Science.gov

Sample records for wastewater discharge standard

  1. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  2. Victoria`s wastewater discharges: Effects on the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.A.; Miller, R.A.; Pym, R.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Capital Regional District discharges screened wastewater through two long deep outfalls into Juan de Fuca Strait, a water body bordered by both Canada and the US. Concerns have been expressed about the effects of this discharge on water quality in US waters. The wastewater is released into an oceanic environment characterized by strong turbulent tidal flows. Monitoring of the receiving waters has indicated that conventional water quality parameters have not been affected by the discharges. Fecal coliform levels above the outfalls are periodically elevated but remain well below the swimming standard. Shoreline studies of fecal coliform levels have shown that the deep outfalls have not measurably affected water quality at beaches. Recently, monitoring efforts have concentrated on effects to the seafloor environment. One of the outfalls (Macaulay Point) discharges to a depositional environment. At Macaulay Point chemical levels of concern were confined to within 100--400 m of the outfall with the exception of high PAH levels associated with the shipwreck of a collier. Similarly, sediment toxicity was detected at stations up to 400 m from the diffusers. This toxicity was limited to effects on growth and development. Survival was not affected. The benthic infaunal community exhibited a typical response to organic enrichment. Within 100 m of the outfall abundance was increased and richness depressed. The other outfall (Clover Point) discharges to an area of cobble substrate. Consequently, sediment analysis was not practical. Instead, tissue chemistry of resident mussels was examined. No consistent pattern with distance from the outfall was evident. Some tissue chemicals increased with distance from the diffuser while others decreased. Overall the impact of the outfalls on the seafloor was found to be minimal and restricted in extent.

  3. Zero wastewater discharge from a 30-MW cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, K.P. ); Campo, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on deteriorating well- water supply quality and increasing regulatory constraints on wastewater disposal combined which forced the County of Los Angeles to construct a zero wastewater discharge facility adjacent to its 30-MW (nominal) combined-cycle/cogeneration plant at the 3,800-acre Pitchess Honor Rancho penal institution 40 miles northwest of Los Angeles.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Wastewater. 63.1256 Section 63.1256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for...

  5. Impacts of urban wastewater discharge on seagrass meadows ( Zostera noltii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabao, Susana; Machs, Raquel; Vieira, Vasco; Santos, Rui

    2008-06-01

    The abiotic disturbance of urban wastewater discharge and its effects in the population structure, plant morphology, leaf nutrient content, epiphyte load and macroalgae abundance of Zostera noltii meadows were investigated in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, southern Portugal using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Four sites were assessed, on a seasonal basis, along a gradient from a major Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW) discharge to a main navigation channel. The wastewater discharge caused an evident environmental disturbance through the nutrient enrichment of the water and sediment, particularly of ammonium. Zostera noltii of the sites closest to the nutrient source showed higher leaf N content, clearly reflecting the nitrogen load. The anthropogenic nutrient enrichment resulted in higher biomass, and higher leaf and internode length, except for the meadow closest to the wastewater discharge (270 m). The high ammonium concentration (158-663 ?M) in the water at this site resulted in the decrease of biomass, and both the leaf and internode length, suggesting a toxic effect on Z. noltii. The higher abundance of macroalgae and epiphytes found in the meadow closest to the nutrient source may also affect the species negatively. Shoot density was higher at the nutrient-undisturbed site. Two of the three abiotic processes revealed by Principal Component Analysis were clearly related to the WWTW discharge, a contrast between water column salinity and nutrient concentration and a sediment contrast between both porewater nutrients and temperature and redox potential. A multiple regression analysis showed that these abiotic processes had a significant effect on the biomass-density dynamics of meadows and on the overall size of Z. noltii plants, respectively. Results show that the wastewater discharge is an important source of environmental disturbance and nutrients availability in Ria Formosa lagoon affecting the population structure, morphology and N content of Z. noltii. This impact is spatially restricted to areas up to 600 m distant from the WWTW discharge, probably due to the high water renewal of the lagoon.

  6. Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

  7. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Sun Mok; Hyun, Tae Ahn; Joeng, Tai Kim

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  8. Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

  9. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)-derived national discharge loads of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Im, Jong-Kwon; Kang, Young-Min; Jung, Se-Young; Kho, Yeong Lim; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2012-01-30

    The discharge of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) was investigated for 15 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), comprising 25% of total domestic wastewater and 23% of total industrial wastewater produced in Korea. PFCs concentrations in influent, effluent, and sludge were greater in industrial wastewater than in the majority of domestic wastewater. Individual PFCs were found to have differing industrial sources, with perfluorocarboxylates used in fabric/textiles, paper-mill, and dyeing industries, and perfluoroalkylsulfonates occurring in oil/chemical and metal-plating/processing industries. Total WWTP-derived national discharge loads were calculated based on the average concentrations in effluents and the total volume of wastewaters produced in Korea. The average WWTP-derived national discharge loads of individual PFCs were 0.04-0.61 ton/year, with 63% of perfluorooctanoate being from domestic wastewater, and 75% of perfluorooctanesulfonate being from industrial wastewater. These estimates accounted for the majority of national emissions, based on measurements in major river mouths, indicating the major contribution of WWTPs to PFC occurrence in Korean aquatic environments. Both the per capita emission factor (μg/capita/day) for domestic discharge, and area-normalized national discharge loads (g/capita/km(2)/day) for all wastewaters were several factors lower in Korea than in Japan or Europe, which is consistent with the lower levels of human exposure to PFCs in Korea. PMID:22169145

  10. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge on stream quality in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants from point and other urban sources affect stream quality in Indian Creek, which is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities discharge to Indian Creek. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, during June 2004 through June 2013 were used to evaluate stream quality in Indian Creek. This fact sheet summarizes the effects of wastewater effluent discharge on physical, chemical, and biological conditions in Indian Creek downstream from the Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

  11. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9... DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of review. The objective of a discharge review is to examine the propriety and equity of the...

  12. Analysis of 16S Sediment Microbial Communities from a Southern California Wastewater-Treatment Discharge Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated sewage effluent from several large wastewater treatment plants in the Los Angeles metropolitan area is discharged into the Pacific Ocean through a network of outfalls located between 5 and 7 miles offshore. To support development of new indicators of wastewater effects o...

  13. WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of waste-water and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described...

  14. Water-Quality Assessment of Southern Florida - Wastewater Discharges and Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly 800 million gallons per day of treated wastewater was discharged in the Southern Florida National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit in 1990, most to the Atlantic Ocean (44 percent) and to deep, saline aquifers (25 percent). About 9 percent was discharged to fresh surface waters and about 22 percent to shallow ground water, of which septic tanks accounted for 9 percent. Runoff from agricultural and urban lands, though not directly measured, is a large source of wastewater in southern Florida.

  15. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 μg/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 μg/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17α-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17β-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17β-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

  16. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  17. Evaluation and Optimization of Electrode Configuration of Multi-Channel Corona Discharge Plasma for Dye-Containing Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jingyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    A discharge plasma reactor with a point-to-plane structure was widely studied experimentally in wastewater treatment. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of active species and the energy efficiency of this kind of discharge plasma reactor during wastewater treatment, the electrode configuration of the point-to-plane corona discharge reactor was studied by evaluating the effects of discharge spacing and adjacent point distance on discharge power and discharge energy density, and then dye-containing wastewater decoloration experiments were conducted on the basis of the optimum electrode configuration. The experimental results of the discharge characteristics showed that high discharge power and discharge energy density were achieved when the ratio of discharge spacing to adjacent point distance (d/s) was 0.5. Reactive Brilliant Blue (RBB) wastewater treatment experiments presented that the highest RBB decoloration efficiency was observed at d/s of 0.5, which was consistent with the result obtained in the discharge characteristics experiments. In addition, the biodegradability of RBB wastewater was enhanced greatly after discharge plasma treatment under the optimum electrode configuration. RBB degradation processes were analyzed by GC-MS and IC, and the possible mechanism for RBB decoloration was also discussed. supported by China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M562460), the Initiative Funding Programs for Doctoral Research of Northwest A&F University (No. 2013BSJJ121), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21107085)

  18. Contribution of wastewater discharges to ocean surface particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Bracewell, L.W.; Selleck, R.E.; Carter, R.

    1980-08-01

    The results of a survey in the Southern California Bight indicated that much of the floatable particulates in the vicinity of primary treatment outfalls originated in wastewater. Most of the particulates of this origin were composed of grease and wax. These particulates also contained appreciable concentrations of coliform bacteria. The particulates from primary effluents had large proportions of unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids, whereas secondary effluent particulates resembled open-ocean particulates in proportions of fatty acids. Larger particulates were quickly dispersed. Surface concentrations of 3-mg hexane-extractable matter/m/sup 2/ or less probably are aesthetically acceptable.

  19. A COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES FOR DISCHARGING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a study to meet the following congressional directive: 8Within available funds, the conferees direct EPA to conduct a relative risk assessment of deep well injection, ocean disposal, surface discharge, and aquifer recharge of treated effluent in South Florida,...

  20. Potential impacts of discharging tertiary-treated wastewater into Port Royal Sound, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment of physical characteristics of Port Royal Sound was combined with the results of a dye tracer study and with data collected from a previous environmental study to describe the impact on the water quality from discharging tertiary treated wastewater into the sound. Calculated velocities for the time of maximum velocity in the tidal cycle ranged from 2.32 ft/sec near the bottom to 4.65 ft/sec near the surface of the sound in a cross section in the vicinity of a proposed wastewater outfall. Vertical velocity distributions calculated for the time of maximum velocity were similar at all stations at which velocities were measured except the station in shallow water near the shore. A recent bathymetric chart of the vicinity of the proposed outfall indicates that a bar extends farther along the northern shore of Hilton Head Island than indicated on earlier nautical charts of Port Royal Sound. Continued extension of this bar could alter the impact on water quality from discharge of treated wastewater into the sound. Further study may be needed to monitor changes in the bar if the outfall is located between the bar and Hilton Head Island. Conservative calculations based on the results of the dye tracer study indicate that the discharge of 10.9 million gallons/day of wastewater having concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids of 15 mg/L will result in a maximum cumulative increase in concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand of < 0.01 mg/L and no increase in concentrations of suspended solids at high slack tide in the part of Port Royal Sound most affected by the proposed wastewater discharge. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Causal modelling applied to the risk assessment of a wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Paul, Warren L; Rokahr, Pat A; Webb, Jeff M; Rees, Gavin N; Clune, Tim S

    2016-03-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs), or causal Bayesian networks, have become quite popular in ecological risk assessment and natural resource management because of their utility as a communication and decision-support tool. Since their development in the field of artificial intelligence in the 1980s, however, Bayesian networks have evolved and merged with structural equation modelling (SEM). Unlike BNs, which are constrained to encode causal knowledge in conditional probability tables, SEMs encode this knowledge in structural equations, which is thought to be a more natural language for expressing causal information. This merger has clarified the causal content of SEMs and generalised the method such that it can now be performed using standard statistical techniques. As it was with BNs, the utility of this new generation of SEM in ecological risk assessment will need to be demonstrated with examples to foster an understanding and acceptance of the method. Here, we applied SEM to the risk assessment of a wastewater discharge to a stream, with a particular focus on the process of translating a causal diagram (conceptual model) into a statistical model which might then be used in the decision-making and evaluation stages of the risk assessment. The process of building and testing a spatial causal model is demonstrated using data from a spatial sampling design, and the implications of the resulting model are discussed in terms of the risk assessment. It is argued that a spatiotemporal causal model would have greater external validity than the spatial model, enabling broader generalisations to be made regarding the impact of a discharge, and greater value as a tool for evaluating the effects of potential treatment plant upgrades. Suggestions are made on how the causal model could be augmented to include temporal as well as spatial information, including suggestions for appropriate statistical models and analyses. PMID:26832914

  2. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  3. WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 2. SIX MILL ENGINEERING REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of wastewater and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described ...

  4. Detection of a buoyant coastal wastewater discharge using airborne hyperspectral and infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Miller, W. D.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal wastewater discharged into the ocean through a submerged pipe, or outfall, can rise buoyantly to the sea surface, resulting in a near-field mixing zone and, in the presence of an ambient ocean current, an extended surface plume. In this paper, data from a CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) and an airborne infrared (IR) camera are shown to detect a municipal wastewater discharge off the southeast coast of Florida, U.S.A., through its elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter plus detrital material (CDOM) and cooler sea surface temperatures. CDOM levels within a ~15-m-diameter surface 'boil' are found to be about twice those in the ambient shelf water, and surface temperatures near the boil are lower by ~0.4C, comparable to the vertical temperature difference across the ambient water column. The CASI and IR imagery show a nearly identically shaped buoyant plume, consistent with a fully surfacing discharge, but the IR data more accurately delineate the area of most rapid dilution as compared with previous in-situ measurements. The imagery also allows identification of ambient oceanographic processes that affect dispersion and transport in the far field. This includes an alongshore front, which limits offshore dispersion of the discharge, and shoreward-propagating nonlinear internal waves, which may be responsible for an enhanced onshore transport of the discharge.

  5. Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, P.M.; Barber, L.B., II; Schroeder, M.P.; Becker, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected on March 9 and 10, 1987 from one site upstream and three sites downstream of the discharge from a municipal wastewater-treatment plant on Rowlett Creek. Purge-and-trap, closed-loop stripping, and ph-adjusted solvent extraction methods for water samples, and a Soxhlet-solvent extraction method for streambed sediment were used with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for separation and identification of organic compounds. Results of the analyses confirm the persistence of many organic compounds in water as far as 13.5 kilometers down- stream from the wastewater-discharge point. These compounds include: (1) the volatile organic com- pounds chloroform, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, and trichlo- roethene; (2) several linear alkylbenzene compounds, octyl phenol, and a tetramethylbutyl phenol isomer that are related to detergent use; (3) 9-phenyl- 9H-carbazole, a compound related to cal tars and coal compustion residues; and (4) caffeine. The only compound detected in water in concentrations greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination levels for drinking water was tetra- chloroethene (6.0 micrograms per liter) in a sample collected 13.5 kilometers downstream from the dis- charge point. Compounds identified in the streambed- sediment samples include a xylene isomer at 7.7 kilometers and chrysene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and a xylene isomer at 13.5 kilometers downstream from the wastewater discharge.

  6. An obstacle to China's WWTPs: the COD and BOD standards for discharge into municipal sewers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hu, Tiantian; Roker, Scott Albert C

    2015-11-01

    In 2001, a construction campaign regarding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) occurred in China. Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet achieved anticipated effectiveness. A critical reason for this is that the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in WWTPs are unacceptably low. This paper indicates that a fundamental, but commonly overlooked contributing factor to this problem is that a large portion of easily degradable COD and BOD is degraded prematurely before entering municipal sewers, and this is directly correlated to China's standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers. This perspective is further unfolded through retrospection of the history of Chinese wastewater treatment and the investigation of standards among developed zones and districts. This paper suggests that in China, the standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers should be relaxed. Meanwhile, unnecessary pretreatment of COD and BOD should cease for the purpose of ensuring that easily degradable COD and BOD can be transferred to WWTPs to improve treatment efficiency. Moreover, additional alternatives are presented to resolve this problem. PMID:26341334

  7. Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

    2010-06-01

    Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season. PMID:20044130

  8. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathleen Patnode; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson; Lora Zimmerman; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the Allegheny River.

  9. FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

  10. Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O?) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O? which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na?B?O? as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200 min when the discharge power was 170 W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na?B?O? because B?O?(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O?. The main reason was that O? can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

  11. In-Stream Microbial Denitrification Potential at Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharge Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N. B.; Rahm, B. G.; Shaw, S. B.; Riha, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen loading from municipal sewage discharge provides point sources of nitrate (NO3-) to rivers and streams. Through microbially-mediated denitrification, NO3- can be converted to dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases, which are released to the atmosphere. Preliminary observations made throughout summer 2011 near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall in the Finger Lakes region of New York indicated that NO3- concentrations downstream of the discharge pipe were lower relative to upstream concentrations. This suggested that nitrate processing was occurring more rapidly and completely than predicted by current models and that point "sources" can in some cases be point "sinks". Molecular assays and stable isotope analyses were combined with laboratory microcosm experiments and water chemistry analyses to better understand the mechanism of nitrate transformation. Nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes were detected in water and sediment samples using qPCR. Denitrifcation genes were present attached to stream sediment, in pipe biofilm, and in WWTP discharge water. A comparison of δ18-O and δ15-N signatures also supported the hypothesis that stream NO3- had been processed biotically. Results from microcosm experiments indicated that the NO3- transformations occur at the sediment-water interface rather than in the water column. In some instances, quantities of denitrification genes were at higher concentrations attached to sediment downstream of the discharge pipe than upstream of the pipe suggesting that the wastewater discharge may be enriching the downstream sediment and could promote in-stream denitrification.

  12. In situ evaluation of wastewater discharges and the bioavailability of contaminants to marine biota.

    PubMed

    Maranho, L A; André, C; DelValls, T A; Gagné, F; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-12-15

    Marine sediment quality of wastewater discharges areas was determined by using in situ caged clams Ruditapes philippinarum taking into account the seasonality. Clams were caged in sediment directly affected by wastewater discharges at four sites (P1, P2, P3, P4) at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain), and one reference site (P6). Exposure to contaminated sediments was confirmed by measurement of metals and As, PAH, pharmaceutical products and surfactants (SAS) in bottom sediments. Biological effects were determined by following biomarkers of exposure (activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase - EROD, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase - DBF, glutathione S-transferase - GST, glutathione peroxidase - GPX, glutathione reductase - GR and acetylcholinesterase - AChE), effects (lysosomal membrane stability - LMS, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation - LPO), energy status (total lipids - TLP and mitochondrial electron transport - MET), and involved in the mode of action of pharmaceutical products (monoamine oxidase activity - MAO, alkali-labile phosphates - ALP levels and cyclooxygenase activity - COX). In winter, urban effluents were detoxified by phase I biotransformation (CYP3A-like activity), phase II (GST), and the activation of antioxidant defence enzymes (GR). Urban effluents lead to the detoxification metabolism (CYP1A-like), oxidative effects (LPO and DNA damage), neurotoxicity (AChE) and neuroendocrine disruption (COX and ALP levels) involved in inflammation (P1 and P2) and changes in reproduction as spawning delay (P3 and P4) in clams exposed in summer. Adverse effects on biota exposed to sediment directly affected by wastewater discharges depend on the chemical contamination level and also on the reproductive cycle according to seasonality. PMID:26356994

  13. Degradation of Aniline Wastewater Using Dielectric Barrier Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Haixia; FANG, Zhi; XU, Yanhua

    2015-03-01

    Aniline is a toxic water pollutant detected in drinking water and surface water, and this chemical is harmful to both human and aquatic life. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was designed in this study to investigate the treatment of aniline in aqueous solution. Discharge characteristics were assessed by measuring voltage and current waveforms, capturing light emission images, and obtaining optical emission spectra. The effects of several parameters were analyzed, including treatment distance, discharge power, DBD treatment time, initial pH of aniline solutions, and addition of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the treatment. Aniline degradation increased with increasing discharge power. Under the same conditions, higher degradation was obtained at a treatment distance of 0 mm than at other treatment distances. At a discharge power of 21.5 W, 84.32% of aniline was removed after 10 min of DBD treatment. Initial pH significantly influenced aniline degradation. Adding a certain dosage of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater can accelerate the degradation rate of aniline. Possible degradation pathways of aniline by DBD plasmas were proposed based on the analytical data of GC/MS and TOC. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. BK20131412), the Environmental Protection Scientific Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. 201004)

  14. Application of ICP-OES for evaluating energy extraction and production wastewater discharge impacts on surface waters in Western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Norris, Gary A; Landis, Matthew S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; McGee, John K; Kamal, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify inorganic species in wastewater and river samples using a method based on EPA Method 200.7 rev4.4. A total of 53 emission lines from 30 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn) were investigated. Samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 2% HNO3 and 0.5% HCl. Lower interferences and better detection characteristics resulted in selection of alternative wavelengths for Al, As, Sb, Mg, Mo, and Na. Radial view measurements offered accurate determinations of Al, Ba, K, Li, Na, and Sr in high-brine samples. Spike recovery studies and analyses of reference materials showed 80-105% recoveries for most analytes. This method was used to quantify species in samples with high to low brine concentrations with method detection limits a factor of 2 below the maximum contaminant limit concentrations of national drinking water standards. Elements B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, and Sr were identified as potential tracers for the sources impacting PDWS intakes. Usability of the ICP-OES derived data for factor analytic model applications was also demonstrated. PMID:26005746

  15. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose–responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios.

  16. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  17. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  18. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  1. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  2. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  3. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  4. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  5. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  6. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction-modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. PMID:26403720

  7. Degradation of palm oil refinery wastewaters by non-thermal gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Mountapmbeme-Kouotou, P; Laminsi, S; Acayanka, E; Brisset, J-L

    2013-07-01

    The gliding electric discharge in humid air is a source of activated species forming (e.g. ()OH, ()NO and their derivatives H2O2, ONO2H and NO3H) which are present in a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. These species are able to degrade organic pollutants in palm oil refinery wastewaters (PORW). The increase in acidity (pH decrease), conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) and the decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of PORW samples exposed to the discharge are reported. More than 50% TOC abatement is obtained for 15 min treatment in batch conditions with a laboratory reactor. The organic pollutants of PORW, i.e. mainly fatty acids are degraded according to a pseudo first-order reaction (k*?=?0.06 min(-1)). Post discharge reactions are also observed after having switched off the discharge, which suggests that the pseudo first-order (k???0.05 min(-1)) degradation reactions should be attributed to the diffusion of soluble reactive species, e.g. H2O2 and ONOOH in the liquid target. PMID:23229278

  8. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  9. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553 (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPAs Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  10. Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

  11. Non-discharging evapotranspiration bed system for wastewater disposal at Lincoln.

    PubMed

    Balley, P; Dakers, A J

    1996-10-01

    A non-discharging evapotranspiration bed system installed on a dairy farm at Lincoln University was studied to evaluate actual evapotranspiration rate, ET a , to develop and validate a water balance model for the system, and to assess the feasible application of the vaporative concept for wastewater disposal in the immediate geographic area. Observations, measurements, and calculations indicate that ET a was slightly higher than the meteorologically estimated Penman potential ET (ET p ) for the study period, and a ratio ?=ET a /ET p =1.21 was obtained. A water-balance equation of the system which can be used in different climatic conditions was obtained and can be written as ?W=Q+PPTN-Et a ; where ?W is the variation of storage water in the bed (in mm), Q is the effluent wastewater (in mm), and PPTN is the total precipitation. It was also observed that a truly non-discharging ET bed system's feasible application in the study location may be highly questionable. This is due to the fact that the precipitation rate for the location generally exceeds the ET p during critical Winter months. However, two possibilities of improving the performance of the system were found and suggested for further studies. The suggestions were (1) to design the system with its surface adequately crowned to shed large amounts of rain water falling on it, and (2) to design a winter-sheltered-non-discharging ET bed which would consist of an ET bed with a removable transparent plastic roof to shed the total amount of rain water and act as a 'green house' PMID:24193734

  12. Breakdown and discharge regimes in standard and micrometer size dc discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    koro, N.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, an overview of our recent experimental studies of the breakdown and operation of non-equilibrium discharges in centimetre and micrometer size geometries is presented. In the centimetre size geometries, we focused on elementary processes and phenomenology in gases used for some of the currently most attractive applications of low temperature plasmas - fluorocarbon gases (CF4, CHClF2) and water vapour. Measurements were performed at electrode separation d = 1.1 cm, in a pressure range from 0.1 to 5 Torr. In the case of micro-discharges, the emphasis was on testing the validity of standard scaling laws and proper determination of scaling parameters pd and j/p2. This was done at electrode gaps of 200 and 500 ?m and pressures of 50 and 20 Torr in argon. The investigation is based on measurements of breakdown potentials (Paschen curves) and Volt-Ampere characteristics, supported by simultaneous ICCD imaging of the discharges.

  13. TRACE METAL AVAILABILITY TO PERIPHYTON COLONIZED BELOW NEAR-COASTAL WASTEWATER DISCHARGES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The significance of the many wastewater discharges in the Gulf of Mexico region as sources of trace metal contamination to indigenous biota in nearby coastal areas is relatively unknown. The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some insight on this issue by d...

  14. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  15. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Li; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged.

  16. Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars. PMID:19542641

  17. Treatment of phenol wastewater using hydroxyl radical produced by micro-gap discharge plasma technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianli; Bai, Mindong; Han, Fen

    2009-04-01

    Hydroxyl radical produced by non-equilibrium plasma, which was induced by micro-gap dielectric barrier discharge, was used for the treatment of phenol wastewater. The advantage of this method was that chemicals and catalysts were not involved when hydroxyl radical was generated from water and oxygen. A proportional efficiency of phenol removal was observed with the hydroxyl radical increasing. The removal efficiency was higher in a basic condition than in an acidic condition, which was enhanced with the pH value of the solution increasing from 3.6 to 11.2. It was rational to adjust the pH value between 9.0 and 10.0. The removal efficiency of phenol was reduced when the conductivity of the solution increased from 0 to 200 micros x cm(-1); the highest was found in the solution without Na2CO3. The UV spectral absorption in the process indicated that few organic compounds with a conjugated structure were included in the treated wastewater. PMID:19445335

  18. Effects of a nearshore wastewater discharge: Water column and sediment pore water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R.; Carr, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between water column and sediment pore water toxicity was investigated near a municipal-industrial wastewater discharge in southern Texas. Toxicity associated with effluent distributions in the water column are known to vary in both time and space. Toxicity of sediment, however, is often more stable over time. Sediment can serve as a long-term integrator of toxicity in areas subject to chronic exposure of effluents. This study addressed the relationship between water column toxicity and that found in the sediments on both spatial and temporal scales. Four 2 Km transacts were established around a nearshore wastewater outfall. Eight stations along each transact were sampled for both surface waters and sediment pore water toxicity. Toxicity was determined using a modified sea urchin fertilization test. Surface waters were sampled and tested for eight consecutive months, while sediment pore waters were sampled on three occasions over the length of this study. Results have shown that toxicity in receiving waters was a good indicator to trace movements of the highly variable effluent plume. The distribution of effluent in the water column, and hence water column toxicity, was primarily driven by local wind conditions. Toxicity in sediment porewater was, much less variable and more evenly distributed over the study site. Sediment pore water toxicity was also a good predictor of the distribution of benthic infaunal invertebrates over much of the study site.

  19. Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.

    PubMed

    Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (p<0.05) seasonal differences in wastewater influent concentrations. Removal of CECs by these wastewater treatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (p<0.05) for a range of water quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted to potentially present therapeutic hazards to fish. PMID:23988745

  20. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4 weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1 km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and interpretation of impact of CECs difficult since water temperature, conductivity and bacteria are also inducing biomarker responses in both fish and mussels. PMID:26026416

  1. Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green Pond, and Bournes River. Approximately 76 percent of the total nitrate-N mass in the plume will discharge to these receptors within 100 years of 2007; 90 and 94 percent will discharge within 200 and 500 years, respectively. Nitrate loads will peak within about 50 years at all of the major receptors. The highest peak loads will occur at the Coonamessett River (450 kg per year (kg/yr) nitrate-N) and the Backus River (350 kg/yr nitrate-N). Because of adsorption, travel times are longer for ammonium than for nitrate; approximately 5 percent of the total ammonium-N mass in the plume will discharge to receptors within 100 years; 46 and 81 percent will discharge within 200 and 500 years, respectively. The simulations indicate that the Coonamessett River will receive the largest cumulative nitrogen mass and the highest rate of discharge (load). Ongoing discharge to Ashumet Pond is relatively minor because most of the wastewater plume mass has already migrated downgradient from the pond. To evaluate the contribution of the nitrogen loads from the treated-wastewater plume to total nitrogen loads to the discharge areas, the simulated treated-wastewater plume loads were compared to steady-state nonpoint-source loads calculated by the Massachusetts Estuaries Project for 2005. Simulation results indicate that the total nitrogen loads from the treated-wastewater plume are much lower than corresponding steady-state nonpoint-source loads from the watersheds; peak plume loads are equal to 11 percent or less of the nonpoint-source loads.

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  7. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

  8. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  9. The mussel caging approach in assessing biological effects of wastewater treatment plant discharges in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Turja, Raisa; Lehtonen, Kari K; Meierjohann, Axel; Brozinski, Jenny-Maria; Vahtera, Emil; Soirinsuo, Anna; Sokolov, Alexander; Snoeijs, Pauline; Budzinski, Hélène; Devier, Marie-Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Viitasalo, Markku; Kronberg, Leif

    2015-08-15

    Biological effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents were investigated in Baltic mussels (Mytilus trossulus) caged for one month 800m and 1100m from the WWTP discharge site and at a reference site 4km away. Significant antioxidant, genotoxic and lysosomal responses were observed close to the point of the WWTP discharge. Passive samplers (POCIS) attached to the cages indicated markedly higher water concentrations of various pharmaceuticals at the two most impacted sites. Modeling the dispersal of a hypothetical passive tracer compound from the WWTP discharge site revealed differing frequencies and timing of the exposure periods at different caging sites. The study demonstrated for the first time the effectiveness of the mussel caging approach in combination with passive samplers and the application of passive tracer modeling to examine the true exposure patterns at point source sites such as WWTP pipe discharges in the Baltic Sea. PMID:26117817

  10. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

  11. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step

  12. Glow Discharge Formation over Water Surface at Saturated Water Vapor Pressure and Its Application to Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugama, Chie; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Satoshi

    2006-11-01

    With the aim of wastewater treatment using the active reaction of OH radicals generated in gas discharges, DC, low frequency (LF, 100 kHz) and RF (13.56 MHz) glow discharges were generated over the water surface at saturated water vapor pressure. Low-pressure glow discharge over the water surface has an advantage of uniform OH radical production near the water surface. A very stable and uniform glow discharge was obtained with an RF power source, whereas the discharges obtained with the DC and LF power sources were sometimes localized. The effective OH radical production was confirmed from the strong optical emission of OH(A{2}?+-X{2}\\Pi) near the water surface. The OH(A{2}?+-X{2}\\Pi) emission intensity near the water surface increased almost linearly with an increase in discharge power. N,N-Dimethyl- p-nitrosoaniline (RNO) solution as a persistent test pollutant was treated by RF glow discharge over the water surface. We confirmed that the RNO solution was certainly decolorized by OH radicals generated in the RF glow discharge. It was found that the degradation of target compounds by OH radicals was concentrated near the water surface in the solution because very slow diffusion of target compounds limited the reaction rate.

  13. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-01-01

    Chinas industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

  14. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for Chinas Hunan Province

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in Chinas Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  15. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  16. Degradation of organic pollutants and microorganisms from wastewater using different dielectric barrier discharge configurations-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mouele, Emile S Massima; Tijani, Jimoh O; Fatoba, Ojo O; Petrik, Leslie F

    2015-12-01

    The growing global drinking water crisis requires the development of novel advanced, sustainable, and cost-effective water treatment technologies to supplement the existing conventional methods. One such technology is advanced oxidation based on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). DBD such as single and double planar and single and double cylindrical dielectric barrier configurations have been utilized for efficient degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants. The overall performance of the different DBD system varies and depends on several factors. Therefore, this review was compiled to give an overview of different DBD configurations vis-a-viz their applications and the in situ mechanism of generation of free reactive species for water and wastewater treatment. Our survey of the literature indicated that application of double cylindrical dielectric barrier configuration represents an ideal and viable route for achieving greater water and wastewater purification efficiency. PMID:26493299

  17. Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen Scranton; Ellis, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek.

  18. Multiple Discharges of Treated Municipal Wastewater Have a Small Effect on the Quantities of Numerous Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Madson, Matthew; Borchardt, Spencer; Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated multiple discharges of treated wastewater on the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River. Surface water and treated wastewater samples were collected along the Mississippi River during three different periods of 4 days during the summer of 2012, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate several ARGs and related targets. Even though the wastewater effluents contained 75- to 831-fold higher levels of ARGs than the river water, the quantities of ARGs in the Mississippi River did not increase with downstream distance. Plasmids from the incompatibility group A/C were detected at low levels in the wastewater effluents but not in the river water; synthetic DNA containing an ampicillin resistance gene (bla) from cloning vectors was not detected in either the wastewater effluent or river samples. A simple 1D model suggested that the primary reason for the small impact of the wastewater discharges on ARG levels was the large flow rate of the Mississippi River compared to that of the wastewater discharges. Furthermore, this model generally overpredicted the ARG levels in the Mississippi River, suggesting that substantial loss mechanisms (e.g., decay or deposition) were occurring in the river. PMID:26325533

  19. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  20. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  1. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  2. Use of pyrosequencing to explore the benthic bacterial community structure in a river impacted by wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Marti, Elisabet; Balcázar, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the diversity and composition of benthic bacterial communities collected in river sediments upstream and downstream from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed notable differences between the communities from upstream and downstream sites. In particular, a higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes and a lower proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia sequences were detected at the downstream site compared to the upstream site. These findings represent a first approximation of the impact of WWTP discharges on environmental microbial communities. PMID:24732342

  3. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). V. Microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of Bacillus subtilis in simulated electroplating wash wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Abe, Masahiko; Ohba, Naoki; Uchida, Masayoshi; Serpone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This short article examines the microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of aqueous solutions contaminated by Bacillus subtilis microorganisms using UV and vacuum-UV radiation emitted from a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL), a device containing a Hg/Ar gas-fill that was proposed recently for use in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Results of the disinfection are compared with those obtained from UV radiation emitted by a low-pressure electrode Hg lamp and by an excimer lamp. Also examined is the disinfection of B. subtilis aqueous media that contained Au3+ or Ni2+ ions, species often found in the treatment of electroplating wash wastewaters. PMID:21721320

  4. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  5. Elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge depress primary productivity in the Sacramento River and the Northern San Francisco Estuary.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Parker AE; Dugdale RC; Wilkerson FP

    2012-03-01

    Primary production in the Northern San Francisco Estuary (SFE) has been declining despite heavy loading of anthropogenic nutrients. The inorganic nitrogen (N) loading comes primarily from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharge as ammonium (NH(4)). This study investigated the consequences for river and estuarine phytoplankton of the daily discharge of 15 metric tons NH(4)-N into the Sacramento River that feeds the SFE. Consistent patterns of nutrients and phytoplankton responses were observed during two 150-km transects made in spring 2009. Phytoplankton N productivity shifted from NO(3) use upstream of the WTP to productivity based entirely upon NH(4) downstream. Phytoplankton NH(4) uptake declined downstream of the WTP as NH(4) concentrations increased, suggesting NH(4) inhibition. The reduced total N uptake downstream of the WTP was accompanied by a 60% decline in primary production. These findings indicate that increased anthropogenic NH(4) may decrease estuarine primary production and increase export of NH(4) to the coastal ocean.

  6. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  7. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

  8. Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

  9. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a) Any... times the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the...

  10. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a) Any... times the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the...

  11. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant standards for indirect... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a) Any... times the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the...

  12. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a) Any... times the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the...

  13. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point Sources §...

  14. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  15. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, S.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  16. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  17. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and

  18. Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

  19. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to... prohibitions. A User may not introduce into a POTW any pollutant(s) which cause Pass Through or Interference... or discharges from other sources, would cause Pass Through or Interference; and (ii)(A) A local...

  20. National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers nearly 62,600 square miles along the southeastern United States coast in Georgia and Florida. In 1990, the estimated population of the study unit was 9.3 million, and included all or part of the cities of Atlanta, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, and St. Petersburg. Estimated freshwater withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 was nearly 5,075 million gallons per day. Ground-water accounted for more than 57 percent of the water withdrawn during 1990 and the Floridan aquifer system provided nearly 91 percent of the total ground-water withdrawn. Surface-water accounted for nearly 43 percent of the water withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 with large amounts of withdrawals from the Altamaha River, Hillsborough River, the Ocmulgee River, the Oconee River, the St. Johns River, and the Suwannee River. Water withdrawn for public supply in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled 1,139 million gallons per day, of which 83 percent was ground water and 17 percent was surface water. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled nearly 230 million gallons per day. Ground water supplied over 80 percent of the study units population for drining water purposes; nearly 5.8 million people were served by public supply and 1.8 million people were served by self-supplied systems. Water withdrawn for self-supplied domestic use in Georgia and Florida is derived almost exclusively from ground water, primarily because this source can provide the quantity and quality of water needed for drinking purposes. Nearly 1.7 million people served by public supply utilized surface water for their drinking water needs. Water withdrawn for self-supplied commercial-industrial uses in the study unit in 1990 totaled 862 million gallons per day, of which 93 percent was ground water and 7 percent was surface water. Water withdrawn for agriculture purposes in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,293 million gallons per day, of which 69 percent was ground water and 31 percent was surface water. An estimated 1.254 millon acres were irrigated within the study unit during 1990. Water withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,552 million gallons per day, of which 99 percent was surface water and 1 percent was ground water. An additional 6,919 million gallons per day of saline surface water were withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in 1990, solely for cooling purposes. Treated wastewater discharged within the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit totaled nearly 1,187 million gallons per day in 1990. Of the total water discharged, 58 percent was discharged directly into surface water and the remaining 42 percent was discharged to ground water (through drain fields, injection wells, percolation ponds or spray fields). Domestic wastewater facilities discharged in the study unit totaled nearly 789 million gallons per day, industrial wastewater facilities discharged 213 million gallons per day, and releases from septic tanks was estimated at 185 million gallons per day. More than 1.3 million septic tanks were estimated in use within the study unit in 1990.

  1. Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

  2. Assessment of the quality and toxicity of the discharges of a wastewater treatment plant and alternatives to improve its operation.

    PubMed

    Robles-Vargas, Daniel; Montoya-Castillo, Sandra Margarita; Avelar-Gonzlez, Francisco Javier; Jauregui-Rincn, Juan; Rodrguez-Valadez, Francisco Javier; Rico-Martnez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies represent a serious ecological problem worldwide. In underdeveloped and developing countries wastewater treatment plants (WTP) only count with basic treatment, leading to the pollution of important aquatic reservoirs causing critical situations. In the present work, a one year evaluation of toxicity and main physical and chemical parameters of one of the major WTP of the state of Aguascalientes was conducted fortnightly, and to assess treatment alternatives for this WTP we tested: a) three white rot fungi (WRF), b) a photo-electrochemical process, c) ion-exchangers resins and activated carbon. The 3 WRF exhibited high COD removal from influents (72 - 95 %) but only Phanerochaete chrysosporium reached significant toxicity removals (70 and 55 %, for an influent and an effluent, respectively). Treatments with electrochemical advanced oxidation processes resulted with the highest toxicity and COD removals (96 % for both parameters) in comparison to biological and physicochemical treatments. Adsorption with activated carbon, zeolite and chelex ion-exchange resins removed 60 - 90 % of COD and 60 - 99 % toxicity. These results could be used to improve operation of the Industrial Park WTP and to plan future modifications to the plant. PMID:22375542

  3. Changes in the biochemical oxygen demand procedure in the 21st edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Young, James C; Clesceri, Lenore S; Kamhawy, Sabry M

    2005-01-01

    The dilution biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test has widespread application for design and operation of wastewater treatment processes, evaluating the quality of natural waters, and assessing the effect of wastewater discharges on these waters. While standardization of the BOD-measuring method has become of prime importance in maintaining dependable data acquisition, changes are made as needed in response to questions raised by analysts and to accommodate new applications. The purpose of this article is to describe changes that have been incorporated in the 20th and 21st editions of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA et al., 1998 and 2004). These changes include changes in text format to clarify the procedural steps, allowance for use of bottle sizes ranging from 60 mL or larger, improvements in quality-control procedures, and improvements in the method of calculating BOD. Other changes include allowance for the use of allylthiourea for nitrification inhibition and broadening the source of seed that can be used for inoculation of BOD samples. PMID:16121508

  4. Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction-coefficient values as input, were used to simulate total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen for water-quality conditions that result from three hypothetical boundary conditions. The model was applied to various combinations of three hypothetical waste loads when the headwater stream flow was either 50 or 75 cubic feet per second, when Fargo's wastewater-treatment plant outflow was either 15 or 37.8 cubic feet per second, and when total ammonia as nitrogen concentration of the outflow was either 5, 9, or 15 milligrams per liter. For each hypothetical waste load, at least one water-quality standard for either total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, or dissolved oxygen was contravened, and, for one scenario, all three standards were contravened.

  5. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND...

  6. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

  7. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was achieved at the Middle Basin WWTF. At the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment in 2009, effluent discharges also had total phosphorus concentrations below 1.5 mg/L. After the addition of biological nutrient removal, annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Middle Basin WWTF decreased by 42 and 54 percent, respectively, even though effluent volume increased by 11 percent. Annual total phosphorus loads from the Tomahawk Creek WWTF after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment decreased by 54 percent despite a 33-percent increase in effluent volume. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the WWTFs contributed between 30 and nearly 100 percent to annual nutrient loads in Indian Creek depending on streamflow conditions. In-stream total nitrogen primarily came from wastewater effluent except during years with the highest streamflows. Most of the in-stream total phosphorus typically came from effluent during dry years and from other urban sources during wet years. During 2010 through 2013, annual mean discharge from the Middle Basin WWTF was about 75 percent of permitted design capacity. Annual nutrient loads likely will increase when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity; however, estimated maximum annual nutrient loads from the Middle Basin WWTF were 27 to 38 percent lower than before capacity upgrades and the addition of biological nutrient removal to treatment processes. Thus, the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin wastewater treatment process should reduce overall nutrient loads from the facility even when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water quality of Indian Creek were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time) when wastewater effluent represented about 24 percent or more of total streamflow. Wastewater effluent had the most substantial effect on nutrient concentrations in Indian Creek. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 10 to 100 times higher than at the upstream sites, even after changes in treatment practices at the WWTFs. Median total phosphorus concentrations during below-normal and normal streamflows at a downstream site were 43 percent lower following improvements in wastewater treatment processes. Similar decreases in total nitrogen were not observed, likely because total nitrogen concentrations only decreased in Middle Basin effluent and wastewater contributed a higher percentage to streamflows when nutrient samples were collected during the after-upgrade period. The wastewater effluent discharges to Indian Creek caused changes in stream-water quality that may affect biological community structure and ecosystem processes, including higher concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and warmer water temperatures during winter months. Other urban sources of contaminants also caused changes in stream-water quality that may affect biological community structure and ecosystem processes, including higher turbidities downstream from construction areas and higher specific conductance and chloride concentrations during winter months. Chloride concentrations exceeded acute and chronic exposure criteria at all Indian Creek study sites, regardless of wastewater influence, for weeks or months during winter. Streambed sediment chemistry was affected by wastewater (elevated nutrient and organic wastewater-indicator compound concentrations) and other contaminants from urban sources (elevated polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations). Overall habitat conditions were suboptimal or marginal at all sites; general decline in habitat conditions along the upstream-downstream gradient likely was caused by the cumulative effects of urbanization with increasing drainage basin size. Wastewater effluent likely affected algal periphyton biomass and community composition, primary production, and community respiration in Indian Creek. Functional stream health, evaluated using a preliminary framework based on primary production and community respiration, was mildly or severely impaired at most downstream sites relative to an urban upstream Indian Creek site. The mechanistic cause of the changes in these biological variables are unclear, though elevated nutrient concentrations were positively correlated with algal biomass, primary production, and community respiration. Macroinvertebrate communities indicated impairment at all sites, and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic life support scores indicated conditions nonsupporting of aquatic life, regardless of wastewater influences. Urban influences, other than wastewater effluent discharge, likely control macroinvertebrate community structure in Indian Creek. Changes in treatment processes at the Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek WWTFs improved wastewater effluent quality and decreased nutrient loads, but wastewater effluent discharges still had negative effects on the environmental and biological conditions at downstream Indian Creek sites. Wastewater effluent discharge into Indian Creek likely contributed to changes in measures of ecosystem structure (streamflow, water and streambed-sediment chemistry, algal biomass, and algal periphyton community composition) and function (primary production and community respiration) along the upstream-downstream gradient. Wastewater effluent discharges maintained streamflows and increased nutrient concentrations, algal biomass, primary production, and community respiration at the downstream sites. Functional stream health was severely impaired downstream from the Middle Basin WWTF and mildly impaired downstream from the Tomahawk WWTF relative to the urban upstream site. As distance from the Middle Basin WWTF increased, nutrient concentrations, algal biomass, primary production, and community respiration decreased, and functional stream health was no longer impaired 9.5 kilometers downstream from the discharge relative to the urban upstream site. Therefore, although wastewater effluent caused persistent changes in environmental and biological conditions and functional stream health at sites located immediately downstream from WWTF effluent discharges, some recovery to conditions more similar to the urban upstream site occurred within a relatively short distance.

  8. Elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge depress primary productivity in the Sacramento River and the Northern San Francisco Estuary.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alexander E; Dugdale, Richard C; Wilkerson, Frances P

    2012-03-01

    Primary production in the Northern San Francisco Estuary (SFE) has been declining despite heavy loading of anthropogenic nutrients. The inorganic nitrogen (N) loading comes primarily from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharge as ammonium (NH(4)). This study investigated the consequences for river and estuarine phytoplankton of the daily discharge of 15 metric tons NH(4)-N into the Sacramento River that feeds the SFE. Consistent patterns of nutrients and phytoplankton responses were observed during two 150-km transects made in spring 2009. Phytoplankton N productivity shifted from NO(3) use upstream of the WTP to productivity based entirely upon NH(4) downstream. Phytoplankton NH(4) uptake declined downstream of the WTP as NH(4) concentrations increased, suggesting NH(4) inhibition. The reduced total N uptake downstream of the WTP was accompanied by a 60% decline in primary production. These findings indicate that increased anthropogenic NH(4) may decrease estuarine primary production and increase export of NH(4) to the coastal ocean. PMID:22236959

  9. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

  10. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW.... (e) EPA enforcement actions under section 309(f) of the Clean Water Act. If, within 30 days...

  11. Modeling wastewater discharge at the planning stage of a marine outfall system.

    PubMed

    Esen, Esin; Sayin, Erdem; Uslu, Orhan; Eronat, Canan

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of marine discharge of a negatively buoyant industrial waste was evaluated by a modeling study using Killworth 3-D, which is the first version of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM). The Model was run with the recorded wind direction and speed on the cruise dates and the circulation patterns for surface and subsurface were found to be similar with the current meter measurements. Model scenarios have been set-up in order to estimate the intensity and direction of the currents in the Nemrut Bay under the condition of wind blowing from a definite direction for a long time. MOM model has been run for four major wind directions, each having duration of 10days and the behavior of the discharge plume in the worst case has been traced. Also, the behavior of the discharge plume in the real case has been estimated by using the wind data of the region. According to the model results, impact of trace elements that compose the discharge effluent is limited both in time and space. It is concluded that trace elements will leave the Bay in a short time due to the short residence times. PMID:21713476

  12. Application of argon as the internal standard method in glow discharge mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yu; Xiaojia, Li; Haizhou, Wang

    2007-01-01

    Using (78)Ar(2)(+) as the internal standard (argon internal standard) in glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) was investigated in detail. After comparing ion intensities and interferences, i.e. of argon ions, bi-atom argon ions and tri-atom argon ions, the (78)Ar(2)(+) was selected as the internal standard in the analysis. Mass spectral behavior of the argon internal standard affected by glow discharge current and voltage were studied. The ion intensity relationship between the argon internal standard and the matrix internal standard showed that the argon internal standard and the matrix internal standard have the same corrective effect on sample analysis. The experiment proved that the effects of the difference in analysis samples and the fluctuation of discharge conditions for analytical results were efficiently reduced if the argon internal standard was used. Moreover, the argon internal standard is similar to the matrix internal standard in correcting analytical results and both give satisfactory results. Elemental content in samples can be accurately determined by using the argon internal standard when the matrix content is unknown with good results. PMID:17881779

  13. Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze for these bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ?g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ?g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01?1.0 ?g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5?38 ?g/L. The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend:? they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge.

  14. Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Glassmeyer, Susan T; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Cahill, Jeffery D; Zaugg, Steven D; Werner, Stephen L; Meyer, Michael T; Kryak, David D

    2005-07-15

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 microg/L at the reference location to 97.7 microg/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 microg/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 microg/L. The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. PMID:16082943

  15. Standardizing ICU management of pediatric traumatic brain injury is associated with improved outcomes at discharge.

    PubMed

    O'Lynnger, Thomas M; Shannon, Chevis N; Le, Truc M; Greeno, Amber; Chung, Dai; Lamb, Fred S; Wellons, John C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of critical care in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reduce secondary brain injury by limiting cerebral ischemia and optimizing cerebral blood flow. The authors compared short-term outcomes as defined by discharge disposition and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in children with TBI before and after the implementation of a protocol that standardized decision-making and interventions among neurosurgeons and pediatric intensivists. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective pre- and postprotocol study of 128 pediatric patients with severe TBI, as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores < 8, admitted to a tertiary care center pediatric critical care unit between April 1, 2008, and May 31, 2014. The preprotocol group included 99 patients, and the postprotocol group included 29 patients. The primary outcome of interest was discharge disposition before and after protocol implementation, which took place on April 1, 2013. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess outcomes while accounting for injury severity and clinical parameters. Favorable discharge disposition included discharge home. Unfavorable discharge disposition included discharge to an inpatient facility or death. RESULTS Demographics were similar between the treatment periods, as was injury severity as assessed by GCS score (mean 5.43 preprotocol, mean 5.28 postprotocol; p = 0.67). The ordered logistic regression model demonstrated an odds ratio of 4.0 of increasingly favorable outcome in the postprotocol cohort (p = 0.007). Prior to protocol implementation, 63 patients (64%) had unfavorable discharge disposition and 36 patients (36%) had favorable discharge disposition. After protocol implementation, 9 patients (31%) had unfavorable disposition, while 20 patients (69%) had favorable disposition (p = 0.002). In the preprotocol group, 31 patients (31%) died while 6 patients (21%) died after protocol implementation (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Discharge disposition and mortality rates in pediatric patients with severe TBI improved after implementation of a standardized protocol among caregivers based on best-practice guidelines. PMID:26451717

  16. The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jrg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400?ng/L and 2400?ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. PMID:24399464

  17. Novel industrial wastewater treatment integrated with recovery of water and salt under a zero liquid discharge concept.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sengodagounder

    2016-03-01

    Conventional industrial effluent treatment systems are designed to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) but not total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly contributed by chlorides. In addition to the removal of TDS, it is necessary to recover water for reuse to meet the challenges of shortage of quality water. To recover water, the wastewater needs to be further treated by adopting treatment systems including microfilters, low pressure membrane units such as ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactors (MBR), etc., for the application of reverse osmosis (RO) systems. By adopting the RO system, 75%-80% of quality water with <500 mg/L of TDS is recovered from treated effluent. The management of 20%-25% of the saline water rejected from the RO system with high TDS concentration is being addressed by methods such as forced evaporation systems. The recovery of water from domestic and industrial waste for reuse has become a reality. The membrane system has been used for different applications. It has become mandatory to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in many states in India and other countries such as Spain, China, etc., and resulted in development of new treatment technologies to suit the local conditions. PMID:26982606

  18. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic material that is recycled to a process is no longer wastewater and no longer subject to the wastewater requirements after it has been recycled. (b) The requirements in Item 2 of Table 6 to this...

  19. 40 CFR 430.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fine and... (0.047)(9.4)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00064 (0.016)(9.4)/y y=wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all... Pentachlorophenol 0.0051 (0.039)(31.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0018 (0.014)(31.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in...

  20. 40 CFR 430.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fine and... (0.047)(9.4)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00064 (0.016)(9.4)/y y=wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all... Pentachlorophenol 0.0051 (0.039)(31.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0018 (0.014)(31.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in...

  1. 40 CFR 430.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Unbleached Kraft....00053 (0.013)(9.4)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00053 (0.011)(11.4)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times....

  2. 40 CFR 430.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber... Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.104)(15.9)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.085)(19.5)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times....

  3. 40 CFR 430.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fine and... (0.047)(9.4)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00064 (0.016)(9.4)/y y=wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all... Pentachlorophenol 0.0051 (0.039)(31.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0018 (0.014)(31.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in...

  4. 40 CFR 430.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1....00087 (0.065)(3.2)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton...

  5. 40 CFR 430.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Unbleached Kraft....00053 (0.013)(9.4)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00053 (0.011)(11.4)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times....

  6. 40 CFR 430.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber... Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.104)(15.9)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.085)(19.5)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times....

  7. 40 CFR 430.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1....00087 (0.065)(3.2)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton...

  8. 40 CFR 430.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber... Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.104)(15.9)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.085)(19.5)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times....

  9. 40 CFR 430.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber...)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1....00087 (0.065)(3.2)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton...

  10. 40 CFR 430.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink....104)(15.9)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0... Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.085)(19.5)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the...

  11. 40 CFR 430.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink....104)(15.9)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0... Trichlorophenol 0.0069 (0.085)(19.5)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  16. The behaviour and fate of Nitrate and Phosphate present in treated wastewater when discharged to the Chalk aquifer of SE England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Smith, Martin; Pope, David

    2013-04-01

    The Chalk aquifer of South East England is a major groundwater resource and regionally supplies up to 70% of all water abstracted for potable purposes. The two main pressures on groundwater resources are considered to be climate change and population growth. As the demand for water increases, so does the volume of wastewater that has to be treated to acceptable levels before being discharged back into the environment. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is form of groundwater resource management whereby water is pumped or injected into the ground and allowed to percolate through to the saturated zone before being abstracted at a later date. By injecting water into the ground during periods of high precipitation (i.e. winter months) an increased volume of water is made available for later abstraction (i.e. during summer months) helping water resource planners better manage the supply demand balance. In the case of using treated wastewater as a source for artificial recharge, there is little published research on the behaviour and fate of the main contaminants of concern that are found in treated wastewater when they are discharged to the principal aquifer (the Chalk) of SE England. Nitrate and Phosphate are listed (amongst others) as the main contaminants of concern that are present in treated wastewater and discharged to the Chalk aquifer when this practice occurs. The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of treated wastewater for artificial recharge has been extensively studied in both the field and laboratory to better assess how sustainable this practice is in terms of risk of pollution to the groundwater body. The results of the laboratory programme include breakthrough curves for Nitrate and Phosphate in the Chalk matrix under unsaturated and saturated conditions. Whilst Nitrate is shown not to be sorbed in the Chalk matrix, a proportion of the Phosphate is shown to be retained. The proportion of Phosphate that is retained is less than the total retention capacity of the Chalk matrix and the mechanisms that control this are reported. The laboratory and field data will be compared and geochemical models used to upscale to catchment level. This will allow for a better assessment of the risk of pollution occurring at the groundwater body and how sustainable the use of treated wastewater is as a source for ASR in Chalk catchments to be made.

  17. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step

  19. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,

  20. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two

  1. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  2. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,

  3. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,

  4. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

  5. Behavior of pathogenic microbes in a treated wastewater reuse system and examination of new standards for the reuse of treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Atsushi; Sakurai, Kensuke; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2007-06-01

    We researched the behavior of pathogenic microbes in a treated wastewater reuse system to acquire knowledge for establishing new standards for the reuse of treated wastewater. Based on the results that showed occasional growth of total coliforms but barely any growth of Escherichia coli in the supply tank, we found that the total coliform, which includes bacteria that also breed in the soil, etc., is not necessarily suitable as the index bacteria for indicating pollution by excrement. We also clarified that it is possible to decrease the heterotrophic plate count to a specified level in cases where combined residual chlorine is more than 0.3 mg/l, and that the standard value for residual chlorine should be set at 0.3 mg/l or more. At the same time, we found that applying sand filtration treatment to water used for toilet flushing, sprinkling and landscaping, and sand filtration treatment plus coagulation treatment to water for recreational use lowers the annual risk of infection by Cryptosporidium to less than 10(-4). The standard for viruses must be examined in the future because Noroviruses were sometimes detected even in the reclaimed water, although we could not establish the standard at this time due to problems with the virus detection method. PMID:17057950

  6. Standardizing admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate how hospital capacity was managed focusing on standardizing the admission and discharge processes. Methods This study was set in a 900-bed university affiliated hospital of the National Health Service, near Barcelona (Spain). This is a cross-sectional study of a set of interventions which were gradually implemented between April and December 2008. Mainly, they were focused on standardizing the admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow. Primary administrative data was obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Hospital Database. Main outcome measures were median length of stay, percentage of planned discharges, number of surgery cancellations and median number of delayed emergency admissions at 8:00?am. For statistical bivariate analysis, we used a Chi-squared for linear trend for qualitative variables and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and a MannWhitney test for non-normal continuous variables. Results The median patients global length of stay was 8.56?days in 2007 and 7.93?days in 2009 (p?discharges went from 43.05% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p?standardization of admission and discharge processes are largely in our control. There is a significant opportunity to create important benefits for increasing bed capacity and hospital throughput. PMID:22741542

  7. Assessing potential risks of wastewater discharges to benthic biota: an integrated approach to biomarker responses in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Maranho, L A; DelValls, T A; Martn-Daz, M L

    2015-03-15

    Marine clams Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed under laboratory conditions to sediments sampled at five sites affected by wastewater effluents at the Bay of Cdiz (SW, Spain). Contamination and early biological stress were determined. Metabolism and antioxidant system differed according to seasons. Health status diminished in summer. Metabolism of detoxification, and oxidative effect were related to concentration of metals, PAH, secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) and antibiotics in winter. Antioxidant system and DNA damage were linked to metals and pharmaceutical products. Phase I and antioxidant system were associated to PAH and SAS in summer. Oxidative stress and effects were related to pharmaceuticals. Phase II was linked to metals and pharmaceuticals. Seasonality of sediment contamination by organic compounds and biological responses was determined. Clams were useful bioindicators, since the set of biomarkers applied was validated as potential tools for sediment quality assessment of wastewater discharges areas. PMID:25641574

  8. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged. PMID:23994821

  9. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  10. Enhanced degradation of azo dye in wastewater by pulsed discharge plasma coupled with MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 in pulsed discharge plasma systems, easily recycled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-TiO2 supported on γ-Al2O3 (MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3) composite photocatalyst were prepared. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated using XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of azo dye acid orange II (AO7) in wastewater under pulsed discharge plasma. The results indicate that the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite catalyst possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity facilitating the decomposition of AO7 compared with TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems. Under pulsed discharge plasma, almost 100% AO7 is degraded by the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite after 60 min at optimal conditions. The degradation efficiency of AO7 is also affected by the dosage of the composite catalyst and pulsed discharge peak voltage. As the amount of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite and pulsed discharge peak voltage increases, the degradation efficiency of AO7 increases. The photocatalyst was implemented for 6 cycles and the degradation efficiency of AO7 remains higher than 85% under pulsed discharge plasma. Results indicate that the catalyst displays easy separation and minimal deactivation after several uses. Possible decomposition mechanisms were also investigated. MWCNTs are capable of improving the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems primarily due to the photo-induced-electron absorption effect and the electron trap effect of MWCNTs. The results of this study establish the feasibility and potential implementation of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composites in pulsed discharge plasma systems for the degradation of dye wastewater. PMID:26946167

  11. QUALITY OF PALOUSE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT AND IMPACT OF DISCHARGE TO THE NORTH FORK PALOUSE RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Washington State Department of Ecology conducted a limited Class II inspection and receiving water survey at Palouse Wastewater Treatment Plant (17060108) from September 28 to October 1, 1987. Treatment efficiency was good, considering facility age and design. Several chang...

  12. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the

  14. Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate ranged from 5.1 to 6.1 mg/L and were 4 to 7 times larger than concentrations at the nearest upstream site on Monument Creek, site 07103970 (MoCr_Woodmen). The source of these larger dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations has not been identified, but the fact that all measurements had elevated dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations indicates a relatively constant source. Most stormflow concentrations of dissolved trace elements were smaller than concentrations from base-flow or normal-flow samples. However, median concentrations of total arsenic, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc generally were much larger during periods of stormflow than during base flow or normal flow. Concentrations of dissolved and total copper, total manganese, total nickel, dissolved and total selenium, and dissolved and total zinc ranged from 3 to 27 times larger at site 07103707 (FoCr_8th) than site 07103700 (FoCr_Manitou) during base flow, indicating a large source of trace elements between these two sites. Both of these sites are located on Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek. The likely source area is Gold Hill Mesa, a former tailings pile for a gold refinery located just upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, and upstream from site 07103707 (FoCr_8th). Farther downstream in Fountain Creek, stormflow samples for total copper, manganese, lead, nickel, and zinc were larger at the downstream site near the city of Security, site 07105800 (FoCr_Security), than at the upstream site near Janitell Road, site 07105530 (FoCr_Janitell), compared with other main-stem sites and indicated a relatively large source of these metals between the two sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace-element loads substantially increased during stormflow. Suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields associated with stormflow were significantly larger than those associated with normal flow. The Apr

  15. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.430 Standard discharge connections for... bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture from fuel oil tanks. The discharge connection...

  16. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.430 Standard discharge connections for... bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture from fuel oil tanks. The discharge connection...

  17. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.430 Standard discharge connections for... bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture from fuel oil tanks. The discharge connection...

  18. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S... March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water... Standards Directorate''. Notification should be provided to U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Center. In FR...

  19. 40 CFR 430.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical....00043 (0.014)(7.3)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of...

  20. 40 CFR 430.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory... = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0 at all times....

  1. 40 CFR 430.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory... = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0 at all times....

  2. 40 CFR 430.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical....00043 (0.014)(7.3)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of...

  3. 40 CFR 430.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical....00043 (0.014)(7.3)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of...

  4. Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 2: Influence of tree species and water characteristics on wastewater discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K.

    1996-09-01

    The concentration patterns of a number of compounds in the inlet water and wastewater from sprinkling of timber from Scotch pine and Norway spruce have been studied. The timber was separated with respect to species and sprinkled with water from a eutrophic or an oligotrophic receiving water for 18 weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), distillable phenols, resin acids, bacterial phospholipid fatty acids, organic and inorganic phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur, and a number of metal ions were monitored in the inlet water and wastewater. The toxicity of the wastewater was estimated during the first 2 weeks using a Microtox{reg_sign} test and appeared to decline in parallel with DOC. Most compounds showed both an environmental net load and an absorption by the timber, the loads being smaller and the absorption larger when using eutrophic water. At both sites the loads were generally largest during the first 2 weeks and larger in magnitude at the oligotrophic site and in the spruce wastewater. The initial growth of the bacterial biomass in the pile system was slower at the oligotrophic site, and the results indicated that a rapid growth of the bacterial biomass reduces the initial environmental loads and that this process is associated with the nutrient status of the receiving water.

  5. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

  6. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, E; Perrodin, Y; Keck, G; Blanchard, J-M; Vermande, P

    2005-01-14

    In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients, reach the wastewater. This form of elimination may generate risks for aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to present: (i) the steps of an ecological risk assessment and management framework related to hospital effluents evacuating into wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without preliminary treatment; and (ii) the results of its application on wastewater from an infectious and tropical diseases department of a hospital of a large city in southeastern France. The characterization of effects has been made under two assumptions, which were related to: (a) the effects of hospital wastewater on biological treatment process of WWTP, particularly on the community of organisms in charge of the biological decomposition of the organic matter; (b) the effects on aquatic organisms. COD and BOD5 have been measured for studying global organic pollution. Assessment of halogenated organic compounds was made using halogenated organic compounds absorbable on activated carbon (AOX) concentrations. Heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc) were measured. Low most probable number (MPP) for faecal coliforms has been considered as an indirect detection of antibiotics and disinfectants presence. For toxicity assessment, bioluminescence assay using Vibrio fischeri photobacteria, 72-h EC50 algae growth Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 24-h EC50 on Daphnia magna were used. The scenario allows to a semi-quantitative risk characterization. It needs to be improved on some aspects, particularly those linked to: long term toxicity assessment on target organisms (bioaccumulation of pollutants, genotoxicity, etc.); ecotoxicological interactions between pharmaceuticals, disinfectants used both in diagnostics and in cleaning of surfaces, and detergents used in cleaning of surfaces; the interactions into the sewage network, between the hospital effluents and the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:15621348

  7. Identification of pathogen bacteria and protozoa in treated urban wastewaters discharged in the Ebro River (Spain): water reuse possibilities.

    PubMed

    Mosteo, R; Ormad, M P; Goi, P; Rodrguez-Chueca, J; Garca, A; Clavel, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to identify the presence of pathogens, bacteria and protozoa, in different treated urban wastewaters and to relate biological pollution with the processes used in wastewater treatment plants. A study of the possibilities for water reuse is carried out taking into account bacterial and parasite composition. The analysed bacteria and protozoa are: Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens (spore), Salmonella spp., Legionella spp., helminths eggs, Giardia, Cryptosporidium spp. and free-living amoebae (FLA). The selected municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) are located in Navarra (Spain) and the main difference between them is the use of natural lagoons as tertiary treatment in some plants. The results concerning bacteriological identification showed contamination of mainly faecal origin, and the use of natural lagoons as tertiary treatment in some MWTPs produced an important disinfection effect. Moreover, pathogen parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium were not detected in the samples studied although FLA were identified in all cases. PMID:23925185

  8. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.101 Section 414.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC...

  9. 40 CFR 455.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... process wastewater pollutants must achieve the new source performance standards specified in 40 CFR 455.20... pollutants, such sources must achieve discharges not exceeding the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to this subpart as defined in 40 CFR 455.21(d) times...

  10. 40 CFR 471.33 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator demonstrates, on the basis of analytical methods set forth in or approved pursuant to 40 CFR part... discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (p) Metal powder production atomization wastewater. Subpart C... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  11. Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.

    PubMed

    Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production. PMID:24759540

  12. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar settings across Ireland suggest the phenomena observed in this study are more widespread than previously suspected. PMID:25863501

  13. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  14. The influence of wastewater discharge on water quality in Hawai'i: A comparative study for Lahaina and Kihei, Maui.

    PubMed

    Miller-Pierce, Mailea R; Rhoads, Neil A

    2016-02-15

    In Maui, Hawai'i, wastewater reclamation facilities (WWRFs) dispose of partially treated effluent into injection wells connected to the nearshore environment. Hawai'i State Department of Health data from 2004-2015 were assessed for qualitative trends in nutrient, turbidity, and Chlorophyll a water quality (WQ) impairments for fourteen marine sites on Maui Island. We introduce a novel method, the Qualitative Impact Percentage (QIP), to facilitate a qualitative comparison of disparate factors contributing to WQ impairment. Sites near the Lahaina WWRF in West Maui, which was found in violation of the Clean Water Act in 2014, had fewer exceedances and lower geometric means compared to sites near the Kihei WWRF. Our results suggest that WQ impairments may be a greater concern in Kihei than previously acknowledged. This paper attempts to raise the awareness of policymakers and the public and to encourage further research assessing the effects of the Kihei WWRF on the marine environment. PMID:26778501

  15. Quantifying the Contribution of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems to Stream Discharge Using the SWAT Model.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C W; Radcliffe, D E; Risse, L M; Habteselassie, M; Mukundan, R; Jeong, J; Hoghooghi, N

    2014-03-01

    In the southeastern United States, on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are widely used for domestic wastewater treatment. The degree to which OWTSs represent consumptive water use has been questioned in Georgia. The goal of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs on streamflow in a gauged watershed in Gwinnett County, Georgia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed-scale model, which includes a new OWTS algorithm. Streamflow was modeled with and without the presence of OWTSs. The model was calibrated using data from 1 Jan. 2003 to 31 Dec. 2006 and validated from 1 Jan. 2007 to 31 Dec. 2010 using the auto-calibration tool SWAT-CUP 4. The daily and monthly streamflow Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.49 and 0.71, respectively, for the calibration period and 0.37 and 0.68, respectively, for the validation period, indicating a satisfactory fit. Analysis of water balance output variables between simulations showed a 3.1% increase in total water yield at the watershed scale and a 5.9% increase at the subbasin scale for a high-density OWTS area. The percent change in water yield between simulations was the greatest in dry years, implying that the influence of OWTSs on the water yield is greatest under drought conditions. Mean OWTS water use was approximately 5.7% consumptive, contrary to common assumptions by water planning agencies in Georgia. Results from this study may be used by OWTS users and by watershed planners to understand the influence of OWTSs on water quantity within watersheds in this region. PMID:25602655

  16. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

  17. Minimize plant wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Frayne, S.P. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper discusses four steps which lead to better wastewater minimization and water reuse: Maximize use of present facilities, wisely execute small capital projects, and use of money for them, cut large wastewater volumes from major capital projects and go beyond limitations in step three, to zero discharge.

  18. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions... monitored at the point of discharge to the receiving water or at the point at which the wastewater...

  19. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions... monitored at the point of discharge to the receiving water or at the point at which the wastewater...

  20. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions... monitored at the point of discharge to the receiving water or at the point at which the wastewater...

  1. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions... monitored at the point of discharge to the receiving water or at the point at which the wastewater...

  2. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions... monitored at the point of discharge to the receiving water or at the point at which the wastewater...

  3. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. 40 CFR 430.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter, Non-Woven, and... (0.035)(19.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00096 (0.012)(19.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at... Pentachlorophenol 0.0072 (0.037)(47.5)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0025 (0.013)(47.5)/y y = wastewater discharged in...

  5. 40 CFR 430.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink... (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9... 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range...

  6. 40 CFR 430.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink... (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9... 0.00030 (0.023)(3.2)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range...

  7. 40 CFR 430.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter, Non-Woven, and... (0.035)(19.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00096 (0.012)(19.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at... Pentachlorophenol 0.0072 (0.037)(47.5)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0025 (0.013)(47.5)/y y = wastewater discharged in...

  8. 40 CFR 430.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fine and Lightweight Papers... (0.047)(9.4)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00064 (0.016)(9.4)/y y=wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all... Pentachlorophenol 0.0051 (0.039)(31.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0018 (0.014)(31.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in...

  9. 40 CFR 430.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fine and Lightweight Papers... (0.047)(9.4)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00064 (0.016)(9.4)/y y=wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all... Pentachlorophenol 0.0051 (0.039)(31.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0018 (0.014)(31.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in...

  10. 40 CFR 430.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Unbleached Kraft Subcategory... = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0 at all times. Subpart C...)(11.4)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0...

  11. 40 CFR 430.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Unbleached Kraft Subcategory... = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0 at all times. Subpart C...)(11.4)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal per ton at all times. 1 Within the range of 5.0 to 9.0...

  12. Calibration of double focusing Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry instruments with pin-shaped synthetic standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarova, T.; Methven, B.; Kipphardt, H.; Sturgeon, R.; Matschat, R.; Panne, U.

    2011-11-01

    Calibration of two commercially available glow discharge double focusing mass spectrometers, the VG 9000 and Element GD, is described using synthetic pin standards pressed from solution doped copper and zinc matrices. A special pressing die was developed for this purpose and optimal results were obtained with the highest possible pressures, i.e., 95 kNcm - 2 . This calibration approach permits the determination of trace element mass fractions down to ?gkg - 1 with small uncertainties and additionally provides traceability of the GD-MS results in the most direct manner to the SI (International System of Units). Results were validated by concurrent measurements of a number of compact copper and zinc certified reference materials. The impact of the sample pin cross-section (circular or square) was investigated with the use of a new pin-sample holder system for the Element GD. The pin-sample holder was designed by the manufacturer for pin-samples having circular cross-section; however, samples with square pin cross-section were also shown to provide acceptable results. Relative Sensitivity Factors for some 50 analytes in copper (VG 9000, Element GD) and zinc matrices (VG 9000) are presented. The field of applicability of GD-MS may be considerably extended via analysis of pin geometry samples based on their ease of preparation, especially with respect to the accuracy and traceability of the results and the enhanced number of analytes which can be reliably calibrated using such samples.

  13. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. 155.430 Section 155.430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS...

  14. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. 155.430 Section 155.430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS...

  15. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS) Final Rule (77 FR 35268). The rulemaking... (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard is now publishing a document to advise the public that we received four... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 46 CFR Part 162 RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in...

  16. 77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...The Coast Guard is amending its regulations on ballast water management by establishing a standard for the allowable concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States. The Coast Guard is also amending its regulations for engineering equipment by establishing an approval process for ballast water management systems. These new regulations will......

  17. ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTEWATERS ON REDEAR SUNFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static bioassays of 24 hours' duration were performed on samples of wastewaters provided by 22 domestic petroleum refiners. These wastewaters represent three types of water discharges prevalent to this industry: process wastewaters prior to dilution with other streams; API separa...

  18. Procedure to screen illicit discharge of toxic substances in septic sludge received at a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Robidoux, P Y; Lopez-Gastey, J; Choucri, A; Sunahara, G I

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an integrative approach, using toxicological and chemical analyses, to screen toxic and illegal substances that could be added to the septic sludge transported by a tanker truck to the wastewater treatment plant of the Montreal Urban Community (MUC). Microtox, lettuce root elongation, and a bacterial respiration test were used to establish the toxicity range of a normal sludge and the determination of threshold limit criteria. Septic sludge samples were spiked with different types and amounts of contaminants (copper, zinc, phenol, industrial sludge). Conservative criteria were applied to detect abnormal toxicity with great reliability while avoiding false positives (i.e., detecting abnormal toxicity in nonspiked sludge). Taken individually, toxicity tests using Microtox were revealed to be the least discriminating toxicological method (efficiency of 45% when the ratio of the IC50 values is considered), whereas lettuce root elongation was relatively the most efficient (80% of spiked samples). As a whole, the battery of toxicity tests detected at least 93% of the spiked sludge samples. This procedure is also very efficient, i.e., easy to apply, cost effective, and rapid. In certain cases, an abnormal toxicity level can be determined within a few hours, whereas a septic sludge can be classified as normal within 5 days. PMID:9515073

  19. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard. PMID:26942530

  20. Packaged wastewater treatment: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.

    1993-06-17

    The paper presents an overview of wastewater treatment problems and solutions for industrial plants which discharge their wastewater to a publicly-owned treatment works (POTW). Since POTWs have limitations on the amount and type of wastes they can effectively treat, many require that their industrial customers limit concentrations of some effluent wastes and eliminate others. Characterizing plant wastewater becomes very important in the selection process for packaged wastewater treatment. Other considerations are also discussed.

  1. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product. PMID:19712652

  2. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 ?g L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 ?g L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater. PMID:24185070

  3. Influences of wastewater discharges on the water quality of Mamas?n dam watershed in Aksaray, Central Anatolian part of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Gll, zlem

    2005-10-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. Municipal governments in Aksaray City play a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection problems. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land, and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. A large part of Aksaray City uses Mamas?n dam water as its primary source for drinking water. Several point sources of contamination may result from direct wastewater discharges from Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamas?n dam watershed. Relevant studies were carried out for monitoring the eutrophication process, which usually occurs in the static water mass of the Mamas?n dam lake. This process may be caused by the continual increase in nutrients and decrease of O2 levels, causing anaerobic conditions. Stimulated algae growth in these water bodies consequently reduces water quality. Hydrochemical parameters were evaluated to estimate the types of pollution sources, the level of pollution, and its environmental impacts on the Mamas?n dam drinking water reservoir.

  4. Occurrence of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and their resistance genes in an urban river impacted by municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Du, Cong; Xu, Huan; Miao, Yan-Hui; Cheng, Yan-Yan; Tang, Hao; Zhou, Jin-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms in an urban river poses great threats to both human health and the environment. To investigate the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria in an urban river, water samples were collected from the Chanhe River in Xi'an, China. After membrane filtration of water samples, the tetracycline resistance rate of fecal coliforms and their resistance genes were detected by plating and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We found that fecal coliforms were generally resistant to tetracycline and saw average resistance rates of 44.7%. The genes tetA and tetB were widely detected, and their positive rate was 60%-100% and 40%-90%, respectively. We found few strains containing tetC, tetK, tetQ and tetX, and we did not identify any strains containing tetG, tetM or tetO. The prevalence of tetA and tetB over other genes indicated that the main mechanism for resistance to tetracycline is by changes to the efflux pump. Our analysis of the types and proportion of tetracycline resistance genes in the Chanhe River at locations upstream and downstream of the urban center suggests that the increased number of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and spatial variation of tetracycline resistance genes diversity were related to municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge. PMID:25901852

  5. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant

  6. Pretreatment of industrial discharges to publicly owned treatment works (POTW)

    SciTech Connect

    Ongerth, J.E.; Dewalle, F.B.

    1980-08-01

    A discussion covers a brief survey of federal regulations establishing standards for the pretreatment of pollutants discharged into POTW's; the experience of the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) in dealing with the pretreatment of heavy metals in industrial and commercial discharges; a study and analysis by Seattle Metro of organic priority pollutants in wastewater including identification sources; and POTW treatment control technology for organic priority pollutants in Seattle Metro.

  7. Treatment of slaughterhouse plant wastewater by using a membrane bioreactor.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Grel L; Bykgngr H

    2011-01-01

    The use of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic substances and nutrients from slaughterhouse plant wastewater was investigated. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations of slaughterhouse wastewater were found to be approximately 571 mg O2/L, 102.5 mg/L, and 16.25 mg PO4-P/L, respectively. A submerged type membrane was used in the bioreactor. The removal efficiencies for COD, total organic carbon (TOC), TP and TN were found to be 97, 96, 65, 44% respectively. The COD value of wastewater was decreased to 16 mg/L (COD discharge standard for slaughterhouse plant wastewaters is 160 mg/L). TOC was decreased to 9 mg/L (TOC discharge standard for slaughterhouse plant wastewaters is 20 mg/L). Ammonium, and nitrate nitrogen concentrations of treated effluent were 0.100 mg NH4-N/L, and 80.521 mg NO3-N/L, respectively. Slaughterhouse wastewater was successfully treated with the MBR process.

  8. Treatment of slaughterhouse plant wastewater by using a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Grel, Levent; Bykgngr, Hanife

    2011-01-01

    The use of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic substances and nutrients from slaughterhouse plant wastewater was investigated. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations of slaughterhouse wastewater were found to be approximately 571 mg O2/L, 102.5 mg/L, and 16.25 mg PO4-P/L, respectively. A submerged type membrane was used in the bioreactor. The removal efficiencies for COD, total organic carbon (TOC), TP and TN were found to be 97, 96, 65, 44% respectively. The COD value of wastewater was decreased to 16 mg/L (COD discharge standard for slaughterhouse plant wastewaters is 160 mg/L). TOC was decreased to 9 mg/L (TOC discharge standard for slaughterhouse plant wastewaters is 20 mg/L). Ammonium, and nitrate nitrogen concentrations of treated effluent were 0.100 mg NH4-N/L, and 80.521 mg NO3-N/L, respectively. Slaughterhouse wastewater was successfully treated with the MBR process. PMID:22053477

  9. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total phosphorus was 0.023 mg/L, indicating the lake is borderline mesotrophic-eutrophic, or has moderate to high concentrations of phosphorus, whereas the average summer chlorophyll a concentration was 3.3 mg/L and water clarity, as measured with a Secchi depth, was 10.4 ft, both indicating mesotrophic conditions or that the lake has a moderate amount of algae and water clarity. Although actions have been taken to eliminate the wastewater discharges, the bottom sediment still has slightly elevated concentrations of several pollutants from wastewater discharges, lumber operations, and roadway drainage, and a few naturally occurring metals (such as iron). None of the concentrations, however, were high enough above the defined thresholds to be of concern. Based on nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, the productivity (algal growth) in Mercer Lake should typically be limited by phosphorus; therefore, understanding the phosphorus input to the lake is important when management efforts to improve or prevent degradation of the lake water quality are considered. Total inputs of phosphorus to Mercer Lake were directly estimated for MY 2008-09 at about 340 lb/yr and for a recent year with more typical hydrology at about 475 lb/yr. During these years, the largest sources of phosphorus were from Little Turtle Inlet, which contributed about 45 percent, and the drainage area near the lake containing the adjacent urban and residential developments, which contributed about 24 percent. Prior to 1965, when there was no sewage treatment plant and septic systems and other untreated systems contributed nutrients to the watershed, phosphorus loadings were estimated to be about 71 percent higher than during around 2009. In 1965, a sewage treatment plant was built, but its effluent was released in the downstream end of the lake. Depending on various assumptions on how much effluent was retained in the lake, phosphorus inputs from wastewater may have ranged from 0 to 342 lb. Future highway and stormwater improvements have been identified in the Mercer Infrastructure Improvement Project, and if they

  10. 40 CFR 420.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking Subcategory 420.44 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from any new...

  11. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory 461.23 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to...

  12. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the soils. The rice grain produced in the polluted paddy fields are highly contaminated by heavy metals, with concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn being 14.1 mg kg-1, 21.4 mg kg-1, 0.55 mg kg-1, 16.3 mg kg-1 and 38.5 mg kg-1 on average, respectively. According to our investigations, the rate of rice with Cd exceeding the national allowable limit (0.2 mg kg-1) reaches 59.6% of the total in the county; that with Cd higher than 1 mg kg-1, called as Cd Rice, reaches 11.1%. This suggests that wastewater irrigation caused by indigenous mining has led to the severe heavy metal pollution of farming land in Hunan province. Moreover, toxic metals in the soils have been accumulated in rice grain and do harm to human health.

  13. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

  14. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDELs). Part IX. A novel MDEL photoreactor for the photolytic and chemical oxidation treatment of contaminated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Shinomiya, Tomohiro; Serpone, Nick

    2015-11-25

    This article reports on the fabrication and enhanced performance of a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) consisting of a three layered cylindrical structure that was effective in the remediation of wastewater containing the 2,4-D herbicide and the near total sterilization of bacteria-contaminated pond water (E. coli and other microorganisms) through photolysis with the emitted vacuum-UV (185 nm) and UVC (254 nm) light from the MDEL and through chemical oxidation with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the photolysis of dioxygen and air oxygen through one of the photoreactors. The flow rates of the 1.0 L contaminated waters were 0.6 and 1.2 L min(-1). The integrated UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair methods used to carry out the degradation of 2,4-D and sterilization processes were more effective than either the UV method alone or the ROSO2 and ROSair methods for short time periods (5 or 8 min). At a lower flow rate, 79% of 2,4-D was degraded by the UV/ROSO2 method and 55% by UV/ROSair after 8 min. At a faster flow rate of 1.2 L min(-1), degradation of 2,4-D in 1.0 L volume of water was 84% and 77% complete by the UV/ROSO2 and the UV/ROSair method, respectively, after 8 min of irradiation. The number of kills of E. coli bacteria was nearly quantitative (98 and 99%) by the UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair methods after treating the contaminated water for 5 min. The decrease of total viable microorganisms in pond water was 90% and 80% after 5 min of microwave irradiation at a flow rate of 1.2 L min(-1) by the integrated methods UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair, respectively. The rate of flow of oxygen gas through the photoreactor impacted the extent of degradation and the related dynamics of the 2,4-D herbicide. PMID:26456244

  15. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards. PMID:18799262

  16. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  17. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  18. Risk assessment of wastewater disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Hulby, D.; Chappell, W.; Lanning, J.; Maltempo, M.; Chiras, D.; Morris, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the following: detailed examination of the risks of different types of wastewater disinfection used today; risks of onsite use, transportation, and discharge of disinfected effluents; and disinfection methods considered include chlorination, chlorination/dechlorination, ozonation, UV radiation.

  19. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals

  20. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  1. Improving the quality of discharge summaries: implementing updated Academy of Medical Royal Colleges standards at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    May-Miller, Hannah; Hayter, Joanne; Loewenthal, Lola; Hall, Louis; Hilbert, Rebecca; Quinn, Michael; Pearson, Nicola; Patel, Alisha; Law, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Quality of documentation is harder to quantify and incentivise, but it has a significant impact on patient care. Good discharge summaries facilitate continuity between secondary and primary care. The junior doctors' forum led this project to improve the quality of electronic discharge summaries (eDS). Baseline measurement revealed significant room for improvement. We measured the quality of 10 summaries per month (across all inpatient specialties), against 23 indicators from the revised Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC) standards (2013) that were prioritised by GPs as a "minimum dataset". Junior doctors felt that the Trust's dual eDS systems were responsible for great variation in quality. This was confirmed by the results of a comparison audit of the systems in April 2014: one system greatly outperformed the other (57% mean compliance with iSoft clinical management (iCM) based system vs. 77% with InfoPath-based system). We recommended that the Trust move to a single eDS system, decommissioning the iCM-based system, and this proposal was approved by several Trust committees. We worked with information services, junior doctors, general practitioners and hospital physicians to develop and implement a generic template to further improve compliance with AoMRC standards. In August 2014, the iCM-based system was withdrawn, the new template went live, and training was delivered, coinciding with the changeover of junior doctors to minimise disruption. Median compliance increased from 66.7% to 77.8%. Quality of discharge summaries had improved across the specialties. There was a reduction in the number of complaints and positive qualitative feedback from general practitioners and junior doctors. Completion of discharge summaries within 24 hours was not affected by this change. There is still more to be done to improve quality; average compliance with the full AoMRC standards (39 indicators) is 59.5%. With the approval of the Trust executive committee further plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles are underway, working to improve the remaining specialty-specific templates. PMID:26734325

  2. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

  6. 40 CFR 442.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b) of... defined in 40 CFR 403.12(l); (3) The discharger shall submit a copy of its Pollutant Management Plan as... section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in ...

  7. 40 CFR 442.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b) of... defined in 40 CFR 403.12(l); (3) The discharger shall submit a copy of its Pollutant Management Plan as... section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in ...

  8. 40 CFR 442.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for existing sources (PSES). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b... responsible corporate officer as defined in 40 CFR 403.12(l); (3) The discharger shall submit a copy of its... discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in 442.2, if the source agrees to control mechanism...

  9. 40 CFR 442.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for existing sources (PSES). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b... responsible corporate officer as defined in 40 CFR 403.12(l); (3) The discharger shall submit a copy of its... discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in 442.2, if the source agrees to control mechanism...

  10. Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

  11. Automatable on-line generation of calibration curves and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-03-01

    Two methods are described that enable on-line generation of calibration standards and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample solution, and diluent to achieve a desired solution composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line solution mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in solution composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing solution streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  13. Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  14. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  15. Uncertainty analysis of the simulations of effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two separate studies to simulate the effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, have been completed. In the first study, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. In the second study, the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model was verified for ice-cover conditions. To better understand and apply the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model, the uncertainty associated with simulated constituent concentrations and property values was analyzed and quantified using the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model-Uncertainty Analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation and first-order error analysis methods were used to analyze the uncertainty in simulated values for six constituents and properties at sites 5, 10, and 14 (upstream to downstream order). The constituents and properties analyzed for uncertainty are specific conductance, total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-cover conditions and ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-free conditions, and dissolved oxygen. Results are given in detail for both the ice-cover and ice-free conditions for specific conductance, total ammonia, and dissolved oxygen. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the simulated constituent concentrations and property values to input variables differ substantially between ice-cover and ice-free conditions. During ice-cover conditions, simulated specific-conductance values are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values upstream of site 10 and the point-source specific-conductance values downstream of site 10. These headwater-source and point-source specific-conductance values also are the key sources of uncertainty. Simulated total ammonia concen- trations are most sensitive to the point-source total ammonia concentrations at all three sites. Other input variables that contribute substantially to the variability of simulated total ammonia concentrations are the headwater-source total ammonia and the instream reaction coefficient for biological decay of total ammonia to total nitrite. Simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at all three sites are most sensitive to headwater-source dissolved-oxygen concentration. This input variable is the key source of variability for simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at sites 5 and 10. Headwater-source and point-source dissolved-oxygen concentrations are the key sources of variability for simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at site 14. During ice-free conditions, simulated specific-conductance values at all three sites are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values. Headwater-source specific- conductance values also are the key source of uncertainty. The input variables to which total ammonia and dissolved oxygen are most sensitive vary from site to site and may or may not correspond to the input variables that contribute the most to the variability. The input variables that contribute the most to the variability of simulated total ammonia concentrations are point-source total ammonia, instream reaction coefficient for biological decay of total ammonia to total nitrite, and Manning's roughness coefficient. The input variables that contribute the most to the variability of simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations are reaeration rate, sediment oxygen demand rate, and headwater-source algae as chlorophyll a.

  16. Zero discharge: A systematic approach to water reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, B.

    1995-07-01

    Much has changed in the way water is managed today. The rising price of water, prolonged droughts, and environmental regulations make water reduction and reuse virtually essential. Today, most facilities have some program in place. But in the absence of industry standards, how those programs are defined, implemented and executed varies from plant to plant, and from owner to owner. The epitome of water reuse is zero discharge. Although the meaning of the term varies, zero discharge most commonly refers to a facility that discharges no wastewater to surface water. The process of closing up a plant`s water balance is a major undertaking that is not without some risks and drawbacks. Typical problems include: roving maintenance problems; reduced plant reliability; presence of trace chemicals; limits on wastewater concentration are exceeded; and lost water rights. The paper presents an outline for a systematic approach to water reuse.

  17. The effect of wastewater discharge on biomass production and nutrient content of Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum in the Nakivubo wetland, Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kansiime, F; Nalubega, M; van Bruggen, J J A; Denny, P

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient content of representative plant parts and biomass production in the Nakivubo wetland, correlation of these with the wastewater flow patterns and determination of nutrient uptake, storage and biomass production of Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) and Miscanthidium violaceum was studied. On average papyrus vegetation under the influence of wastewater had higher nutrient content in the above ground biomass (1.6% N and 0.23% P on dry weight basis) than those not affected (0.98% N and 0.18% P). The biomass varied between 3,529-5,844 g/m2 and 883-1,156 g/m2 in the two respective sites. The juvenile plants of papyrus and Miscanthidium had higher concentrations of P and N in their organs compared to the mature ones. Considering the nutrients stored by the dominant vegetation and the current flow patterns of wastewater in the Nakivubo wetland, harvesting of the above ground biomass once a year, would remove 7.7% of the N input and 15.8% of the P input of the annual total load entering the wetland. However, if the wetland is bio-manipulated and the wastewater flow distributed over the whole wetland, up to 70% nitrogen and 76% phosphorus would be removed by harvesting above ground papyrus biomass. PMID:14621169

  18. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is... been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 264, subpart O, or has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is... been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 264, subpart O, or has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is... been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 264, subpart O, or has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is... been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 264, subpart O, or has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart...

  2. 75 FR 10477 - Draft Report to Congress: Study of Discharges Incidental to Normal Operation of Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...-299 on the types of wastewater discharged from commercial fishing vessels and non- recreational... Permits Division, Office of Wastewater Management (4203M), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... Robin Danesi, Water Permits Division, Office of Wastewater Management (4203M), Environmental...

  3. TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies on the biological treatability of wastewaters from the manufacture of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide. At concentration levels representative of EBDC production units and total plant wastewaters discharged to pu...

  4. Nitrite removal from boiler maintenance wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.Y.R.; Griffith, R.W.; Hsia, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has developed a chemical reduction process for the treatment of wastewaters containing nitrite (NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}}) in concentrations exceeding water quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Through the bench- and pilot-scale testing of the chemical denitrification process, NFESC has performed an economic analysis of the process that indicated that substantial cost savings can be achieved by implementing this new system. The principal advantage to the chemical reduction is that the wastewater produced during boiler maintenance can be treated in on-site, compact, treatment modules for direct discharge to the sanitary sewer or to surface waters instead of off-site disposal as a hazardous waste. Based on the bench- and pilot-scale testing results, NFESC retained Parsons Engineering Science (Parsons ES) to design, operate, and evaluate a mobile Nitrite Wastewater Treatment System (NWTS) at the Shore Intermediate Maintenance Activity (SIMA) San Diego, California for treating shipboard boiler maintenance wastewater.

  5. Enhanced metal removal from wastewater by coagulant addition

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Elliott, H.A.; Cannon, F.S.

    1996-11-01

    Besides metallurgical industries, metal-containing wastewaters are generated in the manufacturing/processing of batteries, petroleum, photographic materials, paints, inks, leather, and wood. The toxic nature of the heavy metals has resulted in the promulgation of standards requiring very low concentration of metals in the treated effluent. To comply with the strict regulatory requirements, it is necessary to treat the wastewaters (both industrial and municipal) before discharging them into natural water bodies. The objective of this study was to compare the pH-dependent Cu and Cd removal profiles for simple precipitation, adsorption, and coprecipitation in the presence of freshly-formed hydrous oxides of Fe and Al. Because of the significantly different pH at which hydrolysis/precipitation occurs, Cu and Cd were chosen as representative heavy metals. The results have been interpreted in the context of investing the use of coagulants to achieve low metal concentrations in wastewater effluents.

  6. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Buleté, A; Vulliet, E; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Mirande-Bret, C; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92-97%), carbamazepine (80-94%), ciprofloxacin (75-95%), diclofenac (71-97%), oxazepam (74-91%) or sulfamethoxazole (56-83%). In addition, alkylphenols, artificial sweeteners, benzotriazole, bisphenol A, personal care products (triclocarban and parabens) and pesticides have removals lying in the 50 ->90% range. Overall, the fluidized bed of μGAC allows obtaining performances comparable to PAC at the same activated carbon dose. Indeed, the average removal of the 13 PPHs found at a high occurrence (>75%) in WWTP discharges is similar at 20 g/m(3) of μGAC (78-89%) and PAC (85-93%). In addition, this recycled μGAC operation leads to several operational advantages (no FeCl3, reactivable, higher SRT, higher treated flow) and has a stronger impact on the overall wastewater quality compared to PAC. PMID:26571333

  7. Modeling trihalomethane formation potential from wastewater chlorination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The deletion of federally mandated fecal coliform limits has led many states to review and modify their wastewater disinfection requirements. One issue in analyzing wastewater disinfection is the discharge of potentially carcinogenic halogenated organics formed during the chlorination process. This research investigates the formation of one class of the halogenated organics, the trihalomethanes. The applicability of using drinking water trihalomethane formation models for use with wastewater effluent is examined. Three models are compared for predictive capability by using measured trihalomethane values from previous research data. The results show that a previously developed model is applicable for use based on assumptions stated. Results provide environmental managers with worst case predictions for a range of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) parameters. Predictions indicate that trihalomethane formation from the chlorination of wastewater is typically lower than the Safe Drinking Water Act trihalomethane standard of 100 ug/L. The worst case model predictions reach, and in certain extreme cases, pass the standard of 100 ug/L. This level of trihalomethanes formed is minimized if aeration of the receiving bodies of water occurs. Based on this research, the risk of forming trihalomethanes as disinfection by-products from chlorination do not outweigh the benefits gained from proper chlorine disinfection of effluent.

  8. Neuropsychological screening as a standard of care during discharge from psychiatric hospitalization: the preliminary psychometrics of the CNS Screen.

    PubMed

    Levy, Boaz; Celen-Demirtas, Selda; Surguladze, Tinatin; Eranio, Sara; Ellison, James

    2014-03-30

    Cost-prohibitive factors currently prevent a warranted integration of neuropsychological screenings into routine psychiatric evaluations, as a standard of care. To overcome this challenge, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a new computerized measure-the CNS Screen. One hundred and twenty six psychiatric inpatients completed the CNS Screen, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Rated (QIDS-SR??) on the day of hospital discharge. Statistical analysis established convergent validity with a moderate correlation between the self-administered CNS Screen and the clinician-administered MoCA (r=0.64). Discriminant validity was implicated by a non-significant correlation with the QIDS-SR??. Concurrent validity was supported by a moderate, negative correlation with patients' age (r=-0.62). In addition, consistent with previous findings, patients with psychotic disorders exhibited significantly poorer performance on the CNS Screen than patients with a mood disorder. Similarly, patients with a formal disability status scored significantly lower than other patients. The CNS Screen was well tolerated by all patients. With further development, this type of measure may provide a cost-effective approach to expanding neuropsychological screenings on inpatient psychiatric units. PMID:24503284

  9. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  10. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  11. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  12. 40 CFR 471.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... all times. (i) Metal powder production wastewater. Subpart E—NSPS Pollutant or pollutant property...) Metal powder production floor wash wastewater—Subpart E—NSPS. There shall be no discharge of process... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory...

  13. 40 CFR 461.73 - New source performance standards. (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Subcategory § 461.73 New... times. (b) There shall be no discharge allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above....

  14. 40 CFR 420.134 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pH (2) (2) 1 Pounds per thousand pound of product. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Forging.... 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (c) Briquetting. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Operations...

  15. 40 CFR 430.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter... Pentachlorophenol 0.0028 (0.035)(19.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00096 (0.012)(19.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal.../liter Pentachlorophenol 0.0072 (0.037)(47.5)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0025 (0.013)(47.5)/y y =...

  16. 40 CFR 430.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter... Pentachlorophenol 0.0028 (0.035)(19.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00096 (0.012)(19.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal.../liter Pentachlorophenol 0.0072 (0.037)(47.5)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0025 (0.013)(47.5)/y y =...

  17. 40 CFR 430.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter... Pentachlorophenol 0.0028 (0.035)(19.1)/y Trichlorophenol 0.00096 (0.012)(19.1)/y y = wastewater discharged in kgal.../liter Pentachlorophenol 0.0072 (0.037)(47.5)/y Trichlorophenol 0.0025 (0.013)(47.5)/y y =...

  18. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard also established an approval process for ballast water management systems (77 FR 17254...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; announcement of...

  19. Bioaugmentation treatment of PV wafer manufacturing wastewater by microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Chen, Maoxia; He, Xin; Xiao, Zili; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang

    2015-01-01

    The wastewater of silicon photovoltaic (PV) battery manufacturing contained polyethylene glycol (PEG) and detergents, which possessed the characteristics of high content of organics and low bioavailability, and then resulted in high treatment costs. To address the difficulties of existing treatment facilities in stably meeting discharge standards, eight tons of microbial culture (consisting of Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp.) were added into the aerobic treatment unit. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the microbial culture in small-scale biological wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the operating conditions for engineering applications were optimized. The application study showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 95.0% when the pH value was 7, the gas-water ratio was 28:1, the reflux ratio was 50%, which indicated an increase of 51.2% contrasting with the situation without bioaugmentation. The volume load of the treatment facilities after augmentation increased by 127.9% and could tolerate the COD shock load reached 2,340 mgL(-1). At last, the effluence met the class I standard of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). PMID:26287834

  20. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment. PMID:25354334

  1. Waste minimization necessary for solving wastewater problems

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, M.

    1993-07-01

    Developing and implementing waste minimization procedures to correct the wastewater treatment problem are not as simple as identifying the problem. People cannot solve today's problems with the same kind of thinking that caused the problems. Nonetheless, industry primarily is using traditional treatment technologies to reduce wastewater. most companies are upgrading their wastewater treatment plants and installing treatment equipment in process areas whenever technically and economically feasible. The solution to ensuring wastewater compliance is recycling, waste minimization and moving toward zero discharge. Treating wastewater to the best possible quality still creates residual waste that must be disposed. In addition, regulatory limits continue to increase. Although some facilities can close and have closed the loop in certain processes, industry is pursuing waste minimization and the goal of zero discharge, given existing technology and economics. This, companies must taken an innovative approach to reducing wastewater volume and toxicity at the source.

  2. Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

    2009-05-01

    Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. PMID:19102584

  3. Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  4. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  5. Skimming oily wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, T.

    1996-10-01

    As large generators of oily wastewater tighten effluent controls, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is targeting smaller generators. Some of the firms receiving their attention are smaller manufacturing plants, automotive garages, mobile equipment service shops and truck farms. Many of these firms do not have access to a sanitary sewer system that will accept oily wastewater. One EPA concern is that oily wastewater will find its way into an underground aquifer that is a source of drinking water. Many oily wastes contain organic and inorganic chemicals in concentrations that exceed the primary drinking water standards established by the Safe Drinking Water Act. So the focus of one EPA program is aimed at preventing contamination of groundwater by controlling oil wastewater at the generator`s site.

  6. Plutonium discharges to the sanitary sewer: Health impacts at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, B.K.

    1993-04-16

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest discharger of sewage treated by the Livermore Water Reclamation (LWRP), contributing approximately 7% by volume of the LWRP influent LILNL operations, as potential sources both of industrial pollutants and radioactivity, are therefore of particular concern to the LWRP. For this reason, LLNL has maintained vigorous wastewater discharge control and monitoring programs. In particular, the monitoring program has demonstrated that, except in a few rare instances, the concentration of contaminants in LLNL effluent have always remained below the appropriate regulatory standards. The exceptions have generally been due to inadvertent discharges of metals-bearing solutions produced by metal plating or cleaning operations.

  7. Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry. PMID:24593865

  8. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 63.111 shall apply. (6) When Table 35 of subpart G of this part refers to 40 CFR 63.119(e)(1) or (e... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified...

  10. Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and Rialto Drain, followed by Prado Dam and Sunnyslope Creek. Each of these sites is suitable habitat for the Santa Ana sucker, especially Sunnyslope Creek and Rialto Drain where juveniles reside. Various OWCs and EDCs were detected at each Santa Ana River site, although one specific compound or group of compounds could not be singled out as a causative factor. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was strongly negatively correlated with testosterone in male mosquitofish. One group of potent environmental estrogens that likely contributed to endocrine and reproductive impairment are the natural and synthetic estrogen hormones, especially ethinyl estradiol; however, this compound was not targeted in these investigations. The multiple lines of evidence for impaired reproductive and endocrine function in western mosquitofish due to OWCs and EDCs from the Santa Ana River can be used to identify potential problems for the Santa Ana sucker inhabiting the same and nearby sites.

  11. Waste-water treatment. January 1980-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for treatment of industrial effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 163 citations with title list and subject index.)

  12. Innovations in the water and wastewater fields

    SciTech Connect

    Glysson, E.A.; Way, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Topics examined include operational cost savings, water filtration rates and filtration media, as well as current theories and technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Contents: Unconventional Filtration Rates, Media and Backwashing Techniques; Direct Filtration; Application of Tube Settlers to Improve Water Quality; Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment to Remove Ammonia; Overview of New Treatment Techniques; Innovative Applications of Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment; Activated Carbon Treatment for Removal of Potentially Hazardous Compounds from Water Supplies and Wastewaters; New Laboratory Techniques; Energy Conservation in Water and Wastewater Systems; Computer Use in Water Systems; Computer Use in Wastewater Treatment; Innovations in Telemetering and Controls; Pilot Plant Utilization; Oxidation Ditch Aeration Systems: Types and Characteristics-Innovative Advancements; Advancements in Bio-Disc Treatment Technology; Hydrogeologic Investigation for Remedial Action Related to a Chromium-Arsenic-Copper Discharge to Soil and Groundwater; Study of Wastewater Treatment Plant Optimization for the USA EPA; Innovations in the Proper Management of Hazard.

  13. Organic contaminants of emerging concern in sediments and flatfish collected near outfalls discharging treated wastewater effluent to the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Kwon, Jeong W; Xia, Kang; Armbrust, Kevin L

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the occurrence and bioaccumulation of organic contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) near four major wastewater ocean outfalls in the Southern California Bight, more than 75 pharmaceutical and personal care products, current-use pesticides, and industrial/commercial chemicals were analyzed in sediment and liver tissues of hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although most CECs targeted were infrequently detected or not detectable, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate) were detected in all sediments at median (maximum) concentrations of 5.1 (8.6), 30 (380), and 121 (470) g/kg, respectively. In the liver, 4-NP and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99 were detected in >90% of samples at median (maximum) concentrations of 85 (290) and 210 (480) g/kg, respectively. The sedative diazepam was detected in all liver samples, but was infrequently detected in sediments. Sediment and liver concentrations across outfall locations ranged over several orders of magnitude and were elevated relative to a reference site. Relative to sediment, accumulation in liver of PBDEs 47 and 99 was comparable to that for legacy organochlorines, confirming their high bioaccumulation potential and suggesting their inclusion in future tissue monitoring studies. Mean tissue PBDE and diazepam concentrations were higher in livers from male versus female P. verticalis, suggesting that gender differences also be considered in designing such studies. PMID:22987513

  14. Engineering report for interim solids removal modifications of the Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (SPWTF) treats wastewater from the Y-12 Plant coal yard, steam plant, and water demineralizer facility. The facility is required to comply with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) standards prior to discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The existing facility was designed to meet Best Available Technology (BAT) standards and has been in operation since 1988. The SPWTF has had intermittent violations of the NPDES permit primarily due to difficulties in complying with the limit for total iron of 1.0 ppM. A FY-1997 Line Item project, SPWTF Upgrades, is planned to improve the capabilities of the SPWTF to eliminate non-compliances with the permit limits. The intent of the Interim Solids Removal Modification project is to improve the SPWTF effluent quality and to provide pilot treatment data to assist in the design and implementation of the SPWTF Upgrades Line Item Project.

  15. ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Kszos, Lynn A; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

  16. Potential public health risks related to mercury/amalgam discharge from dental offices.

    PubMed

    Rowe, N H; Sidhu, K S; Chadzynski, L; Babcock, R F

    1996-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic and bioaccumulative metal. It exists in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. The use of mercury by the dental profession represents approximately 6 percent of the total annual domestic consumption and is estimated to contribute significantly to the discharge of mercury (14 percent in one study) to waste-water streams. Publicly owned treatment works (POTW) must obtain and comply with a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System waste-water discharge permit. When minimal mercury discharge limits into surface waters are exceeded, an upstream search for contributors of mercury to the waste stream may result. Given the present sociopolitical environment, mercury discharge from dental offices will increasingly receive scrutiny. Strategies to minimize discharge of mercury/amalgam waste include engineering controls such as changes in the discharge process, changes in the composition of commercial products, and changes in control equipment. Governmental strategies include an outright ban, the setting of discharge standards, and educational efforts. Study of these strategies with evaluation of effectiveness is needed. PMID:9520646

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems For each . . . You must . . . And you must . . . 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite wastewater treatment...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems For each . . . You must . . . And you must . . . 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite wastewater treatment...

  19. Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast and the influence of land use, storm water discharge, and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Dodder, Nathan G; Maruya, Keith A; Lee Ferguson, P; Grace, Richard; Klosterhaus, Susan; La Guardia, Mark J; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Ramirez, Juan

    2014-04-30

    Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50 ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification. PMID:23849955

  20. Characterization of Wastewater Effluents Releasing from Slaughterhouses in and around Hyderabad City (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, E; Madhava Rao, T; Prabhuprasadini; Krishnaiah, N; Vijaya, Kumar A

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the pollution load to the environment causing by the wastewater effluents releasing from organized and unorganized slaughterhouses in and around Hyderabad city. The wastewater effluents collected from three slaughterhouses, at the sites of releasing out to the surrounding environment,were characterized in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The physico-chemical parameters, such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, total suspended solids, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, calcium, NH4-N, nitrates and phosphates were estimated in the wastewater effluents collected from three different slaughterhouses. The heavy metals, such as lead, nickel and cadmium contents were detected. The microbiological characteristics, such as total viable count, total coliform count recorded and also the pathogens of public health significance, such as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated and identified. The results revealed significantly much higher values of almost all pollution parameters both physicochemical and microbiological of wastewater effluents collected from three slaughterhouses, and these values exceeding the effluent discharge standards for releasing the effluents into public sewers and inland surface waters, recommended by the pollution control board. The slaughterhouses must maintain the wastewater collection and treatment facilities and modify the existing treatment systems in order to comply the general effluents discharge standardsrecommended by the pollution control board. PMID:26563081

  1. 77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... preventing the introduction and spread of NIS via discharged ballast water (68 FR 55559). On July 28, 2004... of the United States, which was authorized under NISA (69 FR 44952). This program is currently...

  2. Flood/drought event identification using an effective indicator based on the correlations between multiple time scales of the Standardized Precipitation Index and river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xingwei; Chen, Ying; Liu, Meibing; Gao, Lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to further investigate the capability of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify flood/drought events, monthly precipitation data from 26 precipitation stations and monthly discharge data from four hydrological stations from 1960 to 2006 in the Minjiang River basin were used to analyze the correlations between multiple time scales of the SPI and river discharge. The SPI series that had a maximum correlation with discharge was chosen to detect flood/drought events in the basin, and the results were compared to historical flood/drought events. The results indicated the following. (1) High Pearson correlations between the SPI and discharge were identified at shorter time scales (1 to 3 months), and the maximum correlation was found on the time scale of 2 months. (2) Five floods among the six largest historical flood events in the Minjiang River basin were identified with the 2-month SPI, but the SPI does have shortcomings in identifying more general floods. The SPI also identified major drought events that were consistent with historical data. This demonstrates that the 2-month SPI is an effective indicator for the identification of major flood/drought events in the Minjiang River basin.

  3. Exxon sued for wastewater runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.

    1996-03-27

    A community activist group in Houston, Texans United, has filed a lawsuit against Exxon for allegedly dumping more than 2 billion gallons of untreated wastewater from its Baytown, TX complex into the Houston Ship Channel from 1989 to 1995. The suit asks that Exxon be ordered to comply with its federal operating permit and pay the state up to $25,000/day for more than 50 days of alleged violations. EPA is reviewing Exxon`s request to revise its permit. The group alleges that Exxon`s untreated process wastewater sometimes contains enough benzene to qualify as a hazardous waste. The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission has revised Exxon`s discharge permit to allow the release of pollutants during heavy rains. Exxon rejects the accusation and says it reports any wastewater discharge exceedance.

  4. [Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-04-01

    As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery. PMID:24946624

  5. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  6. Electrocoagulation treatment of metal finishing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Odongo, Isabel E; McFarland, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Electrocoagulation has been found to be a consistent and reliable industrial wastewater treatment process capable of removing heavy metals to levels well below pretreatment discharge standards. Results from the testing of a 113 L/min pilot scale electrocoagulation unit indicated that electrocoagulation was capable of decreasing the cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations from 0.14, 18.1, and 0.06 parts per million (ppm) to 0.029, 0.039, and 0.020 ppm respectively, at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. In the presence of a strong chelating substance, electrocoagulation performance was found to be effective in reducing both chromium and nickel concentrations to levels well below discharge limits. At a pH of 8.0, chromium and nickel influent concentrations of 0.328 and 0.062 ppm, respectively, were reduced to 0.005 and 0.04 ppm. The electrocoagulation removal efficiency for chromium remained high at over 98% and appeared to be unaffected by the presence of chelating substances. Utilizing aluminum as the sacrificial anode improved the removal efficiency of targeted heavy metals when the industrial wastewater was treated under acidic conditions. At a pH of 5.6, the influent concentrations of the regulated heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and nickel were reduced from 0.55, 49.7, and 13.7 ppm, respectively, to 0.013, 2.7, and 0.8 ppm at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. The results of these tests suggest that the formation of ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide through the electrocoagulation process may be an effective approach for treating metal finishing wastewaters. PMID:25112025

  7. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R E; Bofill-Mas, S; Egle, L; Reischer, G H; Schade, M; Fernandez-Cassi, X; Fuchs, W; Mach, R L; Lindner, G; Kirschner, A; Gaisbauer, M; Piringer, H; Blaschke, A P; Girones, R; Zessner, M; Sommer, R; Farnleitner, A H

    2016-03-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml(-1)) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2-6.5 ME 100 ml(-1)), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53-65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3-3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7-4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support if highly specific markers are needed. PMID:26745175

  8. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  10. 40 CFR 455.46 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subcategory 455.46 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve PSES as follows: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (b) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13, any existing source subject...

  11. 40 CFR 455.47 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subcategory 455.47 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and... pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve PSNS as follows: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (b) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7...

  12. 40 CFR 419.46 - Standards of performance for new sources (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lube Subcategory § 419.46... process wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point source subject to the provision of... paragraph, attributable to once-through cooling water, are excluded from the discharge allowed by...

  13. Towards a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment and disposal.

    PubMed

    Aybar, M; Carvallo, M; Fabacher, F; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

    2007-01-01

    We propose a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment systems and use it to quantitatively compare the performance of Chilean wine-making operations. The benchmarking model integrates three components: the influent characteristics, the wastewater treatment alternatives, and the location constraints. Four performance levels may be defined when plotting the available data of the wine production versus the ratio of wastewater to wine, for the French, US, and Chilean industries. Knowing where a certain system lies in this diagram helps to quantify the gap between the current and a target performance, and to set performance goals for planned expansions. The analysis of construction and operating costs of treatment systems currently in operation in Chile shows that similar compliance levels can be achieved at remarkably different costs. A steep decrease in the unitary cost is observed as wastewater flow increases; yet, the treatment alternative for achieving that cost may change. Further selection is obtained when location constraints are considered, including stringent discharge standards and proximity to urban settlements. The application of this simple benchmark model to three Chilean winery facilities shows how it produces meaningful quantitative and qualitative results. However, there is still ample room to improve this benchmarking model by considering additional complexity, including technical detail in the treatment options and costs related to technology conversion. PMID:17849990

  14. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  15. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  16. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - discharge

  17. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy- discharge; Cyclotrons- discharge; Linear accelerator- discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge

  19. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the bay, in the Pacific Ocean, or on land. Also, wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse concepts seem to be growing in favor with the public and should become and important part of future wastewater-management plans. Because most wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse systems would involve the use of land (that is agricultural irrigation, ground-water recharge, recreational reservoirs) local and regional lang-use planners can ass much to wastewater-management planning by identifying local and subregional waterwater-reclamation and water-reuse possibilities within their jurisdictions and integrating them with future land-use plans. The timely participation of planner is essential because Federal and State planning and funding deadlines for a regional wastewater-management system become effective in July 1973 and 1974, respectively.

  1. Managing commercial and light-industrial discharges to POTWs

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.G. )

    1993-02-01

    Discharging commercial and light-industrial wastewater to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) is risky business. Pretreating wastewater using traditional methods may leave a wastestream's originator vulnerable to fines, civil and criminal punishment, cleanup costs, and cease-and-desist orders. EPA has tightened regulations applying to discharges from POTWs, which, in turn, are looking to industrial and commercial discharge sources to determine responsibility for toxic contaminants. Although EPA in the past focused on large point sources of contamination, the Agency has shifted its emphasis to smaller and more diverse nonpoint sources. One result is that POTWs no longer act as buffers for light-industrial and commercial wastewater dischargers.

  2. Genotoxicity Evaluation of Irrigative Wastewater from Shijiazhuang City in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixue; Zhang, Xiaolin; Wang, Liqin; Yu, Fengxue; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qing; Liu, Dianwu

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the wastewater sample collected from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city was analysed using both chemical analysis and biological assays including the Salmonella mutagenicity test, micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemical analysis of the sample was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Salmonella mutagenicity test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with and without S9 mixture. The mice received the wastewater in natura through drinking water at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. One group of mice was exposed for 2 consecutive days, and the other group of mice was exposed for 15 consecutive days. To establish the levels of primary DNA damage, single-cell gel electrophoresis was performed on treated mouse liver cell. The concentrations of chromium and lead in the sample exceeded the national standard (GB20922-2007) by 0.78 and 0.43-fold, respectively. More than 30 organic compounds were detected, and some of the detected compounds were mutagens, carcinogens and environmental endocrine disrupters. A positive response for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain was observed. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a dose-response manner. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of the Olive tail moments in a dose-response manner. All the results indicated that the sample from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city exhibited genotoxicity and might pose harmful effects on the local residents. PMID:26658348

  3. Wastewater treatment in the oil-shale industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.P.; Phillips, T.E.

    1980-08-01

    Because of the stringent state and federal standards governing the discharge of wastes into local waters and the limited water supplies in this area, an oil shale industry will probably reuse process effluents to the maximum extent possible and evaporate the residuals. Therefore, discharge of effluents into surface and ground waters may not be necessary. This paper reviews the subject of wastewater treatment for an oil shale industry and identifies key issues and research priorities that must be resolved before a large-scale commercial industry can be developed. It focuses on treatment of the waters unique to an oil shale industry: retort water, gas condensate, and mine water. Each presents a unique set of challenges.

  4. Carbon system solves refinery wastewater problem

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, T.; Togashi, T.; Nishiya, Y.

    1981-05-11

    Stringent wastewater discharge regulations led to the selection of the activated carbon adsorption process for treating refinery effluents at a Japanese Toa Oil Co. facility. This process facilitates COD removal, reduces the volume of sludge produced, and enhances the potential for wastewater reuse. The system's design and operation, including air scouring, backwashing, and carbon reactivation are described. (2 diagrams, 5 graphs, 1 photo, 2 tables)

  5. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  6. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  7. Leg amputation - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Amputation - leg - discharge; Below knee amputation - discharge; BK amputation - discharge; Above knee - discharge; AK - discharge; Trans-femoral amputation - discharge; Trans-tibial amputation - discharge

  8. Use of commercial plant species in a hydroponic system to treat domestic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Nathalie; Monnet, Fabien; Sallanon, Huguette; Coudret, Alain; Hitmi, Adnane

    2004-01-01

    The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate wooly digitalis (Digitalis lanata Ehrh.) and foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L.). These plants are medicinal and produce cardenolide compounds. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analyzed to determine the various parameters relating to water quality. The legal discharge levels for total suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reached for the two tested plants after 48 h of wastewater treatment; the removal was 82, 93, and 79%, respectively, for wooly digitalis and 92, 92, and 84%, respectively, for foxglove. Similar results were obtained during a 6-mo period although the sewage composition varied widely. The system tended to be unable to remove N and P to concentrations below regulated levels. Compared with the nutrient solution composition, the wastewater was more concentrated in Na+ and Cl- and less in N, K+, and Ca2+. These variations can lead to the decline of wooly digitalis plants. Foxglove developed a significant root system to increase mineral absorption wastewater being used as the unique nutritive source. After 10 wk all the wooly digitalis seedlings were dead. Despite this fact, however, the root system remained in place for a significant time (< 4 mo), thus continuing to filter wastewater and to be used as a bacterial support thus making it possible to have a security period to replace the dead plants. PMID:15074822

  9. Reliability analysis of a wastewater treatment plant using fault tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Taheriyoun, Masoud; Moradinejad, Saber

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of a wastewater treatment plant is a critical issue when the effluent is reused or discharged to water resources. Main factors affecting the performance of the wastewater treatment plant are the variation of the influent, inherent variability in the treatment processes, deficiencies in design, mechanical equipment, and operational failures. Thus, meeting the established reuse/discharge criteria requires assessment of plant reliability. Among many techniques developed in system reliability analysis, fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the popular and efficient methods. FTA is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed. In this study, the problem of reliability was studied on Tehran West Town wastewater treatment plant. This plant is a conventional activated sludge process, and the effluent is reused in landscape irrigation. The fault tree diagram was established with the violation of allowable effluent BOD as the top event in the diagram, and the deficiencies of the system were identified based on the developed model. Some basic events are operator's mistake, physical damage, and design problems. The analytical method is minimal cut sets (based on numerical probability) and Monte Carlo simulation. Basic event probabilities were calculated according to available data and experts' opinions. The results showed that human factors, especially human error had a great effect on top event occurrence. The mechanical, climate, and sewer system factors were in subsequent tier. Literature shows applying FTA has been seldom used in the past wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) risk analysis studies. Thus, the developed FTA model in this study considerably improves the insight into causal failure analysis of a WWTP. It provides an efficient tool for WWTP operators and decision makers to achieve the standard limits in wastewater reuse and discharge to the environment. PMID:25487461

  10. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission. PMID:22564037

  11. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the first of two volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Background; (2) Summary of Wastewater Management Regulations; (3) Current and Historic Conditions; (4) Projections and Development of Design Criteria; (5) Wastewater Treatment Plant Site Selection; (6) Applicable Technologies; (7) Development, Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives; (8) Environmental Impact; (9) Conceptual Design of Selected Alternative; (10) Project Financing; (11) Project Implementation.

  12. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders. PMID:26899648

  13. [Research on removal efficiency of Cd (II)-bearing wastewater by sulfate-reducing biological filter].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuan; Tan, Ke-Yan; Hu, Xi-Jia; Gu, Yun; Yang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    At the temperature of 18.0-22.3 degrees C, biological carriers were produce from pure SRB and zeolite by the embedding immobilized method, and a sulfate-reducing biological filter filled with filter carriers was built to treat cadmium-containing wastewater. Experimental research on removal efficiency of Cd2+, COD and SO4(2-) in wastewater by the biological filter was carried out after SRB domestication. Results show that cadmium can be removed satisfactorily from wastewater using SRB by the biological filter filled with sulfate-reducing bacteria. When the filtration rate was 0.4 m x h(-1) and the cadmium concentration in wastewater was not more than 15 mg x L(-1), the processing efficiency was the best. In the formal running period, the removal rates of Cd2+, COD and SO4(2-) by the biological filter were more than 99%, 75% and 50%. The effluent Cd2+ concentration was less than 0.1 mg x L(-1), which could meet the cadmium emission requirements in the wastewater quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers (CJ 343-2010). The removal of Cd2+, COD and SO4(2-) by biological filter mainly occurs in the top 60 cm of the filter bed during stable operation. When the filtration rate was less than 0.6 m x h(-1), Cd(2+) can be removed by the biological filter with high efficiency and stability. PMID:24946589

  14. Treatment of heavy oil wastewater by UASB-BAFs using the combination of yeast and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-09-01

    A novel system integrating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a two-stage biological aerated filter (BAF) system was investigated as advanced treatment of heavy oil wastewater with large amounts of dissolved recalcitrant organic substances and low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. #1 BAF, inoculated with two yeast strains (Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula dairenensis), was installed in the upper reaches of #2 BAF inoculated with activated sludge. During the 180-day study period, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the wastewater were removed by 90.2%, 90.8%, 86.5% and 89.4%, respectively. Although the wastewater qualities fluctuated and the hydraulic retention time continuously decreased, the effluent quality index met the national discharge standard steadily. The UASB process greatly improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while #1 BAF played an important role not only in degrading COD but also in removing oil and high molecular weight PAHs. This work demonstrates that the hybrid UASB-BAFs system containing yeast-bacteria consortium has the potential to be used in bioremediation of high-strength oily wastewater. PMID:25783230

  15. Biological treatment of full-strength coke plant wastewater at Geneva Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, K.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Removal of ammonia from wastewater is fast becoming a major issue for both industrial and municipal dischargers. Geneva Steel, spurred by changes in both air and water regulations, recently installed an innovative biological wastewater treatment plant for high-strength coke plant wastewater. Wastewater containing ammonia concentrations over 3,000 ppm, chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 8,000 ppm and high cyanide, thiocyanate, phenol and other organic compounds is biologically treated to comply with EPA's Best Available Treatment (BAT) standards. Start-up and operation of the plant showed that proper influent equalization as well as careful control of reactor temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and solids inventory will result in an effluent with ammonia concentrations below 10 ppm, COD's below 600 ppm, negligible phenol and thiocyanate concentrations, and organic loadings well below BAT requirements. It was also shown that nitrification and denitrification can take place in a single continuous flow reactor with only one sludge. This single-sludge treatment process has significant economic and operational benefits over conventional coke plant wastewater treatment processes.

  16. Effect of standard versus patient-targeted in-patient education on patients' anxiety about self-care after discharge from cardiovascular surgery clinics.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Tlin; Grkan, Selami; Gr, zcan; nsal, Cneyt; Gkta?, Sonay Baltac?; zen, Ycel

    2014-01-01

    We compared standard and patient-targeted in-patient education in terms of their effect on patients' anxiety. One hundred and ninety-eight patients who were hospitalised for coronary artery bypass surgery were given standard education (group 1) or individualised education (group 2) on the management of their healthcare after discharge. Patients in group 2 were assessed on the patient learning needs scale and were given education according to their individual needs. The level of anxiety was measured by the state-trait anxiety inventory. Anxiety scores were significantly lower in group 2 than group 1 after education (p < 0.001). While state anxiety did not change after education in group 1 (p = 0272), it decreased significantly in group 2 (p < 0.001). For cardiovascular surgery patients, patient-targeted in-patient education was more effective than standard education in decreasing anxiety levels, therefore the content of the education should be individualised according to the patient's particular needs. PMID:25363789

  17. Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.R.; Ploeser, J.H.

    1999-08-01

    Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

  18. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - ...

  19. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

  20. Monitoring the effects of wastewater treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater disposal in coastal waters causes widespread environmental problems. Secondary treatment is expected to reduce the adverse effects of insufficiently treated wastewater. The environmental impact of sewage disposal via 18 wastewater treatment plants was analysed using the benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods (BOPA) index. In previous studies this index proved to be an effective tool for monitoring sewage pollution. The impact of these discharges was highly related to treatment level, which ranged from pre-treatment to biological, as well as to flow rates and outfall position. Locations affected by pre-treated wastewater showed environmental degradation, especially marked near outfalls with higher flow rates. At most locations, biologically treated wastewater did not cause a significant impact and an improvement in ecological integrity was detected after this secondary treatment had been implemented. The impact of discharge was highly related to chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids and nutrient concentrations, which are all lower in biologically treated wastewater. A 'moderate' ecological status was observed not only near sewage outfalls with high wastewater flow rates (>1,500,000 m(3)/month) with a COD over 200 mg/l but also near those with lower flow rates but with a COD over 400 mg/l. To reduce the impact of sewage disposal, it is necessary to carry out adequate treatment, have site outfalls deep enough, and implement water recycling. PMID:26801153

  1. Characterisation of medical-waste sterilisation-plant wastewater and a preliminary study of coagulation-flocculation treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, O; Mihiokur, H; Azgin, S T; Ozdemir, O

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater from a medical-waste sterilisation plant (MWSP) contains unique pollutants and requires on-site treatment to prevent contamination of the municipal sewage system and receiving water bodies. Therefore, to meet the prescribed discharge standards and comply with the legal regulations, pre-treatment must be applied to MWSP wastewater. In this study, the capabilities of coagulation-flocculation processes were investigated for MWSP wastewater treatment. Processes using ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and aluminium sulfate as coagulants were characterised. During the coagulation experiments, seven different coagulant dosages and four different pH values were evaluated to determine the optimum coagulant dosage and pH value. The highest removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was obtained using 300 mg/L of ferric chloride at pH 10. A COD removal of about 60% as well as considerable reductions in the amounts of suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus were realised. PMID:20651429

  2. Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P.

    1997-07-01

    Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

  3. EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE TERTIARY WASTEWATER FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional methods for treatment of municipal wastewaters frequently produced effluents that will not meet local discharge requirements. Granular media filters are being installed to provide teritary treatment for increased removals of suspended solids and BOD. This report prov...

  4. ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

  5. [Adsorbable organic halogen compounds and bio-toxicity in hospital wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-xue; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke-li; Gu, Ping

    2007-10-01

    Adsorbable organic halogen compounds (AOX) exist persistently in the aquatic environment, and accumulate in the food chain. Some of them are toxic for humans and other organisms. However, hospital wastewater is considered as an important source of AOX in municipal wastewater. The aim of this study was to evaluate the generation of AOX both in a raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from a membrane sequencing batch reactor, also the effect of cR t value and the bio-toxicity were investigated. The results show that the removal of AOX in the hospital wastewater is 63.6% after treated by the membrane sequencing batch reactor, and the contribution of membrane rejection accounts for 14.5%. The concentration of AOX in the raw hospital wastewater is much higher than that of the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor at the same value of cR t for its higher chlorine-demands. Along with the increasing of cR t value, the fitting curves of AOX present exponential growth for the raw hospital wastewater, while linearity relation for the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor. To meet the requirement for indicative microorganism (fecal coliform) in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Medical Organization (GB 18466-2005), the demands of cR t value for the raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor are 5.5 (mg x h)/L and 0.0075 (mg x h)/L respectively, the bio-toxity by acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna are 40.39 microg/L (K2Cr2O7) and 8.96 microg/L (K2Cr2O7), and correspondingly the concentration of AOX produced are 607.1 microg/L and 102.5 microg/L. PMID:18268982

  6. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  7. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to... separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is...

  8. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to... separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is...

  9. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to... separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is...

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to... separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is...

  11. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to... separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is...

  12. Craniosynostosis repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Craniectomy - child - discharge; Synostectomy - discharge; Strip craniectomy - discharge; Endoscopy-assisted craniectomy - discharge; Sagittal craniectomy - discharge; Frontal-orbital advancement - discharge; ...

  13. Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

    2001-05-01

    Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

  14. Is zero discharge realistic

    SciTech Connect

    Diepolder, P. )

    1992-10-01

    At first glance, zero discharge (ZD) eliminating the discharge of any liquid waste to the environment seems like an idea of unqualified merit. It would be good for both the environment and any manager who achieves ZD. Let's go back to the definition, though. The key word is liquid ZD doesn't take into account solids. In fact, changing to a ZD operation ends up increasing the quantities of solids that have to be disposed. Disposal of solids those initially found in wastewater as well as those formed during the ZD treatment processing presents a significant environmental and financial liability of its own. In the past, this side effect has been enough to deter further consideration of this route. and the costs of equipment and energy necessary for achieving ZD are formidable. This paper discusses ZD.

  15. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. PMID:23270957

  16. Study of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater in an Urban Agglomeration in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants. PMID:22919336

  17. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams. PMID:26395288

  18. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in savings that could be repurposed for meeting other needs.

  19. 40 CFR 1700.8 - Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Effect on States No-Discharge Zones... discharges that have been preempted from other State or local regulation pursuant to § 1700.6. (b) A...

  20. Application of novel catalytic-ceramic-filler in a coupled system for long-chain dicarboxylic acids manufacturing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing; Dai, Bibo; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    To gain systematic technology for long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LDCA) manufacturing wastewater treatment, catalytic micro-electrolysis (CME) coupling with adsorption-biodegradation sludge (AB) process was studied. Firstly, novel catalytic-ceramic-filler was prepared from scrap iron, clay and copper sulfate solution and packed in the CME reactor. To remove residual n-alkane and LDCA, the CME reactor was utilized for LDCA wastewater pretreatment. The results revealed that about 94% of n-alkane, 98% of LDCA and 84% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed by the aerated CME reactor at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.0 h. In this process, catalysis from Cu and montmorillonites played an important role in improving the contaminants removal. Secondly, to remove residual COD in the wastewater, AB process was designed for the secondary biological treatment, about 90% of the influent COD could be removed by biosorption, bio-flocculation and biodegradation effects. Finally, the effluent COD (about 150 mg L(-1)) discharged from the coupled CME-AB system met the requirement of the national discharged standard (COD ≤ 300 mg L(-1)). All of these results suggest that the coupled CME-AB system is a promising technology due to its high-efficient performance, and has the potential to be applied for the real LDCA wastewater treatment. PMID:26619310

  1. How to react to a wastewater violation notice

    SciTech Connect

    LaHue, C.; Wickham, J.; Scott, K. )

    1994-04-01

    In the 20 years since the Clean Water Act was passed, local, state and federal regulating agencies continuously have tightened limitations on industrial wastewater discharges. These regulatory changes have resulted in more violation notices and greater wastewater treatment expenses. Today, every business producing some form of wastewater potentially is subject to wastewater composite sampling and reporting to local regulatory agencies. The key to responding to a violation notice is understanding the problem. Expense often is the major issue when choosing which treatment system is most appropriate. Treatment system costs can vary drastically depending on what is needed. Eliminating metals from a wastewater treatment system down to very low levels, however, will require more expensive chemical precipitation systems followed by filtration. If the required levels are unobtainable at an economical cost, the company may want to investigate in-house process changes, alternative discharge options or reuse possibilities.

  2. Using membrane technology to minimize wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, L.

    1998-05-01

    As society moves into the new millennium, waste reduction from all types of manufacturing--from chemical and food production to heavy industrial machining, plating and stamping operations--will be a major focus of many CEOs, environmental engineers and waste treatment operators. The holy grail has been and will continue to be zero discharge. However, no matter what the scope of a company`s wastewater abatement program, membrane technology is likely to play a major role in achieving the objectives. The variety of membrane types and platforms to configure them makes membrane technology a prime candidate for wastewater abatement and resource recovery. However, wastewater is variable in nature and volume, so efforts using membrane technology to resolve wastewater problems must be carefully bench-, pilot- and field-tested to ensure the success of the scale-up systems.

  3. Treatment of biomass-gasification wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Maxham, J.V.

    1981-03-01

    One way of utilizing biomass as a renewable energy resource is to thermochemically convert it into a gaseous fuel. During conversion, wastewaters are generated that will require treatment prior to reuse in the production process or discharge to the environment. Development of cost-effective wastewater treatment technologies is necessary at the pilot plant stage of production technology development. The principal task of this research effort has been to assess the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of several promising process technologies for the treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) by conducting bench-scale treatability studies. In addition to conventional treatment process options, innovative process technologies have been investigated that promise to dramatically reduce treatment time, cost, energy consumption, and/or sludge production while preserving the simplicity of operation and mechanical reliability of conventional treatment process options. This paper reports results obtained recently in innovative biological wastewater treatment process studies.

  4. Hungry microbes eat away wastewater sludge problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1995-09-01

    Accumulations of diluted resin solids and sludge in an equalization pond were reducing a White City, Ore., chemical plant`s wastewater treatment capacity by 90%. Dyno Polymers, a division of Norway-based Dyno Industries, manufacturers formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins for the wood products industry. High-solids and biosolids bulking in the plant`s aeration pond overloaded the clarifier, and an overabundance of solids in the excess-wastewater holding pond made pumping nearly impossible. The plant`s drains carry production wastewater, truck washout water and equipment rinsewater flows to a central sump. The wastewater is pumped to the facility`s biological treatment system, where it enters an equalization pond and flows to an aeration pond equipped with two 50-horsepower aerators. The water then flows to a clarifier, where solids are settled out and removed before the water is reused or discharged to a public sewer system.

  5. Presence and hazards of nutrients and emerging organic micropollutants from sewage lagoon discharges into Dead Horse Creek, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jules C; Anderson, Julie C; Low, Jennifer E; Cardinal, Pascal; MacKenzie, Scott D; Beattie, Sarah A; Challis, Jonathan K; Bennett, Renee J; Meronek, Stephanie S; Wilks, Rebecca P A; Buhay, William M; Wong, Charles S; Hanson, Mark L

    2013-02-15

    Nutrient enrichment and loadings of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals into freshwater systems are common concerns, especially for water bodies receiving wastewater inputs. In the rural communities of Morden and Winkler of Manitoba, Canada, sewage lagoons discharge their wastewater directly into Dead Horse Creek, a small tributary of the Red River that empties into Lake Winnipeg. This lagoon approach to managing rural wastewaters is common across the North American Prairies. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the hazards of lagoon treatment releases at this model site. This was done by characterizing the nutrients, organic micropollutants (i.e., pesticides, pharmaceuticals) and standard water quality parameters in the creek prior to and following lagoon discharge events over a number of years (2009-2011). Measured concentrations of nutrients were compared to regulatory expectations and micropollutants were assessed using hazard quotients. As expected, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species were greatest in sites downstream of the sewage outfall immediately following discharge events. Pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals were detected at concentrations between 0.5 and 90 ng/L. Detection frequencies and concentrations matched typical use patterns. Those compounds used predominately for human medicine were detected at downstream sites following discharge events, while those used in an agricultural setting were detected at relatively consistent levels over time at sites both upstream and downstream of the outfall location. Hazard quotients calculated for micropollutants of interest indicated minimal toxicological risk to aquatic biota in the creek, with only erythromycin and diazinon presenting a potential concern to aquatic algae and invertebrates. Concentrations of nutrients exceeded Canadian guideline thresholds during release, but returned to background levels once discharges ceased. Therefore, it is advisable that wastewater treatment and management strategies such as constructed wetlands and/or staggered releases be used in order to minimize the hazard posed by nutrient pulses in Dead Horse Creek and other similar systems. PMID:23314381

  6. Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

    2011-06-01

    National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

  7. Implementation of China`s three synchronizations policy: Case studies of wastewater treatment measures at new and renovated factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkule, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Three Synchronizations Policy requires that the design, construction, and operation of a new factory, or an existing factory that expands or changes production processes, be synchronized with the design, construction and operation of appropriate waste treatment facilities. Under this policy, when a new factory is designed, wastewater treatment facilities must be included as part of the overall factory design: when the factory is constructed, the wastewater treatment facilities must be constructed along with construction of the production facilities; and finally, when the factory begins to operate, the waste treatment facilities must begin operation as well. This research includes case studies of wastewater treatment measures at sixteen factories in the Pearl River Delta Region of China. Implementation of the Three Synchronizations Policy is examined in detail for two of the factories: Fengfu Weaving and Dyeing Plant and Zhongguan Printing and Dyeing Plant. The results of this research suggest that the Three Synchronizations Policy has been an effective means of forcing new and renovated factories to comply with wastewater discharge standards, mainly because the Three Synchronizations Policy gives environmental protection bureaus authority to regulate at each step of a new industrial facility`s development. In practice, this authority has been exercised through formalizing the {open_quotes}synchronizations{close_quotes} into a management system with specific regulatory requirements, each of which requires EPB approval. EPBs ran stall operation by withholding its approval of certification of a factory`s wastewater treatment facilities; EPBs also use fines and limited time treatment orders to enforce the Three Synchronizations Policy. The research results demonstrate that the Three Synchronizations Policy was more important than the Pollutant Discharge Fee Program in motivating existing factories to build wastewater treatment facilities.

  8. Role of a comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of a wastewater receiving stream.

    PubMed

    Greeley, Mark S; Kszos, Lynn A; Morris, Gail W; Smith, John G; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-06-01

    National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream. PMID:21573910

  9. Effects of Wastewater on Forested Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  10. Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ?8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removed<25% of DON and DOC without selectivity. PAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

  11. CERCLA Site discharges to POTWs CERCLA site sampling program: Detailed data report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The document contains wastewater data obtained from sampling at seventeen CERCLA sites during a study of wastewater discharges from CERCLA sites to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The document serves as an appendix to the report summarizing the findings of the CERCLA site sampling program in Section 3 (CERCLA Site Data Report) in the USEPA CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Treatability Manual.

  12. Effects on the ecological health of a stream community due to wastewater treatment plant modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.S.; Yates, L.T.; Danis, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    A residential community`s wastewater treatment plant effluent is the only point source discharge to the upper watershed of a small eastern Pennsylvania trout stream. Surveys of water quality, benthic macroinvertebrate and fish populations were conducted prior to, and for a two year period subsequent to installation of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system in the community`s wastewater treatment plant. Evaluation of water chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community composition, and fish populations indicated that the ecological health of the stream improved almost immediately upon implementation of SBR treatment, but declined when the plant experienced nitrification problems. The plant resumed normal function for a time, followed by additional nitrification difficulties. The study includes an evaluation of the sensitivity of standard aquatic ecological indicators to an intermittent stressor. In particular, a comparison of benthic macroinvertebrate community indices is presented.

  13. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  14. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

    PubMed

    He, Shengbing; Xue, Gang

    2010-06-15

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state. PMID:20334971

  15. Treatment of Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater in Low Concentration by Two-Stage Ozonization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xianping; Yan, Qun; Wang, Chunying; Luo, Caigui; Zhou, Nana; Jian, Chensheng

    2015-09-01

    Ammonia nitrogen wastewater (about 100 mg/L) was treated by two-stage ozone oxidation method. The effects of ozone flow rate and initial pH on ammonia removal were studied, and the mechanism of ammonia nitrogen removal by ozone oxidation was discussed. After the primary stage of ozone oxidation, the ammonia removal efficiency reached 59.32% and pH decreased to 6.63 under conditions of 1 L/min ozone flow rate and initial pH 11. Then, the removal efficiency could be over 85% (the left ammonia concentration was lower than 15 mg/L) after the second stage, which means the wastewater could have met the national discharge standards of China. Besides, the mechanism of ammonia removal by ozone oxidation was proposed by detecting the products of the oxidation: ozone oxidation directly and OH oxidation; ammonia was mainly transformed into NO?(-)-N, less into NO?(-)-N, not into N?. PMID:26404353

  16. Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 4090% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

  17. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  18. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others. PMID:25901854

  19. De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

  20. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, L-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  1. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ?PAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

  2. Effects of salinity on treatment of municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2008-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the removal of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients from municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove microcosms planted with Aegiceras corniculatum were investigated. During the four-month wastewater treatment, the treatment efficiency was reduced by high salinity, and the removal percentages of dissolved organic carbon, ammonia-N and inorganic N dropped from 91% to 71%, from 98% to 83% and from 78% to 56%, respectively, with salinity increasing from 0 to 30 parts per thousands (ppt). In spite of such inhibition at high salinity, 100% of the effluents discharge from the constructed mangrove microcosms still complied with the discharge standards set by the Hong Kong Government for Coastal Water Control Zones. These results suggested that constructed mangrove wetland treatment systems were promising to effectively treat municipal wastewater, even those with high salinity. In addition, the denitrification potential in soil was found to be retarded by the high salinity while mangrove plants grew best at 15 ppt salinity condition. PMID:18374366

  3. Effects of volumetric load in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm treating industrial saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hong-Xiang; Chen, Wei; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Mustard tuber wastewater is of high salinity ([Cl(-1)]=18∼23 g L(-1)), high organic content (chemical oxygen demand, COD=4000±100 L(-1)) and biodegradability (BOD5/COD≈0.5). The anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) pre-treatment, an important step to meet national discharge standard, was applied to reduce much of the organics in mustard tuber wastewater. The experiment for the effect of the volumetric load on ASBBR treating mustard tuber wastewater was conducted at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and volumetric exchange ratios (λ). The ASBBR operating at 50% biomass density, 30 °C, influent COD concentration of 4000±100 mg L(-1) and pH value of 7.0±0.2, the effluent COD concentration increased from 0.22 to 4 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) when the volumetric load increased from 100 to 1520 mg L(-1). The effluent COD concentration differed when adopted different HRT and λ under the same volumetric load. And given certain influent levels, a higher performance of ASBBR could be achieved at a lower value of HRT and λ. The optimal operational load could be determined by limiting the COD concentration under different discharge conditions, based on the results obtained in experiments. PMID:25220359

  4. Management of wastewater from soap and food industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    el-Gohary, F A; Abo-Elela, S I; Ali, H I

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents the wastewater management of an industrial complex which produces different products, i.e. soap, perfume extract, macaroni, jam and juices. A continuous monitoring programme for departmental as well as final effluents was carried out for almost 3 months. Characterization of the composite wastewater from both soap and food processing plants indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by COD and BOD values. Moreover, effluent from the soap manufacturing plant contains significant concentrations of oil and grease amounting to 563 mg l-1. Soap manufacturing effluent and the combined wastes discharged from the whole industrial complex were subjected to different treatment processes, namely dissolved air flotation, chemical coagulation-sedimentation, and biological treatment via a completely mixed activated sludge process. Although coagulation using alum followed by sedimentation removed 52% of COD, residual values did not comply with the regulatory standards. Biological treatment of the composite combined wastewater significantly removed the organic contaminants in wastewater. Average residual BOD, COD, oil and grease values were 30, 92 and 8.3 mg l-1 respectively. Based on the laboratory results a final process design was developed. PMID:3685948

  5. Management of wastewater from soap and food industries: a case study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    el-Gohary FA; Abo-Elela SI; Ali HI

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents the wastewater management of an industrial complex which produces different products, i.e. soap, perfume extract, macaroni, jam and juices. A continuous monitoring programme for departmental as well as final effluents was carried out for almost 3 months. Characterization of the composite wastewater from both soap and food processing plants indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by COD and BOD values. Moreover, effluent from the soap manufacturing plant contains significant concentrations of oil and grease amounting to 563 mg l-1. Soap manufacturing effluent and the combined wastes discharged from the whole industrial complex were subjected to different treatment processes, namely dissolved air flotation, chemical coagulation-sedimentation, and biological treatment via a completely mixed activated sludge process. Although coagulation using alum followed by sedimentation removed 52% of COD, residual values did not comply with the regulatory standards. Biological treatment of the composite combined wastewater significantly removed the organic contaminants in wastewater. Average residual BOD, COD, oil and grease values were 30, 92 and 8.3 mg l-1 respectively. Based on the laboratory results a final process design was developed.

  6. Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-09-30

    Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales. PMID:23764477

  7. Treatment of chemical mechanical polishing wastewater by electrocoagulation: system performances and sludge settling characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chen L; Lin, Sheng H

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor plant by electrocoagulation is investigated. The CMP wastewater was characterized by high suspended solids (SS) content, high turbidity (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration up to 500 mgl(-1) and copper concentration up to 100 mgl(-1). In the present study, electrocoagulation was employed to treat the CMP wastewater with an attempt to simultaneously lower its turbidity, copper and COD concentrations. The test results indicated that electrocoagulation with Al/Fe electrode pair was very efficient and able to achieve 99% copper ion and 96.5% turbidity removal in less than 30 min. The COD removal obtained in the treatment was better than 85%, with an effluent COD below 100 mgl(-1). The effluent wastewater was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. In addition, sludge settling velocities after electrocoagulation were measured and the data were employed to verify the empirical sludge settling velocity models. Finally, the sludge settling characteristic data were also utilized to establish the relation between the solids flux (G) and the initial solids concentration. PMID:14575735

  8. Oily wastewaters treatment using Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the compost fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharging the oily wastewater in the environment causes serious problems, because of the oil compounds and organic materials presence. Applying biological methods using the lipase enzyme producer microorganisms can be an appropriate choice for treatment of these wastewaters. The aim of this study is to treat those oil wastewaters having high concentration of oil by applying lipase enzyme producer bacteria. Materials and methods Oil concentration measurement was conducted using the standard method of gravimetric and the wastewater under study was synthetically made and contained olive, canola and sunflower oil. The strain used in this study was Pseudomonas strain isolated from compost fertilizer. The oil under study had concentration of 1.5 to 22g/l. Results The oil removal amount in concentrations lower than 8.4g/l was over 95??1.5%. Increase of the oil's concentration to 22g/l decreases the amount of removal in retention time of 44hours to 85??2.5%. The best yield of removing this strain in retention time of 44hours and temperature of 30C was achieved using Ammonium Nitrate as the nitrogen resource which yield was about 95 percent. Conclusion The findings of the research showed that Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from the compost fertilizer can degrade high concentration oils. PMID:24876932

  9. A review on characterization and bioremediation of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater: an Indian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Rajender Singh; Singh, Prashant; Kandari, Vikash; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    During the past few decades, pharmaceutical industries have registered a quantum jump contributing to high economic growth, but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Untreated or allegedly treated pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIWW) creates a need for time to time assessment and characterization of discharged wastewater as per the standards provided by the regulatory authorities. To control environmental pollution, pharmaceutical industries use different treatment plans to treat and reuse wastewater. The characterization of PIWW using advanced and coupled techniques has progressed to a much advanced level, but in view of new developments in drug manufacture for emerging diseases and the complexities associated with them, better sophisticated instrumentation and methods of treatment are warranted. The bioremediation process to treat PIWW has undergone more intense investigation in recent decade. This results in the complete mineralization of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater and no waste product is obtained. Moreover, high efficiency and low operation cost prove it to be an effective tool for the treatment of PIWW. The present review focuses on the characterization as well as bioremediation aspects of PIWW.

  10. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  11. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  12. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  13. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  14. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

  15. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

  16. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Popoola, Elizabeth O.

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26–0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3− N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499–2.31 mg/L and 7.545–19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3− N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552–42.646 mg/L and 1.572–32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32–74%), Fe (7–32%) and Zn (24–94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  17. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Msagati, Titus A M; Popoola, Elizabeth O

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26-0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-) N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499-2.31 mg/L and 7.545-19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3- N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552-42.646 mg/L and 1.572-32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32-74%), Fe (7-32%) and Zn (24-94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  18. Simplified Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is for wastewater treatment plant operators who find it difficult to follow the detailed discussions and procedures found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." It is intended to be used with "Standard Methods" available for reference. Included in this publication are chapters on laboratory procedures,…

  19. Simplified Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is for wastewater treatment plant operators who find it difficult to follow the detailed discussions and procedures found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." It is intended to be used with "Standard Methods" available for reference. Included in this publication are chapters on laboratory procedures,

  20. Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59,000-270,000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

  1. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input–output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20 000 m3 (with a range from 6700 to 33 000 m3) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300–3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900–23 000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0–370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800–71 000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59 000–270 000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

  2. Algal-based, single-step treatment of urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Henkanatte-Gedera, S M; Selvaratnam, T; Caskan, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Van Voorhies, W; Lammers, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    Currently, urban wastewaters (UWW) laden with organic carbon (BOD) and nutrients (ammoniacal nitrogen, N, and phosphates, P) are treated in multi-stage, energy-intensive process trains to meet the mandated discharge standards. This study presents a single-step process based on mixotrophic metabolism for simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients from UWWs. The proposed system is designed specifically for hot, arid environments utilizing an acidophilic, thermotolerant algal species, Galdieria sulphuraria, and an enclosed photobioreactor to limit evaporation. Removal rates of BOD, N, and P recorded in this study (14.93, 7.23, and 1.38 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively) are comparable to literature reports. These results confirm that the mixotrophic system can reduce the energy costs associated with oxygen supply in current UWW treatment systems, and has the potential to generate more energy-rich biomass for net energy extraction from UWW. PMID:25898089

  3. 96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100%). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90% of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45%. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days. PMID:25339528

  4. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park. PMID:25826928

  5. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  6. Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  7. Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  8. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11h against 30h) and a lower sludge production. PMID:24583525

  9. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J.

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  10. Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

  11. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in vaginal discharge? Changes can occur if the normal balance of healthy bacteria (germs) in your vagina is ... douches may irritate your vagina and change the normal balance of germs in your vagina. Douching can also ...

  12. Discharge planning.

    PubMed

    2016-01-13

    Essential facts Delays in the discharge of patients from hospital place a huge burden on the NHS, says the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Figures from NHS England show that in 2015, more than one million hospital days were lost due to delays. In September alone, 5,247 patients had their discharge delayed. The right support outside hospital can have a crucial effect on patients' wellbeing, speeding recovery and reducing the likelihood of readmission. PMID:26758142

  13. Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant for high quality effluent.

    PubMed

    Del Nery, V; Damianovic, M H Z; Moura, R B; Pozzi, E; Pires, E C; Foresti, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) regarding the technology used, as well as organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies aiming to optimize the treatment processes involved and wastewater reclamation. The WWTP consists of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, an aerated-facultative pond (AFP) and a chemical-DAF system. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97.9 1.0%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (98.6 1.0%) and oil and grease (O&G) (91.1 5.2%) at the WWTP, the nitrogen concentration of 17 11 mgN-NH3 and phosphorus concentration of 1.34 0.93 mgPO4(-3)/L in the final effluent indicate that the processes used are suitable to comply with discharge standards in water bodies. Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted using biomass collected at three AFP points indicated that nitrification and denitrification could take place in the pond. PMID:26819386

  14. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section 63.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section 63.1433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section 63.1106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  18. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a need to better integrate water reuse into core water governance frameworks in order to effectively address the challenges and harness the potential of this vital resource for environmental health protection. The paper also presents a blueprint for future water governance and public policies for the protection of environmental health. PMID:22093903

  19. A study on influential factors of high-phosphorus wastewater treated by electrocoagulation-ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangping; Song, Chen; Su, Yixin; Long, Hai; Huang, Ta; Yeabah, Trokon Omarley; Wu, Wei

    2013-08-01

    A combined treatment of electrocoagulation and ultrasound was proposed to solve some problems which exist in the phosphorus removal processes in fine chemical industry. The intermittently discharged wastewater has the features of high initial phosphorus concentration and wide initial pH variation. The electrocoagulation-ultrasound effective performance for the removal of phosphorus was investigated. The results obtained from synthetic wastewater showed that the total phosphorus (TP) decreased from 86 to about 0.4 mg/L, and the removal efficiency reached about 99.6 %, when ultrasound was applied to the electrocoagulation cell under the optimum working conditions in 10 min. Comparatively, the TP removal efficiency of electrocoagulation group was 81.3 % and the ultrasound group has almost no change. Therefore, we can conclude that the electrocoagulation and ultrasound synergistic effect can effectively degrade high-phosphorus wastewater. We have discussed the impact of various parameters on the electrocoagulation-ultrasound based on the phosphorus removal efficiency. The results obtained from synthetic wastewater showed that the optimum working pH was found to be 6, allowing the effluent to be met the emission standards without pH adjustment. An increased current enhanced the speed of treatment significance, but higher current (>40 mA/cm(2)) enhanced ultrasonic cavitation effect causing flocculation ineffective. In addition, it was found that the optimum ultrasonic power was 4 W/cm(2) and the frequency was 20 kHz. The best ultrasound intervention and ultrasonic irradiation time were processed with electrocoagulation simultaneously. The results indicated that the electrocoagulation-ultrasound could be utilized as an attractive technique for removal of phosphate in the real wastewater. PMID:23417438

  20. Zero discharge programs require careful planning

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.

    1997-05-01

    Environmental regulations, increasing scarcity of fresh water supplies and rising costs of clean water production have contributed to greater water conservation throughout the country. Reduced or zero discharge programs have become much more commonplace at electric utilities, chemical process industries and manufacturing facilities. Water conservation can be a very complicated issue, with methods varying considerably from site to site. The issues that influence water reduction programs include: quality, quantity and cost of fresh water available to the plant; quality of water needed for various plant processes; ability to recycle wastewater streams to other plant processes; techniques for water treatment; capital, operations, maintenance and labor costs, and floor space and construction requirements for water treatment equipment, pilot testing of proposed treatment methods and environmental restrictions on the quantity and quality of any wastewater that may be discharged. This article describes several water discharge programs available to address the complex needs of each unique plant site.

  1. Crohn disease - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Regional enteritis - discharge; Ileitis - discharge; Granulomatous ileocolitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... may need: Iron supplements (if you are anemic) Nutrition supplements Calcium and vitamin D supplements to help ...

  2. Hip fracture - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  3. Evaluation of removal efficiency for acute toxicity and genotoxicity on zebrafish in anoxic-oxic process from selected municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yaobin; Liu, Wei; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Jin, Yihe; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2013-03-01

    The anoxic-oxic (A/O) process has been extensively applied for simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and nitrogen in wastewater treatment. However, very little is known about its ability to remove toxic materials. Municipal wastewater contains various kinds of pollutants, some of which have recalcitrant genotoxicity and may cause potential threat to environment, and even can lead to extinction of many species. In this study, we have selected three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employing anoxic-oxic (A/O) process to evaluate their ability to remove acute toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater. Mortality rate of zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used to evaluate acute toxicity, while micronucleus (MN) and comet assays were used to detect genotoxicity. Results showed that in this process the acute toxicity was completely removed as the treatment proceeded along with decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<50 mgL(-1)) in the effluent. However, in these treatment processes the genotoxicity was not significantly reduced, but an increase in genotoxicity was observed. Both MN and comet assays showed similar results. The eliminated effluent may pose genotoxic threaten although its COD level has met the Chinese Sewage Discharge Standard. This study suggests that further treatment of the wastewater is required after the A/O process to remove the genotoxicity and minimize the ecotoxicological risk. PMID:23260253

  4. Use advanced methods to treat wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M. )

    1994-08-01

    Common sense guidelines offer plausible, progressive techniques to treat wastewater. Because current and pending local, state and federal regulations are ratcheting lower effluent discharge limits, familiar treatment methods, such as biological, don't meet new restrictions. Now operating facilities must combine traditional methods with advanced remedial options such as thermal, physical, electro and chemical treatments. these new techniques remove organics, metals, nonhazardous dissolved salts, etc., but carry higher operating and installation costs. Due to tighter effluent restrictions and pending zero-discharge initiatives, managers of operating facilities must know and understand the complexity, composition and contaminant concentration of their wastewaters. No one-size-fits-all solution exists. However, guidelines can simplify decision making and help operators nominate the most effective and economical strategy to handle their waste situation. The paper describes the common treatment and the importance of alternatives, then describes biological, electro, physical, thermal, and chemical treatments.

  5. Wastewater cleanup: Put activated-sludge treatment to work

    SciTech Connect

    Scroggins, D.; Deiters, S.

    1995-11-01

    Strict wastewater treatment and discharge limits continue to challenge wastewater treatment systems. For industrial wastewater, the selected system must not only meet regulatory requirements, but must also be flexible enough to handle the variations in volume, flowrate and pollutant load that typify industrial effluent streams. At existing industrial sites, the selection of a wastewater treatment system is also impacted by constraints, such as limited space or the desire to minimize downtime or process interruptions. Meanwhile, for municipalities, wastewater treatment requirements are often made or complicated by the need to add a disinfection step to destroy waterborne pathogens in the discharge stream. Biological treatment processes, based on the use of activated sludge, have long been used to degrade organic contaminants in municipal and industrial wastewater. For years, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been used to treat wastewater using activated sludge. However, in recent years, the variable depth reactor (VDR) has emerged as an alternative system, by addressing some of the shortcomings of the SBR.

  6. Responding to a wastewater violation notice

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.K.

    1998-06-01

    Receiving a violation notice that your company has exceeded its wastewater permit to discharge into a municipal treatment works can be a stressful experience. However, the best option is to respond immediately. In the long run, a quick response will promote a better relationship between the regulatory authority and your company. In addition, by demonstrating a willingness to correct the problem and informing the city of actions taken, it may be possible to extend the time allotted for correcting the problem before fines are imposed. It is important to understand why pretreatment permitting and monitoring requirements exist. Many industries produce wastewater of a sufficient volume and strength to place a significant load on the municipal wastewater treatment system. Rather than combining the wastes from many industries with unique treatment needs, a city may choose to ask each industrial discharger to provide limited wastewater treatment to remove certain compounds that may be too expensive or difficult to treat when more dilute. The basic objective of the pretreatment permitting system is to prevent municipal systems from being overloaded. Overload situations could require the construction of larger, more expensive municipal treatment systems.

  7. Wastewater reclamation for use in snow-making within an alpine resort in Australia--resource rather than waste.

    PubMed

    Tonkovic, Z; Jeffcoat, S

    2002-01-01

    The Mt Buller Alpine Resort is located approximately 200 km north of Melbourne, in Victoria, Australia. A wastewater treatment plant services the resort and currently treats to advanced nutrient removal standards. The treated effluent is presently discharged into the Howqua River. Most Australian ski resorts are not blessed with abundant snow cover on a regular basis. Artificial snow allows most of the popular ski runs to operate for the whole of the season. At the Mt Buller resort, snow-making is presently limited by lack of water supply in the catchment. The conditions at Mt Buller resort present a unique opportunity to utilise reclaimed wastewater to allow increased snow-making capacity. It is one of the unique opportunities where the wastewater is valued as a resource rather than merely viewed as a waste problem. Wastewater reclamation for snow-making will require additional treatment for pathogen removal. It is proposed that following advanced nutrient removal, the effluent will require further treatment, including membrane ultrafiltration, so as to ensure a minimum of four barriers for pathogen removal. Pilot plant operation of a membrane ultrafiltration system commenced in June 2000 and will continue until the end of 2001, to primarily demonstrate the extent of pathogen removal. PMID:12381004

  8. Glow discharge mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Volker; Kasik, Martin; Robinson, Peter K; Venzago, Cornel

    2005-01-01

    Over the past twenty years or so, glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) has become the industry standard for the analysis of trace elements in metals and semiconductors. A review of its history is followed by a picture of the present situation and a look to where the future may lie. Applications are summarised, including the ability of GDMS to offer depth-resolved data and non-conductor analysis, and the well-documented quantitative nature of the results is reviewed. The effects resulting from the physical properties of the analyte material are discussed at length. Finally, recent work such as "fast flow" sources and pulsed glow discharges is reviewed. PMID:15624101

  9. Verification of water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater during ice-cover conditions to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) Model, which used the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E) computer program, was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. The purpose of this study was to verify the model for ice-cover conditions using the same Red River of the North study reach that was used for ice-free conditions. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile downstream of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo, North Dakota, and extends 30.8 miles downstream to a site 0.8 mile upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo River and the Red River of the North. The study reach receives treated wastewater outflow from municipal wastewater-treatment plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and inflow from the Sheyenne River. For simulations conducted for ice-cover conditions, the RRatFGO QW Model will be referred to as the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality (RRatFGOIC QW) Model. Streamflow measurements were made at 10 sites during February 21-24, 1995, and water-quality samples were collected and field properties were measured at 12 sites during February 23-24, 1995. Properties and constituents analyzed for include specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total phosphorus (reported as phosphorus), chlorophyll a, and algal biomass. The RRatFGOIC QW Model simulated streamflow, specific conductance, total organic nitrogen, total ammonia, total nitrite, total nitrite plus nitrate, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The model was considered verified for ice-cover conditions for all of the values or concentrations simulated except for the total organic nitrogen concentrations. Based on the results of this study, the QUAL2E Model computer program that was calibrated for ice-free conditions is capable of simulating water quality for both ice-free and ice-cover conditions.

  10. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  11. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  12. Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced with aerobic digestion for sludge that is intended for land application. PMID:24239827

  13. Potential endocrine disrupting organic chemicals in treated municipal wastewater and river water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Select endocrine disrupting organic chemicals were measured in treated wastewater from Chicago, IL, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, Detroit, MI, and Milwaukee, WI, and in the Des Plaines, Illinois, and Minnesota Rivers during the fall of 1997 and the spring of 1998. Emphasis was given to alkylphenolpolyethoxylate (APEO) derived compounds, although 17-??-estradiol, bisphenol A, caffeine, total organic carbon, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other compounds also were measured. Contaminants were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) with methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The extracts were derivatized to form the methyl esters of alkylphenolethoxycarboxylates (APEC), and EDTA was isolated by evaporation and derivatized to form the tetrapropyl ester. The mass spectra of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) compounds are complex and show variations among the different ethoxylate and carboxylate homologs, reflecting variations in the ethylene oxide chain length. Recoveries for target compounds and surrogate standards ranged from 20-130%, with relative standard deviations of 9.9-53%. Detection limits for the various compounds ranged from 0.06-0.35 ??g/L. Analysis of the wastewater effluents detected a number of compounds including NP, NPEO, OP, OPEO, NPEC, caffeine, and EDTA at concentrations ranging from <1-439 ??g/L, with EDTA and NPEC being most abundant. There was variability in compound distributions and concentrations between the various sewage treatment plants, indicating differences in treatment type and influent composition. Several wastewater-derived compounds were detected in the river samples, with EDTA and NPEC persisting for considerable distance downstream from wastewater discharges, and NP and NPEO being attenuated more rapidly.

  14. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard. (a) The... emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111 of this subpart. This term is.... Σ EWW2 = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111 of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard. (a) The... emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111 of this subpart. This term is.... Σ EWW2 = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111 of...

  16. 32 CFR 724.901 - Objective of discharge review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objective of discharge review. 724.901 Section 724.901 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Standards for Discharge Review 724.901 Objective of discharge review. The objective of a discharge review is ot examine...

  17. 32 CFR 724.903 - Equity of the discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity of the discharge. 724.903 Section 724.903 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Standards for Discharge Review 724.903 Equity of the discharge. A discharge shall be deemed to be equitable unless: (a) In the...

  18. Granular activated carbon as a toxicity reduction technology for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Water Act governs the discharge of wastewater to all navigable waterways in the U.S. It is the explicit purpose of this Act to prevent the discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts to the nation`s surface water supplies. To achieve this goal, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) was established, whereby a facility wishing to release wastewater to a surface water system must obtain a permit to do so. This NPDES permit contains the wastewater quality criteria that must be met before the wastewater can be legally discharged. Historically, specific chemical limits have been used for establishing the quality of a wastewater discharged from a facility. The EPA developed a list of priority pollutants for which maximum discharge concentration limits were established. This regulatory approach had the advantage that straightforward protocols with clearly defined quantification limits were available for compliance and testing purposes. However, it became increasingly apparent that there were weaknesses with this approach when it was used exclusively. Many chemicals not included in the priority pollutant list will produce toxic responses from indigenous biota when released to a surface water. Therefore, the EPA developed methods for directly assessing the potential toxicity a discharge may generate in a receiving stream. The protocols and techniques for performing toxicity tests have been refined to the point the EPA is comfortable including them as another method for regulating the quality of a permitted discharge. This paper presents cases of how petroleum refineries have utilized activated carbon to achieve compliance.

  19. WASTEWATER AND RECLAIMED WATER IRRIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with reclaimed water from municipal wastewater treatment plants and wastewater from municipal and agricultural sources is becoming more widespread and adopted. The design and operation of irrigation systems utilizing wastewater and reclaimed water has some very important differences from ...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1115 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge. 154.1115 Section 154.1115 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Firefighting 154.1115 Discharge. (a) The discharge density...

  1. Discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Barkemeyer, Brian M

    2015-04-01

    Hospital discharge is a time of transition for infants and families that requires oversight of common postnatal adaptations, screening tests, and establishment of necessary follow-up care. Preterm infants face additional medical problems that vary in complexity by the degree of prematurity. Infants born at lowest gestational ages are at highest risks for complicated neonatal course and adverse long-term outcomes. Successful transition from hospital to home care is essential to improved outcomes for high-risk infants. PMID:25836713

  2. The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-02-01

    The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation. PMID:17923147

  3. Water-quality assessment and wastewater-management alternatives for Dardenne Creek in St Charles County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, W.R.; Lodderhose, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of water in the 15 mile downstream reach of Dardenne Creek in St. Charles County, Missouri, was assessed to determine if it met the Missouri water quality standards. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and total ammonia failed to meet water quality standards downstream from the Harvester-Dardenne and St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plants. The QUAL-II SEMCOG water quality model was calibrated and verified using two independent data sets from Dardenne Creek. Management alternatives using current, design capacity, and future expansion wastewater discharges from the St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plant were evaluated. Results of the computer simulation indicate that a nitrification-type advanced-treatment facility installed at the plant would produce a 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand of 10 mg/L. An effluent limit of 5.0 mg/L of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand would further improve the water quality of Dardenne Creek; however, an additional treatment process, such as sand filtration, would be needed to meet this criterion. (USGS)

  4. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  5. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  6. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lončarić Božić, A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, P.; Člupek, M.; Babický, V.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor was used to treat such type of contaminant. Applying HV pulses 30 kV, 3.15 J/pulse, 50 Hz repetition rate, complete decolorisation and partial mineralization of RB49 has been reached and demonstrated by means of UV/VIS absorption, TOC and AOX measurements.

  7. EFFECTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SEAWATER DILUTION IN REDUCING LETHAL TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TO SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW AND PINK SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of treatment and seawater dilution of municipal wastewater on marine organisms. n experimental facility was built in southeast Florida that provided both unchlorinated and chlorinated effluent from three standard treatments: primar...

  8. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  9. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  10. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  11. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  12. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  13. WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

  14. FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF TEXTILE DYE WASTEWATER REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of technologies by which textile processing wastewaters could be recycled or reused, thereby reducing the amounts discharged. One of these technologies, dyebath reconstitution and reuse, was investigated in detail: it was found to be envi...

  15. Cost-Based Optimization of a Papermaking Wastewater Regeneration Recycling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Feng, Xiao; Chu, Khim H.

    2010-11-01

    Wastewater can be regenerated for recycling in an industrial process to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. Such an environment friendly approach will also lead to cost savings that accrue due to reduced freshwater usage and wastewater discharge. However, the resulting cost savings are offset to varying degrees by the costs incurred for the regeneration of wastewater for recycling. Therefore, systematic procedures should be used to determine the true economic benefits for any water-using system involving wastewater regeneration recycling. In this paper, a total cost accounting procedure is employed to construct a comprehensive cost model for a paper mill. The resulting cost model is optimized by means of mathematical programming to determine the optimal regeneration flowrate and regeneration efficiency that will yield the minimum total cost.

  16. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Krrman, E; Jnsson, H

    2001-01-01

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system. PMID:11379144

  17. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater.

    PubMed

    Won, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

    2012-11-15

    The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater. PMID:23009792

  18. TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

  19. Decentralized wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tchobanoglous, G.

    1998-07-01

    Decentralized wastewater management systems maintain both the solid and liquid fractions of the wastewater near their point of origin. In the future, as long-term strategies are developed to optimize the use of water resources and to protect the environment, it is clear that decentralized systems will become an important element of those strategies.

  20. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  1. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  2. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  3. Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Escherichia coli Bacteriophages and Their Application in Wastewater Treatment and Coliform's Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti Maal, Keivan; Soleimani Delfan, Abbas; Salmanizadeh, Sharareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phage therapy or use of lytic bacteriophages for eliminating bacterial populations has been developed for several aspects of human affairs such as medicine, agriculture and food industries. Objectives: The high load of coliforms of treated wastewater effluents that are discharged into the rivers or agricultural lands is a serious concern of the Iran Department of Environment and the reduction of coliforms using phages to overcome this problem is an asset. This research aimed to isolate and identify specific lytic coliphages and investigate their effects on native and standard Escherichia coli strains as well as coliform populations in municipal wastewater. Materials and Methods: The wastewater sample was cultured on selective culture media to isolate a native coliform strain and characterized using molecular methods. River water was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45 μm filter and its lytic coliphages were enriched and purified against a native E. coli as well as a standard E. coli strain. Municipal wastewater was treated with isolated lytic coliphages and most probable number (MPN) reduction was examined. Results: E. coli SBSWF27, which is a native strain of E. coli from Isfahan municipal wastewater treatment plant, was isolated and characterized. Also two novel bacteriophages related to Myoviridae and Podoviridae families of bacteriophages from Zayandehrood River (Isfahan, Iran) were isolated. These coliphages had lytic effects on E. coli PTCC1399 and E. coli SBSWF27 as coliform's index. The myovirus had a hexagonal head measuring 27.28 nm and a noncontractile tail measuring 204.5 × 13.63 nm. The podovirus had an oval head measuring 98 × 35 nm and a tail, 14 nm in diameter. The treatment of municipal sewage with the coliphage mixture resulted in a 22-fold decrease of the coliform's MPN from 2400 to 110 after two hours of incubation. Conclusions: This is the first report on isolation and identification of two novel lytic myovirus and podovirus from Zayandehrood River in Isfahan that had lytic effects on E. coli PTCC1399 and E. coli SBSWF27 strains as well as coliform's population of Isfahan municipal wastewater. We suggest that the use of these lytic coliphages for reduction of coliform's population in sewage could be considered as an effective and simple alternative for costly replacement of instruments and establishments of the old wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25834715

  4. Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: a comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Gagnon, M Monique; Quayle, Pam; Trinh, Trang; Coleman, Heather; Rawson, Christopher; Chapman, Heather F; Blair, Palenque; Nice, Helen; Reitsema, Tarren

    2014-03-01

    We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an "ecotoxicity toolbox" consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, invitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The invitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the invitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the invitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (invitro) and effect (invivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality. PMID:24210511

  5. Human health implications of clinically relevant bacteria in wastewater habitats.

    PubMed

    Varela, Ana Rita; Manaia, Clia M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this review is to reflect on the multiple roles of bacteria in wastewater habitats with particular emphasis on their harmful potential for human health. Indigenous bacteria promote a series of biochemical and metabolic transformations indispensable to achieve wastewater treatment. Some of these bacteria may be pathogenic or harbour antibiotic resistance or virulence genes harmful for human health. Several chemical contaminants (heavy metals, disinfectants and antibiotics) may select these bacteria or their genes. Worldwide studies show that treated wastewater contain antibiotic resistant bacteria or genes encoding virulence or antimicrobial resistance, evidencing that treatment processes may fail to remove efficiently these bio-pollutants. The contamination of the surrounding environment, such as rivers or lakes receiving such effluents, is also documented in several studies. The current state of the art suggests that only some of antibiotic resistance and virulence potential in wastewater is known. Moreover, wastewater habitats may favour the evolution and dissemination of new resistance and virulence genes and the emergence of new pathogens. For these reasons, additional research is needed in order to obtain a more detailed assessment of the long-term effects of wastewater discharges. In particular, it is important to measure the human and environmental health risks associated with wastewater reuse. PMID:23508533

  6. Is your wastewater toxic to the municipal treatment plant?

    SciTech Connect

    Havash, J.; Oster, J.

    1998-03-01

    For many reasons, it is beneficial to know whether or not wastewater generated from a manufacturing process is toxic or can inhibit the microorganisms in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. One simple way to test the wastewater is by using a laboratory respirometer, which can evaluate both toxicity and treatability. In some cases, respirometer use may save an industry thousands or even millions of dollars by proving that certain chemicals previously perceived to be detrimental are actually treatable in the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Because these chemicals will not cause any harm, the cost of a pretreatment plant is avoided. Of course, the reverse could be true when a municipality suspects wastewater discharged from an industry is causing an upset condition to its activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. Because toxicity and treatability are both functions of the respiration rate of microbial cells, a method that measures the respiration rate of microbial cells also can be used to measure toxicity. This article discusses several situations in which a respirometer was used to measure the toxicity and treatability of wastewater suspected to have a toxic effect on the municipal activated sludge plant.

  7. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Gaqavu, Sisipho; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP) in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus posing a health hazard to the receiving aquatic environment as these could eventually be transmitted to humans and animals that are exposed to it. PMID:25893999

  8. Modeling the performance of biodegradation of textile wastewater using polyurethane foam sponge cube as a supporting medium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale fixed-biofilm reactor (FBR) was established to treat textile wastewater to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional treatment processes that involve activated sludge and coagulation units. A kinetic model was developed to describe the biodegradation of textile wastewater by FBR. Batch kinetic tests were performed to evaluate the biokinetic parameters that are used in the model. FBR column test was fed with a mean COD of 692 mg/L of textile wastewater from flow equalization unit. The influent flow rate was maintained at 48.4 L/h for FBR column test. Experimental data and model-predicted data for substrate effluent concentration (as COD), concentration of suspended biomass in effluent and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) produced in the effluent agree closely with each other. Microscopic observations demonstrated that the biofilm exhibited a uniform distribution on the surface of polyurethane foam sponge. Under a steady-state condition, the effluent COD from FBR was about 14.7 mg COD/L (0.0213 S(b0)), meeting the discharge standard (COD < 100 mg/L) that has been set by the government of Taiwan for textile wastewater effluent. The amount of biofilm and suspended biomass reached a maximal value in the steady state when the substrate flux reached a constant value and remained maximal. Approximately 33% of the substrate concentration (as COD) was converted to CO(2) during biodegradation in the FBR test. The experimental and modeling schemes proposed in this study could be employed to design a full-scale FBR to treat textile wastewater. PMID:21123909

  9. Runaway discharges in TCABR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. K.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Bellintani, V., Jr.; Ferreira, A. A.; Fonseca, A. M. M.; Nascimento, I. C.; Ruchko, L. F.; Saettone, E. A. O.; Tsypin, V. S.; Usuriaga, O. C.

    2004-05-01

    It is found in experiments carried out in Tokamak Chauffage Alfvén Brésilien (TCABR) that two regimes of runaway discharges (RADs) with very different characteristics are possible. The RAD-I regime, which is similar to that observed in other tokamaks, can be obtained by a gradual transfer from a normal resistive to a RAD by decreasing the plasma density. This regime can be well understood using the Dreicer theory of runaway generation. The total toroidal current contains a substantial resistive component and the discharge retains some features of standard tokamak discharges. The second runaway regime, RAD-II, was recently discovered in the TCABR tokamak (Galvão R.M.O. et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1181). The RAD-II regime starts just from the beginning of the discharge, provided that certain initial conditions are fulfilled and, in this case, the runaway tail carries almost the full toroidal current. The background plasma is cold and detached from the limiter due to the recombination process. The primary Dreicer process is suppressed in the RAD-II and the secondary avalanche process dominates, even at the start-up phase, in the generation of the toroidal current. It is possible to trigger a transition from the RAD-I to the RAD-II regime using plasma cooling by gas puffing. The experimental results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions based on the runaway avalanche process.

  10. [Discharge following ambulatory anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Groh, J; Ney, L

    1997-10-01

    Beyond strict selection of suitable patients the adequate choice of the best moment for discharge home is essential for safety and efficacy of outpatient surgery. Restitution of cardiovascular stability and psychomotoric function is completed at the end of observation in the recovery unit. Further prerequisites of home discharge are absence of postoperative nausea and vomitus as well as sufficient pain control by non-opioids and physical measures. The definition of fixed observation periods is unreasonable, technical examinations and psychomotoric tests are of minor importance. Home readiness has to be evaluated by a physician before discharge. Standardized scores or checklists may be of some help. The modalities of patient care after discharge are checked prior to surgery. During late postoperative recovery, continuous care of a responsible adult is required for at least 24 hours. During this time period certain restrictions must be respected, e.g. from driving and business contracts. Even after this time some residual effects of anesthesia may still be present. PMID:9432870

  11. Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vachon, D.T.; Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

  12. Does zinc in livestock wastewater reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mangrove soils?

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang C; Tam, Nora F Y; Ye, Yong

    2014-11-15

    Zinc (Zn) affects nitrogen cycling but the effect of Zn in wastewater on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil has not been reported. This study compared N2O emissions from mangrove soil receiving livestock wastewater containing various Zn(2+) concentrations and evaluated how long the effects of Zn would last in these soil-wastewater microcosms. Significant increases in N2O flux were observed soon after the discharge of wastewater with a low Zn content. On the other hand, the flux was reduced significantly in the wastewater with high Zn levels but such inhibitory effect was not observed after tidal flushing. Continuous monitoring of the N2O fluxes also confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Zn was confined within a few hours and the fluxes recovered in 6-9 h after the wastewater was completely drained away. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of Zn on N2O fluxes occurred immediately after wastewater discharge and disappeared gradually. In the surface soil, nitrate levels increased with the addition of wastewater but there was no significant accumulation of NH4(+)-N, irrespective of the Zn content in the wastewater. The study also showed that nitrification potential and immediate N2O emissions were inhibited by high Zn levels in the soil, but the total oxidation of ammonium to nitrate was not affected. PMID:25171729

  13. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  14. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge ... You had tubal ligation (or tying the tubes) surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. ...

  15. Methods for Estimating Annual Wastewater Nutrient Loads in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Gerard; Tervelt, Larinda; Donehoo, William

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an approach for estimating annual total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads from point-source dischargers in the southeastern United States. Nutrient load estimates for 2002 were used in the calibration and application of a regional nutrient model, referred to as the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model. Loads from dischargers permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System were calculated using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System database and individual state databases. Site information from both state and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency databases, including latitude and longitude and monitored effluent data, was compiled into a project database. For sites with a complete effluent-monitoring record, effluent-flow and nutrient-concentration data were used to develop estimates of annual point-source nitrogen and phosphorus loads. When flow data were available but nutrient-concentration data were missing or incomplete, typical pollutant-concentration values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were used to estimate load. In developing typical pollutant-concentration values, the major factors assumed to influence wastewater nutrient-concentration variability were the size of the discharger (the amount of flow), the season during which discharge occurred, and the Standard Industrial Classification code of the discharger. One insight gained from this study is that in order to gain access to flow, concentration, and location data, close communication and collaboration are required with the agencies that collect and manage the data. In addition, the accuracy and usefulness of the load estimates depend on the willingness of the states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance and review for at least a subset of the load estimates that may be problematic.

  16. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Alvarez, David A.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrationspresent in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  17. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities. PMID:25917777

  18. Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate, contrast media, corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and metabolites of several substances. For analysis of micropollutants, water samples were spiked with internal standards before solid-phase-extraction (SPE) and the analysis was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/MS-MS). Quantification limits were in the range of 1-28 ng/l for river water and 200-650 ng/l for untreated wastewater. Once the concentrations and loads of micropollutants in the infiltrating waters are known and compared to those in the spring water, one might distinguish and quantify the portions of water infiltrating from the different sources in the catchment area.

  19. Fish track wastewater pollution to estuaries.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Liddell, Ben; Gaston, Troy F; Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Monika

    2005-08-01

    Excess nitrogen is a forceful agent of ecological change in coastal waters, and wastewater is a prominent source of nitrogen. In catchments where multiple sources of nitrogen pollution co-exist, biological indicators are needed to gauge the degree to which wastewater-N can propagate through the receiving food webs. The purpose of this study was to test whether estuarine fish are suitable as indicators of sewage-N pollution. Fish were analysed from three estuaries within a 100-km strip on the Australian East Coast. The estuaries differ substantially in wastewater loading: (1) the Maroochy Estuary receives a large fraction of the local shire's treated sewage, (2) the Mooloolah Estuary has no licensed treated wastewater outfalls but marinas/harbours and storm-water may contribute nitrogen, and (3) the Noosa Estuary which neither receives licensed discharges nor has suspected wastewater loads. Sampling for fish included both high rainfall ('wet' season) and low rainfall ('dry' season) periods. Muscle-delta15N was the variable predicted to respond to treated wastewater loading, reflecting the relative enrichment in 15N resulting from the treatment process and distinguishing it from alternative N sources such as fertiliser and natural nitrogen inputs (both 15N-depleted). Of the 19 fish species occurring in all three estuaries, those from the Maroochy Estuary had significantly elevated delta15N values (up to 9.9 per thousand), and inter-estuarine differences in fish-delta15N were consistent across seasons. Furthermore, not only did all fish from the estuary receiving treated wastewater carry a very distinctive sewage-N tissue signal, but enriched muscle-delta15N was also evident in all species sampled from the one estuary in which sewage contamination was previously only suspected (i.e. the Mooloolah Estuary: 0.2-4.8 per thousand enrichment over fish from reference system). Thus, fish-delta15N is a suitable indicator of wastewater-N not only in systems that receive large loads, but also for the detection of more subtle nitrogen inputs. Arguably, fish may be preferred indicators of sewage-N contamination because they: (1) integrate nitrogen inputs over long time periods, (2) have an element of 'ecological relevance' because fish muscle-delta15N reflect movement of sewage-N through the food chain, and (3) pollution assessments can usually be based on evidence from multiple species. PMID:15891851

  20. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  1. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  2. Seasonal variation of nutrient loads in treated wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, G Z; Kamika, I; Coetzee, M A A; Momba, M N B

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater effluent presents a major threat to the aquatic environment and public health worldwide. As a water-scarce country, South Africa is facing an alarming situation since most of its wastewater discharges are not meeting the permissible limit. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical quality of treated wastewater effluents and their impact on receiving water bodies. During the study period, pH, temperature, free chlorine residue (Cl(-)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3 (-1)), orthophosphate (PO4 (-3)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured in order to ascertain whether the selected wastewater systems in Sedibeng and Soshanguve complied with the South African and World Health Organization standards during wet and dry seasons. These parameters were analysed for samples collected from raw wastewater influent, treated wastewater effluent and receiving water bodies. The study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2012, and samples were collected on a weekly basis during both seasons. The physicochemical quality of effluents did not comply with the regulatory limits set by South Africa in terms of pH in Meyerton, Rietgat and Sandspruit (pH 7.6 to 8.1); free chlorine in Sandspruit (0.27??0.05 mg/L); nitrate in Leeuwkuil and Rietgat (2.1 and 3.8 mg/L, respectively) during the wet season; orthophosphate in Meyerton during the wet season and in Sandspruit during the dry season (1.3 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L and 1.1 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L, respectively); and chemical oxygen demand in Rietgat during the dry season and in Sandspruit during the wet season (75.5 and 35 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with the South African standards recommended for pH, chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate and DO (5 mg/L) in Rietgat during the wet season. The geometric mean of the water quality index values ranged between 32.4 and 36.9 for the effluent samples and between 38.1 and 65.7 for the receiving water bodies. These findings revealed that the receiving water bodies were classified as having "poor" quality status, except Leeuwkuil receiving water body (Vaal River) and Sandspruit upstream (Sandspruit stream). The dry season showed a relatively lower water quality index. This situation might be attributed to the higher amount of organic matter and lower microbial activities in the receiving water bodies. This study suggests that wastewater effluents and receiving water systems should be monitored regularly to ensure best practices with regard to nutrient treatment and discharge of wastewater. PMID:26311265

  3. Retrospective analyses of inputs of municipal wastewater effluent and coupled impacts on an urban lake.

    PubMed

    Effler, Steven W; O'Donnell, Susan M; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Matthews, David A; Auer, Martin T

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective review and analysis are presented of the evolution of treatment, point of discharge considerations, and constituent loading from the Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (Metro), and the coupled water quality effects on the receiving urban lake (Onondaga Lake, New York) from the early 1970s to 2010. The analysis is based on long-term monitoring of the discharge, Onondaga Lake, and a nearby river system considered as a potential alternate to receive the effluent. The Metro discharge is extraordinarily large relative to the lake's hydrologic budget, representing approximately 25% of the total inflow, greater than for any other lake in the United States. The large loads of nitrogen and phosphorus received from the facility resulted in severe water quality effects in the lake during the early portion of record, including (1) violations of standards to protect against toxic effects of ammonia and nitrite, (2) violations of the water clarity standard for swimming safety, (3) exceedances of a limit for the summer average concentration of total phosphorus in the upper waters, and (4) lakewide violations of the oxygen standard during fall turnover. The effects of Metro were compounded by effects of discharges from soda ash/chlor-alkali and pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The sedimentary record of the lake indicates that even greater levels of cultural eutrophication prevailed before the monitoring commenced. Dramatic improvements in the water quality of the lake were achieved in recent years by implementing advanced treatment technologies. Exceedances of receiving water limits in the lake were eliminated, with the exception of the total phosphorus limit. A zebra mussel invasion compromised the oxygen resources and assimilative capacity of the nearby river for more than 15 years. This eliminated an option, previously supported by managers, of full diversion of the Metro effluent to the river. PMID:23409450

  4. Vanadium removal from petroleum refinery wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdogan, Y.; Meyer, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    Although a numerical effluent limit has not been proposed for vanadium, San Francisco Bay Area refineries have been investigating reasonable source control and treatment measures to limit the discharge of vanadium as part of their National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements because vanadium may contribute to aquatic toxicity. The NPDES permit issued for the Shell Martinez Manufacturing Complex (MMC) by the Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB) required that in the investigation of control strategies for vanadium, consideration must be given to source control measures that would reduce the discharge to the extent practicable. This paper summarizes the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies to remove vanadium from process effluent of the Shell MMC. This study has resulted in the following conclusions: vanadium in the Shell MMC refinery wastewater is generated by two major sources--the Flexicoker and Stretford processes; ferric and ferrous salts are both effective in removing vanadium from wastewaters; there are tradeoffs between the initial vanadium concentration, the final pH, and the final dissolved vanadium concentration, for both ferrous and ferric reagents; recycle of iron hydroxide sludge can reduce the amount of reagent needed to attain a given vanadium concentration; other things being equal, less ferric than ferrous reagent is required to produce the same removal of vanadium; the dewatered sludge from the pilot plant was tested for its hazardous waste characteristics; a high pH sludge regeneration and reuse process appears to be a promising method of cleaning up the hazardous iron sludge.

  5. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were <1 mg/L; suggesting that >99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (<1.05-m soil profile depth). In the vadose zone of advanced system, heterotrophic and autrotrophic denitrification reduced nitrate-N concentrations to <0.12 mg/L, compared with >20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg/L) indicating enhanced P attenuation in the vadose zone of all systems.

  6. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  7. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  8. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  9. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  10. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  11. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  12. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  13. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  14. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  15. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  16. 42 CFR 403.736 - Condition of participation: Discharge planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Discharge planning. 403... planning. The RNHCI must have in effect a discharge planning process that applies to all patients. The.... (a) Standard: Discharge planning evaluation. (1) The RNHCI must assess the need for a discharge...

  17. 42 CFR 403.736 - Condition of participation: Discharge planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Discharge planning. 403... planning. The RNHCI must have in effect a discharge planning process that applies to all patients. The.... (a) Standard: Discharge planning evaluation. (1) The RNHCI must assess the need for a discharge...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228. (ii) Floating... testing requirements under 49 CFR part 178; or (B) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this...)(2) of this section; (ii) A floating roof that meets the requirements in 40 CFR 60.693-2(a)(1)(i),...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228. (ii) Floating... testing requirements under 49 CFR part 178; or (B) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this...)(2) of this section; (ii) A floating roof that meets the requirements in 40 CFR 60.693-2(a)(1)(i),...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228. (ii) Floating... testing requirements under 49 CFR part 178; or (B) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this...)(2) of this section; (ii) A floating roof that meets the requirements in 40 CFR 60.693-2(a)(1)(i),...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the surface impoundment except during removal of treatment residuals in accordance with 40 CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228. (ii) Floating flexible... be equipped with a closure device designed to operate such that when the closure device is secured...

  2. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  3. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  4. UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

  5. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developmental status of the aquacultural alternative for treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the reduction or fate of pollutants in such areas as organics, solids, nutrients, heavy metals, residual hydrocarbons, and potentially ...

  6. Prediction of the effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant of CASP using gray model and neural network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Home-Ming; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2010-03-01

    When a domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWWTP) is put into operation, variations of the wastewater quantity and quality must be predicted using mathematical models to assist in operating the wastewater treatment plant such that the treated effluent will be controlled and meet discharge standards. In this study, three types of gray model (GM) including GM (1, N), GM (1, 1), and rolling GM (1, 1) were used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS) from the DWWTP of conventional activated sludge process. The predicted results were compared with those obtained using backpropagation neural network (BPNN). The simulation results indicated that the minimum mean absolute percentage errors of 43.79%, 16.21%, and 30.11% for BOD, COD, and SS could be achieved. The fitness was higher when using BPNN for prediction of BOD (34.77%), but it required a large quantity of data for constructing model. Contrarily, GM only required a small amount of data (at least four data) and the prediction results were analogous to those of BPNN, even lower than that of BPNN when predicting COD (16.21%) and SS (30.11%). According to the prediction, results suggested that GM could predict the domestic effluent variation when its effluent data were insufficient. PMID:19267211

  7. Bioaugmentation treatment of municipal wastewater with heterotrophic-aerobic nitrogen removal bacteria in a pilot-scale SBR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren; Ma, Tao; Liu, Tang; Zheng, Maosheng

    2015-05-01

    PCN bacteria capable of heterotrophic-aerobic nitrogen removal was successfully applied for bioaugmented treatment of municipal wastewater in a pilot-scale SBR. At an appropriate COD/N ratio of 8, the bioaugmentation system exhibited stable and excellent carbon and nutrients removal, the averaged effluent concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP were 20.6, 0.69, 14.1 and 0.40 mg/L, respectively, which could meet the first class requirement of the National Municipal Wastewater Discharge Standards of China (COD<50 mg/L, TN<15 mg/L, TP<0.5 mg/L). Clone library and real-time PCR analysis revealed that the introduced bacteria greatly improved the structure of original microbial community and facilitated their aerobic nutrients removal capacities. The proposed emerging technology was shown to be an alternative technology to establish new wastewater treatment systems and upgrade or retrofit conventional systems from secondary-level to tertiary-level. PMID:25710680

  8. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  9. A compact process for treating oilfield wastewater by combining hydrolysis acidification, moving bed biofilm, ozonation and biologically activated carbon techniques.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A lab-scale hybrid system integrating a hybrid hydrolysis acidification (HA) reactor, a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and an ozonation-biologically activated carbon (O3-BAC) unit was used in the treatment of heavy oil wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low biodegradability. The effects of hydraulic retention time and ozonation time were investigated. The results show that under the optimal conditions, the effluent concentrations of COD, oil and ammonia were 48, 1.3 and 3.5 mg/L, respectively, corresponding to total removal efficiencies of 95.8%, 98.9% and 94.4%, respectively. The effluent could meet the grade I as required by the national discharge standard of China. The HA process remarkably improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while the MBBR process played an important role in degrading COD. The ozonation process further enhanced the biodegradability of the MBBR effluent, and finally, deep treatment was completed in the BAC reactor. This work demonstrates that the hybrid HA/MBBR/O3-BAC system has the potential to be used for the treatment of high-strength oilfield wastewater. PMID:26507807

  10. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  11. Wastewater reclamation and recharge: A water management strategy for Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    Gorder, P.J.; Brunswick, R.J.; Bockemeier, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 61,000 acre-feet of the pumped water is annually discharged to the Rio Grande as treated wastewater. Albuquerque`s Southside Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) is the primary wastewater treatment facility for most of the Albuquerque area. Its current design capacity is 76 million gallons per day (mgd), which is expected to be adequate until about 2004. A master plan currently is being prepared (discussed here in Wastewater Master Planning and the Zero Discharge Concept section) to provide guidelines for future expansions of the plant and wastewater infrastructure. Construction documents presently are being prepared to add ammonia and nitrogen removal capability to the plant, as required by its new discharge permit. The paper discusses water management strategies, indirect potable reuse for Albuquerque, water quality considerations for indirect potable reuse, treatment for potable reuse, geohydrological aspects of a recharge program, layout and estimated costs for a conceptual reclamation and recharge system, and work to be accomplished under phase 2 of the reclamation and recharge program.

  12. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  13. Irrigation with reclaimed municipal wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Pettygrove, G.S.; Asano, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes beneficial use of reclaimed wastewater in the planning, design, and operation of agricultural and landscape irrigation systems. 1. Introduction: California's Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater Resource 2. Municipal Wastewater: Treatment and Reclaimed Water Characteristics 3. Irrigation Water Quality Criteria 4. Site Characteristics 5. Crop Water Use 6. Crop Selection and Management 7. Water Management for Salinity and Sodicity Control 8. Irrigation System Design 9. On-Farm Economics of Reclaimed Wastewater Irrigation 10. Health and Regulatory Considerations 11. Legal Aspects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Wastewater in California 12. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater; Nitrogen and Phosphorus 13. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater: Trace Elements 14. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater: Pathogens 15. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater: Trace Organics.

  14. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  15. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Reduction of pathogen indicator organisms in dairy wastewater using an ecological treatment system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer A; Hoet, Armando E; Wittum, Thomas E; Monahan, Clifton M; Martin, Jay F

    2008-01-01

    Ecological treatment systems can provide a sustainable, plant-based alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. One factor essential to the success of these systems is ensuring their ability to reduce coliform concentrations in wastewater. Wastewater is the primary source of fecal contamination in aquatic ecosystems, containing total and fecal coliforms on the order of 10(8)-10(10) and 10(7)-10(9) CFU L(-1), respectively. This study assessed the ability of an ecological treatment system to reduce concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from dairy wastewater. Low strength wastewater was pumped into the system during July of 2005 and high strength in September 2005. Wastewater passes through a series of anaerobic, aerobic, and clarifier reactors and wetland cells before exiting the system. Regardless of wastewater strength, average total coliform and E. coli concentrations were consistently reduced by at least 99% from influent to effluent, with the majority of the reduction (76%) occurring in the first two reactors. Relationships between internal concentrations of solids and coliforms indicated that increased reduction of solids may further reduce coliform concentrations. Although U.S. Environmental Protection Agency discharge requirements for E. coli were not always met, the substantial reductions achieved indicate that ecological treatment systems have the potential to successfully reduce coliforms in wastewater to meet discharge limits. The results from this study will be used to guide design and management of future ecological treatment systems, so that larger and more consistent coliform reductions can be achieved. PMID:18178901

  18. 40 CFR 1700.4 - Discharges requiring control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharges requiring control. 1700.4 Section 1700.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES...

  19. 40 CFR 1700.4 - Discharges requiring control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges requiring control. 1700.4 Section 1700.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES...

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.