Sample records for wastewater discharge standard

  1. Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains to provide rapid, field-ready, inexpen- sive testing of these chemicals in wastewater is also needed estrogenic chemicals, and 2) develop sensor technology for the rapid measure- ment in wastewater of two key

  2. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  3. Victoria`s wastewater discharges: Effects on the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.A.; Miller, R.A.; Pym, R.V. [Capital Regional District, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Capital Regional District discharges screened wastewater through two long deep outfalls into Juan de Fuca Strait, a water body bordered by both Canada and the US. Concerns have been expressed about the effects of this discharge on water quality in US waters. The wastewater is released into an oceanic environment characterized by strong turbulent tidal flows. Monitoring of the receiving waters has indicated that conventional water quality parameters have not been affected by the discharges. Fecal coliform levels above the outfalls are periodically elevated but remain well below the swimming standard. Shoreline studies of fecal coliform levels have shown that the deep outfalls have not measurably affected water quality at beaches. Recently, monitoring efforts have concentrated on effects to the seafloor environment. One of the outfalls (Macaulay Point) discharges to a depositional environment. At Macaulay Point chemical levels of concern were confined to within 100--400 m of the outfall with the exception of high PAH levels associated with the shipwreck of a collier. Similarly, sediment toxicity was detected at stations up to 400 m from the diffusers. This toxicity was limited to effects on growth and development. Survival was not affected. The benthic infaunal community exhibited a typical response to organic enrichment. Within 100 m of the outfall abundance was increased and richness depressed. The other outfall (Clover Point) discharges to an area of cobble substrate. Consequently, sediment analysis was not practical. Instead, tissue chemistry of resident mussels was examined. No consistent pattern with distance from the outfall was evident. Some tissue chemicals increased with distance from the diffuser while others decreased. Overall the impact of the outfalls on the seafloor was found to be minimal and restricted in extent.

  4. Raising discharge standards leads to environmental problem shifting in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyun; Liu, Beibei; Wang, Feng; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The discharge standards for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China are trending towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements over recent decades. However, the current paradigm for WWTPs has a singular focus on effluent quality, seldom considering the broader environmental consequences of the treatment required to meet these more stringent limits. In this article, the operating data of 17 WWTPs with three different discharge standards were collected. Using an inventory-type approach, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and eutrophication potential (EP) of each plant were calculated. Results show diminishing marginal returns in terms of pollution reduction as the level of treatment increases, taking environmental influences into consideration. Therefore, the strictest standards are not the most cost-effective ones in current China. Rather than focusing strictly on point source dischargers and requiring advanced treatments, regulatory agencies should reconsider their water quality protection strategies. PMID:24355847

  5. Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

  6. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Sun Mok; Hyun, Tae Ahn; Joeng, Tai Kim

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  7. Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges

    E-print Network

    Mitch, William A.

    Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges in the implications of seasonal disinfection practices of wastewater effluents for meeting water quality goals from municipal wastewater outfalls along the river, as well as upstream and downstream of each outfall

  8. Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

  9. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of...

  10. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of...

  11. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of...

  12. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of...

  13. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of...

  14. Effects of wastewater treatment plant discharge on ecosystem structure and function of lowland streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Gücker; Mario Brauns; Martin T. Pusch

    2006-01-01

    Secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment is common in developed countries, but little is known about the responses of lotic ecosystems to contemporary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. We examined the effects of WWTP discharge on various ecosystem components and functions of 2 morphologically and chemically impacted lowland streams near Berlin, Germany. We sampled one reach upstream and one reach downstream

  15. [Factor decomposition and reduction effect on the changes of industrial wastewater discharge].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Sheng; Tong, Lian-Jun; Qiu, Fang-Dao

    2009-03-15

    After describing the volume of industrial wastewater discharge, economic growth, economic space structure and industrial wastewater discharge intensity, the non-residue complete decomposition model was applied to analyze the effects of three economically factors, which were economic scale, discharge intensity and space structure, on the changes of industrial wastewater discharge quantitatively from 1981 to 2006 in China. Then industrial wastewater reduction effect was computed by use of H-P filter method. The main results could be summarized as follows: (1) The average annual growth of industrial wastewater discharge is 0.25 x 10(8) t, and the scale of economic development, the space structure and the industrial wastewater discharge intensity have different contributions to the change, being 25.9 x 10(8) t, - 25.5 x 10(8) t, -0.16 x 10(8) t respectively. (2) Accumulative quantity of industrial wastewater discharge reduction is 641.8 x 10(8) t from 1981 to 2006 in China. During this period, with the impact of macroeconomic policies, reduction gap has been fluctuating; however, total reduction gap is a positive number. It is to say that actual reduction volume is more than potential reduction one. (3) With the shift of time, potential reduction efficiency tends to increase firstly and then decline. (4) During 1982-1990 and 1997-2006, industry is high-pollution, while during 1991-1996, industry is low-pollution correspondingly. PMID:19432316

  16. Retrofitting LTV coke plant wastewater treatment system to comply with pretreatment discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Chong, G.M. (ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Fittipaldo, J.J. (LTV Steel Co. Inc., Warren, OH (United States). Warren Coke Plant)

    1994-10-01

    Under a constant decree agreement in 1988, LTV Steel Co. installed an activated sludge biological treatment facility at the Warren works to treat coke plant wastewater prior to discharge to the city of Warren publicly owned treatment works. This discharge is required to meet effluent quality limits for phenol and ammonia, and suspended solids are subject to surcharges. the discharge limits imposed by the city of Warren are shown in Table 1. To meet these effluent discharge limits, the original treatment strategy was to process the coke plant wastewater through an ammonia steam stripping still to control ammonia, and process the ammonia-stripped wastewater through the activated sludge biological treatment unit to control phenol. This strategy was unsuccessful because of limitations of the ammonia still, the general composition of the wastewater and the operating conditions of the biological treatment process. This article discusses the upgrading of the biological treatment process operation to meet the required discharge effluent quality.

  17. Retrofitting LTV coke plant wastewater treatment system to comply with pretreatment discharge limits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Wong-Chong; J. J. Fittipaldo

    1994-01-01

    Under a constant decree agreement in 1988, LTV Steel Co. installed an activated sludge biological treatment facility at the Warren works to treat coke plant wastewater prior to discharge to the city of Warren publicly owned treatment works. This discharge is required to meet effluent quality limits for phenol and ammonia, and suspended solids are subject to surcharges. the discharge

  18. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

  3. Analysis of 16S Sediment Microbial Communities from a Southern California Wastewater-Treatment Discharge Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated sewage effluent from several large wastewater treatment plants in the Los Angeles metropolitan area is discharged into the Pacific Ocean through a network of outfalls located between 5 and 7 miles offshore. To support development of new indicators of wastewater effects o...

  4. Water-Quality Assessment of Southern Florida - Wastewater Discharges and Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly 800 million gallons per day of treated wastewater was discharged in the Southern Florida National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit in 1990, most to the Atlantic Ocean (44 percent) and to deep, saline aquifers (25 percent). About 9 percent was discharged to fresh surface waters and about 22 percent to shallow ground water, of which septic tanks accounted for 9 percent. Runoff from agricultural and urban lands, though not directly measured, is a large source of wastewater in southern Florida.

  5. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 865.120 Section 865.120...ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review...

  6. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 865.120 Section 865.120...ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review...

  7. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 865.120 Section 865.120...ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review...

  8. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 865.120 Section 865.120...ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review...

  9. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 865.120 Section 865.120...ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review...

  10. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 ?g/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 ?g/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17?-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17?-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17?-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

  11. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  12. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  13. Reducing effluent discharge and recovering bioenergy in an osmotic microbial fuel cell treating domestic wastewater

    E-print Network

    Reducing effluent discharge and recovering bioenergy in an osmotic microbial fuel cell treating August 2012 Available online 19 September 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Forward osmosis Wastewater treatment Bioenergy Osmotic microbial fuel cells (OsMFCs) are an emerging concept that integrates forward

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

  19. Treated domestic wastewater traditionally has been discharged offshore in coastal areas via ocean outfalls. In response to environmental concerns associated with ocean outfalls, deep

    E-print Network

    Sukop, Mike

    1 Abstract Treated domestic wastewater traditionally has been discharged offshore in coastal areas injection of treated wastewater into non-potable aquifers has become increasingly used as an alternative. These deep aquifers tend to be saline, and the discharge of fresh wastewater into them raises concerns

  20. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  1. In-situ production of ozone and ultraviolet light using a barrier discharge reactor for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Oh Jo; Y. S. Mok

    2009-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor consisting of water-filled dielectric tube electrodes was used for the treatment\\u000a of wastewater. The inner dielectric tube, which acted as the discharging electrode, was filled with an aqueous electrolyte\\u000a solution. The outer dielectric tube, which served as the other electrode, was in contact with the wastewater, which was grounded.\\u000a The present reactor system was

  2. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  5. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  6. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  8. The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open/closed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of South Africa, the Mhlanga Estuary. This estuary receives significant inflows of treated effluent from upstream wastewater treatment works. Water and nutrient budgets were used together with biological sampling to investigate changes in the functioning of the system. The increase in inflows due to the effluent discharges has significantly increased the mouth breaching frequency. Furthermore, when the mouth closes, the accumulation of nutrients leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. A grey water index, namely the proportion of effluent in the estuary and an indicator of the additional nutrient inputs into the estuary, reached high values (?50%) during low flow regimes and when the mouth was closed. In these hyper-eutrophic conditions (DIN and DIP concentrations up to 457 ?M and 100 ?M respectively), field measurements showed that algal blooms occurred within about 14 days following closure of the mouth (chlorophyll-a concentrations up to 375 mg chl-a m -3). Water and nutrient balance simulations for alternative scenarios suggest that further increases in wastewater discharges would result in more frequent breaching events and longer open mouth conditions, but the occurrence of hyper-eutrophic conditions would initially intensify despite more frequent openings. The study indicates how water and nutrient balance simulations can be used in the planning and impact assessment of wastewater treatment facilities.

  9. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity relating to fish in wastewaters discharged from the Vilnius treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Vosylien?, M Z; Kazlauskien?, N; Baršien?, J; Andreik?nait?, L; Milukait?, A; Taujanskis, E

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of untreated raw (RWW) and treated wastewaters (TWW) samples from Vilnius wastewater treatment plant was assessed using fish (rainbow trout) at different stages of development. The survival of larvae and fish exposed to RWW in short-term and longterm tests reduced, whereas gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and relative body mass increase of larvae decreased significantly. The long-term exposure of fish to TWW induced significant decreases in white blood cell count and significant increases in micronuclei in blood of treated Oncorhynchus mykiss. The physical, chemical analysis of oil products (C??-C??), benzo(a)pyrene, suspended solids, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg) in RWW demonstrated that the concentrations of xenobiotics and some heavy metals did not exceed their Maximum Permissible Concentrations in the sewerage system and concentrations of substances in TWW corresponded to their criteria for effluents discharged into receiving waters. PMID:20729589

  10. FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

  11. Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O?) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O? which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na?B?O? as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200 min when the discharge power was 170 W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na?B?O? because B?O?(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O?. The main reason was that O? can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

  12. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources...SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point...

  13. Standardized or narrative discharge summaries. Which do family physicians prefer?

    PubMed Central

    van Walraven, C.; Duke, S. M.; Weinberg, A. L.; Wells, P. S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether family physicians prefer discharge summaries in narrative or standardized format and to determine factors affecting this preference. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: Internal medicine ward at a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 180 family physicians practising in the Ottawa-Carleton area. Of the original sample, 20 were not family physicians and were excluded. Of the 160 physicians remaining, 126 responded for a response rate of 78.8%. INTERVENTION: For a stratified random sample of patients, medical records and narrative discharge summaries were abstracted using a data acquisition form to capture essential information. Information on completed forms was transformed into standardized summaries. Physicians were sent both narrative and standardized summaries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Physicians' format preference as indicated on an ordinal 7-point scale. RESULTS: The standardized format was preferred with a score of 4.28 versus 3.84 for the narrative (P < .05). Responses indicated the standardized format provided information most relevant to ongoing care, with a mean score of 4.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.48 to 5.15), and easier access to summary information (5.60, CI 5.30 to 5.89). The narrative summary better described patients' admission (3.54, CI 3.18 to 3.90). Preference for standardized summaries correlated with lengthier narrative summary (P < .05), shorter length of stay (P < .05), and physicians' dissatisfaction with previous summaries (P < .001). Standardized discharge summaries were significantly shorter (302 versus 619 words, P = .004) than narrative summaries. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians preferred a standardized format for discharge summaries. Format preference is influenced by physician, patient, and discharge summary characteristics. PMID:9481464

  14. Electrolytic treatment of Standard Malaysian Rubber process wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Yazid, Ahmad Yuzri Ahmad

    2008-01-31

    A new method of Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) process wastewater treatment was developed based on in situ hypochlorous acid generation. The hypochlorous acid was generated in an undivided electrolytic cell consisting of two sets of graphite as anode and stainless sheets as cathode. The generated hypochlorous acid served as an oxidizing agent to destroy the organic matter present in the SMR wastewater. For an influent COD concentration of 2960 mg/L at an initial pH 4.5+/-0.1, current density 74.5 mA/cm(2), sodium chloride content 3% and electrolysis period of 75 min, resulted in the following residual values pH 7.5, COD 87 mg/L, BOD(5) 60 mg/L, TOC 65 mg/L, total chlorine 146 mg/L, turbidity 7 NTU and temperature 48 degrees C, respectively. In the case of 2% sodium chloride as an electrolyte for the above said operating condition resulted in the following values namely: pH 7.2, COD 165 mg/L, BOD(5) 105 mg/L, TOC 120 mg/L, total chlorine 120 mg/L, turbidity 27 NTU and temperature 53 degrees C, respectively. The energy requirement were found to be 30 and 46 Wh/L, while treating 24 L of SMR wastewater at 2 and 3% sodium chloride concentration at a current density 74.5 mA/cm(2). The observed energy difference was due to the improved conductivity at high sodium chloride content. PMID:17543454

  15. Application of ICP-OES for evaluating energy extraction and production wastewater discharge impacts on surface waters in Western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Norris, Gary A; Landis, Matthew S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; McGee, John K; Kamal, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify inorganic species in wastewater and river samples using a method based on EPA Method 200.7 rev4.4. A total of 53 emission lines from 30 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn) were investigated. Samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 2% HNO3 and 0.5% HCl. Lower interferences and better detection characteristics resulted in selection of alternative wavelengths for Al, As, Sb, Mg, Mo, and Na. Radial view measurements offered accurate determinations of Al, Ba, K, Li, Na, and Sr in high-brine samples. Spike recovery studies and analyses of reference materials showed 80-105% recoveries for most analytes. This method was used to quantify species in samples with high to low brine concentrations with method detection limits a factor of 2 below the maximum contaminant limit concentrations of national drinking water standards. Elements B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, and Sr were identified as potential tracers for the sources impacting PDWS intakes. Usability of the ICP-OES derived data for factor analytic model applications was also demonstrated. PMID:26005746

  16. Non-intrusive characterization methods for wastewater-affected groundwater plumes discharging to an alpine lake.

    PubMed

    Roy, James W; Robillard, Jasen M; Watson, Susan B; Hayashi, Masaki

    2009-02-01

    Streams and lakes in rocky environments are especially susceptible to nutrient loading from wastewater-affected groundwater plumes. However, the use of invasive techniques such as drilling wells, installing piezometers or seepage meters, to detect and characterize these plumes can be prohibitive. In this work, we report on the use of four non-intrusive methods for this purpose at a site in the Rocky Mountains. The methods included non-invasive geophysical surveys of subsurface electrical conductivity (EC), in-situ EC measurement of discharging groundwater at the lake-sediment interface, shoreline water sampling and nutrient analysis, and shoreline periphyton sampling and analysis of biomass and taxa relative abundance. The geophysical surveys were able to detect and delineate two high-EC plumes, with capacitively coupled ERI (OhmMapper) providing detailed two-dimensional images. In situ measurements at the suspected discharge locations confirmed the presence of high-EC water in the two plumes and corroborated their spatial extent. The nutrient and periphyton results showed that only one of the two high-EC plumes posed a current eutrophication threat, with elevated nitrogen and phosphorus levels, high localized periphyton biomass and major shifts in taxonomic composition to taxa that are commonly associated with anthropogenic nutrient loading. This study highlights the need to use non-intrusive methods in combination, with geophysical and water EC-based methods used for initial detection of wastewater-affected groundwater plumes, and nutrient or periphyton sampling used to characterize their ecological effects. PMID:18253851

  17. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  18. Upgrading fertilizer production wastewater effluent quality for ammonium discharges through ion exchange with clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Beler-Baykal, B; Allar, A D

    2008-06-01

    It had previously been shown that ammonium selective natural zeolite clinoptilolite may be used successfully as an ion exchanger for ammonium removal and nitrogen control from domestic wastewater. The process had been reported to be acceptable either by itself alone or as an upgrade. In this work, the possibility of using clinoptilolite for ammonium removal from fertilizer production wastewater was investigated. The fertilizer plant under consideration was rather a non-typical one with a lower ammonium strength than what is normally expected, and a variable effluent concentration. Batch experiments were performed to assess the capacity of clinoptilolite towards ammonium removal from an industrial wastewater at two different pHs. Flow experiments for the characterization of system behavior under continuous feeding conditions at different contact times were conducted for breakthrough analysis. Both real and simulated fertilizer wastewater samples were investigated and the results have shown that the real one may successfully be represented by the simulated one. Experimental results have shown that surface capacities exceeding 14 mg ammonium g(-1) clinoptilolite could be attained, complete removal of ammonium may be achieved with empty bed contact times of 10 min or higher and ion exchange with clinoptilolite could be used successfully to comply with the effluent standards given for the fertilizer plant. PMID:18702292

  19. Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

  20. Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Shires, K; Knight, B; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

    2011-08-01

    The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid production, gonadosomatic indices, histology [cellular development and intersex]) were assessed upstream and downstream of two municipal discharges. Fish [Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Rainbow Darters E. caeruleum] collected downstream of two municipal wastewater plants had the potential to have greater growth (longer and heavier) when compared to reference fish collections regardless of sex. Fish were not assimilating additional anthropogenic resources into energy storage (increased condition, liver somatic index). Impacts on ovarian development appeared to be minor with no differences in growth, steroid production or cellular development. Sewage exposed male fish were experiencing impairment in the capacity to produce testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in vitro, and in cellular development (GSI, intersex). Male darters of both species collected in the upstream agricultural region demonstrated no evidence of intersex whereas our urban reference sites had incidence of intersex of up to 20%. Rates of intersex were elevated downstream of both sewage discharges studied (33% and>60%, respectively). Lower rates of intersex at the intermediate sites, and then increases downstream of second sewage discharge suggests that fish populations have to potential to recover prior to exposure to the second sewage effluent. Pre-spawning darters demonstrated dramatically higher incidence of intersex in the spring at both urban reference sites (33% and 50%, respectively), and increased more so downstream of the near-field and far-field exposure sites (60% and 100%, respectively). These findings suggest that the compounds released in STP effluents have a tendency to act on the male reproductive system. These effects may become more pronounced as projected human population growth will require the aquatic environment to assimilate an increasing amount of sewage waste. PMID:21641296

  1. Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

    2014-10-15

    During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800 m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800 m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica. PMID:25173596

  2. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  3. Chemical and microbial hypotheses explaining the effect of wastewater treatment plant discharges on the nitrifying communities in freshwater sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Féray; Bernard Montuelle

    2003-01-01

    Nitrification is a microbial key step of the nitrogen cycle, which performs the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, via nitrite. In aquatic environments, it mainly takes place in the sediment or is associated with suspended particles. Wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharges in rivers may disrupt sediment nitrification: this impact is related to nitrogen inputs (mainly NH4+ and organic nitrogen) but

  4. Breakdown and discharge regimes in standard and micrometer size dc discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škoro, N.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, an overview of our recent experimental studies of the breakdown and operation of non-equilibrium discharges in centimetre and micrometer size geometries is presented. In the centimetre size geometries, we focused on elementary processes and phenomenology in gases used for some of the currently most attractive applications of low temperature plasmas - fluorocarbon gases (CF4, CHClF2) and water vapour. Measurements were performed at electrode separation d = 1.1 cm, in a pressure range from 0.1 to 5 Torr. In the case of micro-discharges, the emphasis was on testing the validity of standard scaling laws and proper determination of scaling parameters pd and j/p2. This was done at electrode gaps of 200 and 500 ?m and pressures of 50 and 20 Torr in argon. The investigation is based on measurements of breakdown potentials (Paschen curves) and Volt-Ampere characteristics, supported by simultaneous ICCD imaging of the discharges.

  5. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Li; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged.

  6. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and interpretation of impact of CECs difficult since water temperature, conductivity and bacteria are also inducing biomarker responses in both fish and mussels. PMID:26026416

  7. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. he objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded "wastewater" samples u...

  8. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

  9. Assessment of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) health indicators in relation to domestic wastewater discharges in suburbs of Houston, USA.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Crystal D; Winemiller, Kirk O; Mora, Miguel A; Du, Bowen; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W; Phalen, David

    2014-07-01

    Personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can impact aquatic organisms. Health indicators were compared for mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) collected above and below WWTP discharges from five streams in suburban areas of the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA. Specimens were evaluated for reproductive, morphological, and histological indicators. Several indicators revealed significant spatial and temporal variation; however, possibly because of their mobility, fish collected upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plants did not reveal consistent trends based on the endpoints examined. CEC concentrations in water samples from stream reaches below WWTP discharges were quantified for the first time in the Houston Metropolitan area. The 18 CECs detected in stream water had concentrations lower than values currently reported to impact fish. Future research should examine caged fish at each site and fish collected over longer stream reaches that receive successive discharges from WWTP and stronger CEC gradients. PMID:24615506

  10. Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1999-01-01

    A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effects of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant. The purpose of the model was to simulate condi tions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site. To represent the unsteady streamflows and the dynamic water-quality conditions, a transport modeling system was used that included both a model to route streamflow and a model to transport dissolved conservative constituents with linkage to reaction kinetics similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to simulate nonconservative constituents. These model codes are the Diffusion Analogy Streamflow Routing Model (DAFLOW) and the branched Lagrangian transport model (BLTM) and BLTM/QUAL2E that, collectively, as calibrated models, are referred to as the Ardmore Water-Quality Model. The Ardmore DAFLOW model was calibrated with three sets of streamflows that collectively ranged from 16 to 3,456 cubic feet per second. The model uses only one set of calibrated coefficients and exponents to simulate streamflow over this range. The Ardmore BLTM was calibrated for transport by simulating dye concentrations collected during a tracer study when streamflows ranged from 16 to 23 cubic feet per second. Therefore, the model is expected to be most useful for low streamflow simulations. The Ardmore BLTM/QUAL2E model was calibrated and verified with water-quality data from nine sites where two sets of five samples were collected. The streamflow during the water-quality sampling in Caddo Creek at site 7 ranged from 8.4 to 20 cubic feet per second, of which about 5.0 to 9.7 cubic feet per second was contributed by Sand Creek. The model simulates the fate and transport of 10 water-quality constituents. The model was verified by running it using data that were not used in calibration; only phytoplankton were not verified. Measured and simulated concentrations of dissolved oxygen exhibited a marked daily pattern that was attributable to waste loading and algal activity. Dissolved-oxygen measurements during this study and simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations using the Ardmore Water-Quality Model, for the conditions of this study, illustrate that the dissolved-oxygen sag curve caused by the upstream wastewater discharges is confined to Sand Creek.

  11. Perfluoroalkyl acids in selected wastewater treatment plants and their discharge load within the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chirikona, Florah; Filipovic, Marko; Ooko, Seline; Orata, Francis

    2015-05-01

    A major ecological challenge facing Lake Victoria basin is the influx of chemical contaminants from domestic, hospital, and industrial effluents. Determined levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in wastewater and sludge from selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Kenya are presented and their daily discharge loads calculated for the first time within the Lake Victoria basin. Samples were extracted and separated using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS or LC-MS/MS methodology. All sewage sludge and wastewater samples obtained from the WWTPs contained detectable levels of PFAAs in picogram per gram dry weight (d.w.) and in nanogram per liter, respectively. There was variability in distribution of PFAAs in domestic, hospital, and industrial waste with domestic WWPTs observed to contain higher levels. Almost all PFAA homologues of chain length C-6 and above were detected in samples analyzed, with long-chain PFAAs (C-8 and above chain length) being dominant. The discharge from hospital contributes significantly to the amounts of PFAAs released to the municipal water systems and the lake catchment. Using the average output of wastewater from the five WWTPs, a mass load of 1013 mg day(-1) PFAAs per day discharged has been calculated, with the highest discharge obtained at Kisumu City (656 mg day(-1)). The concentration range of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in wastewater was 1.3-28 and 0.9-9.8 ng L(-1) and in sludge samples were 117-673 and 98-683 pg g(-1), respectively. PMID:25861900

  12. Modeling the Effects of Low Flow Augmentation by Discharge from a Wastewater Treatment Plant on Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Matlock, Dr. Marty D.; Hann, Dr. Roy W. Jr.; Gholkar, Tejal A.

    2000-01-01

    to evaluate base flow augmentation scenarios to remedy dissolved oxygen problems during dry, low-flow periods. The effects were demonstrated by increasing base flow in a stream by discharging recycled water from Leon Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant during a...

  13. Modeling the effects of low flow augmentation by discharge from a wastewater treatment plant on dissolved oxygen concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Gholkar, Tejal A

    2000-01-01

    to evaluate base flow augmentation scenarios to remedy dissolved oxygen problems during dry, low-flow periods. The effects were demonstrated by increasing base flow in a stream by discharging recycled water from Leon Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant during a...

  14. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

  15. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  16. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  17. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-06-01

    China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

  18. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-01-01

    China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

  19. Possible impact of treated wastewater discharge on incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in river water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Iwane; T. Urase; K. Yamamoto

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli and coliform group bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics were investigated in the Tama River, a typical urbanized river in Tokyo, Japan, and at a wastewater treatment plant located on the river. The percentages of antibiotic resistance in the wastewater effluent were, in most cases, higher than the percentages in the river water, which were observed increasing downstream. Since

  20. Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen Scranton; Ellis, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek.

  1. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  2. Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

  3. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  4. Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela L. Batt; Ian B. Bruce; Diana S. Aga

    2006-01-01

    Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0?g\\/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9?g\\/L. These findings indicate that several

  5. High performance biofilm process for treating wastewater discharged from coal refining plants containing nitrogen, cyanide and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y; Park, B G; Chung, J S

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater discharge from coal refining plants contains a number of biologically toxic compounds; 2000-2500 mg/l of COD of which 40% is composed of phenol, 100-400 mg/l of thiocyanate, 10-40 mg/l of cyanide, 100-250 mg/l of NH4+-N and 150-300 mg/l of total nitrogen. In order to treat this kind of high strength wastewater, we have developed a high performance biofilm process using fluidizing bio-carriers of the tube chip type. The fluidizing biofilm carriers are made of a composite of polyethylene and several inorganic materials, whose density is controlled at 0.97-0.98 g/ml. The fluidizing biofilm carriers show sound fluidization characteristics inside bioreactors. The wastewater is treated using three consecutive series reactors in oxic-anoxic-oxic arrangement. Each reactor is charged with the fluidizing biofilm carriers of 50 vol%. Furthermore, newly cultured active microorganisms for the thiocyanate biodegradation are added in the biofilm process. At total hydraulic retention time of 2.2 days, this process can achieve steady state removal efficiencies: COD, 99%; thiocyanate, 99%; NH4+-N, 99% and total nitrogen, 90%. PMID:16459807

  6. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  7. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay

    E-print Network

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  8. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay 

    E-print Network

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  9. Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

  10. The National Institute of Standards and Technology glow discharge resonance ionization mass spectrometry system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pibida; J. M. R. Hutchinson; Jesse Wen; L. Karam

    2000-01-01

    A new resonance ionization mass spectrometry system at the National Institute of Standards and Technology using glow discharge atomization and continuous-wave lasers has been developed. Low concentrations of 133Cs in a silver matrix have been measured using this new system. In addition a detailed characterization of the glow discharge source and laser ionization processes are made.

  11. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....

  12. National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers nearly 62,600 square miles along the southeastern United States coast in Georgia and Florida. In 1990, the estimated population of the study unit was 9.3 million, and included all or part of the cities of Atlanta, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, and St. Petersburg. Estimated freshwater withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 was nearly 5,075 million gallons per day. Ground-water accounted for more than 57 percent of the water withdrawn during 1990 and the Floridan aquifer system provided nearly 91 percent of the total ground-water withdrawn. Surface-water accounted for nearly 43 percent of the water withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 with large amounts of withdrawals from the Altamaha River, Hillsborough River, the Ocmulgee River, the Oconee River, the St. Johns River, and the Suwannee River. Water withdrawn for public supply in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled 1,139 million gallons per day, of which 83 percent was ground water and 17 percent was surface water. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled nearly 230 million gallons per day. Ground water supplied over 80 percent of the study units population for drining water purposes; nearly 5.8 million people were served by public supply and 1.8 million people were served by self-supplied systems. Water withdrawn for self-supplied domestic use in Georgia and Florida is derived almost exclusively from ground water, primarily because this source can provide the quantity and quality of water needed for drinking purposes. Nearly 1.7 million people served by public supply utilized surface water for their drinking water needs. Water withdrawn for self-supplied commercial-industrial uses in the study unit in 1990 totaled 862 million gallons per day, of which 93 percent was ground water and 7 percent was surface water. Water withdrawn for agriculture purposes in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,293 million gallons per day, of which 69 percent was ground water and 31 percent was surface water. An estimated 1.254 millon acres were irrigated within the study unit during 1990. Water withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,552 million gallons per day, of which 99 percent was surface water and 1 percent was ground water. An additional 6,919 million gallons per day of saline surface water were withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in 1990, solely for cooling purposes. Treated wastewater discharged within the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit totaled nearly 1,187 million gallons per day in 1990. Of the total water discharged, 58 percent was discharged directly into surface water and the remaining 42 percent was discharged to ground water (through drain fields, injection wells, percolation ponds or spray fields). Domestic wastewater facilities discharged in the study unit totaled nearly 789 million gallons per day, industrial wastewater facilities discharged 213 million gallons per day, and releases from septic tanks was estimated at 185 million gallons per day. More than 1.3 million septic tanks were estimated in use within the study unit in 1990.

  13. Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

  14. Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction-coefficient values as input, were used to simulate total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen for water-quality conditions that result from three hypothetical boundary conditions. The model was applied to various combinations of three hypothetical waste loads when the headwater stream flow was either 50 or 75 cubic feet per second, when Fargo's wastewater-treatment plant outflow was either 15 or 37.8 cubic feet per second, and when total ammonia as nitrogen concentration of the outflow was either 5, 9, or 15 milligrams per liter. For each hypothetical waste load, at least one water-quality standard for either total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, or dissolved oxygen was contravened, and, for one scenario, all three standards were contravened.

  15. Chemical and microbial hypotheses explaining the effect of wastewater treatment plant discharges on the nitrifying communities in freshwater sediment.

    PubMed

    Féray, Christine; Montuelle, Bernard

    2003-02-01

    Nitrification is a microbial key step of the nitrogen cycle, which performs the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, via nitrite. In aquatic environments, it mainly takes place in the sediment or is associated with suspended particles. Wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharges in rivers may disrupt sediment nitrification: this impact is related to nitrogen inputs (mainly NH(4)(+) and organic nitrogen) but could also depend on the nitrifying bacteria inputs which have been proved to survive downstream WTP discharge points. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of NH(4)(+) and nitrifying bacteria inputs on the two steps of nitrification in freshwater sediments. To avoid natural sites constraints and to control the main environmental parameters, we used microcosms to simulate a river receiving different types of WTP discharges. These microcosms were composed of five glass dual-walls reactors (6 l) containing sediment and continuously filled (controlled flow) with river water and WTP effluent. Two types of effluents were tested: a non-nitrified one (high NH(4)(+) input, very few nitrifying bacteria) and a nitrified one (low NH(4)(+) input, more nitrifying bacteria), at different effluent/freshwater ratios (0/100, 20/80, 40/60 and 80/20). Changes in the ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing communities were assessed by the Most Probable Number method, and changes in potential ammonium-oxidizing activity and potential nitrite-oxidizing activity were determined by incubations with specific inhibitors (sodium chlorate and allylthiourea). In most of the cases the presence of effluent induced significant changes of the nitrifying bacteria densities and potential activities in the sediment. This effect indicates generally a loss of specific potential activity and in most of the time is significant for a high effluent/river water ratio (40% to 80%). In our experimental conditions and in the case of a large WTP discharge, the nitrifying potential in freshwater sediments could thus be significantly modified. PMID:12504130

  16. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A Whitman; Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A

    2013-03-01

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to < 10 organisms/ m3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented. PMID:23634586

  17. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

  18. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

  19. THE IMPACT OF WASTE-WATER DISCHARGE ON BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. LUOMA; J. E. CLOERN

    Recent improvements in waste treatment have resulted in improved water quality as far as organic loading and nutrient discharge into the Bay are con- cerned. However, problems with trace contaminants remain unsolved. Local- ized instances of biological contamination with toxic metals and trace organics equal those anywhere in the world. Indications of physiological stress in animals contaminated with trace toxicants

  20. Modeling wastewater discharge at the planning stage of a marine outfall system.

    PubMed

    Esen, Esin; Sayin, Erdem; Uslu, Orhan; Eronat, Canan

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of marine discharge of a negatively buoyant industrial waste was evaluated by a modeling study using Killworth 3-D, which is the first version of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM). The Model was run with the recorded wind direction and speed on the cruise dates and the circulation patterns for surface and subsurface were found to be similar with the current meter measurements. Model scenarios have been set-up in order to estimate the intensity and direction of the currents in the Nemrut Bay under the condition of wind blowing from a definite direction for a long time. MOM model has been run for four major wind directions, each having duration of 10 days and the behavior of the discharge plume in the worst case has been traced. Also, the behavior of the discharge plume in the real case has been estimated by using the wind data of the region. According to the model results, impact of trace elements that compose the discharge effluent is limited both in time and space. It is concluded that trace elements will leave the Bay in a short time due to the short residence times. PMID:21713476

  1. 40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from...

  2. 40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from...

  3. 40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from...

  4. 40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from...

  5. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.124 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

  6. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.124 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

  7. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.124 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

  8. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.124 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

  9. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.124 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

  10. 40 CFR 420.114 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.114 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

  11. 40 CFR 420.114 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.114 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

  12. Developments in wastewater treatment methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Sonune; Rupali Ghate

    2004-01-01

    Wastewaters are waterborne solids and liquids discharged into sewers that represent the wastes of community life. Wastewater includes dissolved and suspended organic solids, which are “putrescible” or biologically decomposable. Two general categories of wastewaters, not entirely separable, are recognized: domestic and industrial. Wastewater treatment is a process in which the solids in wastewater are partially removed and partially changed by

  13. The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jörg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400?ng/L and 2400?ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. PMID:24399464

  14. Sediment accumulation of organic halogens in pristine forest lakes: Tracking of a single defined discharge of pulp bleaching wastewater.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K P; Jaakkola, T; Elomaa, E; Hakulinen, R; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

    1997-01-01

    Sediment accumulation of organic halogen was studied in two forest lakes, one pristine and one which received 30 m(3) of biologically purified bleaching wastewater from a kraft pulp mill in 1979 equivalent to ca. 2 kg of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX). Lake sediments were dated with(210)Pb,(134)Cs and(137)Cs and the annual deposition rates of organic halogens and organic matter were calculated. Organic bound halogen contents of the sediment aged 150 years was 180 microg Cl g(-1) d.w. in both lakes. The concentration of organic bound halogen at the topmost 6 cm of the sediments (less than 20-years-old) ranged from 45 to 80 microg Cl g(-1) d.w. This suggests that solvent extractable halogen had enriched in the older sediment layers. The deposition of extractable organic halogen (EOX) in the lakes in 1950's was 4 to 5 mg Cl m(-2) a(-1). Since then, the deposition of EOX doubled in both lakes. The deposition of organic matter increased concomitantly from 50 g m(-2) a(-1) to 110 g m(-2) a(-1) in Lake Mustalampi and from 35 g m(-2) a(-1) to 62 g m(-2) a(-1) in Lake Pyylampi suggesting that the increase in the deposition of organic halogen followed the increase in the deposition of organic matter. Of the 2 kg of organic halogen discharged into the lake, 5% or less was detected in the sediment in tetrahydrofuran extractable form 15 years later. PMID:19002413

  15. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  16. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  17. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  19. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  20. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

  1. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...That Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

  2. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...

  3. Performance characteristics of a hybrid membrane pilot-scale plant for oilfield-produced wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangli Qiao; Zhenjia Zhang; Jialiang Yu; Xiaofeng Ye

    2008-01-01

    Oilfield produced wastewater is a complicated system containing high levels of oil, SS (total suspended solid), sulfide, reductive substances and salinity, etc. The current treatment process operating in Daqing oilfield cannot treat the oily wastewater to satisfy the discharging standard to surrounding environment or the water quality for injection into low-osmosis oilfield. In this paper, a pilot-scale plant involving aeration

  4. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 ?g L? 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 ?g L? 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L? 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 ?g L? 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 ?g L? 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 ?g L? 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  5. 40 CFR 471.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—NSPS....

  6. 40 CFR 471.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—NSPS....

  7. 40 CFR 471.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—NSPS....

  8. 40 CFR 471.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—NSPS....

  9. 40 CFR 429.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.74 New source...no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  10. 40 CFR 429.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.94 New source performance...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  11. 40 CFR 429.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.74 New source...no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  12. 40 CFR 429.84 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.84 New source performance...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  13. 40 CFR 429.84 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.84 New source performance...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  14. 40 CFR 429.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.94 New source performance...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  15. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

  16. Discharge coefficients of Venturi tubes with standard and non-standard convergent angles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Reader-Harris; W. C Brunton; J. J Gibson; D Hodges; I. G Nicholson

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes twenty one Venturi tubes manufactured in a range of diameter ratios from 0.4 to 0.75. Fifteen of them are standard, with a convergent angle of 21°, manufactured in a range of diameters from 50 mm to 200 mm and of diameter ratios from 0.4 to 0.75. Six are standard except for the convergent angles which are either

  17. Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate ranged from 5.1 to 6.1 mg/L and were 4 to 7 times larger than concentrations at the nearest upstream site on Monument Creek, site 07103970 (MoCr_Woodmen). The source of these larger dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations has not been identified, but the fact that all measurements had elevated dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations indicates a relatively constant source. Most stormflow concentrations of dissolved trace elements were smaller than concentrations from base-flow or normal-flow samples. However, median concentrations of total arsenic, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc generally were much larger during periods of stormflow than during base flow or normal flow. Concentrations of dissolved and total copper, total manganese, total nickel, dissolved and total selenium, and dissolved and total zinc ranged from 3 to 27 times larger at site 07103707 (FoCr_8th) than site 07103700 (FoCr_Manitou) during base flow, indicating a large source of trace elements between these two sites. Both of these sites are located on Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek. The likely source area is Gold Hill Mesa, a former tailings pile for a gold refinery located just upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, and upstream from site 07103707 (FoCr_8th). Farther downstream in Fountain Creek, stormflow samples for total copper, manganese, lead, nickel, and zinc were larger at the downstream site near the city of Security, site 07105800 (FoCr_Security), than at the upstream site near Janitell Road, site 07105530 (FoCr_Janitell), compared with other main-stem sites and indicated a relatively large source of these metals between the two sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace-element loads substantially increased during stormflow. Suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields associated with stormflow were significantly larger than those associated with normal flow. The Apr

  18. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    (a) All oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above must have a standard shore connection for reception facilities to discharge oily mixtures from machinery space bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture from fuel oil tanks. The discharge connection must have the following...

  19. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    (a) All oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above must have a standard shore connection for reception facilities to discharge oily mixtures from machinery space bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture from fuel oil tanks. The discharge connection must have the following...

  20. Removal of nutrients and micropollutants treating low loaded wastewaters in a membrane bioreactor operating the automatic alternate-cycles process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Fatone; David Bolzonella; Paolo Battistoni; Franco Cecchi

    2005-01-01

    The necessity to produce treated wastewaters with high quality standards for both discharge or reusing, implies the adoption of very effective processes in the field of biological wastewater treatment. The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR) has showed the capacity to remove COD, BOD, N, P and suspended solids as well as heavy metals and organic micropollutants so to obtain reusable water.

  1. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.430 Standard discharge connections...

  2. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.430 Standard discharge connections...

  3. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.430 Standard discharge connections...

  4. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

  5. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Emmanuel; Y. Perrodin; G. Keck; J.-M. Blanchard; P. Vermande

    2005-01-01

    In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients, reach the wastewater. This form of elimination may generate risks for aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to present: (i) the steps of an ecological risk assessment and management

  6. Wastewater reuse in Mediterranean semi-arid areas: The impact of discharges of tertiary treated sewage on the load of polar micro pollutants in the Llobregat river (NE Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Köck-Schulmeyer; Antoni Ginebreda; Cristina Postigo; Rebeca López-Serna; Sandra Pérez; Rikke Brix; Marta Llorca; Miren López de Alda; Mira Petrovi?; Antoni Munné; Lluís Tirapu; Damià Barceló

    2011-01-01

    The presence of sewage-borne micro contaminants in environmental waters is directly related to the discharge of treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the flow rate of the receiving river waters. Mediterranean rivers, in particular, are characterized by important fluctuations in the flow rates and heavy pollution pressures resulting from extensive urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This translates into

  7. 40 CFR 471.65 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSNS....

  8. 40 CFR 471.65 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSNS....

  9. 40 CFR 471.65 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSNS....

  10. 40 CFR 471.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSES....

  11. 40 CFR 471.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSES....

  12. 40 CFR 471.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSES....

  13. 40 CFR 471.65 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSNS....

  14. 40 CFR 471.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471...shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (l) Heat treatment contact cooling water—subpart F—PSES....

  15. Membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment – A viable option to reduce the amount of polar pollutants discharged into surface waters?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Weiss; Thorsten Reemtsma

    2008-01-01

    The potential of a lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to remove polar pollutants from municipal wastewater was studied for industrial and household chemicals over a period of 22 months parallel to a conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. For half of the compounds, such as benzotriazole, 5-tolyltriazole (5-TTri), benzothiazole-2-sulfonate and 1,6-naphthalene disulfonate (1,6-NDSA), removal by MBR was significantly better than in CAS,

  16. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  17. Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.

    PubMed

    Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production. PMID:24759540

  18. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar settings across Ireland suggest the phenomena observed in this study are more widespread than previously suspected. PMID:25863501

  19. Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

    2012-12-01

    Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

  20. Simulation of water quality and the effects of waste-water effluent on the South Platte River from Chatfield Reservoir through Denver, Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Paschal; D. K. Mueller

    1991-01-01

    Projected increases in population and discharges of wastewater effluent in the Denver metropolitan area makes compliance with water-quality standards increasingly difficult and necessitates controlling discharges of wastewater effluent to the South Platte River. In 1989, the State of Colorado adopted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's QUAL2E water-quality model as the preferred method for estimating effects of effluent on Colorado rivers.

  1. Quantifying the Contribution of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems to Stream Discharge Using the SWAT Model.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C W; Radcliffe, D E; Risse, L M; Habteselassie, M; Mukundan, R; Jeong, J; Hoghooghi, N

    2014-03-01

    In the southeastern United States, on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are widely used for domestic wastewater treatment. The degree to which OWTSs represent consumptive water use has been questioned in Georgia. The goal of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs on streamflow in a gauged watershed in Gwinnett County, Georgia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed-scale model, which includes a new OWTS algorithm. Streamflow was modeled with and without the presence of OWTSs. The model was calibrated using data from 1 Jan. 2003 to 31 Dec. 2006 and validated from 1 Jan. 2007 to 31 Dec. 2010 using the auto-calibration tool SWAT-CUP 4. The daily and monthly streamflow Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.49 and 0.71, respectively, for the calibration period and 0.37 and 0.68, respectively, for the validation period, indicating a satisfactory fit. Analysis of water balance output variables between simulations showed a 3.1% increase in total water yield at the watershed scale and a 5.9% increase at the subbasin scale for a high-density OWTS area. The percent change in water yield between simulations was the greatest in dry years, implying that the influence of OWTSs on the water yield is greatest under drought conditions. Mean OWTS water use was approximately 5.7% consumptive, contrary to common assumptions by water planning agencies in Georgia. Results from this study may be used by OWTS users and by watershed planners to understand the influence of OWTSs on water quantity within watersheds in this region. PMID:25602655

  2. Pretreatment of industrial discharges to publicly owned treatment works (POTW)

    SciTech Connect

    Ongerth, J.E.; Dewalle, F.B.

    1980-08-01

    A discussion covers a brief survey of federal regulations establishing standards for the pretreatment of pollutants discharged into POTW's; the experience of the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) in dealing with the pretreatment of heavy metals in industrial and commercial discharges; a study and analysis by Seattle Metro of organic priority pollutants in wastewater including identification sources; and POTW treatment control technology for organic priority pollutants in Seattle Metro.

  3. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  4. Environmental impact analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants: case study of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Brattebø, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants, while performing the important function of treating wastewater to meet the prescribed discharge standards, consume energy and a variety of chemicals. This paper analyses the consumption of energy and chemicals by wastewater treatment plants in Oslo over eight years, and their potential environmental impacts. Global warming and acidification were the dominant impacts for chemicals and energy, respectively. Avoided impacts due to usable by-products - sludge, ammonium nitrate and biogas - play a key role in shrinking the environmental footprint of the wastewater plants. The scope for decreasing this footprint by streamlining energy and chemicals consumption is limited, however, considering that over 70% of the impact is accounted for by the eutrophication potential (thanks to the nitrogen and phosphorus which is discharged to the sink) of the treated effluent wastewater. PMID:21411954

  5. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total phosphorus was 0.023 mg/L, indicating the lake is borderline mesotrophic-eutrophic, or has moderate to high concentrations of phosphorus, whereas the average summer chlorophyll a concentration was 3.3 mg/L and water clarity, as measured with a Secchi depth, was 10.4 ft, both indicating mesotrophic conditions or that the lake has a moderate amount of algae and water clarity. Although actions have been taken to eliminate the wastewater discharges, the bottom sediment still has slightly elevated concentrations of several pollutants from wastewater discharges, lumber operations, and roadway drainage, and a few naturally occurring metals (such as iron). None of the concentrations, however, were high enough above the defined thresholds to be of concern. Based on nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, the productivity (algal growth) in Mercer Lake should typically be limited by phosphorus; therefore, understanding the phosphorus input to the lake is important when management efforts to improve or prevent degradation of the lake water quality are considered. Total inputs of phosphorus to Mercer Lake were directly estimated for MY 2008-09 at about 340 lb/yr and for a recent year with more typical hydrology at about 475 lb/yr. During these years, the largest sources of phosphorus were from Little Turtle Inlet, which contributed about 45 percent, and the drainage area near the lake containing the adjacent urban and residential developments, which contributed about 24 percent. Prior to 1965, when there was no sewage treatment plant and septic systems and other untreated systems contributed nutrients to the watershed, phosphorus loadings were estimated to be about 71 percent higher than during around 2009. In 1965, a sewage treatment plant was built, but its effluent was released in the downstream end of the lake. Depending on various assumptions on how much effluent was retained in the lake, phosphorus inputs from wastewater may have ranged from 0 to 342 lb. Future highway and stormwater improvements have been identified in the Mercer Infrastructure Improvement Project, and if they

  6. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). III. A novel tungsten-triggered MDEL device emitting VUV and UVC radiation for use in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Miura, Takashi; Kajitani, Masatsugu; Serpone, Nick

    2008-03-01

    Exposure to low doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) and to the hormonal 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide, an environmental endocrine disruptor, can have serious health consequences such as the induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma (LaChapelle et al., Reprod. Toxicol., 2007, 23, 20; Murray et al., Reprod. Toxicol., 2007, 23, 383). To the extent that these toxins are present in wastewaters (Donald et al., Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 231, 173; Brotons et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 1994, 103, 608; Olea et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 1996, 104, 298; Biles et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 1997, 45, 3541; Markey et al., J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2003, 83, 235), we examined their oxidative destruction in aqueous media by a novel light source. A tungsten-triggered microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (W-MDEL) was fabricated for possible use in wastewater treatment using vacuum UV-transparent quartz in which a tungsten trigger, also embedded in quartz, was attached to the MDEL to aid in the self-ignition of the lamp on irradiation at low microwave power levels. The quantity of mercury gas in the W-MDEL was optimized by monitoring the continuous radiation and peak intensities of the emitted light in the vacuum UV (VUV) and UVC regions. The usefulness of the W-MDEL device was assessed through the degradation of 2,4-D and BPA in air-equilibrated aqueous media and in oxygen-saturated aqueous media. Enhanced degradation of these two xenoestrogenic toxins was achieved by increasing the number of W-MDEL devices while keeping constant the microwave radiation feeding each W-MDEL lamp. This novel lamp provides an additional light source in the photooxidation of environmental contaminants without the need for a metal-oxide photocatalyst. Under our conditions, process dynamics using the W-MDEL light source are greater than with the more conventional photochemical methods that employ low-pressure Hg arc electrode lamps in synthetic quartz to degrade these two toxic contaminants. PMID:18389147

  7. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the soils. The rice grain produced in the polluted paddy fields are highly contaminated by heavy metals, with concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn being 14.1 mg kg-1, 21.4 mg kg-1, 0.55 mg kg-1, 16.3 mg kg-1 and 38.5 mg kg-1 on average, respectively. According to our investigations, the rate of rice with Cd exceeding the national allowable limit (0.2 mg kg-1) reaches 59.6% of the total in the county; that with Cd higher than 1 mg kg-1, called as Cd Rice, reaches 11.1%. This suggests that wastewater irrigation caused by indigenous mining has led to the severe heavy metal pollution of farming land in Hunan province. Moreover, toxic metals in the soils have been accumulated in rice grain and do harm to human health.

  8. Partitioning of endocrine disrupting compounds in inland waters and wastewaters discharged into the coastal area of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Arditsoglou; Dimitra Voutsa

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  In the Water Framework Directive 2000\\/60\\/EC, environmental objectives for the proper quality of inland, surface, transitional,\\u000a coastal, and ground waters have been set. Member states are required to identify chemical pollutants of significance in the\\u000a water bodies, to establish emission control measures, and to achieve quality standards. A specific category of pollutants\\u000a are the compounds that may

  9. Rates of Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Vicinity of a Coal-Coking Wastewater Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Herbes, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    To facilitate predictions of the transport and fate of contaminants at future coal conversion facilities, rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected in the vicinity of a coal-coking treated wastewater discharge from November 1977 through August 1979. Six radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were incubated with sediment and water samples; 14CO2, cell-bound 14C, and polar transformation products were isolated and quantified. Whereas 14CO2 and bound 14C were major transformation products in sediment assays, soluble polar 14C dominated transformation in water samples. Mean rate constants (measured at 20°C) in sediments collected downstream from the effluent outfall were 7.8 × 10?2 h?1 (naphthalene), 1.6 × 10?2 h?1 (anthracene), and 3.3 × 10?3 h?1 [benz(a)anthracene], which corresponded to turnover times of 13, 62, and 300 h, respectively. No unequivocal evidence for transformation of benzo(a)pyrene or dibenz(a,h)anthracene was obtained. Only naphthalene and anthracene transformations were observed in water samples; rate constants were consistently 5- and 20-fold lower, respectively, than in the corresponding sediment samples. The measured rate constants for anthracene transformation in July 1978 sediment samples were not related to total heterotroph numbers. In late July 1978, the effluent was diverted from the primary study area; however, no differences were observed either in transformation rate constants or in the downstream/upstream sediment rate constant ratio. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continuous inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons result in an increased ability within a microbial community to utilize certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because transformation rates remained elevated for more than 1 year after removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source, microbial communities may shift only slowly in response to changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. PMID:16345686

  10. Chromium and copper removed, wastewater can now go to sewer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.W.; Toy, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    Alco Gravure faced a wastewater problem at its printing facility in Broadview, IL. Hexavalent chrome-bearing wastewater was generated during chrome plating and etching and acidic copper wastewater was produced during the plating of rotogravure printing rolls. The chromium and copper levels in the wastewater were too high to discharge to the municipal sewer. At the company's previous location, the wastewater had been stored in underground tanks and periodically removed by a hazardous waste treatment firm. Because the wastewater contained less than 1% heavy metals, volume reduction of the waste became an economic necessity when Alco moved to the Broadview site. A metals precipitation and removal system was chosen with the following equipments: oil/water separator, chrome reduction tank, neutralization tank, clarifier, filter press, and all associated instrumentation, metering pumps, valves, piping and mixers. The system was chosen after company personnel inspected a similar treatment system in a plating operation at a plant across the street from Alco. Since installation in the fall of 1984, the heavy metal treatment system has reduced the volume of waste to less than 1% of the initial wastewater volume. By treating the 99 + % of the aqueous waste for disposal to the municipal water treatment works, significant savings have been achieved in waste disposal costs. Effluent quality exceeds all standards established by the sewer district and by the EPA.

  11. Use of Commercial Plant Species in a Hydroponic System to Treat Domestic Wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Vaillant; Fabien Monnet; Huguette Sallanon; Alain Coudret; Adnane Hitmi

    2004-01-01

    treatments are expensive and produce huge quantities of sludge that it will no longer be possible to spread in The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout landfills after 2005 (European Directive 91\\/271\\/CEE of for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary munici- pal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic sys- 21 May 1991).

  12. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

  15. Modeling karst spring discharge in relation to standardized precipitation indices: a new method for forecasting water scarcity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, E.; Del Bon, A.; Petrangeli, A. B.; Preziosi, E.

    2012-04-01

    In Umbria Region (Central Italy) approximately the 35% of water for human use comes from 30 karst springs different in discharge, recharge time and storage capacity. Only 16 of these springs are currently monitored by the Regional Environmental Protection Agency and only five out of these 16 are monitored since 1998. For the remaining 14 springs only very few information is usually available: the long term average annual outflow and the long term average minimum outflow. In this context it is fundamental for management purposes to study the relations between the evolution of the rainfall input overall the basin and the distribution in time and space of the stored resources, in relation to the present or future basin climatic conditions. The main objective of this study is to develop a method to generate long term hydrographs for the springs of which only a very few information is available (i.e. an estimate of the average discharge and of the average minimum annual discharge), consistent with the precipitation regimen. To this goal, a new method has been proposed, grounded on three main points: a. capture from the available precipitation and discharge data the main statistics describing the relations between rainfall regimen and outflow for karst springs in the study area; b. verify how far these relations can be generalized to similar springs in the region; c. use them for generating synthetic outflow time series coherent with the precipitation time evolution at basin scale. The method can be summarized in seven steps: 1. Validation of the outflow model, based on the assumption that the yearly spring hydrograph is divided in one linear continuous recharge phase, starting at the end of the previous recession phase, and one exponential continuous discharge phase starting at the end of the recharge; thus for each hydrologic year the hydrograph is completely described by the maximum and minimum outflow and the duration of the recharge and discharge phases (called "outflow parameters"). 2. Computation of the linear correlation coefficients between the observed long term average outflow parameters. 3. Computation of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at local and basin scale for the period 1952-2010. 4. Correlations SPI - outflow parameters. For each spring, the correlation coefficient between each outflow parameter and the basin standardized precipitation indices at different aggregation time have been computed, to assess which aggregation time step n of the SPI best correlates with each outflow parameter. 5. Assessment of the variability in time of the spring parameters, assigned assuming that the standard deviation of each generic parameter is proportional to the standard deviation of the SPI. 6. Validation of the generation method. Synthetic hydrographs for the monitored springs have been generated, to be compared to the observed . 7. Generation of synthetic time series. Using the information from steps 1-6, an estimate of the average discharge and of the average minimum annual discharge, synthetic hydrographs related to the observed precipitation regimen have been generated for a generic unknown spring. This method doesn't expect to fully replace monitoring activities; however it could be used to generate a reasonable estimate of single spring hydrographs, when a large number of similar spring exist in the same region, having only detailed information on the main ones.

  16. Risk assessment of wastewater disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Hulby, D.; Chappell, W.; Lanning, J.; Maltempo, M.; Chiras, D.; Morris, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the following: detailed examination of the risks of different types of wastewater disinfection used today; risks of onsite use, transportation, and discharge of disinfected effluents; and disinfection methods considered include chlorination, chlorination/dechlorination, ozonation, UV radiation.

  17. Research laboratory wastewater treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Jancuk, W.A.; Fisher, J.R. [AT and T Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aqueous waste streams, described as laboratory wash waters, from the AT and T Engineering Research Center in Princeton, NJ are piped to a central facility for treatment prior to discharge to the receiving waters of the State of New Jersey per a NJPDES Permit within the limits. The wastewater may contain acids, bases, metals such as copper and chromium from plating baths rinses, cyanides, ammonical and phosphorus compounds. The standard treatment technology used to treat these types of wastewaters include neutralization, cyanide oxidation, chromium reduction and metals precipitation as hydroxides followed by filtration to remove the solids. The AT and T Engineering Research Center redesigned its Research Laboratory wastewater treatment process and treatment scheme using environmentally conscious techniques. Sulfide precipitation chemistry was selected to remove the dissolved metal contaminates to the lowest levels possible while using the least amount of treatment chemicals and generating the least amount of sludge. The treatment process includes multiple batch treatment tanks enabling a batch to be returned for treatment if it does not meet specifications.

  18. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  19. Wastewater cleanup: Put activated-sludge treatment to work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Scroggins; S. Deiters

    1995-01-01

    Strict wastewater treatment and discharge limits continue to challenge wastewater treatment systems. For industrial wastewater, the selected system must not only meet regulatory requirements, but must also be flexible enough to handle the variations in volume, flowrate and pollutant load that typify industrial effluent streams. At existing industrial sites, the selection of a wastewater treatment system is also impacted by

  20. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...treatment unit that are from chemical manufacturing process units...Group 2 wastewater streams from chemical manufacturing process...

  1. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...treatment unit that are from chemical manufacturing process units...Group 2 wastewater streams from chemical manufacturing process...

  2. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...treatment unit that are from chemical manufacturing process units...Group 2 wastewater streams from chemical manufacturing process...

  3. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...treatment unit that are from chemical manufacturing process units...Group 2 wastewater streams from chemical manufacturing process...

  4. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...treatment unit that are from chemical manufacturing process units...Group 2 wastewater streams from chemical manufacturing process...

  5. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total...

  6. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total...

  7. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total...

  8. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  9. Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

  10. TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: DINOSEB AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies of the treatability of pesticide manufacturing wastewaters, in an investigation of the suitability of individual pesticide manufacturing wastewaters for discharge to biological treatment systems, whether on site or publicly...

  11. Most modern wastewater treatment systems rely on microbial processes to remove contaminants. This makes wastewater

    E-print Network

    Auckland, University of

    Most modern wastewater treatment systems rely on microbial processes to remove contaminants. This makes wastewater treatment one of the largest biotechnology industries in the world. In New Zealand alone, about 1.5 billion litres of treated domestic wastewater is discharged each day

  12. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  13. Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  14. Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

  15. Modeling trihalomethane formation potential from wastewater chlorination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The deletion of federally mandated fecal coliform limits has led many states to review and modify their wastewater disinfection requirements. One issue in analyzing wastewater disinfection is the discharge of potentially carcinogenic halogenated organics formed during the chlorination process. This research investigates the formation of one class of the halogenated organics, the trihalomethanes. The applicability of using drinking water trihalomethane formation models for use with wastewater effluent is examined. Three models are compared for predictive capability by using measured trihalomethane values from previous research data. The results show that a previously developed model is applicable for use based on assumptions stated. Results provide environmental managers with worst case predictions for a range of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) parameters. Predictions indicate that trihalomethane formation from the chlorination of wastewater is typically lower than the Safe Drinking Water Act trihalomethane standard of 100 ug/L. The worst case model predictions reach, and in certain extreme cases, pass the standard of 100 ug/L. This level of trihalomethanes formed is minimized if aeration of the receiving bodies of water occurs. Based on this research, the risk of forming trihalomethanes as disinfection by-products from chlorination do not outweigh the benefits gained from proper chlorine disinfection of effluent.

  16. 76 FR 76716 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Discharges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...discharges (except discharges of ballast water) from vessels less than 79 feet and commercial... Mail: Original and three copies to: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency...Albert at EPA Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management,...

  17. An Evaluation of Metal Removal During Wastewater Treatment: The Potential to Achieve More Stringent Final Effluent Standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ziolko; O. V. Martin; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester

    2011-01-01

    Metals are of particular importance in relation to water quality, and concern regarding the impact of these contaminants on biodiversity is being encapsulated within the latest water-related legislation such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe and criteria revisions to the Clean Water Act in the United States. This review undertakes an evaluation of the potential of 2-stage wastewater treatment

  18. 40 CFR 413.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...shall augment the use of process wastewater or otherwise...day of electroplating process wastewater the following...Chemical Etching and Milling Facilities Discharging...day of electroplating process wastewater the following...Chemicals Etching and Milling Facilities...

  19. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation. PMID:17897694

  20. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-10-29

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13) C and (1) H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25354334

  1. Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry. PMID:24593865

  2. Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry. PMID:24593865

  3. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATIONS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A policy to develop water-quality-based permit limitations for toxic pollutants entering treatment plants is being developed because, even with efficient removal of conventional pollutants, significant amounts of toxic substances are being discharged through the Nation's wastewat...

  4. Improving electroflotation in coke-industry wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Il’in

    2008-01-01

    Conservation of water resources is of great ecological importance. The runoff of unpurified or incompletely purified wastewater to surface water bodies is extremely undesirable. However, polluted wastewater is formed at every stage of the production cycle: mineral extraction, enrichment, processing, industrial use, and waste disposal. According to statistical data, wastewater discharge to natural water resources is very different for different

  5. Wastewater treatment using activated sludge entrapped in polyethylene glycol prepolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuko Hashimoto; Tatsuo Sumino

    1998-01-01

    Immobilized activated sludge was applied to the treatment of organic wastewater discharged from a semiconductor plant. To enhance the treatment efficiency, the growth characteristics of heterotrophic bacteria and the effect of the BOD loading rate in continuous wastewater treatment by the immobilized activated sludge were investigated. The activated sludge was entrapped in polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymer pellets. Wastewater with a

  6. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  7. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  8. Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Visvanathan; R. Ben Aim; K. Parameshwaran

    2000-01-01

    With continuing depletion of fresh water resources, focus has shifted more toward water recovery, reuse, and recycling, which require an extension of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Downstream external factors like stricter compliance requirements for wastewater discharge, rising treatment costs, and spatial constraints necessitate renewed investigation of alternative technologies. Coupled with biological treatment processes, membrane technology has gained considerable attention due

  9. Skimming oily wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, T.

    1996-10-01

    As large generators of oily wastewater tighten effluent controls, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is targeting smaller generators. Some of the firms receiving their attention are smaller manufacturing plants, automotive garages, mobile equipment service shops and truck farms. Many of these firms do not have access to a sanitary sewer system that will accept oily wastewater. One EPA concern is that oily wastewater will find its way into an underground aquifer that is a source of drinking water. Many oily wastes contain organic and inorganic chemicals in concentrations that exceed the primary drinking water standards established by the Safe Drinking Water Act. So the focus of one EPA program is aimed at preventing contamination of groundwater by controlling oil wastewater at the generator`s site.

  10. ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

  11. Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

    2009-05-01

    Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. PMID:19102584

  12. Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  13. Evaluation of onsite wastewater treatment technologies using sustainable development criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara R. Bradley; Glen T. Daigger; Robert Rubin; George Tchobanoglous

    2002-01-01

    .   The typical domestic wastewater treatment system is a centralized municipal-sized facility that treats wastewater to specified\\u000a discharge limits, to protect human health and the environment. Yet 10% of wastewater generated in the U.S. is not treated\\u000a in a centralized system, but rather in small systems receiving wastewater from single and multiple dwellings and small commercial\\u000a establishments. Most of these

  14. [Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-04-01

    As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery. PMID:24946624

  15. Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and Rialto Drain, followed by Prado Dam and Sunnyslope Creek. Each of these sites is suitable habitat for the Santa Ana sucker, especially Sunnyslope Creek and Rialto Drain where juveniles reside. Various OWCs and EDCs were detected at each Santa Ana River site, although one specific compound or group of compounds could not be singled out as a causative factor. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was strongly negatively correlated with testosterone in male mosquitofish. One group of potent environmental estrogens that likely contributed to endocrine and reproductive impairment are the natural and synthetic estrogen hormones, especially ethinyl estradiol; however, this compound was not targeted in these investigations. The multiple lines of evidence for impaired reproductive and endocrine function in western mosquitofish due to OWCs and EDCs from the Santa Ana River can be used to identify potential problems for the Santa Ana sucker inhabiting the same and nearby sites.

  16. WASTEWATER DENITRIFICATION USING DENITRIFICATION BEDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Heeney; Louis Schip; Nicola Church

    With the increasing requirement for the removal of total nitrogen fro m wastewater discharges, especially within sensitive Lake catchments, GNS Science, Landcare Research and Taupo District Council set out to evaluate a new innovative, technology for w astewater denitrification. The results of 3 years of full scale denitrification trials using a nitrified effluent from one of the Taupo SBR plants

  17. [Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed. PMID:21717746

  18. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt; Daniel D. Snow; Teyona Damon; Johnette Shockley; Kyle Hoagland

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a

  19. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. PMID:25300545

  20. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  1. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  2. Full-scale blending treatment of fresh MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Long; Xie, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lanhua; Wang, Ziwen; Wu, Wenhua; Zhao, Fuyi; Xie, Xiaoming; Huang, Shiqing; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Shaohua

    2014-11-01

    Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 2 g/L and CaO 25 g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3 months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60 mg/L), BOD5 (<20 mg/L), ammonium (<8 mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5 mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters. PMID:25052339

  3. Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast and the influence of land use, storm water discharge, and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Dodder, Nathan G; Maruya, Keith A; Lee Ferguson, P; Grace, Richard; Klosterhaus, Susan; La Guardia, Mark J; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Ramirez, Juan

    2014-04-30

    Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50 ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification. PMID:23849955

  4. Wastewater Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wastewater Management: EPA's page from the Office of Wastewater Management (OWM) contains many articles focusing on control of water that is collected in discrete conveyances (also called point sources), including pipes, ditches, and sanitary or storm sewers while adhereing to the Clean Water Act.

  5. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - discharge

  7. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis, or swelling of the pancreas You may have ...

  8. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, O; Gaber, A; Abdel-Raouf, N

    1995-08-01

    The performance of microalgae aquaculture wastewater treatment system predominated mainly by Scenedesmus and Chlorella was assessed. Treatment induced a progressive reduction in both COD and BOD to values below the discharge limits. Different patterns were obtained for removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, and ammonia; however, the algal culture efficiencies reached 100% in their removal by the end of the treatment period. The applied aquatic systems demonstrated percentage reduction of heavy metals in the range between 52.3 and 100% in the batch system and 64.2 and 100% in the continuous system. Wastewater supported algal growth by inducing the incorporation of a significantly higher content of the individual amino acids Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, and Tyr, and a markedly higher level of Pro. However, His, Lys, and Arg were markedly reduced compared to their levels in synthetic-medium-grown algae. PMID:7498057

  9. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  10. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the bay, in the Pacific Ocean, or on land. Also, wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse concepts seem to be growing in favor with the public and should become and important part of future wastewater-management plans. Because most wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse systems would involve the use of land (that is agricultural irrigation, ground-water recharge, recreational reservoirs) local and regional lang-use planners can ass much to wastewater-management planning by identifying local and subregional waterwater-reclamation and water-reuse possibilities within their jurisdictions and integrating them with future land-use plans. The timely participation of planner is essential because Federal and State planning and funding deadlines for a regional wastewater-management system become effective in July 1973 and 1974, respectively.

  11. Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical

  12. Gallstones - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic cholecystitis - discharge; Dysfunctional gallbladder - discharge; Choledocholithiasis - discharge; Cholelithiasis - discharge ... You have gallstones, hard, pebble-like deposits that formed ... gallbladder. You may have had an infection in your gallbladder. ...

  13. Optimize wastewater operations

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, C.L.; Watson, L.A. [CDI Engineering Group, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A commonly used process--activated sludge treatment (AST) removes soluble organics from process wastewater. Many existing AST units must handle higher waste loads resulting from plant capacity expansion. Also, tighter permit discharge limits have lowered allowable final effluent concentration. More than ever, operators must find cost-effective options to squeeze better performance from existing treatment processes. By implementing an improved monitoring program and trending plant historical data, operators can formulate AST operating parameters and still remain in compliance. Using AST trend data, operators can predict potential problems and take evasive action. The enclosed guidelines show how to fine-tune AST daily operations.

  14. Reusing Wastewater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KET

    2011-01-11

    This video demonstrates how peat filtration beds at Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky purify and conserve wastewater and eliminate one cause of non-point-source water pollution.

  15. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.H.F.; Liptak, B.G. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    An exhaustive compilation, ``Wastewater Treatment'' covers subjects that run the gamut from wastewater sources, characteristics, and monitoring to chemical treatments and nutrient removal. The wealth of easy-to-use tables and illustrations provides quick and clear references, making it indispensable. Schematic drawings of equipment and devices explain the technology and techniques. With the level of detail included, one can count on finding both introductory material and very technical answers to complex questions.

  17. Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits. PMID:20022351

  18. Challenge of psychrophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gatze Lettinga; Salih Rebac; Grietje Zeeman

    2001-01-01

    Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment is an attractive option for wastewaters that are discharged at moderate to low temperature. The expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor has been shown to be a feasible system for anaerobic treatment of mainly soluble and pre-acidified wastewater at temperatures of 5–10°C. An organic loading rate (OLR) of 10–12 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic meter

  19. Treatment of heavy oil wastewater by UASB-BAFs using the combination of yeast and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-09-01

    A novel system integrating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a two-stage biological aerated filter (BAF) system was investigated as advanced treatment of heavy oil wastewater with large amounts of dissolved recalcitrant organic substances and low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. #1 BAF, inoculated with two yeast strains (Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula dairenensis), was installed in the upper reaches of #2 BAF inoculated with activated sludge. During the 180-day study period, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the wastewater were removed by 90.2%, 90.8%, 86.5% and 89.4%, respectively. Although the wastewater qualities fluctuated and the hydraulic retention time continuously decreased, the effluent quality index met the national discharge standard steadily. The UASB process greatly improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while #1 BAF played an important role not only in degrading COD but also in removing oil and high molecular weight PAHs. This work demonstrates that the hybrid UASB-BAFs system containing yeast-bacteria consortium has the potential to be used in bioremediation of high-strength oily wastewater. PMID:25783230

  20. Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.R. [Motorola SCG, McDowell, MD (United States). Environmental, Safety, and Industrial Hygiene Dept.; Ploeser, J.H. [Phoenix Water Services Dept., AZ (United States). Water Conservation Office

    1999-08-01

    Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

  1. The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Rosso; Michael K. Stenstrom

    2008-01-01

    The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO2 and CH4 without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO2 and CH4 emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91×105tCO2d-1 in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the

  2. ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

  3. Sources of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in urban wastewater, Oakland, CA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Jackson; Rebecca Sutton

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been found in surface waters throughout the United States, and are known to enter waterways via discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Studies addressing EDCs in wastewater do not examine their specific sources upstream of WWTPs. Presented here are results of a pilot study of potential sources of selected EDCs within an urban wastewater service

  4. Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania Nathaniel R. In Pennsylvania, oil and gas wastewater is sometimes treated at brine treatment facilities and discharged to local bioaccumulation in localized areas of shale gas wastewater disposal. INTRODUCTION The safe disposal of large

  5. Performance of a mixing entropy battery alternately flushed with wastewater effluent and

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    Performance of a mixing entropy battery alternately flushed with wastewater effluent and seawater. Coastal wastewater treatment plants discharge a continuous stream of low salinity effluent to the ocean cell, the net energy recovery was 0.11 kW h per m3 of wastewater effluent. When twelve cells were

  6. Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Wastewater: Constituents, Effects, and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Shon; S. Vigneswaran; S. A. Snyder

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater reuse is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for conservation of limited resources of freshwater and as a mean of safeguarding the aquatic environment due to contaminants present in wastewater. Although secondary and tertiary treated wastewater is often discharged into surface waters, it cannot be reused without further treatment. One of the parameters of concern for human and environmental

  7. Treatment of hypersaline wastewater by a combined neutralization–precipitation with ABR-SBR technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Lu; Yanfei Ma; Yurong Liu; Menghong Li

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic salts prohibit seriously the biological treatment of the wastewater discharged from the production of long-chained dicarboxylic acids from liquid paraffin by microbial fermentation. First, the inorganic salts in wastewater were removed partly by means of neutralization–precipitation. Second, the neutralized wastewater was treated in an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The digested sludge from the

  8. Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa F. Hashad; Surabhi Sharma; Loring F. Nies; James E. Alleman

    2006-01-01

    This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen

  9. An overview of various technologies for the treatment of dairy wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai Prakash Kushwaha; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Indra Deo Mall

    2011-01-01

    Dairy industries have shown tremendous growth in size and number inmost countries of the world. These industries discharge wastewater which is characterized by high chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, nutrients, and organic and inorganic contents. Such wastewaters, if discharged without proper treatment, severely pollute receiving water bodies. In this article, the various recent advancements in the treatment of dairy

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

  11. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

  12. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

  14. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

  15. Wastewater Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water-technology.net web site for the water industry contains links to many sites for detailed information on industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants as well as water supply and transmission. Also find information on current news releases, expos, conferences and much more.

  16. Biological treatment of full-strength coke plant wastewater at Geneva Steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaw

    1993-01-01

    Removal of ammonia from wastewater is fast becoming a major issue for both industrial and municipal dischargers. Geneva Steel, spurred by changes in both air and water regulations, recently installed an innovative biological wastewater treatment plant for high-strength coke plant wastewater. Wastewater containing ammonia concentrations over 3,000 ppm, chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 8,000 ppm and high cyanide, thiocyanate, phenol

  17. Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

    2011-06-01

    National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

  18. DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    1 DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT: A GUIDEBOOK FOR GEORGIA COMMUNITIES Katie Sheehan wastewater treatment technologies. www.njunsystems.com Version 1.0, April 2013 #12; 2 DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT: A GUIDEBOOK FOR GEORGIA COMMUNITIES PART ONE: BACKGROUND, ISSUES, AND PROGRAM

  19. Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

  20. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  1. [Study on Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation of biologically treated coking wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chen-Yan; He, Miao; Zhang, Peng-Yi; Huang, Xia; Zhao, Wen-Tao

    2006-11-01

    The method of Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation for biologically treated coking wastewater was conducted. Based on both of the removal performance and the operating costs, optimal reaction condition was proposed. Operating at H2O2 concentration 220 mg/L, Fe2+ concentration 180 mg/L, PAM concentration 4.5 mg/L, reaction time 0.5h and pH = 7, about 44.5% of COD was removed and chroma reached 35. In addition, through analyzing of the changes of molecular weight distribution and constitute of organic compounds in effluent, the pollutant transformation rule was put forward. The result shows that the effluent treated by Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation can reach the wastewater secondary discharge standard, and the operation costs are acceptable. This implies that the technique of Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation has promising in practice. PMID:17326426

  2. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  3. Characterization of biological iron sulfide composites and its application in the treatment of cadmium-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Xie, Yifei; Li, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    A strain of sulfate reducing bacteria, which could generate biological iron sulfide composites, was applied for Cd (II) removal from wastewater. The influence of biological iron sulfide composites dosage, initial pH and temperature on the rate of Cd (II) removal from wastewater by biological iron sulfide composites were investigated. The microscopic morphological characteristics and elemental composition changes of the biological iron sulfide before and after treatment was compared, using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry, then the mechanism of Cd (II) removal was explored. The results showed that Cd (II) reduction rate increased with increase in dosage of biological iron sulfide composites and initial temperature. At 25 degrees C, pH 4.0, with dosage of sulfide and cadmium ions molar equal to 99.93% Cd (II) was removed from cadmium wastewater (100 mg l(-1)), and the residual concentration of cadmium reached Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). The present study revealed that bio- precipitation of FeS, the main component of biological iron sulfide composites, played leading role in the process of Cd (II) reduction. Therefore, it is prospective to apply biological iron sulfide composites in the emergency treatment of cadmium-contaminated wastewater. PMID:25895261

  4. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in savings that could be repurposed for meeting other needs.

  5. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  6. Effects of Wastewater on Forested Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  7. Decolorization of Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver J. Hao; Hyunook Kim; Pen-Chi Chiang

    2000-01-01

    The public demand for color-free waste discharge to receiving waters and tougher color standards have made decolorization of a variety of industrial wastes a top priority. Unfortunately, with the complicated color-causing compounds, the decolorization of these wastes is a difficult and challenging task. This article first describes the background information of dye molecules and dye waste characteristics. The methods for

  8. Capping air emissions from wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Durme

    1993-01-01

    Industrial and municipal wastewater plants alike are confronting new regulations governing air emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). The 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) gave the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) power to set national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and establish deadlines for compliance. Although the ACC reduced many pollutant emissions, 20 years later,

  9. Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinyao; Li, Ruixia; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-02-15

    The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388 mg/L) and TP (3.16 mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis. PMID:24374566

  10. A review on characterization and bioremediation of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater: an Indian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Rajender Singh; Singh, Prashant; Kandari, Vikash; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    During the past few decades, pharmaceutical industries have registered a quantum jump contributing to high economic growth, but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Untreated or allegedly treated pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIWW) creates a need for time to time assessment and characterization of discharged wastewater as per the standards provided by the regulatory authorities. To control environmental pollution, pharmaceutical industries use different treatment plans to treat and reuse wastewater. The characterization of PIWW using advanced and coupled techniques has progressed to a much advanced level, but in view of new developments in drug manufacture for emerging diseases and the complexities associated with them, better sophisticated instrumentation and methods of treatment are warranted. The bioremediation process to treat PIWW has undergone more intense investigation in recent decade. This results in the complete mineralization of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater and no waste product is obtained. Moreover, high efficiency and low operation cost prove it to be an effective tool for the treatment of PIWW. The present review focuses on the characterization as well as bioremediation aspects of PIWW.

  11. Electrocoagulation technique in enhancing COD and suspended solids removal to improve wastewater quality.

    PubMed

    Ni'am, M F; Othman, F; Sohaili, J; Fauzia, Z

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study for the removal of COD and suspended solids in wastewater treatment by combining magnetic field and electrocoagulation (EC) technology. The experiments were carried out using batch apparatus and setup in the static method. Batch experiments with two monopolar iron (Fe) plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Wastewater samples were prepared from milk powder with an initial COD of 1,140 mgL(-1) and suspended solids of 1,400 mgL(-1) and acidic conditions were employed (pH approximately 3). DC current was varied from 0.5-0.8 A and operating times were between 30 and 50 min. The results show that the effluent wastewater was very clear (turbidity approximately 9 NTU) and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. The suspended solids and COD removal efficiencies were as high as 30.6 and 75.5%, respectively. In addition, the experimental results also show that the electrocoagulation could neutralise the pH of wastewater. PMID:17951867

  12. Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-09-30

    Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales. PMID:23764477

  13. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Lai, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology to treatment of bio-refractory wastewater. Coking wastewater contains high concentration of refractory and toxic compounds and the water quality usually cannot meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment processes. This paper initially investigated the electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. Under the experimental conditions (current density 20-60mAcm(-2), pH 3-11, and temperature 20-60 degrees C) using BDD anode, complete mineralization of organic pollutants was almost achieved, and surplus ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) was further removed thoroughly when pH was not adjusted or at alkaline value. Moreover, the TOC and NH(3)-N removal rates in BDD anode cell were much greater than those in other common anode systems such as SnO(2) and PbO(2) anodes cells. Given the same target to meet the National Discharge Standard of China, the energy consumption of 64kWhkgCOD(-1) observed in BDD anode system was only about 60% as much as those observed in SnO(2) and PbO(2) anode systems. Further investigation revealed that, in BDD anode cell, organic pollutants were mainly degraded by reaction with free hydroxyl radicals and electrogenerated oxidants (S(2)O(8)(2-), H(2)O(2), and other oxidants) played a less important role, while direct electrochemical oxidation and indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by active chlorine can be negligible. These results showed great potential of BDD anode system in engineering application as a final treatment of coking wastewater. PMID:19595422

  14. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ?PAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

  15. Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200?ng/L to 500?ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. PMID:23893650

  16. Nipple discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nipple Comes out on its own without you squeezing or touching your nipple Nipple discharge is more ... can look milky, clear, yellow, green, or brown. Squeezing your nipple to check for discharge can make ...

  17. A chemically enhanced biological process for lowering operative costs and solid residues of industrial recalcitrant wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Di Iaconi; Guido Del Moro; Marco De Sanctis; Simona Rossetti

    2010-01-01

    An innovative process based on ozone-enhanced biological degradation, carried out in an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR – Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor), was tested at pilot scale for tannery wastewater treatment chosen as representative of industrial recalcitrant wastewater. The results have shown that the process was able to meet the current discharge limits when the biologically treated wastewater was

  18. Influence of residual organic macromolecules produced in biological wastewater treatment processes on removal of pharmaceuticals by NF\\/RO membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuki Kimura; Tomonori Iwase; Shusuke Kita; Yoshimasa Watanabe

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given to pollution of the water environment by pharmaceutical compounds discharged from wastewater treatment plants. High-pressure driven membranes such as a nanofiltration (NF) membrane and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane are considered to be effective for control of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment. In practical applications of NF\\/RO membranes to municipal wastewater treatment, feed water for the

  19. Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) for removal of carbon and nutrients from municipal wastewater treatment plants: a case study of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting; Keller, Arturo A; Xu, Ran

    2009-01-01

    With Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) as the short-term process, the capacity of Bailonggang Wastewater Treatment Plant accounts for almost 25% of the total capacity of wastewater treatment in Shanghai, China. However, shortly after this plant was placed in operation in 2004, it was found that the effluent of CEPT couldn't meet the new national discharge criteria. Although the removal of phosphate is almost 80%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the effluent is frequently found to exceed the standards. The primary goal of this research is to investigate the possibility of optimizing the CEPT to make it meet the discharge criteria before it is upgraded to a secondary treatment. An oxidant is adopted to remove NH3-N, and a high performance polyaluminum chloride (HP-PACl) is synthesized to enhance the removal of COD. It is found that HP-PACl improves the removal of COD, and the oxidant enhances NH3-N removal effectively. However, to meet the requirement of a newly implemented stricter discharge standard, it is necessary to upgrade this CEPT to a secondary treatment. The results of this study provide scientific evidence for the upgrade of the Bailonggang Wastewater Treatment Plant. PMID:19809143

  20. WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann

    E-print Network

    MODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration., and Nielsen, M. K. (1999). Grey box modelling of first flush and incoming wastewater at a wastewater treatment

  1. GE, we bring good things to hor ellipsis. [Compliance with industrial pretreatment standards

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.R. (Camp Dresser and McKee, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Gates, R.W. (General Electric Plastics Technology Div., Pittsfield, MA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The General Electric, Plastic Technology Division's research and development facility in Pittsfield, Mass., generates an industrial process wastewater that was formerly discharged to the local publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) with no treatment other than equalization and pH adjustment. The plant's wastewater contains three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), suspended solids, and high levels of oil and grease, among other wastes, which are generated in a series by pilot-scale plastic manufacturing facilities with wide variations in flow and concentrations. These discharges require rigorous treatment before being disposed to the local sewer to comply with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1987 categorical standards (40 CFR, Parts 403 and 414) that govern industrial wastewater discharged from the organic chemical, plastics, and synthetic fibers (OCPSF) industries. Treatment processes capable of achieving these regulated objectives routinely, reliably, and cost-effectively were evaluated in a pilot-scale treatability study. Special consideration was given to the impact of oil and grease on conventional treatment processes. The results proved air stripping as the best means of removing VOCs and the effectiveness of a unique phase separation and removal evaluation program.

  2. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input–output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20?000 m3 (with a range from 6700 to 33?000 m3) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300–3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900–23?000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0–370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800–71?000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59?000–270?000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

  3. 96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100%). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90% of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45%. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days. PMID:25339528

  4. Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

    2009-01-01

    Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

  5. Algal-based, single-step treatment of urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Henkanatte-Gedera, S M; Selvaratnam, T; Caskan, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Van Voorhies, W; Lammers, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    Currently, urban wastewaters (UWW) laden with organic carbon (BOD) and nutrients (ammoniacal nitrogen, N, and phosphates, P) are treated in multi-stage, energy-intensive process trains to meet the mandated discharge standards. This study presents a single-step process based on mixotrophic metabolism for simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients from UWWs. The proposed system is designed specifically for hot, arid environments utilizing an acidophilic, thermotolerant algal species, Galdieria sulphuraria, and an enclosed photobioreactor to limit evaporation. Removal rates of BOD, N, and P recorded in this study (14.93, 7.23, and 1.38mgL(-1)d(-1), respectively) are comparable to literature reports. These results confirm that the mixotrophic system can reduce the energy costs associated with oxygen supply in current UWW treatment systems, and has the potential to generate more energy-rich biomass for net energy extraction from UWW. PMID:25898089

  6. Simplified Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is for wastewater treatment plant operators who find it difficult to follow the detailed discussions and procedures found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." It is intended to be used with "Standard Methods" available for reference. Included in this publication are chapters on laboratory procedures,…

  7. Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  8. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.137 Process wastewater provisions—oil-water...

  9. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

  10. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

  11. Standardizing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

  12. Numerical modeling of ozone production in direct current corona discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yanallah; S. Hadj Ziane; A. Belasri; Y. Meslem

    2006-01-01

    Ozone has many industrial uses, including treatment of municipal water, wastewater, cooling towers, industrial process water, effluent water treatment, food processing, through to water fit for consumption and marine life. In this paper, we study the ozone production by negative electric corona discharge, witch involves passing the feed of gas, air rich, through an electrical discharge. This is done by

  13. Reuse rate of treated wastewater in water reuse system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yao-bo; Yang, Wen-bo; Li, Gang; Wu, Lin-lin; Wei, Yuan-song

    2005-01-01

    A water quality model for water reuse was made by mathematics induction. The relationship among the reuse rate of treated wastewater (R), pollutant concentration of reused water (Cs), pollutant concentration of influent (C0), removal efficiency of pollutant in wastewater (E), and the standard of reuse water were discussed in this study. According to the experiment result of a toilet wastewater treatment and reuse with membrane bioreactors, R would be set at less than 40%, on which all the concemed parameters could meet with the reuse water standards. To raise R of reuse water in the toilet, an important way was to improve color removal of the wastewater. PMID:16313015

  14. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards...gallons per minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall, in addition to the requirements...liters per second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater which was equipped and operated...

  15. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards...gallons per minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall, in addition to the requirements...liters per second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater which was equipped and operated...

  16. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards...gallons per minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall, in addition to the requirements...liters per second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater which was equipped and operated...

  17. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  18. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  19. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  20. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  1. Wastewater Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bianca Pedersen

    Before this activity the students will have heard about groundwater and water resources through lecture to give them a background on where our drinking water comes from. The activity involves a tour of the local wastewater treatment plant where the students told about the treatment processes and shown the treatment facility. They are also introduced to the water quality testing done at the plans and they learn about the energy usage/management at the plant. As part of the activity they write up a paper on the processes in the treatment process from the time water enters the plant until it exits. The students are encouraged before hand to ask questions to ensure that they gather the needed information. This always means that each tour has a slightly different content based on these questions.

  2. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of removing amalgam from dental wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vandeven, Jay A; McGinnis, Steve L

    2004-07-01

    Mercury in the form of amalgam is commonly introduced into dental wastewater as a result of amalgam placements and removals. Dental wastewater is primarily discharged to municipal sewers that convey industrial and residential wastewater to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) for treatment prior to discharge to surface waters. In some localities, the sewage sludge generated by POTWs from the treatment of wastewater is incinerated, resulting in the emission of mercury to the atmosphere. Some of the mercury emitted from the incinerators is deposited locally or regionally and will enter surface waters. An assessment was conducted of the use of mercury in amalgam in California and the discharge of that mercury from dental facilities to surface waters via the effluent from POTWs and air emissions from sewage sludge incinerators (SSIs). The annual use of mercury in amalgam placements conducted in California was estimated to be approximately 2.5 tons. The annual discharge of mercury in the form of amalgam from dental facilities to POTWs as a result of amalgam placements and removals was estimated as approximately one ton. The discharge of mercury to surface waters in California via POTW effluents and SSI emissions was estimated to total approximately 163 pounds. A cost-effectiveness analysis determined that the annual cost to the California dental industry to reduce mercury discharges to surface waters through the use of amalgam separators would range from 130,000 dollars to 280,000 dollars per pound. PMID:15468537

  4. Conductance based sensing and analysis of soluble phosphates in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Christopher; Guerreiro, Antonio; Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Wood, Elizabeth; Kitson, James; Robinson, James; Soares, Ana

    2014-02-15

    The current standard method used for measuring soluble phosphate in environmental water samples is based on a colourimetric approach, developed in the early 1960s. In order to provide an alternative, label free sensing solution, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was designed to function as a phosphate receptor. A combination of functional monomer (N-allylthiourea), cross-linker and monomer/template ratios were optimised in order to maximise the binding capacity for phosphate. When produced in membrane format, the MIP's ability to produce a reversible change in conductance in the presence of phosphate was explored for fabrication of a sensor which was able to selectively detect the presence of phosphate compared to sulphate, nitrate and chloride. In wastewater samples the sensor had a limit of detection of 0.16 mg P/l, and a linear range between 0.66 and 8 mg P/l. This is below the minimum monitoring level (1 mg P/l) as required by current legislation for wastewater discharges, making the sensor as developed promising for direct quantification of phosphate in environmental monitoring applications. PMID:24051435

  5. Air Stripping of High Concentration Ammonia Wastewater in Fertilizer Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-m. Li; Y.-p. Du; Z.-y. Dong; X.-l. Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Investigation on ammonia wastewater of high concentration removal in a certain fertilizer plant with air stripping show that with appropriate temperature, pH and steam quantity and pressure, when concentration of NH\\/-N in inlet is about 1300 mg\\/L, removal efficiency can reach to 96% or above. Wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge demand. Ammonia with reclaiming treatment will not cause

  6. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China. PMID:24650528

  7. 32 CFR 70.8 - Discharge review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge review procedures. 70.8 Section 70.8...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.8 Discharge review procedures. (a) Application for...

  8. 32 CFR 70.8 - Discharge review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge review procedures. 70.8 Section 70.8...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.8 Discharge review procedures. (a) Application for...

  9. 32 CFR 70.8 - Discharge review procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge review procedures. 70.8 Section 70.8...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.8 Discharge review procedures. (a) Application for...

  10. Throbbing discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. EMELEUS; J. R. M. COULTER

    1985-01-01

    The extinction of throbbing cold cathode discharges with the anode near to either end of a negative-glow, Faraday dark space plasma, and of similar Townsend discharges, might be due to polarization, negative ions, heating of the gas, negative self-inductance of the cathode fall space, or to a combination of several factors. The frequencies of acoustic and ionic oscillations of the

  11. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  12. Liquid Assets: Wastewater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-11-20

    This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

  13. Wastewater cleanup: Put activated-sludge treatment to work

    SciTech Connect

    Scroggins, D. [Pollution Control, Inc., Florence, KY (United States); Deiters, S. [Diffused Gas Technologies, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Strict wastewater treatment and discharge limits continue to challenge wastewater treatment systems. For industrial wastewater, the selected system must not only meet regulatory requirements, but must also be flexible enough to handle the variations in volume, flowrate and pollutant load that typify industrial effluent streams. At existing industrial sites, the selection of a wastewater treatment system is also impacted by constraints, such as limited space or the desire to minimize downtime or process interruptions. Meanwhile, for municipalities, wastewater treatment requirements are often made or complicated by the need to add a disinfection step to destroy waterborne pathogens in the discharge stream. Biological treatment processes, based on the use of activated sludge, have long been used to degrade organic contaminants in municipal and industrial wastewater. For years, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been used to treat wastewater using activated sludge. However, in recent years, the variable depth reactor (VDR) has emerged as an alternative system, by addressing some of the shortcomings of the SBR.

  14. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  15. Analysis of constraints and potentials for wastewater management in the coastal city of Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lasut, Markus T; Jensen, Kathe R; Shivakoti, Ganesh

    2008-09-01

    Manado is the largest and most densely populated coastal city in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The city is facing problems of wastewater discharged from various sources. These problems are driven by high population pressure, increasing economic activity, and low household income, in combination with inadequate organizational structure of government institutions for addressing the wastewater problems as well as for law enforcement. There have been no community initiatives to prevent or mitigate wastewater problems. Therefore, a wastewater management plan is urgently needed to prevent and mitigate pollution caused by discharged wastewater. In this paper we analyze the current situation with respect to environmental state, sources and treatment of wastewater, socio-economic and institutional capacities as well as community awareness. Constraints and potentials are discussed to give recommendations for an integrated wastewater management plan for the city of Manado. PMID:17825473

  16. Energy in wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to examine the role of energy in wastewater treatment and to consolidate the information into a single document to provide a framework for future investigations in this area. Part I identifies the key factors that influence energy consumption in wastewater treatment and characterizes the relationship of energy use in wastewater processing to consumption in

  17. WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann

    E-print Network

    MODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM., and Poulsen, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant, N. K., and Nielsen, M. K. (1999). Grey box modelling of first flush and incoming wastewater

  18. Coal cinder filtration as pretreatment with biological processes to treat pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Hao, Zhi-ming; Wang, Dong-bo; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at coupling coal cinder filter with biological process to improve pharmaceutical wastewater quality and reduce the disposal cost. In the coal cinder filter, the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD(5), SS and color were 90+/-2%, 72+/-2%, 95+/-2% and 80+/-2%, respectively. The results attribute to the big specific surface area and strong adsorption ability. Coal cinder filter removes a large portion of the pollutants in the influent wastewater, which would strongly stable the effluent waste water quality, and reduce the load of follow-up biological treatment process. The average removal efficiencies for COD, BOD(5), SS and color of the combined process were about 99.7+/-3%, 98.2+/-4%, 98.5+/-3% and 96.3+/-2%, respectively, with the average effluent quality of COD 16+/-1 mg/L, BOD(5) 11+/-1 mg/L, SS 10+/-0.6 mg/L and color 22+/-1 (multiple), which are consistent with the national requirements of the waste pollutants for pharmaceutical industry of chinese traditional medicine discharge standard (GB 21906-2008). The results indicated that the combined procedure could offer an attractive solution for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment with considerable low cost. PMID:20595748

  19. Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Contreras López, M Concepción

    2003-03-01

    Organic chlorine compounds can be persistent environmental contaminants and may be accumulated through the food chain to the aquatic organisms, to fish and humans, depending basically on their hydrophobic properties. Consequently, there is an interest to measure these organic compounds from both the scientific and regulatory communities. The analytical essays have been improved for measuring specific organic chlorine compounds that present the most toxicological potential (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], certain pesticides and dioxins), although they are tedious and time-consuming procedures. The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter. The intention of this paper is to make a review of the existing methods to measure the potentially bioaccumulating organochlorine compounds (OCs) from wastewater and propose a methodology to a standardisation procedure for complex mixtures of OCs in wastewater, such as pulp mill effluents. A new method has been proposed for determining the most hydrophobic part of the extractable organic halogens (EOX(fob)), the lowest reported value is 0.6 microg/l, expressed as chloride, and the relative standard deviation at 20 microg/l is 7% on laboratory samples and 30% on real effluents. This new procedure could be a valuable tool to complement environmental risk assessment studies of wastewater discharges. PMID:12605924

  20. Enantioselective determination of representative profens in wastewater by a single-step sample treatment and chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Caballo, C; Sicilia, M D; Rubio, S

    2015-03-01

    This manuscript describes, for the first time, the simultaneous enantioselective determination of ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen in wastewater based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method uses a single-step sample treatment based on microextraction with a supramolecular solvent made up of hexagonal inverted aggregates of decanoic acid, formed in situ in the wastewater sample through a spontaneous self-assembly process. Microextraction of profens was optimized and the analytical method validated. Isotopically labeled internal standards were used to compensate for both matrix interferences and recoveries. Apparent recoveries for the six enantiomers in influent and effluent wastewater samples were in the interval 97-103%. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were obtained (0.5-1.2 ng L(-1)) as a result of the high concentration factors achieved in the microextraction process (i.e. actual concentration factors 469-736). No analyte derivatization or evaporation of extracts, as it is required with GC-MS, was necessary. Relative standard deviations for enantiomers in wastewater were always below 8%. The method was applied to the determination of the concentrations and enantiomeric fractions of the targeted analytes in influents and effluents from three wastewater treatment plants. All the values found for profen enantiomers were consistent with those previously reported and confirmed again the suitability of using the enantiomeric fraction of ibuprofen as an indicator of the discharge of untreated or poorly treated wastewaters. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it applicable to the assessment of the enantiomeric fate of profens in the environment. PMID:25618675

  1. Cavitation: an auxiliary technique in wastewater treatment schemes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parag R Gogate

    2002-01-01

    New techniques are being added to wastewater treatment schemes for meeting the high standards of environmental regulations. The present work highlights the use of one such technique, cavitation, for wastewater treatment applications. Two types of cavitation phenomena depending on the type of generation have been discussed and the optimum operating and geometric parameters have been presented for maximum efficiency. Experimental

  2. Evaluation of wastewater treatment technologies for rural Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Shehata; H. Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Five wastewater treatment facilities, representing the implemented technologies appropriate for local Egyptian conditions, were selected for this study. They are standard stabilization ponds, modified aerated stabilization ponds, submerged fixed film reactor, oxidation ditch and extended aeration package (SOAF) plants. Obtained data indicated that the five technologies under investigation, if probably designed and operated, could yield wastewater effluent satisfying the regularity

  3. Removal of benzene from industrial wastewater by vapor stripping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Four types of vapor stripping processes are designed in an effort to investigate methods to treat industrial wastewater in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's recently promulgated Benzene National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. Each vapor stripping technology involves a unit operation producing a benzene?enriched vapor stream and a wastewater stream containing less than 10 ppmw benzene,

  4. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

  5. Wastewater Treatment Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Professor Darin Taylor

    2005-11-15

    Every time you take a bath, wash your clothes, flush the toilet, or run water down the kitchen or bathroom sinks you are creating wastewater. The average household generates between 60-75 gallons of wastewater each day. So where does that wastewater go? By working through this instructional unit, you will be able to better answer this question. Please read through the information provided below to learn more about wastewater and how it is treated. After you have completed the unit, you will need to complete the Wastewater Treatment worksheet that will be handed out to you in class by Professor Taylor. If you live in a small rural community you are most likely to have a septic tank system to treat your wastewater. This type of system treats your wastewater on your own property near your home. To learn more about septic tank sytems see the following link provided. Sewer and Septic Tanks If ...

  6. Feasibility analysis of in-plant control for water minimization and wastewater reuse in a wool finishing textile mill.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Argun O; Orhon, H Ferit; Dulkadiroglu, Hakan; Dogruel, Serdar; Eremektar, Gulen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos; Orhon, Derin

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of water minimization and wastewater reuse for a wool finishing textile mill. The evaluation process is based upon a detailed analysis on water use, process profile and wastewater characterization, indicating a potential for 34% reduction in water consumption and for 23% of wastewater recovery for reuse. Wastewater reuse requires treatment and results in a remaining wastewater stream with stronger character and consequently more costly to treat. The feasibility includes technical considerations for appropriate treatment alternatives and related cost factors for water consumption, treatment for reuse and for discharge either to sewer or to receiving media. PMID:15242129

  7. Water-quality assessment and wastewater-management alternatives for Dardenne Creek in St Charles County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, W.R.; Lodderhose, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of water in the 15 mile downstream reach of Dardenne Creek in St. Charles County, Missouri, was assessed to determine if it met the Missouri water quality standards. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and total ammonia failed to meet water quality standards downstream from the Harvester-Dardenne and St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plants. The QUAL-II SEMCOG water quality model was calibrated and verified using two independent data sets from Dardenne Creek. Management alternatives using current, design capacity, and future expansion wastewater discharges from the St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plant were evaluated. Results of the computer simulation indicate that a nitrification-type advanced-treatment facility installed at the plant would produce a 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand of 10 mg/L. An effluent limit of 5.0 mg/L of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand would further improve the water quality of Dardenne Creek; however, an additional treatment process, such as sand filtration, would be needed to meet this criterion. (USGS)

  8. Verification of water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater during ice-cover conditions to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) Model, which used the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E) computer program, was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. The purpose of this study was to verify the model for ice-cover conditions using the same Red River of the North study reach that was used for ice-free conditions. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile downstream of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo, North Dakota, and extends 30.8 miles downstream to a site 0.8 mile upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo River and the Red River of the North. The study reach receives treated wastewater outflow from municipal wastewater-treatment plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and inflow from the Sheyenne River. For simulations conducted for ice-cover conditions, the RRatFGO QW Model will be referred to as the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality (RRatFGOIC QW) Model. Streamflow measurements were made at 10 sites during February 21-24, 1995, and water-quality samples were collected and field properties were measured at 12 sites during February 23-24, 1995. Properties and constituents analyzed for include specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total phosphorus (reported as phosphorus), chlorophyll a, and algal biomass. The RRatFGOIC QW Model simulated streamflow, specific conductance, total organic nitrogen, total ammonia, total nitrite, total nitrite plus nitrate, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The model was considered verified for ice-cover conditions for all of the values or concentrations simulated except for the total organic nitrogen concentrations. Based on the results of this study, the QUAL2E Model computer program that was calibrated for ice-free conditions is capable of simulating water quality for both ice-free and ice-cover conditions.

  9. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  10. RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION

    E-print Network

    #12;RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN VOLUME II Ont. June 1993 Amended April 1994 #12;GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION PREFACE Ltd., Calgary, Alberta. #12;GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Fraser

  11. ASSESSING MERCURY LEVELS IN THE WASTEWATER OF AN AGING RESEARCH LABORATORY BUILDING

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Gregory A.; Gregory Alvord, W.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly stringent restrictions on mercury concentrations in wastewater discharge may be problematic for aging research laboratory facilities. Relatively high levels of mercury compounds may exist and concentrate deep in the plumbing system and their sediments, resulting in elevated wastewater concentrations. This study was conducted to assess total mercury levels in an aging laboratory building wastewater system. Wastewater outflow, sink trap water, and pipe sediment samples were collected from the building. The Jerome 431™ Mercury Vapor Analyzer was assessed as a tool for screening lab sink trap drains for mercury deposition. Results revealed that the three day average for mercury discharge from this single structure, if not diluted by other waters, would be above the local total release parameters to the wastewater treatment plant. The sink traps did not contain a majority of the mercury; however, the pipe sediment and outflow samples revealed consistently elevated concentrations. PMID:18438463

  12. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process...

  13. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process...

  14. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.135 Process...

  15. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source...

  16. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source...

  17. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process...

  18. TREATMENT OF PACKINGHOUSE WASTEWATER BY INTERMITTENT SAND FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full scale wastewater treatment system consisting of a novel extended aeration unit and intermittent sand filter was demonstrated. The treatment system was designed to meet the special needs of small plants and to meet future industrial discharge limitations. With a hydraulic l...

  19. WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

  20. FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF TEXTILE DYE WASTEWATER REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of technologies by which textile processing wastewaters could be recycled or reused, thereby reducing the amounts discharged. One of these technologies, dyebath reconstitution and reuse, was investigated in detail: it was found to be envi...

  1. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kärrman; H. Jönsson

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wastewater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to

  2. Modeling the performance of biodegradation of textile wastewater using polyurethane foam sponge cube as a supporting medium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale fixed-biofilm reactor (FBR) was established to treat textile wastewater to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional treatment processes that involve activated sludge and coagulation units. A kinetic model was developed to describe the biodegradation of textile wastewater by FBR. Batch kinetic tests were performed to evaluate the biokinetic parameters that are used in the model. FBR column test was fed with a mean COD of 692 mg/L of textile wastewater from flow equalization unit. The influent flow rate was maintained at 48.4 L/h for FBR column test. Experimental data and model-predicted data for substrate effluent concentration (as COD), concentration of suspended biomass in effluent and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) produced in the effluent agree closely with each other. Microscopic observations demonstrated that the biofilm exhibited a uniform distribution on the surface of polyurethane foam sponge. Under a steady-state condition, the effluent COD from FBR was about 14.7 mg COD/L (0.0213 S(b0)), meeting the discharge standard (COD < 100 mg/L) that has been set by the government of Taiwan for textile wastewater effluent. The amount of biofilm and suspended biomass reached a maximal value in the steady state when the substrate flux reached a constant value and remained maximal. Approximately 33% of the substrate concentration (as COD) was converted to CO(2) during biodegradation in the FBR test. The experimental and modeling schemes proposed in this study could be employed to design a full-scale FBR to treat textile wastewater. PMID:21123909

  3. 40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  4. 40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

  5. 40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  6. 40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  7. 40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  8. 40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

  9. 40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

  10. 40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  11. 40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

  12. 40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  13. 40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  14. 40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

  15. 40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  16. 40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

  17. 40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  18. 40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  19. 40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  20. 40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

  1. 40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

  2. 40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  3. 40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  4. 40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  5. 40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

  6. 40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  7. 40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

  8. 40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  9. 40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  10. 40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  11. 40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  12. 40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

  13. 40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  14. 40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  15. 40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

  16. 40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  17. 40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

  18. 40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

  19. 40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

  20. 40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

  1. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested. PMID:25151721

  2. Comparison of current signatures for brush discharges using different resistance values in the discharge probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Lars; Andersson, Birgitta; Smallwood, Jeremy; Holdstock, Paul; Paasi, Jaakko

    2011-06-01

    Incendiary brush discharges can occur when a large or grounded conductor approaches a charged insulator in the presence of flammable atmosphere. The probability of ignition of these discharges is essential to risk assessment in process industry. It is known that even if the total energy released in the discharge exceeds the minimum ignition energy (MIE), there may not be an ignition [1]. In a companion paper in this conference, we have reported simultaneous measurements of ignition and discharge current waveforms for brush discharges in an ethylene-air mixture in ignition tests based on an IEC standard test method [2]. In this paper we show that the resistance of the electrostatic discharge measurement system can have an effect on the peak discharge current signatures and charge transferred in the brush discharge from an insulating surface. The resistance of the discharge probe seems to affect the peak current value, but also to lesser extent the amount of charge transferred in the discharge.

  3. EFFECTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SEAWATER DILUTION IN REDUCING LETHAL TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TO SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW AND PINK SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of treatment and seawater dilution of municipal wastewater on marine organisms. n experimental facility was built in southeast Florida that provided both unchlorinated and chlorinated effluent from three standard treatments: primar...

  4. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities. PMID:25917777

  5. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  6. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... had surgery to repair a tendon in your elbow . The surgeon made a cut (incision) over the ...

  7. Simulation of the wastewater temperature in sewers with TEMPEST.

    PubMed

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

    2008-01-01

    TEMPEST is a new interactive simulation program for the estimation of the wastewater temperature in sewers. Intuitive graphical user interfaces assist the user in managing data, performing calculations and plotting results. The program calculates the dynamics and longitudinal spatial profiles of the wastewater temperature in sewer lines. Interactions between wastewater, sewer air and surrounding soil are modeled in TEMPEST by mass balance equations, rate expressions found in the literature and a new empirical model of the airflow in the sewer. TEMPEST was developed as a tool which can be applied in practice, i.e., it requires as few input data as possible. These data include the upstream wastewater discharge and temperature, geometric and hydraulic parameters of the sewer, material properties of the sewer pipe and surrounding soil, ambient conditions, and estimates of the capacity of openings for air exchange between sewer and environment. Based on a case study it is shown how TEMPEST can be applied to estimate the decrease of the downstream wastewater temperature caused by heat recovery from the sewer. Because the efficiency of nitrification strongly depends on the wastewater temperature, this application is of practical relevance for situations in which the sewer ends at a nitrifying wastewater treatment plant. PMID:18547935

  8. Is your wastewater toxic to the municipal treatment plant?

    SciTech Connect

    Havash, J.; Oster, J. [Lockwood Green Technologies Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    For many reasons, it is beneficial to know whether or not wastewater generated from a manufacturing process is toxic or can inhibit the microorganisms in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. One simple way to test the wastewater is by using a laboratory respirometer, which can evaluate both toxicity and treatability. In some cases, respirometer use may save an industry thousands or even millions of dollars by proving that certain chemicals previously perceived to be detrimental are actually treatable in the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Because these chemicals will not cause any harm, the cost of a pretreatment plant is avoided. Of course, the reverse could be true when a municipality suspects wastewater discharged from an industry is causing an upset condition to its activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. Because toxicity and treatability are both functions of the respiration rate of microbial cells, a method that measures the respiration rate of microbial cells also can be used to measure toxicity. This article discusses several situations in which a respirometer was used to measure the toxicity and treatability of wastewater suspected to have a toxic effect on the municipal activated sludge plant.

  9. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent. PMID:12793663

  10. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  11. Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate, contrast media, corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and metabolites of several substances. For analysis of micropollutants, water samples were spiked with internal standards before solid-phase-extraction (SPE) and the analysis was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/MS-MS). Quantification limits were in the range of 1-28 ng/l for river water and 200-650 ng/l for untreated wastewater. Once the concentrations and loads of micropollutants in the infiltrating waters are known and compared to those in the spring water, one might distinguish and quantify the portions of water infiltrating from the different sources in the catchment area.

  12. Discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Barkemeyer, Brian M

    2015-04-01

    Hospital discharge is a time of transition for infants and families that requires oversight of common postnatal adaptations, screening tests, and establishment of necessary follow-up care. Preterm infants face additional medical problems that vary in complexity by the degree of prematurity. Infants born at lowest gestational ages are at highest risks for complicated neonatal course and adverse long-term outcomes. Successful transition from hospital to home care is essential to improved outcomes for high-risk infants. PMID:25836713

  13. [Study on performance characteristics of carbon membrane-aerated biofilm reactor treating municipal wastewater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Jun; Yang, Feng-Lin; Hu, Shao-Wei; Liu, Qiang

    2007-03-01

    A carbon membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was developed to treat municipal wastewater. Tests were conducted to investigate oxygen transfer ability of carbon membrane, the bacteria adhesion and reactor's set-up performance. The optimum parameters were determined in terms of intra-membrane pressure, COD and nitrogen ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The results showed that compared with that of other hollow fibres, bacterial suspended exhibited a high degree of adhesion onto carbon membrane and that oxygen transfer coefficient of carbon membrane was 0.36 m/h, so that it was feasible to serve as both biofilm carrier and aerator. NH4(+) -N removal, denitrification and COD removal efficiency could reach 95%, 92% and 88%, respectively, under the conditions of intra-membrane pressure of 0.025 MPa, carbon nitrogen ratio of 5 and HRT of 8 h, and effluent quality could be up to A standard in the national discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant (GB 18918-2002) . Furthermore, the system displayed better resistance to shock loads. PMID:17633627

  14. Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater,

    E-print Network

    Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater, Surface, Ground.W., Meyer, M.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2004, Presence and distri- bution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-02: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific

  15. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  16. Improvements in Wastewater Treatment Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    2 Abstract: There have been several new improvements in the wastewater treatment field in the last years. Alternatives have presented themselves for classical and conventional wastewater treatment systems. Advanced wastewater treatments have become an area of global focus as individuals, communities, industries and nations strive for ways to keep essential resources available and suitable for use. Advanced wastewater treatment technology,

  17. Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Don Jones, Jacqui Bauer, Richard Wise, and Alan Dunn* ID-265 #12;Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 2 It is the policy of the Purdue University Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 3 Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Table of Contents

  18. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  19. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  20. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  1. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  2. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  3. Zero-discharge of nutrients and water in a willow dominated constructed wetland

    E-print Network

    Brix, Hans

    Zero-discharge of nutrients and water in a willow dominated constructed wetland P. Gregersen* and H of the willow wastewater cleaning facilities are that the systems have zero discharge, the willows evapotranspire the water, and nutrients can be recycled via the willow biomass produced in the system. The willow

  4. 40 CFR 429.164 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture Production Without Water Wash Spray Booth(s) or Without Laundry Facilities...discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  5. 40 CFR 429.164 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture Production Without Water Wash Spray Booth(s) or Without Laundry Facilities...discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

  6. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic). The occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds varied considerably among sampling sites, but at least one compound was detected at every location. The most organic wastewater compounds (19) were detected at the Neuse River above U.S. 70 at Smithfield, where two-thirds of the total number of samples were collected. The fewest organic wastewater compounds (1) were detected at the Eno River at Hillsborough. The detection of multiple organic wastewater compounds was common, with a median of 3.5 and as many as 12 compounds observed in individual samples. Some compounds, including acetaminophen, cotinine, tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and metolachlor, were detected at numerous sites and in numerous samples, indicating that they are widely distributed in the environment. Other organic wastewater compounds, including acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran, were detected in numerous samples but at only one location, indicating that sources of these compounds are more site specific. Results indicate that municipal wastewater may be a source of antibiotics and synthetic musks; however, the three sites in this study that are located downstream from wastewater discharges also receive runoff from agricultural, urban, and rural residential lands. Source identification was not an objective of this study. Concentrations of individual compounds generally were less than 0.5 microgram per liter. No concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards or health advisories, nor water-quality criteria established by the State of North Carolina; however, such criteria are available for only a few of the compounds that were studied. Compared with other surface waters that have been sampled across the United States, the Triangle Area water-supply sites had fewer detections of organic wastewater compounds; however, differences in study design and analytical methods used among studies must be considered when mak

  7. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  9. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  10. 30 CFR 57.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  11. 30 CFR 57.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  12. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  13. 30 CFR 57.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  14. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  15. 30 CFR 57.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  16. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up...

  17. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO/sub 3//sup -/ and as large as 2000 m/sup 3//d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/ by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m/sup 3/. A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m/sup 3/ and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation.

  18. Irrigation with reclaimed municipal wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Pettygrove, G.S.; Asano, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes beneficial use of reclaimed wastewater in the planning, design, and operation of agricultural and landscape irrigation systems. 1. Introduction: California's Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater Resource 2. Municipal Wastewater: Treatment and Reclaimed Water Characteristics 3. Irrigation Water Quality Criteria 4. Site Characteristics 5. Crop Water Use 6. Crop Selection and Management 7. Water Management for Salinity and Sodicity Control 8. Irrigation System Design 9. On-Farm Economics of Reclaimed Wastewater Irrigation 10. Health and Regulatory Considerations 11. Legal Aspects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Wastewater in California 12. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater; Nitrogen and Phosphorus 13. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater: Trace Elements 14. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater: Pathogens 15. Fate of Wastewater Constituents in Soil and Groundwater: Trace Organics.

  19. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developmental status of the aquacultural alternative for treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the reduction or fate of pollutants in such areas as organics, solids, nutrients, heavy metals, residual hydrocarbons, and potentially ...

  20. 75 FR 21625 - Notice of Availability of the Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...and NHG910000 for Remediation Facility Discharges in the Commonwealth...general permits for remediation facility discharges to certain waters...standards, prohibitions, and management practices for facilities with discharges from...

  1. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  2. Community-based wastewater treatment systems and water quality of an Indonesian village.

    PubMed

    Lim, H S; Lee, L Y; Bramono, S E

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of community-based water treatment systems on water quality in a peri-urban village in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Water samples were taken from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), irrigation canals, paddy fields and wells during the dry and wet seasons. The samples were tested for biological and chemical oxygen demand, nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and Escherichia coli. Water quality in this village is affected by the presence of active septic tanks, WWTP effluent discharge, small-scale tempe industries and external sources. We found that the WWTPs remove oxygen-demanding wastes effectively but discharged nutrients, such as nitrate and ammonia, into irrigation canals. Irrigation canals had high levels of E. coli as well as oxygen-demanding wastes. Well samples had high E. coli, nitrate and total nitrogen levels. Rainfall tended to increase concentrations of biological and chemical oxygen demand and some nutrients. All our samples fell within the drinking water standards for nitrate but failed the international and Indonesian standards for E. coli. Water quality in this village can be improved by improving the WWTP treatment of nutrients, encouraging more villagers to be connected to WWTPs and controlling hotspot contamination areas in the village. PMID:24642445

  3. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  4. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. PMID:25607676

  5. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...with the liquid and its vapor managed in the surface impoundment; the effects of outdoor exposure to wind, moisture, and sunlight; and the operating practices used for the surface impoundment on which the floating membrane cover is installed....

  6. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...with the liquid and its vapor managed in the surface impoundment; the effects of outdoor exposure to wind, moisture, and sunlight; and the operating practices used for the surface impoundment on which the floating membrane cover is installed....

  7. [Effect of pilot UASB-SFSBR-MAP process for the large scale swine wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Chong-Jun; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a treatment process consisted of UASB, step-fed sequencing batch reactor (SFSBR) and magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation reactor (MAP) was built to treat the large scale swine wastewater, which aimed at overcoming drawbacks of conventional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process and SBR treatment process, such as the low denitrification efficiency, high operating costs and high nutrient losses and so on. Based on the treatment process, a pilot engineering was constructed. It was concluded from the experiment results that the removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+) -N and TP reached 95.1%, 92.7% and 88.8%, the recovery rate of NH4(+) -N and TP by MAP process reached 23.9% and 83.8%, the effluent quality was superior to the discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (GB 18596-2001), mass concentration of COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, TP and SS were not higher than 135, 116, 43, 7.3 and 50 mg x L(-1) respectively. The process developed was reliable, kept self-balance of carbon source and alkalinity, reached high nutrient recovery efficiency. And the operating cost was equal to that of the traditional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. So the treatment process could provide a high value of application and dissemination and be fit for the treatment pf the large scale swine wastewater in China. PMID:23745404

  8. Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Hadad; M. A. Maine; C. A. Bonetto

    2006-01-01

    A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal.The wetland was 6×3×0.4m. Water discharge was 1000ld?1

  9. Soil Nutrient Load and Drain Water Quality in Seepage Fields Receiving Milk House Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Morin; J. K. Whalen; S. Barrington; X. Lin

    2007-01-01

    The large volume of wastewater generated on dairy farms from the cleaning of milk pipelines and milking equipment contains\\u000a nutrients and microorganisms that could pollute waterways if discharged without treatment. The objective of this study was\\u000a to evaluate a modified septic tank-seepage field system for disposing of milk house wastewater, by measuring the accumulation\\u000a of nutrients in the soil and

  10. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  11. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... Baumgart DC and Sandborn WJ. Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and ... Clark M, Colombel JF, Feagan BC, Fedorak RN, ...

  12. Stripping of organic compounds from wastewater as an auxiliary fuel of regenerative thermal oxidizer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2009-08-15

    Organic solvents with different volatilities are widely used in various processes and generate air and water pollution problems. In the cleaning processes of electronics industries, most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are vented to air pollution control devices while most non-volatile organic solvents dissolve in the cleaning water and become the major sources of COD in wastewater. Discharging a high-COD wastewater stream to wastewater treatment facility often disturbs the treatment performance. A pretreatment of the high-COD wastewater is therefore highly desirable. This study used a packed-bed stripping tower in combination with a regenerative thermal oxidizer to remove the COD in the wastewater from a printed circuit board manufacturing process and to utilize the stripped organic compounds as the auxiliary fuel of the RTO. The experimental results showed that up to 45% of the COD could be removed and 66% of the RTO fuel could be saved by the combined treatment system. PMID:19195779

  13. Wastewater minimization in industrial applications: Challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, B.B. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The impetus for waste minimization and water recycle in the metal processing industry comes from increasingly stringent environmental regulations and dwindling water supplies. Tougher discharge permits often dictate additional wastewater treatments, which can make water recycle and waste minimization an attractive option. The most challenging part in the design of a water recycle system is to minimize the capital and operating costs while meeting the water quality requirements of the process. Computer simulation of water recycle alternatives provides: (1) ``expected`` water chemistry, (2) steady-state mass and energy balance for the plant water system, (3) performance of the water treatments considered in the water recycle scheme, and (4) relative economics based on capital and operating costs. The computer simulation study recommends the best wastewater recycle scheme based on economics and technical merits. Benefits of a computer simulation study in the design of water recycle and wastewater minimization processes are illustrated by a case study in the metal processing industry.

  14. Biological monitoring of a pulp and paper mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, G; Harris, J

    1990-05-01

    The physico-chemical testing required under the E.P.A. licence enables one to gauge the chemical effects of the APM wastewater on the Latrobe River, but it tells us nothing about likely effects on the aquatic biota. The APM bio-monitoring programme was instigated to provide evidence of any effects of wastewater discharges on the rivers biota. To date the programme has shown no adverse impact downstream. The laboratory bioassays on fish and algae have recently given way to the river fauna surveys as the regular monitor of wastewater quality. It is intended to continue with regular river surveys using the river's residents as indicators of water quality and future surveys will investigate reasons for the presently obscure variation in macro-invertebrate populations. PMID:24243332

  15. Reduction of pharmaceutically active compounds by a lagoon wetland wastewater treatment system in Southeast Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Conkle, Jeremy L; White, John R; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-12-01

    A number of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in the aquatic environment as a result of discharges of municipal wastewater. In the state of Louisiana, USA, many municipalities treat wastewater using natural systems, such as lagoons and wetlands, rather than conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Nearly all research to date has focused on the fate of PhACs in conventional treatment plants, not constructed and natural wetlands. In the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for Mandeville, Louisiana, USA, wastewater flows of 7600 m(3)d(-1) are treated in a series of aeration lagoons (basins), followed by a constructed wetland and UV disinfection, before being discharged into a natural forested wetland (i.e. Bayou Chinchuba) and eventually, Lake Pontchartrain. Thirteen out of the 15PhACs investigated were detected in the wastewater inflow to the treatment plant. Only 9 of the 13 compounds were above the detection limits at the treatment plant effluent. The concentrations of most compounds were reduced by greater than 90% within the plant, while carbamazepine and sotalol were only reduced by 51% and 82%, respectively. The percent reductions observed in the Mandeville system were greater than reduction rates reported for conventional WWTPs; perhaps due to the longer treatment time ( approximately 30 days). Most target PhACs were not completely removed before discharge into Lake Pontchartrain, although their collective annual loading was reduced to less than 1kg and down to ppb with significant potential for dilution in the large lake. PMID:18977010

  16. [Variation of pollutants along the height of two media BAF during advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Feng; Fan, Ju-Hong; Liu, Rui; Chen, Lü-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A pilot-scale process with the capacity of 15 t x d(-1) was applied for treatment of the secondary biological effluent from a dyeing industrial park wastewater treatment plant. We studied the variation of pollutants along the height of two media biological aerated filter (BAF), investigated the feasibility of the cheaper and lighter suspended media to substitute activated carbon. The results showed that while the influent average COD and color were 50.2 mg x L(-1) and 58 times, the effluent average COD and color of activated carbon and suspended media BAF were 35.0 mg x L(-1), 18 times and 44.3 mg x L(-1), 26 times, and both of the effluent met the first level A criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002), while it met the first level A criteria at the height of 2 400 mm in suspended media BAF, higher than the height of 1 800 mm in activated carbon BAF. The removal variation of color, TN and ammonia along the height of suspended media BAF is similar to the activated carbon BAF, but with a low removal efficiency of COD, mainly related to its less biomass. Therefore, suspended media to substitute activated carbon is feasible to the wastewater treatment plant, but the size and material of the media still need to be optimized, and to enhance the biomass, the hybrid process of suspended media with activated carbon BAF may be used to reduce the cost if it is necessary. PMID:25826930

  17. The effect of ozone on tannery wastewater biological treatment at demonstrative scale.

    PubMed

    Di Iaconi, Claudio; Ramadori, Roberto; Lopez, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the results obtained during an investigation aimed at transferring to the demonstrative scale an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR--Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) integrated with ozonation for the efficient treatment of tannery wastewater. The results show that the integrated process was able to achieve high removal efficiencies for COD, TSS, TKN, surfactants and colour with residual concentrations much lower than the current discharge limits. Furthermore, the process was characterised by a very low sludge production (i.e., 0.1 kg dry sludge/m(3) of treated wastewater) with interesting repercussions on treatment costs (about 1 euro per m(3) of wastewater). PMID:19577926

  18. RO feed pretreatment and flat cell tests for SRC-I wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, J.C.; Cahill, C.J.; Cowan, W.F.; Schwoyer, W.K.L.

    1984-03-01

    To assess the feasibility of reverse osmosis (RO) in the SRC-I Demonstration Plant, Catalytic, Inc. conducted tests on biologically treated wastewaters generated during other studies. The efficacy of the post-bio-oxidation treatment steps, including tar acid precipitation, filtration, softening, carbon adsorption, and ozonation, was first evaluated to determine if these steps met the requirements recommended by RO membrane manufacturers. The pretreated wastewaters were then used to run 400-h RO flat cell tests. As a secondary objective, the studies were conducted to generate samples for toxicology testing, since the treated wastewaters might at times be discharged into the river. 12 references, 50 figures, 20 tables.

  19. Phytoextraction of selenium from refinery wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A.; Thomson, S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Selenium contamination in oil refinery wastewater is of growing concern for the petroleum industry in the Bay area of California. Oil refineries discharge 1500-5000 gallons of stripped sour water and biotreated effluent per minute, creating wetlands in the bay area with Se contamination in the water and consequently in the sediments. Bay area refineries currently have seven major ponds, comprising 100 acres of newly created Se contaminated wetlands. Although the EPA has established groundwater Se limits at 1 ppm, the point discharge limit for the California refineries is much lower, 50 ppb, due to the existing Se contamination problems created from agricultural runoff. The current technology for removing Se from these effluent streams, iron precipitation, is extremely expensive and creates tremendous volumes of sludge and is therefore, not environmentally friendly. Complicating the problem of extracting the Se is the unique matrix of the solution, which is often high in sulfates, and nitrates. Phytoextraction has been suggested as a possible solution to remediating these new Se contaminated wetlands. A study is ongoing at the INEL to examine the practicality and optimization of phytoremediation of Se within high sulfate and nitrate concentrations. Selenium uptake rate data for terrestrial, aquatic, and algal selenium accumulating species grown in actual and simulated refinery wastewater streams will be presented. Options for management and treatment of the Se elevated biomass will be reviewed. Implications of Se accumulation to the wetland ecology, and feasibility of controlling Se transport through the food chain through management practices and containment will be discussed.

  20. HEALTH ASPECTS OF WASTEWATER AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency arranged for several studies, by universities or research institutions, to gather information on health effects associated with wastewater aerosols. Five studies were conducted at wastewater treatm...

  1. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... You had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament ... and placed a new ligament through these holes. The new ligament ...

  2. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing Detection of Wastewater Plumes in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Pan, B. J.; Rains, C.; Gierach, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged through ocean outfalls can surface near coastlines and beaches, posing a threat to the marine environment and human health. Coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB) are an ecologically important marine habitat and a valuable resource in terms of commercial fishing and recreation. Two of the largest wastewater treatment plants along the U.S. West Coast discharge into the SCB, including the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant (HWTP) and the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD). In 2006, HWTP conducted an internal inspection of its primary 8 km outfall pipe (60 m depth), diverting treated effluent to a shorter 1.2 km pipe (18 m depth) from Nov. 28 to Nov. 30. From Sep. 11 - Oct. 4, 2012, OCSD conducted a similar diversion, diverting effluent from their 7 km outfall pipe to a shallower 2.2 km pipe, both with similar depths to HWTP. Prevailing oceanographic conditions in the SCB, such as temporally reduced stratification and surface circulation patterns, increased the risk of effluent being discharged from these shorter and shallower pipes surfacing and moving onshore. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of satellite remote sensing data (i.e., sea surface roughness from SAR, sea surface temperature from MODIS-Aqua and ASTER-Terra, chlorophyll-a and water leaving radiance from MODIS-Aqua) in the identification and tracking of wastewater plumes during the 2006 HWTP and 2012 OCSD diversion events. Satellite observations were combined with in situ, wind, and current data taken during the diversion events, to validate remote sensing techniques and gain surface to subsurface context of the nearshore diversion events. Overall, it was found that satellite remote sensing data were able to detect surfaced wastewater plumes along the coast, providing key spatial information that could inform in situ field sampling during future diversion events, such as the planned 2015 HWTP diversion, and thereby constrain costs.

  4. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false New source performance standards...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Subcategory § 461.23 New source performance standards...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  5. 40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false New source performance standards...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  6. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false New source performance standards...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Subcategory § 461.23 New source performance standards...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  7. 40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false New source performance standards...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  8. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false New source performance standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Subcategory § 461.23 New source performance standards...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  9. Recovering distilled water and pure salt products from industrial wastewater: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schooley, K.E.; Ludlum, R.S. [Ionics RCC, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Industry is slowly moving beyond the concept of zero liquid discharge toward the ideal of zero waste discharge. While zero liquid discharge means no liquids are discharged off site, the tons of dry solids removed from treated wastewater are often hauled to landfills off site if they cannot be stored at the plant. In recent years, some plants have opted to recover valuable salts and chemicals from wastewater to reduce the cost of hauling away useless mixed salts. Some plants even recover some of the cost of wastewater treatment by selling recovered salt. This paper will discuss three industrial sites where all wastewater is treated and recycled and most salts removed from the wastewater are turned into saleable products. The case studies will be a coal mine in Poland, where distilled water and sodium chloride are recovered from mine drainage; a uranium mine in the Czech Republic, where distilled water and ammonium alum are recovered from acid waste; and a power plant in New York, where distilled water and calcium chloride are recovered from scrubber blowdown.

  10. Pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater: wetland treatment as a potential solution.

    PubMed

    White, John R; Belmont, Marco A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates. PMID:17195871

  11. 40 CFR 461.13 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New source performance standards...AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...Cadmium Subcategory § 461.13 New source performance standards...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation...

  12. 40 CFR 461.13 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New source performance standards...AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...Cadmium Subcategory § 461.13 New source performance standards...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation...

  13. 40 CFR 60.692-7 - Standards: Delay of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-7 Standards: Delay of compliance. (a) Delay of compliance of modified individual...

  14. 40 CFR 60.692-4 - Standards: Aggregate facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-4 Standards: Aggregate facility. A new, modified, or reconstructed aggregate facility...

  15. Dynamic Membrane Technology for Printing Wastewater Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Xujie; Chen, Jihua

    As environmental regulations become rigid and the cost of freshwater increases, wastewater is considered as a major resource in China. The paper presented a study on the implementation of the advanced treatment process using dynamic membrane (DM) in reusing of printing wastewater. The DM was well formed by circulating 1.5g/L of PAC in 20 minutes, the trans-membrane pressure of 200 kPa and the cross-flow velocity of 0.75m/s. The printing effluents were treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by biological process. The treated effluent contained chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity in the range of 45-60 mg/L, 0.030-0.045 (absorbance at 420 nm) and 3-5 NTU. The results showed that the COD, color and turbidity removal efficiencies of the DM permeate were 84%, 85% and 80%, respectively. The wastewater treated by DM was reused as process water and the final concentrated retentate could be discharged directly into sewage treatment works with no additional treatments. Cleaning and regeneration of DM were very convenient if necessary. The proper process was that the polluted DM was cleaned with tap water at high cross-flow velocity. When irreversible pollutants accumulate, it would be rinsed with chemicals tested and the membrane flux would be restored up to 95%. The result showed that DM was considered as a promising method for purification aimed at reuse of printing wastewater, resulting in direct environmental and economic benefits.

  16. Choose appropriate wastewater treatment technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belhateche

    1995-01-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment has been slow to develop, and in some respects has not kept up with advances in manufacturing technology. An earlier CEP article outlined a procedure for developing an effective wastewater treatment strategy. This article discusses the various wastewater treatment technologies in more detail and includes tables that compare their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. It also provides guidance

  17. Aminopolyphosphonate removal during wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Nowack

    2002-01-01

    Phosphonates are used in large quantities in industry and household products as scale inhibitors and chelating agents. They are not biodegraded during wastewater treatment but are removed by adsorption processes. Field measurements from different wastewater treatment plants affirm that they are removed almost completely during wastewater treatment. Adsorption of nitrilotrismethylenephosphonic acid onto activated sludge, amorphous iron oxide and humic acids

  18. RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION

    E-print Network

    #12;I RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN VOLUME I CONSULTANTS LTD. Richmond, B.C. June 1993 #12;DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION 1 PREFACE V7M 3H7 ,1 , #12;DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR WASTEWATER C&MACTERIZATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Fraser

  19. Doctoral Defense "Sustainable Wastewater Management

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Sustainable Wastewater Management: Modeling and Decision Strategies for Unused Medications and Wastewater Solids" Sherri Cook Date: May 22, 2014 Time: 11:00 AM Location: 2355 GGB Chair to help decision-makers evaluate new practices for sustainable wastewater management. To this end

  20. WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS Domestic wastewater treatment by infiltration-percolation is a process that becomming common in France, a greater depth for desinfection purposes. KEYWORDS Wastewater treatment, Infiltration-percolation. Sand

  1. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Walker; Nicholas V. Paretti; Gail Cordy; Timothy S. Gross; Steven D. Zaugg; Edward T. Furlong; Dana W. Kolpin; William J. Matter; Jessica Gwinn; Dennis McIntosh

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance

  2. Study of kinetic and fixed bed operation of removal of sulfate anions from an industrial wastewater by an anion exchange resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Haghsheno; Ali Mohebbi; Hassan Hashemipour; Amir Sarrafi

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate anions represent very important wastewater pollutants, which appear in the effluents discharged from copper mines. In this study, for the first time, an attempt has been made on the removal of sulfate anions by an ion exchange resin. This work is focused on the removal of sulfate anions from the Sarcheshmeh copper complex (Kerman province, Southeast of Iran) wastewater

  3. Advantages\\/limitations of solvent extraction, ozonation, and carbon adsorption for reduction of nonbiodegradable residuals in METC fixed-bed gasification wastewaters. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Neufeld; J. Paladino; C. Moretti; M. Plautz; F. Ali

    1982-01-01

    This (second) year of effort examined the roll of solvent extraction, ozonation, and carbon adsorption for incorporation into the wastewater treatment scheme for purposes of enhancing process stability, decolorization, elimination of dilution water requirements, and minimization of nonbiodegradable residuals. This approach, while more costly, will better allow for direct discharge or reuse of gasification wastewaters. Di-isopropylether (DIPE) and methyl-isobutyl ketone

  4. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams and fish in the Great Lakes Region and Upper Mississippi River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal wastewater treatment process by providing a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes. The receiving surface waters also are a conduit for contaminan...

  5. Wastewater control report for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Y-12 Plant (Part III-F, page 41) requires the preparation of a report to describe procedures and criteria used in operating on-site treatment systems to maintain compliance with the NPDES permit. This report has been prepared to fulfill this requirement. Five wastewater treatment systems are currently in operation at the Y-12 Plant; they are operated by personal in the Waste Management and Facilities Management Organizations.

  6. Distribution of injected wastewater in the saline-lava aquifer, Wailuku-Kahului wastewater treatment facility, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Willis L.; Larson, S.P.; Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1977-01-01

    Field studies and digital modeling of a lava rock aquifer system near Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, describe the distribution of planned injected wastewater from a secondary treatment facility. The aquifer contains water that is almost as saline as seawater. The saline water is below a seaward-discharging freshwater lens, and separated from it by a transition zone of varying salinity. Injection of wastewater at an average rate of 6.2 cubic feet per second is planned through wells open only to the aquifer deep within the saline water zone. The lava rock aquifer is overlain by a sequence of residual soil, clay, coral reef deposits, and marine sand that form a low-permeability caprock which semiconfines the lava rock aquifer. Under conditions measured and assumed without significant change. After reaching a new steady state, the wastewater will discharge into and through the caprock sequence within an area measuring approximately 1,000 feet inland, 1,000 feet laterally on either side of the injection site, and about 2,000 feet seaward. Little, if any, of the injected wastewater may be expected to reach the upper part of the caprock flow system landward of the treatment plant facility. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Duckweed based wastewater treatment (DWWT): design guidelines for hot climates.

    PubMed

    Smith, M D; Moelyowati, I

    2001-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment systems are expensive in either investment or running costs. On the other hand, waste stabilisation ponds may be unable to meet effluent standards for nutrients. Wastewater treatment using duckweed therefore becomes more significant as an option capable of achieving effluent standards and generating revenue from selling the duckweed. However existing duckweed based wastewater treatment (DWWT) systems have high land requirements despite being able to reduce concentrations of organic compounds and pathogens to acceptable levels. Improved guidelines for the design of DWWT are necessary to obtain a reliable and cost-effective wastewater treatment plant using duckweed. This guideline provides a DWWT design program using spreadsheets for different configurations of wastewater treatment units using duckweed. The design program developed suggests that a combination of anaerobic ponds, DWWT systems and maturation ponds can minimise land requirements and capital costs while achieving specified effluent standards. In order to achieve effluent standards, the land required is typically from 1.5 to 1.8 m2/capita (excluding associated facilities), capital costs are in the range from 7.9 to 9.7 USD/capita, with a retention time from 15 to 18 days. Income generation is dependent mainly on the social and cultural acceptability of duckweed use within the community. PMID:11443975

  8. Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kyu Kim, Jin; Kim, Yuri; Seung Choi, Jang; Young Jeong, Kwang

    2012-09-01

    Textile dyeing processes consume large amount of water, steam and discharge filthy and colored wastewater. A pilot scale e-beam plant with an electron accelerator of 1 MeV, 40 kW had constructed at Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) in 1997 for treating 1,000 m3 per day. Continuous operation of this plant showed the preliminary e-beam treatment reduced bio-treatment time and resulted in more significant decreasing TOC, CODCr, and BOD5. Convinced of the economics and efficiency of the process, a commercial plant with 1 MeV, 400 kW electron accelerator has constructed in 2005. This plant improves the removal efficiency of wastewater with decreasing the retention time in bio-treatment at around 1 kGy. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility in DDIC and the treatment capacity is 10,000 m3 of wastewater per day. The total construction cost for this plant was USD 4 M and the operation cost has been obtained was not more than USD 1 M per year and about USD 0.3 per each m3 of wastewater.

  9. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-08-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:25934578

  10. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  11. Advanced compact wastewater treatment based on coagulation and moving bed biofilm processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ødegaard

    2000-01-01

    Advanced compact wastewater treatment processes are being looked for by cities all over the world as effluent standards are becoming more stringent and land available for treatment plants more scarce. In this paper it is demonstrated that a very substantial portion of the pollutants in municipal wastewater appears as particulate and colloidal matter. Pre-coagulation, therefore, gives very efficient pre- treatment

  12. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  13. Comparative study on removal of pathogenic and parasitic organisms using extended wastewaters treatment technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Martín; Concepción Ariza; José Manuel Úbeda; Luciana Sánchez; Diego C. Guevara; Cristina Cutillas; Manuel. de Rojas

    2009-01-01

    Although there is an absence of common guidelines or regulations about wastewater reuse at European Community level, there are several countries or federal regions that have published their own standards or regulations. In Spain, the current Royal Decree 1620\\/2007 regulates the legal regime for reuse of treated wastewaters for different uses. The aim of present study is to evaluate the

  14. Comparative study on removal of pathogenic and parasitic organisms using extended wastewaters treatment technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Martín; Concepción Ariza; José Manuel Úbeda; Diego C. Guevara; A. Plant

    Although there is an absence of common guidelines or regulations about wastewater reuse at European Community level, there are several countries or federal regions that have published their own standards or regulations. In Spain, the current Royal Decree 1620\\/2007 regulates the legal regime for reuse of treated wastewaters for different uses. The aim of present study is to evaluate the

  15. Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

    1967-01-01

    The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

  16. The pT-method as a Hazard Assessment Scheme for wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Falk Krebs

    The pT-method is an evaluation strategy for investigating the toxic effects of wastewaters. With this Hazard Assessment Scheme (HAS), wastewater is tested with standardized bioassays, using dilution series in geometric sequence with a dilution factor of two. Its toxic status is then equated with the first dilution stage at which the effluent is no longer toxic. The numerical designation of

  17. Wastewater polishing by a channelized macrophyte-dominated wetland and anaerobic digestion of the harvested phytomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Constructed wetlands (CW) offer a mechanism to meet regulatory standards for wastewater treatment while minimizing energy inputs. To optimize CW wastewater polishing activities and investigate integration of CW with energy production from anaerobic digestion we constructed a pair of three-tier ch...

  18. A growth-irrigation scheduling model for wastewater use in forest production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Al-Jamal; T. W. Sammis; J. G. Mexal; G. A. Picchioni; W. H. Zachritz

    2002-01-01

    Applying wastewater and sludge to land for remediation has been recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method to recycle nutrient and organic matter and conserve water resources. The level of sewage treatment can range from simple primary treatment using a lagoon to tertiary treatment using a standard wastewater treatment plant. Small communities are selecting primary treatment and

  19. The future is upon us -- Zero discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, W.G.; Lewis, K.G. [Cedar Bay Generating Co., L.P., Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Early in the operation of a zero discharge water treatment system, which reclaims paper mill effluent to provide cooling tower makeup for a power plant, effects from the organic loading in the influent prevented operation of the Reverse Osmosis (RO) Units and hampered operation of Clarifier/Softeners, Brine Concentrators and a Crystallizer. Solutions implemented to remediate the problems included front-end treatment of the influent to improve oxidation and coagulation, down-stream nano-filtration of the wastewater to facilitate RO operation, and back-end charge neutralization and variation of the total dissolved solids (TDS) to organics ratio to improve crystallizer operation.

  20. Feasibility and simulation model of a pilot scale membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and reuse from Chinese traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Nan-qi; Yan, Xian-feng; Chen, Zhao-bo; Hu, Dong-xue; Gong, Man-li; Guo, Wan-qian

    2007-01-01

    The lack and pollution of water resource make wastewater reuse necessary. The pilot scale long-term tests for submerged membrane bioreactor were conducted to treat the effluents of anaerobic or aerobic treatment process for the high-strength Chinese traditional medicine wastewater. This article was focused on the feasibility of the wastewater treatment and reuse at shorter hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.0, 3.2 and 2.13 h. MLSS growth, membrane flux, vacuum values and chemical cleaning periods were also investigated. The experimental results of treating two-phase anaerobic treatment effluent demonstrated that the CODfilt was less than 100 mg/L when the influent COD was between 500-10000 mg/L at HRT of 5.0 h, which could satisfy the normal discharged standard in China. The experimental results to treat cross flow aerobic reactor effluent demonstrated that the average value of CODfilt was 17.28 mg/L when the average value of influent COD was 192.84 mg/L at HRT of 2.13 h during 106 d, which could completely meet the normal standard for water reuse. The maximum MLSS and MLVSS reached 24000 and 14500 mg/L at HRT of 3.2 h respectively. Membrane flux had maximal resume degrees of 94.7% at vacuum value of 0.02 MPa after cleaning. Chemical cleaning periods of membrane module were 150 d. A simulation model of operational parameters was also established based on the theory of back propagation neural network and linear regression of traditional mathematical model. The simulation model showed that the optimum operational parameters were suggested as follows: HRT was 5.0 h, SRT was 100 d, the range of COD loading rate was between 10.664-20.451 kg/(m3xd), the range of MLSS was between 7543-13694 mg/L. PMID:17915718

  1. 42 CFR 483.12 - Admission, transfer and discharge rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Admission, transfer and discharge rights. 483.12 Section 483...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...Admission, transfer and discharge rights. (a) Transfer and discharge...statement that the resident has the right to appeal the action to...

  2. TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require a considerable length of time to complete, and do not discriminate between ...

  3. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago); McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  4. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AlDhowalia

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (HâS) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SOâ). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is

  5. Introduction to Wastewater Bruce J. Lesikar

    E-print Network

    Introduction to Wastewater Treatment Bruce J. Lesikar Professor Texas AgriLife Extension Service Overview What is wastewater? Why are we concerned about wastewater? The big picture. Goals for wastewater treatment are evolving How do we implement our infrastructure? Wastewater Treatment Processes ­ The end

  6. Bacterial diversity in an industrial wastewater bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Bramucci, M; Kane, H; Chen, M; Nagarajan, V

    2003-10-01

    Industrial wastewater bioreactors are potentially important sources of novel biocatalysts. However, the microbial populations in these bioreactors are not well characterized. The microbial community in an industrial wastewater bioreactor was surveyed by extracting DNA from a sample of activated sludge, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes. A total of 407 cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with 88 bacterial isolates cultured from the same sample of sludge using a variety of standard media. Most of the bacteria detected by the PCR-based approach were beta-subdivision Proteobacteria, whereas most of the cultured bacteria were gamma-subdivision Proteobacteria. Only a few types of bacteria were detected by both approaches. These observations indicate that multiple techniques are necessary to characterize the microbial diversity in any complex ecosystem. PMID:12827322

  7. Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Carey, Richard O; Migliaccio, Kati W

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. PMID:19458999

  8. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  9. Corona Discharge in Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin'kevich, A. A.; Dovgalyuk, Yu. A.

    2014-04-01

    We present a review of the results of theoretical studies and laboratory modeling of corona discharge initiation in clouds. The influence of corona discharges on the evolution of the cloud microstructure and electrification is analyzed. It is shown that corona discharges are initiated when large-size hydrometeors approach each other, whereas in some cases, corona discharges from crystals, ice pellets, and hailstones can appear. The corona discharges lead to significant air ionization, charging of cloud particles, and separation of charges in clouds and initiate streamers and lightnings. The influence of corona discharges on changes in the phase composition of clouds is analyzed.

  10. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 461...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). ...pretreatment standards for new sources listed below...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  11. 40 CFR 461.15 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 461...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). ...pretreatment standards for new sources listed below...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  12. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 461...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). ...pretreatment standards for new sources listed below...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  13. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 461...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). ...pretreatment standards for new sources listed below...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  14. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 461...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). ...pretreatment standards for new sources listed below...wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing...

  15. Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

    The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to develop measures to reduce the foam index. As no criterion exists for foam in rivers in Austria, as well as in Hungary, the not accepted degree of foam formation was defined as the limit at which population protests from Hungary arose. This approach resulted in a foam index higher than 3.5, which was observed with 40% probability during the investigation period. By developing and performing a simple mathematical regression model the required reduction of foam potential emissions could be calculated in order to minimize the foam index to an accepted standard. By the elimination of 75% of foam potential, a foam index lower than 3.5 would be assured with 95% probability based on long term discharge development.

  16. [Application of wastewater land treatment technique to the construction of ecological engineering in sand land].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-jun; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Sun, Tie-heng; Tai, Pei-dong; Chang, Shi-jun; Xiong, Xian-zhe; Li, Ying-mei

    2005-05-01

    In this paper studies on the feasibility of harmlessness and resource of wastewater, which was discharged from a thermal power plant, by using slow rate filtration of land treatment technique for the fast recovery of vegetation in the Kubuqi sand land were carried out. The selected arbor, shrub and herbage in the land treatment system were poplar (Populus alba Var. Pyramidalis bunge), seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and sweet clover (Melilotus suaveolens) respectively. Three levels of wastewater hydraulic loading were designed in the field pilot experiment. They were high plot with 3000 mm/a irrigation (H), medium plot with 1500 mm/a irrigation (M) and low plot (L) with small volume of irrigation only used in the period of transplant seedlings. The performance indicate that the purification function of power plant wastewater by pre-treatment through combination of precipitation pool with storage ponds is effective and therefore the effluent after pretreatment can be used to irrigation vegetation. The experiment results show that the volume of tree crown for poplar in H plot and M plot was up to 1.07 and 2.21 times comparing with L plot respectively. The annual yield (dry weight) of sweet clover in H plot and M plot was up to 2.33 and 3.0 times comparing with L plot respectively. The height of seabuckthorn in H zone and M plot was up to 1.08 and 1.32 times comparing with L plot respectively. There is direct proportion between growth status of vegetation and hydraulic loading of irrigation. The contents of heavy metals for sweet clover (Cd 0.021 mg/kg, Pb<0.001 mg/kg, Cr <0.01 mg/kg, As 0.043 mg/kg) are much lower than the food standards of grain and vegetables, therefore the sweet clover for raising livestock is safe. Wastewater in this area is valuable source. Its reasonable utilization can contribute important benefits in economy and ecology in the ecological construction and developing effective agriculture and animal husbandry. PMID:16124473

  17. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - periperhal artiery - discharge

  18. Experiences and potential of anaerobic wastewater treatment in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Wiegant, W M

    2001-01-01

    In this article an overview is given on the experience with anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in the tropics, with emphasis on the situation in India. Some design criteria and their impact on the costs of UASB reactors are discussed. The operational results of a number of full-scale reactors are presented. The applicability of the UASB, in combination with different post-treatment units to comply with a variety of effluent standards is compared with other systems. From the available data it is concluded that, if nitrogen removal is not required, a UASB system, followed by a polishing pond, is a relatively simple, affordable, and manageable wastewater treatment system. Trickling filters may follow UASB treatment if effluent standards require removal of TKN. The inclusion of UASB reactors in wastewater treatment schemes allowing for total nitrogen removal still needs further study. PMID:11730125

  19. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...When the HON process wastewater monitoring and inspection...operation of the treatment process or control...receives a Group 1 wastewater stream, or a residual...removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, for treatment pursuant to...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...When the HON process wastewater monitoring and inspection...operation of the treatment process or control...receives a Group 1 wastewater stream, or a residual...removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, for treatment pursuant to...