DiOH), 2-hydroxycarbamazepine (CBZ-20H), 3-hydroxycarbamazepine (CBZ-30H), and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (CBZ-100H). The analytes were quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries of the analytes were 82.1-91.3% from raw biosolids and 80.1-92.4% from treated biosolids, and the limits of detection were 0.06-0.50 and 0.06-0.40 microg/kg on a wet weight basis for raw and treated biosolids, respectively. The behavior of carbamazepine and its metabolites, together with caffeine as a marker of domestic inputs, was investigated in the WWTP for the City of Peterborough, ON, Canada, which utilizes secondary sewage treatment technologies. CBZ, CBZ-2OH, CBZ-30H, and CBZ-DiOH were detected at concentrations of 69.6, 1.9, 1.6, and 7.5 microg/kg (dry weight), respectively, in untreated biosolids and at concentrations of 258.1, 3.4, 4.3, and 15.4 microg/kg (dry weight), respectively, in treated biosolids. However, CBZ-EP and CBZ-100H were not detected in any of the biosolid samples. CBZ and its five metabolites were detected in all wastewater samples collected from four different stages of treatment. The results showed that 29% of the carbamazepine was removed from the aqueous phase during treatment in the WWTP, while the metabolites were not effectively removed. Concentrations of caffeine were reduced by 99.9% in the aqueous phase, which appeared to be due primarily to degradation. Caffeine was also detected at concentrations of 165.8 and 7.6 microg/kg (dry weight) in raw and treated biosolids, respectively. Because of differences in hydrophobicity, CBZ is the primary analyte in biosolids, while CBZ-DiOH is the primary analyte in the aqueous phase of the wastewater. A mass balance calculation showed that the majority of CBZ and its metabolites exist in the aqueous phase (i.e., wastewater), ratherthan in the biosolids, 78 g of CBZ and its metabolites enters the Peterborough WWTP daily, and 91 g is discharged from the WWTP daily in the combined suspended solids and aqueous phases of the wastewater. The calculated daily inputs into the WWTP are somewhat less than the inputs of 192 g estimated from Canadian annual sales data for CBZ. PMID:16245817

Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Jun; Metcalfe, Chris D

2005-10-01

411

Discharge measurements at gaging stations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

2010-01-01

412

Simulation of a DC Discharge in a Transverse Supersonic Gas Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to the investigation of a dc discharge in a transverse gas flow. It is shown that the discharge may exist in several forms depending on the gas flow velocity. The standard stationary discharge similar to a discharge in still gas is realized if the displacement rate of the plasma boundary exceeds the gas flow velocity. The

S. A. Dvinin; A. P. Ershov; I. B. Timofeev; V. A. Chernikov; V. M. Shibkov

2004-01-01

413

PAPERMILL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MICROSTRAINING  

EPA Science Inventory

An original treatment system was designed, constructed, and operated for removal of suspended solids, turbidity, color, and BOD from the wastewaters of two paper mills which produce technical and other fine papers. The treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation follo...

414

COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal wastewater sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. C...

415

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-print Network

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

416

Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

Jolly, Clifford D.

1991-01-01

417

Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization  

DOEpatents

The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

Shah, Lalit S. (Sugar Land, TX)

2003-03-18

418

HANDBOOK FOR MONITORING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook provides technical information for manufacturers establishing a wastewater monitoring program. opics discussed include: program planning, analytical considerations, sampling, data analysis, special considerations for municipal systems, and safety. he handbook contai...

419

Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

2011-06-01

420

Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.  

PubMed

Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design. PMID:19759449

Smith, B R

2009-01-01

421

Treatment of a wastewater from a pesticide manufacture by combined coagulation and Fenton oxidation.  

PubMed

The treatment of a non-biodegradable agrochemical wastewater has been studied by coupling of preliminary coagulation-flocculation step and further Fenton oxidation. High percentages of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (up to 58 %) were achieved in a first step using polyferric chloride as coagulant. This reduced significantly the amount of H2O2 required in the further Fenton oxidation. Using the stoichiometric amount relative to COD around 80 % of the remaining organic load was mineralized. The combined treatment allowed achieving the regional discharge limits of ecotoxicity at a cost substantially lower than the solution used so far where these wastewaters are managed as hazardous wastes. PMID:24764009

Pliego, G; Zazo, J A; Pariente, M I; Rodríguez, I; Petre, A L; Leton, P; García, J

2014-11-01

422

Optimized Control Structure for a Wastewater Treatment Benchmark  

E-print Network

Optimized Control Structure for a Wastewater Treatment Benchmark Michela Mulas , Antonio Carlos structure design the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant can be improved, minimizing operational WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Wastewater treatment plant pro

Skogestad, Sigurd

423

40 CFR 421.144 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...Subcategory § 421.144 Standards of performance for new sources...following new source performance standards: (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. NSPS for...

2011-07-01

424

40 CFR 421.144 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...Subcategory § 421.144 Standards of performance for new sources...following new source performance standards: (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. NSPS for...

2012-07-01

425

40 CFR 421.144 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...Subcategory § 421.144 Standards of performance for new sources...following new source performance standards: (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. NSPS for...

2013-07-01

426

40 CFR 421.144 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING...Subcategory § 421.144 Standards of performance for new sources...following new source performance standards: (a) Sodium Antimonate Autoclave Wastewater. NSPS for...

2014-07-01

427

Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

2008-12-01

428

Hydrophilic anthropogenic markers for quantification of wastewater contamination in ground- and surface waters.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic, persistent markers are useful to detect, locate, and quantify contamination of natural waters with domestic wastewater. The present study focused on occurrence and fate of seven marker candidates including carbamazepine (CBZ), 10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepine (DiOH-CBZ), primidone (PMD), crotamiton (CTMT), N-acetyl-4-aminoantipyrine (AAA), N-formyl-4-aminoantipyrine (FAA), and benzotriazole (BTri) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), lakes, and groundwater. In WWTPs, concentrations from 0.14 microg/L to several micrograms per liter were observed for all substances, except CTMT, which was detected at lower concentrations. Loads determined in untreated and treated wastewater indicated that removal of the potential markers in WWTPs is negligible; only BTri was partly eliminated (average 33%). In lakes, five compounds, CBZ, DiOH-CBZ, FAA, AAA, and BTri, were consistently detected in concentrations of 2 to 70 ng/L, 3 to 150 ng/L, less than the limit of quantification to 30 ng/L, 2 to 80 ng/L, and 11 to 920 ng/L, respectively. Mean per capita loads in the outflows of the lakes suggested possible dissipation in surface waters, especially of AAA and FAA. Nevertheless, concentrations of CBZ, DiOH-CBZ, and BTri correlated with the actual anthropogenic burden of the lakes by domestic wastewater, indicating that these compounds are suitable for quantification of wastewater contamination in lakes. Marker candidates were also detected in a number of groundwater samples. Carbamazepine concentrations up to 42 ng/L were observed in aquifers with significant infiltration of river water, receiving considerable wastewater discharges from WWTPs. Concentration ratios between compounds indicated some elimination of BTri and DiOH-CBZ during subsurface passage or in groundwater, while CBZ and PMD appeared to be more stable and thus are promising wastewater markers for groundwater. The wastewater burden in groundwater, estimated with the markers CBZ and PMD, reached up to 6%. PMID:19681643

Kahle, Maren; Buerge, Ignaz J; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

2009-12-01

429

Application of a prototype-scale Twin-Layer photobioreactor for effective N and P removal from different process stages of municipal wastewater by immobilized microalgae.  

PubMed

In the view of limited phosphorous resources and tightened discharge regulations, the recovery of phosphate and nitrate from wastewater is of great interest. Here, the integration of microalgae into wastewater treatment processes is a promising approach. A prototype-scale Twin-Layer photobioreactor immobilizing the green alga Halochlorella rubescens on vertical sheet-like surfaces was constructed and operated using primary and secondary municipal wastewater. The process was not impaired by suspended solids, bacteria or loss of algal biomass by leaching. The average areal microalgal growth was 6.3 gm(-2) d(-1). After treatment, P and N concentrations in the effluents could efficiently be reduced by 70-99%, depending on element and type of wastewater. Mean effluent values of ? 1.0mg L(-1)P and 1.3 mg L(-1)N met the legal discharge limits of the European Water Framework Directive and show a potential to comply with upcoming, more stringent legislation. PMID:24412478

Shi, Jing; Podola, Björn; Melkonian, Michael

2014-02-01

430

40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

2010-07-01

431

Oscillations in glow discharges  

E-print Network

OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW DISCHARGES A Dissertation By Tom Prickett, Jr. June 1950 Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Committee OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW DISCHARGES A Dissertation By Tom Prickett, Jr* June 1950 OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW...* Comparison of Frequencies with Pierce*s Equation........................................ ?Jj-7 VI. Mobility of G a s e s .................................... I4.9 OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW DISCHARGES INTRODUCTION In a library investigation of the different...

Prickett, Tom

2013-10-04

432

Influence of the salinity adjustment methods, salts and brine, on the toxicity of wastewater samples to mussel embryos.  

PubMed

One of the main problems of the Whole Effluent Toxicity is related to the use of bioindicator species representative of the target environment. Most wastewater discharges are of fresh water, so their salinity has to be adjusted when they are discharged to transitional and marine coastal waters, in order to perform toxicity bioassays with reliable organisms. At the moment, there is no optimum technique to allow sample salinity to be adjusted and no specific information regarding salinity adjustment when bivalves are being considered for toxicity test performance. This paper provides information on the potential use of different methods to adjust the salinity of hotel/domestic wastewater samples with different brands of natural and synthetic Dry Salts (DS) and HyperSaline Brine (HSB) for use in the embryo larval development bioassay with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. HyperSaline Brine derived from reconstructed artificial seawater proved to be more viable for wastewater salinity adjustment than DS. PMID:19213470

Libralato, G; Losso, C; Avezzù, F; Volpi Ghirardini, A

2009-01-01

433

WATER AND WASTEWATER POLISHING USING 3M SELECTIVE SEPARATION REMEDIATION CARTRIDGE TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

3M has developed technology for selectively removing trace levels of dissolved contaminant materials from liquids using systems operating at flow rates up to 50 gallons per minute. This technology combines active particle chemistries with a particle-loaded membrane to achieve a new medium for liquid waste processing--a spiral wound filter cartridge. This technology has shown success by generating high decontamination factors and reducing contaminants to part per trillion levels. The spiral wound cartridge offers simplified installation, convenient replacement, and clean, easy disposal of a concentrated waste. By incorporating small, high surface area particles (5 to 80 microns) into a sturdy, yet porous, membrane greater removal efficiencies of even trace contaminants can be achieved at higher flow rates than with conventional column systems. In addition, the captive-particle medium prevents channeling of liquids and insures uniform flow across the sorbing particle surface. The cartridges fit into standard, commercially-available housings and whole system capital costs are substantially lower than those of column or reverse osmosis systems. Developmental work at high degrees of water polishing have included removal of mercury from contaminated wastewater, various radionuclides from process water, and organometallic species from surface water discharges. Laboratory testing and on-site demonstration data of these applications show the levels of success that have been achieved thus far.

Hoffmann, K. M.; Scanlan, T. J.; Seely, D. C.

2002-02-25

434

[Treatment of municipal wastewater using the combined reversed A2/O-MBR process].  

PubMed

For the treatment of municipal wastewater, the effects of the reversed A2/O-MBR system on COD, NH4+ -N, TN, TP, SS and transmembrane pressure (TMP) were investigated through two-point feeding. The results indicated that the removal efficiencies for COD and NH4+ -N were high in the system, the effluent met the requirements of the Class A in first grade discharge standard of GB 18918-2002. The effluent TN was < 15 mg x L(-1) when the reflux ratio of nitrification was 200%, whereas the average TP removal rate was 90% after the excessive sludge was removed. The effluent SS was < 10 mg x L(-1) before the large-scale breakage of membrane. The TMP increased gradually with the operation of the system, if the way of aeration was not correct, the TMP would increase quickly. Efficient separation by the membrane contributed to the removal of COD, TP and SS. Because there was no sludge washout in the system, SRT could be properly controlled, it was good for the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria which both have long life-cycle. Even if the inflow was increased to 1.5 fold, the effluent quality was good when the sludge concentration was increased to 6500 mg x L(-1). PMID:23914535

Zhang, Jian-jun; Zou, Gao-long; Yang, Shu-fang; Ding, Xing; Wang, Li; Mao, Qian-zhuang; Yang, Dan

2013-05-01

435

High-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient operating temperatures: A review on benefits and drawbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current knowledge on high-rate anaerobic sewage treatment at ambient operating temperatures while presenting the benefits and drawbacks. Since domestic sewage is reported as the main point-source pollutant on a global scale, its treatment deserves ample research. In most of the cities and towns of some developing countries, wastewater produced in households is still discharged into the

Cigdem Yangin Gomec

2010-01-01

436

Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

437

TOXICITY REDUCTION AT MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatment plants receiving wastewaters from domestic/commercial sources and receiving wastewater from domestic/commercial plus industrial sources were evaluated to assess toxicity reduction and determine the importance of source. Seven-day renewal fathead minnow survival and grow...

438

Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.  

PubMed

The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis. PMID:22755529

Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

2012-01-01

439

Ozone/UV treatment to enhance biodegradation of surfactants in industrial wastewater. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

The new owners of a surfactant manufacturing plant wanted to triple production but were limited by the plant`s wastewater treatment capacity. Mass balance calculations indicated that little aerobic biodegradation was occurring in the plant`s wastewater treatment system. Literature reviews and laboratory tests confirmed that as much as 60% of the plant`s products might resist aerobic biodegradation. Overall chemical losses, both solid and aqueous, were estimated at 3.8% of theoretical. Organic loadings to the wastewater treatment system were 170 kg/d of which 50 kg/d reached the biological treatment system. Pollution prevention measures have allowed a > 20% increase in production levels with a > 30% decrease in effluent volume and no increase in discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A new dissolved air flotation (DAF) system removes 70% of the organic loading. Sludge volumes are lower by an order of magnitude than with the clarifier/drum-filter process it replaced.

Cline, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sullivan, P.F. [Specialty Industrial Products, Inc., Spartanburg, SC (United States); Lovejoy, M.A.; Collier, J. [Sun River Innovations, Ltd., Lexington, KY (United States); Adams, C.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1996-10-01

440

Performance assessment of AS-SBR and UF-MBR for hotel wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A large number of tourist structures in Venice (Italy) have small sized on-site treatment systems for their wastewater. Due to its historical characteristics, the city has no public sewerage system and untreated hotel wastewater represents a serious hazard for its lagoon environment. This study focused on the wastewater facilities installed in two hotels adopting an Activated Sludge Sequencing Batch Reactor (AS-SBR) and an Ultra-Filtration Membrane Biological Reactor (UF-MBR). Their performance was checked in terms of both traditional physico-chemical and ecotoxicological parameters, the importance of which has recently been recognised by EU regulatory dispositions and OSPAR indications. Acute and sub-chronic endpoints were both considered on a whole effluent toxicity basis by means of Vibrio fischeri and Crassostrea gigas, respectively. The two months monitoring survey evidenced that the UF-MBR was more efficient than the AS-SBR in providing high-quality discharges under both chemical and ecotoxicological viewpoints. PMID:19809133

Libralato, G; Volpi Ghirardini, A; Avezzù, F

2009-01-01

441

Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

2013-12-01

442

Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

2014-02-01

443

Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

444

Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater  

E-print Network

processes (via wastewater treatment plants, or domestic septic systems), which often are not designedPharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 1999 as biogenic hormones are released directly to the environment after passing through wastewater treatment

445

MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.  

PubMed

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal. PMID:22508128

Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

2012-01-01

446

Calculating Stream Discharge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Streamflow, or discharge, is defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the volume of water flowing past a fixed point in a fixed unit of time. The discharge of a stream can be affected by many things, including topography and channel morphology. How

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

447

Discharge Measurement of Streamflow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are divided into small groups. Each group chooses a channel cross section and makes a discharge measurement both using a current meter and a surface float. Students share the data collected in the lab but each student calculates discharge on their own and answers related questions. Designed for a geomorphology course

Cowan, Ellen

448

Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes  

DOEpatents

The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1994-01-01

449

Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes  

DOEpatents

The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

1994-08-23

450

Chloride mass balance to quantify the wastewater impact on karstified carbonate aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources are vulnerable to anthropogenic influences, like i.e. wastewater disposal in the environment. This is especially critical in karstified carbonate aquifers, because of the partially high flow velocities, resulting in an insufficient attenuation potential against pollutants. To assess the health risk associated with the pollution of the groundwater and for remediation measures planning, the wastewater impact on groundwater resources needs to be quantified. For this purpose the analysis of conservative tracer substances, abundant in the wastewater, is considered a suitable technique. Among the substances considered as tracers, chloride exhibits superior characteristics, the only drawback being the usually high natural background concentration in groundwater. As the chloride ion is not removed by common wastewater treatment processes, it is indicative of both treated and untreated wastewater. In this study, an example for a semi-arid karstified carbonate aquifer system is presented. The study area is located on the western margin of the Lower Jordan Valley (West Bank). The upper aquifer is discharged via several springs. For the springs in the study area, time series of chloride concentration in spring water from 1967-98 were interpreted. The study area displays a high population growth, which results in a steadily increasing wastewater discharge amount. The wastewater is mostly infiltrating into the karst system. First, the long-term average groundwater recharge rate of the local aquifers that fed the springs was quantified with the chloride mass balance method from groundwater data that are little influenced by anthropogenic impacts. The chloride concentration in the local precipitation is 9-10 mg/l and the average value in groundwater is 31 mg/l. This yields a mean recharge rate of around 30 percent. Second, the fraction of groundwater recharge, resulting from the infiltration of wastewater from leaky sewer systems and from wastewater disposal in the environment, is calculated from a classical end member mixing model. The chloride concentration of the wastewater is estimated to be 300 mg/l. From spring water sampling in autumn 2011, the springs exhibit wastewater-borne discharge fractions of several tenth of a percent up to 20 percent. The spring "Sultan" in Jericho is an important domestic water source since thousands of years. For this spring, chloride concentration was determined over one hydrological year in a high time resolution. The results show, that the wastewater impact is time-variant. The highest mass flow of chloride is triggered by large precipitation events in the recharge area of the springs. The mean wastewater-borne fraction over the monitoring period was calculated to be about seven percent. The results of the research enable the planning of remediation measures, however more exploration is needed to delineate the groundwater catchments. Furthermore, the study underlines the value of long-term monitoring, even at a comparatively low time resolution.

Schmidt, S.; Nuseibeh, M.; Geyer, T.; Abdelghafour, D.; Al-Naji, G.; Bsharat, J.; Sawalhi, B.; Guttman, J.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

451

Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance  

SciTech Connect

This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)

Tucker, B.J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Salem, NH (United States); Arndt, S. [Safety and Ecology Corporation, Maywood, NJ (United States)

2007-07-01

452

Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

1988-01-01

453

A framework of pediatric hospital discharge care informed by legislation, research, and practice.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, no widely used pediatric standards for hospital discharge care exist, despite nearly 10?000 pediatric discharges per day in the United States. This lack of standards undermines the quality of pediatric hospital discharge, hinders quality-improvement efforts, and adversely affects the health and well-being of children and their families after they leave the hospital. In this article, we first review guidance regarding the discharge process for adult patients, including federal law within the Social Security Act that outlines standards for hospital discharge; a variety of toolkits that aim to improve discharge care; and the research evidence that supports the discharge process. We then outline a framework within which to organize the diverse activities that constitute discharge care to be executed throughout the hospitalization of a child from admission to the actual discharge. In the framework, we describe processes to (1) initiate pediatric discharge care, (2) develop discharge care plans, (3) monitor discharge progress, and (4) finalize discharge. We contextualize these processes with a clinical case of a child undergoing hospital discharge. Use of this narrative review will help pediatric health care professionals (eg, nurses, social workers, and physicians) move forward to better understand what works and what does not during hospital discharge for children, while steadily improving their quality of care and health outcomes. PMID:25155156

Berry, Jay G; Blaine, Kevin; Rogers, Jayne; McBride, Sarah; Schor, Edward; Birmingham, Jackie; Schuster, Mark A; Feudtner, Chris

2014-10-01

454

Monitoring hospital wastewaters for their probable genotoxicity and mutagenicity.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Excluding the genetic factors, environmental factors, mainly the pollutants, have been implicated in the causation of the majority of cancers. Wastewater originated from health-care sectors such as hospitals may carry vast amounts of carcinogenic and genotoxic chemicals to surface waters or any other source of drinking water, if discharged untreated. Humans get exposed to such contaminants through a variety of ways including drinking water. The aim of the present study was, thus, to monitor the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of wastewaters from three big hospitals located in Jaipur (Rajasthan), India. One of them was operating an effluent treatment plant (ETP) for treatment of its wastewater and therefore both the untreated and treated effluents from this hospital were studied for their genotoxicity. Two short-term bacterial bioassays namely the Salmonella fluctuation assay and the SOS chromotest were used for the purpose. Results of fluctuation assay revealed the highly genotoxic nature of all untreated effluent samples with mutagenicity ratios (MR) up to 23.13?±?0.18 and 42.25?±?0.35 as measured with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, respectively. As determined with the chromotest, all untreated effluents produced significant induction factors (IF) ranging from 3.29?±?1.11 to 13.35?±?3.58 at higher concentrations. In contrast, treated effluent samples were found to be slightly genotoxic in fluctuation test only with an MR?=?3.75?±?0.35 for TA100 at 10 % concentration. Overall, the results indicated that proper treatment of hospital wastewaters may render the effluents safe for disposal contrary to the untreated ones, possessing high genotoxic potential. PMID:25487460

Sharma, Pratibha; Mathur, N; Singh, A; Sogani, M; Bhatnagar, P; Atri, R; Pareek, S

2015-01-01

455

Use of secondary-treated wastewater for the production of Muriellopsis sp.  

PubMed

In this paper, the use of secondary-treated wastewater as the culture medium for the production of Muriellopsis sp. microalgal biomass is analyzed. Using this wastewater, a maximum biomass productivity of 0.5 g?l(-1)?day(-1) was measured, it being only 38 % lower than that achieved using the standard culture medium. Due to the low nitrogen content of secondary-treated wastewater, cultures produced in a medium containing a high percentage of it become nitrate-limited, thus the quantum yield reduces by up to 0.38 g?E(-1)--this compares to 0.67 g?E(-1) when using a standard culture medium. On the other hand, nitrate limitation enhances the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates, with values measured at 33 and 66 % dry weight, respectively. It was also demonstrated that secondary-treated wastewater does not have any toxic effect on the growth of Muriellopsis sp. in spite of nitrogen being in the form of ammonium rather than in nitrate. Moreover, the secondary-treated wastewater was depurated when used to produce Muriellopsis sp., with the outlet biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand being lower than at the inlet; the nitrate and phosphate concentrations were zero. Therefore, Muriellopsis sp. production using secondary-treated wastewater allows a reduction in the process cost by decreasing freshwater and fertilizer use, as well as by depurating the water, thus greatly enhancing process sustainability. PMID:23371293

Gómez, C; Escudero, R; Morales, M M; Figueroa, F L; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Acién, F G

2013-03-01

456

Organics removal of combined wastewater through shallow soil infiltration treatment: A field and laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) was proved to be an effective and low-cost treatment technique for decentralized effluents in the areas without perfect sewage systems. Field-scale experiments were conducted under several conditions to assess organics removals through a shallow soil infiltration treatment (SSIT, with effective depth 0.3m) of combined wastewater (discharge from toilets, restaurants and a gas station), while bench-scale soil

Zhiyin Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Zhenya Zhang; Norio Sugiura; Xiaotian Xu; Didi Yin

2007-01-01

457

Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review\\u000a the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While\\u000a urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs\\u000a can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological

Richard O. Carey; Kati W. Migliaccio

2009-01-01

458

Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal from high strength domestic wastewater in an aerobic RBC biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

High strength domestic wastewater discharges after no\\/partial treatment through sewage treatment plants or septic tank seepage field systems have resulted in a large build-up of groundwater nitrates in Rajasthan, India. The groundwater table is very deep and nitrate concentrations of 500–750mg\\/l (113–169 as NO3?-N) are commonly found. A novel biofilm in a 3-stage lab-scale rotating biological contactor (RBC) was developed

A. B Gupta; S. K Gupta

2001-01-01

459

Purified terephthalic acid wastewater biodegradation and toxicity.  

PubMed

The biodegradation and toxicity of the purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater was researched at NJYZ pilot with the fusant strain Fhhh in the carrier activated sludge process (CASP). Sludge loading rate (SLR) for Fhhh to COD of the wastewater was 1.09 d(-1) and to PTA in the wastewater was 0.29 d(-1). The results of bioassay at the pilot and calculation with software Ebis3 showed that the 48h-LC50 (median lethal concentration) to Daphnia magna for the PTA concentration in the wastewater was only 1/10 of that for the chemical PTA. There were 5 kinds of benzoate pollutants and their toxicities existing in the wastewater at least. The toxicity parameter value of the pure chemical PTA cannot be used to predicate the PTA wastewater toxicity. The toxicity of the NJYZ PTA wastewater will be discussed in detail in this paper. PMID:16313024

Zhang, Xu-xiang; Wan, Yu-qiu; Cheng, Shu-pei; Sun, Shi-lei; Zhu, Cheng-jun; Li, Wei-xin; Zhang, Xiao-chun; Wang, Gui-lin; Lu, Jian-hua; Luo, Xiang; Gu, Ji-dong

2005-01-01

460

Sources of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in urban wastewater, Oakland, CA.  

PubMed

Synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been found in surface waters throughout the United States, and are known to enter waterways via discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Studies addressing EDCs in wastewater do not examine their specific sources upstream of WWTPs. Presented here are results of a pilot study of potential sources of selected EDCs within an urban wastewater service area. Twenty-one wastewater samples were collected from a range of sites, including 16 residential, commercial, or industrial samples, and five samples from influent and effluent streams at the WWTP. Samples were analyzed for the following known and suspected EDCs: five phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, 4-nonylphenol (NP), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), using well-established methods (EPA 625 and USGS O-1433-01). Twenty of 21 samples contained at least one EDC. Phthalates were widely detected; one or more phthalate compound was identified in 19 of 21 samples. Measurement of two phthalates in a field blank sample suggests that the accuracy of sample detections for these two compounds may be compromised by background contamination. Triclosan was detected in nine samples, BPA in five samples, and TCEP in four samples; NP was not detected. The results of this and future source-specific studies may be used to develop targeted pollution prevention strategies to reduce levels of EDCs in wastewater. PMID:18684489

Jackson, Jennifer; Sutton, Rebecca

2008-11-01

461

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology for the treatment ofbio-refractory wastewater. In this research, advanced treatment of coking wastewater which had previously undergone A/O (anaerobic-aerobic biological) treatment was investigated over Ti/RuO2 x IrO2 anode, stainless steel cathode and coke powder particle electrodes which were packed into the electrodes in a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor (BTDR). The results showed that the removal efficiency of COD and ammonia nitrogen increased with applied current density. The main influencing factors of BTDR were evaluated by an orthogonal test, including reaction time, plate distance, current density, plate amounts and aeration flow rate. With reaction time of 60 min, plate distance of 1.0 cm, current density of 20 mA/cm2 and plate amounts of four pairs, most of the contaminants in coking wastewater can be remediated by BTDR, which can then meet the discharge limit for coking wastewater in China. For organic pollutants, 12 kinds of organic pollutants can be completely removed, and the removal efficiencies of 11 kinds of organic pollutants are between 13.3 and 70.3% by advanced treatment with BTDR. We conclude that there is great potential for BTDR in engineering applications as a final treatment for coking wastewater. PMID:24350493

Zhang, Chunhui; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen

2013-01-01

462

Microalgal cultivation in wastewater from the fermentation effluent in Riboflavin (B2) manufacturing for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

In this work, the acclimation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in diluted wastewater was studied to produce biomass and remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-N and phosphorous. The results indicated that the optimal conditions (the volume ratio of wastewater, light intensity, culture temperature, CO2 concentration in feeding gas) which could influence the wastewater treatment efficiency were 0.05, 250 photons m(-2) s(-1), 28 °C and 5%, respectively. Under these conditions, the removal efficiency of COD reached up to 89.2%, while the total nitrogen and total phosphorous decreased by 64.52% and 82.20%, respectively. With the second treatment, COD in the wastewater was further reduced to less than 100 mg/L while it was only reduced to 542.9 mg/L after the first treatment. The treated wastewater could be discharged directly or subjected to for further treatment for recycling. In addition, 1.25 g/L of the biomass and 38.27% (dry basis, w%) of lipid content were reached after microalgal cultivation. PMID:23831749

Sun, Xuefei; Wang, Cunwen; Li, Zihao; Wang, Weiguo; Tong, Yanjie; Wei, Jiang

2013-09-01

463

Simultaneous domestic wastewater treatment and renewable energy production using microbial fuel cells (MFCs).  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCS) can be used in wastewater treatment and to simultaneously produce electricity (renewable energy). MFC technology has already been applied successfully in lab-scale studies to treat domestic wastewater, focussing on organic matter removal and energy production. However, domestic wastewater also contains nitrogen that needs to be treated before being discharged. The goal of this paper is to assess simultaneous domestic wastewater treatment and energy production using an air-cathode MFC, paying special attention to nitrogen compound transformations. An air-cathode MFC was designed and run treating 1.39 L d(-1) of wastewater with an organic load rate of 7.2 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) (80% removal efficiency) and producing 1.42 W m(-3). In terms of nitrogen transformations, the study demonstrates that two different processes took place in the MFC: physical-chemical and biological. Nitrogen loss was observed increasing in line with the power produced. A low level of oxygen was present in the anodic compartment, and ammonium was oxidised to nitrite and nitrate. PMID:22097078

Puig, S; Serra, M; Coma, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

2011-01-01

464

Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.  

PubMed

As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment. PMID:24965093

Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

2014-07-01

465

Inputs of fossil carbon from wastewater treatment plants to U.S. Rivers and oceans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Every day more than 500 million cubic meters of treated wastewater are discharged into rivers, estuaries, and oceans, an amount slightly less than the average flow of the Danube River. Typically, wastewaters have high organic carbon (OC) concentrations and represent a large fraction of total river flow and a higher fraction of river OC in densely populated watersheds. Here, we report the first direct measurements of radiocarbon (14C) in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The radiocarbon ages of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC) in effluent are old and relatively uniform across a range of WWTPs in New York and Connecticut. Wastewater DOC has a mean radiocarbon age of 1630 ?? 500 years B.P. and a mean ??13C of -26.0 ?? 1???. Mass balance calculations indicate that 25% of wastewater DOC is fossil carbon, which is likely derived from petroleumbased household products such as detergents and pharmaceuticals. Thesefindings warrant reevaluation of the "apparent age" of riverine DOC, the total flux of petroleum carbon to U.S. oceans, and OC source assignments in waters impacted by sewage. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

Griffith, D.R.; Barnes, R.T.; Raymond, P.A.

2009-01-01

466

Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.  

PubMed

Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (P<0.05) faster than that observed with synthetic wastewater (with similar CN concentration). A combined application of H(2)O(2)/O(3) was found to be the best option for maximum CN destruction. This treatment allows CN to reach the regional/international limit (of 0.02 mg/L) for safe industrial wastewater discharges to the receiving water bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater. PMID:19022578

Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

2009-05-30

467

Faecal pollution loads in the wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies: a potential threat to the health of Sedibeng and Soshanguve communities, South Africa.  

PubMed

The discharge of untreated or inadequately treated effluents has been identified among the activities responsible for the spread of a wide range of potentially infectious agents. The aim of this study was to determine whether inadequate treatment of wastewater and the faecal pollution load of effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng District and Soshanguve peri-urban area of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality could be a potential threat to the health of the surrounding communities. Variations in the counts of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms and compliance of the effluents and receiving water bodies with South African and World Health Organization standards were assessed between August 2011 and May 2012 using culture-based methods and molecular techniques. The overall quality of effluents did not comply with the South African special standard of no risk for unrestricted irrigation (zero?Escherichia coli/100 ml). The quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with South African regulatory limits set for domestic purposes (zero?E.?coli/100 ml, <30 faecal enterococci/100 ml and <1 somatic coliphages/100 ml), for full contact recreation (<20 somatic coliphages/100 ml) and aquaculture (<10?E.?coli/100 ml) and WHO standards for full and intermediate contact recreational use (<1?E.?coli/100 ml and <40 faecal enterococci/100 ml, respectively). The PCR results revealed the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms; between 0 and 60 % of samples tested positive for Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae, and between 20 and 60% of samples tested positive for Vibrio cholerae. These findings demonstrated that potential health risks might be associated with the use of the target river waters for domestic, recreational and irrigation purposes. This study calls for a prompt intervention to improve wastewater management. PMID:24838129

Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z; Coetzee, Martie A A; Momba, Maggy N B

2014-08-01

468

Tracking Down Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in a Wastewater Network  

PubMed Central

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa-containing wastewater released by hospitals is treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), generating sludge, which is used as a fertilizer, and effluent, which is discharged into rivers. We evaluated the risk of dissemination of antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa (AR-PA) from the hospital to the environment via the wastewater network. Over a 10-week period, we sampled weekly 11 points (hospital and urban wastewater, untreated and treated water, sludge) of the wastewater network and the river upstream and downstream of the WWTP of a city in eastern France. We quantified the P. aeruginosa load by colony counting. We determined the susceptibility to 16 antibiotics of 225 isolates, which we sorted into three categories (wild-type, antibiotic-resistant and multidrug-resistant). Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) were identified by gene sequencing. All non-wild-type isolates (n?=?56) and a similar number of wild-type isolates (n?=?54) were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Almost all the samples (105/110, 95.5%) contained P. aeruginosa, with high loads in hospital wastewater and sludge (?3×106 CFU/l or/kg). Most of the multidrug-resistant isolates belonged to ST235, CC111 and ST395. They were found in hospital wastewater and some produced ESBLs such as PER-1 and MBLs such as IMP-29. The WWTP greatly reduced P. aeruginosa counts in effluent, but the P. aeruginosa load in the river was nonetheless higher downstream than upstream from the WWTP. We conclude that the antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa released by hospitals is found in the water downstream from the WWTP and in sludge, constituting a potential risk of environmental contamination. PMID:23284623

Slekovec, Céline; Plantin, Julie; Cholley, Pascal; Thouverez, Michelle; Talon, Daniel; Bertrand, Xavier; Hocquet, Didier

2012-01-01

469

Quantitative Detection of Human Adenoviruses in Wastewater and Combined Sewer Overflows Influencing a Michigan River?  

PubMed Central

Enteric viruses are important pathogens found in contaminated surface waters and have previously been detected in waters of the Great Lakes. Human adenoviruses were monitored because of their high prevalence and persistence in aquatic environments. In this study, we quantified adenoviruses in wastewater, surface water, and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) by real-time PCR. Between August 2005 and August 2006, adenovirus concentrations in raw sewage, primary-treated effluent, secondary-treated effluent, and chlorinated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in Michigan were examined. CSO samples (n = 6) were collected from a CSO retention basin in Grand Rapids, MI. Adenoviruses were detected in 100% of wastewater and CSO discharge samples. Average adenovirus DNA concentrations in sewage and CSOs were 1.15 × 106 viruses/liter and 5.35 × 105 viruses/liter, respectively. Adenovirus removal was <2 log10 (99%) at the wastewater treatment plant. Adenovirus type 41 (60% of clones), type 12 (29%), type 40 (3%), type 2 (3%), and type 3 (3%) were isolated from raw sewage and primary effluents (n = 28). Six of 20 surface water samples from recreational parks at the lower Grand River showed virus concentrations above the real-time PCR detection limit (average, 7.8 × 103 viruses/liter). This research demonstrates that wastewater effluents and wastewater-impacted surface waters in the lower Grand River in Michigan contain high levels of viruses and may not be suitable for full-body recreational activities. High concentrations of adenovirus in these waters may be due to inefficient removal during wastewater treatment and to the high persistence of these viruses in the environment. PMID:19948848

Fong, Theng-Theng; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Xagoraraki, Irene; Rose, Joan B.

2010-01-01

470

Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

471

Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

2004-03-31

472

Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

473

Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

1979-01-01

474

40 CFR 437.3 - General pretreatment standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 437.3 General...subject to this part that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) must comply with 40 CFR...

2010-07-01

475

40 CFR 461.43 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...forth below: (1) Subpart D—Foliar Battery Miscellaneous Wash—NSPS. Pollutant...process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than...

2014-07-01

476

40 CFR 461.13 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium...allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above....

2014-07-01

477

40 CFR 420.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards set forth below. (a) Sulfuric acid pickling (spent acid solutions...grease shall be applicable when acid pickling wastewaters are treated...fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b)...

2013-07-01

478

40 CFR 420.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards set forth below. (a) Sulfuric acid pickling (spent acid solutions...grease shall be applicable when acid pickling wastewaters are treated...fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b)...

2012-07-01

479

40 CFR 420.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards set forth below. (a) Sulfuric acid pickling (spent acid solutions...grease shall be applicable when acid pickling wastewaters are treated...fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b)...

2011-07-01

480

40 CFR 420.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...standards set forth below. (a) Sulfuric acid pickling (spent acid solutions...grease shall be applicable when acid pickling wastewaters are treated...fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b)...

2014-07-01