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1

Elements for setting up discharge standards in developing countries based on actual wastewater treatment plant performance.  

PubMed

The paper analyses the capability of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil, in order to achieve different quality targets for wastewater discharge. These targets cover a wide range of possible situations, reflecting usual practices adopted worldwide. Six different treatment processes have been investigated: septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, UASB reactors alone, UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. The parameters investigated were: BOD, COD, suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and thermotolerant coliforms. Most technologies showed a poor performance, and some of them were not capable to achieve even relaxed standards. The paper presents elements for setting up discharge standards in developing countries, based either on values that may be achieved by treatment processes commonly applied or on best available technologies. PMID:19039181

Oliveira, Sílvia C; von Sperling, Marcos

2008-01-01

2

Wastewater discharge and water quality standards in Brazil--implications for the selection of wastewater treatment technologies.  

PubMed

The paper describes and comments the Brazilian standards for water quality and effluent discharge (CONAMA Directive No. 20, 1986). The emphasis of the paper is on the conventional parameters which characterise domestic wastewater (BOD, SS, NH4+, N, P and coliforms). The wastewater treatment systems for achieving compliance are analysed with two perspectives: requirements for the discharge standards and requirements for the receiving water standards. The main treatment technologies available are listed, together with their capability to remove the major pollutants included in the Brazilian legislation. The analysis for the receiving water standards are given for different dilution ratios (river/discharge flows): 1/10, 1/1, 10/1 and 100/1. The difficulty in complying with the receiving water standards for BOD, phosphate and coliforms is highlighted and the cost implications for the adoption of more sophisticated technologies in order to achieve compliance are also provided. Although the specific quantitative values cited in the paper are associated with the Brazilian legislation, it is believed that the major conceptual issues are applicable to a large number of urban areas in other countries. PMID:10842806

von Sperling, M

2000-01-01

3

Dilution of wastewater discharges from moving cruise ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a survey using EPA's Ocean Survey Vessel Peter W. Anderson to track and quantify the dilution and dispersal of wastewater discharges behind four large cruise ships. Wastewater holding tanks were spiked with rhodamine dye before discharge. During the discharge of the wastewater, drogued buoys were released at two minutes intervals to permit visual

E. Heinen; K. Potts; L. Snow; W. Trulli; D. Redford

2003-01-01

4

Deliberation about the Safety of Industrial Wastewater Discharges into Wastewater Treatment Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in industrialized areas is of particular concern because of the severe problems that can occur in the WWTP caused by the incoming inflow, which in turn may cause an ecological imbalance in the fluvial ecosystem. In order to minimize the environmental impact caused by the industrial wastewater discharges, guidelines and regulations exists. However, due to the complexity of the domain, there are still no golden standards by which to decide whether a WWTP can cope with wastewater discharges, and so strict adherence to regulations may not always be convenient. Special circumstances may motivate to accept discharges that are above established thresholds or to reject discharges that comply with guidelines. Nonetheless, because of the criticality of the actions to be taken, such decisions require to be well justified. Hence, in this work it is proposed the use of the argumentation-based model Pro- CLAIM to provide a more flexible decision making process, in which expertise can deliberate whether an industrial wastewater can safely be discharged into a WWTP, and thus adapt each decision to the particular circumstance. To ensure a safe decision, agents’ given arguments for or against the industrial spill are evaluated accounting for the domain guidelines and regulations, for similar past cases and for confidence in the expertise’s assessments.

Tolchinsky, Pancho; Aulinas, Montse; Cortés, Ulises; Poch, Manel

5

[Characteristics and evaluation of volatile organic compounds discharge in typical enterprise wastewater in Hangzhou City].  

PubMed

Totally 77 kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in inlet/outlet wastewater of 10 typical enterprises in Hangzhou City were determined by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, then the discharge characteristics of VOCs were analyzed, and the monitoring results were evaluated. The results indicated that 22 kinds of VOCs were detected in inlet wastewater, the range of VOCs concentrations was 7-3.39 x 10(6) microg x L(-1), while 14 kinds of VOCs were detected in outlet wastewater, the range of VOCs concentrations was 16- 6.82 x 10(4) microg x L(-1). The concentrations of VOCs in inlet/outlet wastewater of flavors and fragrances manufacturing enterprises were much higher than those of other industries. When using the third class discharge standard of "integrated wastewater discharge standard" (GB 8978-1996) as the evaluation criteria, the toluene concentration detected in outlet wastewater of enterprise 1 was 2.45 x 10(3), microg x L(-1), which exceeded the standard limit. In addition. When the discharge multimedia environmental goals (DMEG(WH)) of VOCs in water was used as the evaluation criteria, the concentrations of n-butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone in outlet wastewater of enterprise 3 exceeded their respective discharge multimedia environmental goals. PMID:24640903

Chen, Feng; Xu, Jian-Fen; Tang, Fang-Liang; Zhang, Ming; Ruan, Dong-De

2013-12-01

6

Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

Marella, R. L.

1994-01-01

7

Optimal Water Network with Zero Wastewater Discharge in an Alumina Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero wastewater discharge has been the ultimate goal of green water utilization in process industries. To make the water network with zero wastewater discharge economically beneficial, the system should be optimized. Alumina industry is a heavy water consumption industry, hence studying water re-use and zero wastewater discharge (ZWD) for water system in alumina plants is very important. This paper analyzes

CHUN DENG; XIAO FENG

2009-01-01

8

Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

2013-07-01

9

Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

1940-01-01

10

The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships.  

PubMed

In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both black water and gray water discharges sometimes exceeded state water quality standards for toxicants. The state convened a Science Advisory Panel (the Panel) to evaluate impacts associated with cruise ship wastewater discharges. The effluent data received wide media coverage and increased public concerns. Consequently, legislative decisions were made at the State and Federal level, and regulations were imposed before the Panel completed its evaluation. The Panel demonstrated that following the rapid dilution from moving cruise ships, the effluent data from the Summer of 2000 would not have exceeded water quality standards, and environmental effects were not expected. PMID:16406006

Loehr, Lincoln C; Beegle-Krause, C-J; George, Kenwyn; McGee, Charles D; Mearns, Alan J; Atkinson, Marlin J

2006-06-01

11

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9...PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards. (a) Objective of...

2013-07-01

12

Organics removal and protein recovery from wastewater discharged during the production of chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

Bentonite, chitosan and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were applied to treat wastewater discharged during the production of chondroitin sulfate and recover protein dissolved in the wastewater. The results showed that the combination of pH 9.00, 3-4 mL chitosan solution, 2 g of bentonite and 5 mL of 8% PAC solution per 100 mL of wastewater with a 4.0 h flocculation time were the optimal conditions for the recovery of protein and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) from wastewater. A pilot-scale test also was conducted, and 130 kg (dry weight) of sediment was obtained from 1.1 m(3) of discharged wastewater. This sediment contained abundant amino acids (proteins comprised 61% of the total sediment), after the recovery of protein, the dissolved TOC concentration in wastewater was decreased by approximately 80% and the residual wastewater could be readily disposed using a traditional activated sludge process. PMID:24135108

Sheng, Yanqing; Xing, Li

2013-01-01

13

32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge review standards. 865.120 Section 865.120...ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review...

2013-07-01

14

Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.  

PubMed

Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and the Corporation are all worse off when treatment levels are pushed beyond what is economic and sustainable. PMID:23183146

Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

2013-01-15

15

WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of waste-water and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described...

16

Effects of wastewater discharge on microbial populations and enzyme activities in mangrove soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil leaching experiments were conducted to assess the impact of discharging wastewater, of two salinities, on bacterial population sizes and microbial activities in mangrove soils. Synthetic wastewater, prepared in either deionized water or half-strength seawater, was applied to trays containing mangrove soils three times a week for a total of 12 weeks. Results show that the mangrove soils were capable

N. F. Y Tam

1998-01-01

17

33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.250 Standard discharge connection...that received bilge water containing oily mixtures must have a standard discharge connection...that removes bilge water containing oily mixtures from oceangoing ships. [CGD...

2013-07-01

18

Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

2008-02-01

19

Legal requirements and wastewater discharges to Polish water bodies, 1945-2003.  

PubMed

The postwar development of water protection legislation and wastewater discharges is poorly known for the Baltic Sea region as a whole. This article presents national efforts to govern wastewater discharges in Poland using legal tools over the twentieth century with an emphasis on the postwar period, 1945-2003. The study also attempts to evaluate how the state authority responded to changing legal demands in terms of urban and industrial wastewater discharges in the postwar period. It outlines the main changes during the socialist regime in Poland and after it regained independence. Also the implications of Poland's integration into the European Union are briefly discussed. Mathematical calculations are used to illustrate some changes in legal requirements over time. PMID:17520937

Kowalik, Piotr; Laakkonen, Simo

2007-04-01

20

The use of multiple tracers for tracking wastewater discharges in freshwater systems.  

PubMed

The assessment of potential impacts of wastewater effluent discharges in freshwater systems requires an understanding of the likely degrees of dilution and potential zones of influence. In this study, four tracers commonly present in wastewater effluents were monitored to compare their relative effectiveness in determining areas in freshwater systems that are likely to be impacted by effluent discharges. The four tracers selected were the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine, anthropogenic gadolinium, fluorescent-dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and electrical conductivity (EC). The four tracers were monitored longitudinally in two distinct freshwater systems receiving wastewater effluents, where one site had a high level of effluent dilution (effluent <1% of total flow) and the other site had a low level of effluent dilution (effluent ?50% of total flow). At both sites, the selected tracers exhibited a similar pattern of response intensity downstream of discharge points relative to undiluted wastewater effluent, although a number of anomalies were noted between the tracers. Both EC and fDOM are non-specific to human influences, and both had a high background response, relative to the highly sensitive carbamazepine and anthropogenic gadolinium responses, although the ease of measuring EC and fDOM would make them more adaptable in highly variable systems. However, the greater sensitivity and selectivity of carbamazepine and gadolinium would make their combination with EC and fDOM as tracers of wastewater effluent discharges highly desirable to overcome potential limitations of individual tracers. PMID:23729161

Williams, Mike; Kumar, Anupama; Ort, Christoph; Lawrence, Michael G; Hambly, Adam; Khan, Stuart J; Kookana, Rai

2013-11-01

21

The removal of Direct Orange 39 by pulsed corona discharge from model wastewater.  

PubMed

Untreated wastewater from the dye industry and dyehouses cannot be directly discharged into the environment due to the high content of organic matter and intensive colouration, even with low concentrations of dye. In this paper, the application of a high voltage pulsed electrical discharge in the aqueous phase has been assessed for the dye degradation. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor using model wastewater of the commercial water-soluble monoazo dye C.I. Direct Orange 39 (DO39). The effects of zeolite and ferrous sulphate in combination with the corona discharge were examined. Experiments were conducted for a range of process parameters including pH, conductivity, type and amount of zeolite, and ferrous sulphate concentration. A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of DO39 degradation in the corona reactor was developed. Aqueous phase pulsed streamer corona discharge as a method for coloured wastewater treatment showed very high effectiveness in the case of iron salt addition (Fenton's reaction). Low pH enhanced dye removal by corona in the absence of zeolite, thus implying that the acid properties of zeolites are important in dye degradation. Ecological parameters such as COD, TC, IC, TOC and IC50 measured before and after corona treatment showed that the treated wastewater can be discharged into the environment or reused as process water. PMID:15346860

Vujevic, D; Koprivanac, N; Bozic, A Loncaric; Locke, B R

2004-07-01

22

Assessment of effluent contaminants from three facilities discharging Marcellus Shale wastewater to surface waters in Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Unconventional natural gas development in Pennsylvania has created a new wastewater stream. In an effort to stop the discharge of Marcellus Shale unconventional natural gas development wastewaters into surface waters, on May 19, 2011 the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) requested drilling companies stop disposing their wastewater through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This research includes a chemical analysis of effluents discharged from three WWTPs before and after the aforementioned request. The WWTPs sampled included two municipal, publicly owned treatment works and a commercially operated industrial wastewater treatment plant. Analyte concentrations were quanitified and then compared to water quality criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MCLs and "human health criteria." Certain analytes including barium, strontium, bromides, chlorides, total dissolved solids, and benzene were measured in the effluent at concentrations above criteria. Analyte concentrations measured in effluent samples before and after the PADEP's request were compared for each facility. Analyte concentrations in the effluents decreased in the majority of samples after the PADEP's request (p < .05). This research provides preliminary evidence that these and similar WWTPs may not be able to provide sufficient treatment for this wastewater stream, and more thorough monitoring is recommended. PMID:23458378

Ferrar, Kyle J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Christen, Charles L; Mulcahy, Ned; Malone, Samantha L; Sharma, Ravi K

2013-04-01

23

Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effect of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant. The purpose of the model was to stimulate conditions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site.

Wesolowski, E.A.

1999-09-01

24

Nitrogen transport and transformations in a shallow aquifer receiving wastewater discharge: A mass balance approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen transport and transformations were followed over the initial 3 years of development of a plume of wastewater-contaminated groundwater in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone and ammonium sorption in the saturated zone were predominant, while loss of fixed nitrogen through denitrification was minor. The major effect of transport was the oxidation of discharged organic and

Leslie A. DeSimone; Brian L. Howes

1998-01-01

25

Effect of wastewater discharge on nutrient contamination of mangrove soils and plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological impact of sewage discharges to a mangrove wetland in Futian National Nature Reserve, the People's Republic of China was assessed by comparing the plant community, plant growth and nutrient status of soils and vegetation of a site treated with settled municipal wastewater (Site A) with those of a control adjacent site (Site B) which did not receive sewage.

Y. S. Wongl; C. Y. Lan; G. Z. Chen; S. H. Li; X. R. Chen; Z. P. Liu; N. F. Y. Tam

1995-01-01

26

Biological and ecological effects of wastewater discharges from cruise ships in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Science Advisory Panel of the Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative investigated possible effects of commercial passenger vessel wastewater discharges on marine life in coastal waters of the Gulf of Alaska. The Panel concluded that due to the high dilution rates of moving cruise ships there is little likelihood of contaminant impacts to marine life in the water column, at the

A. Mearns; C. J. B. Krause; M. Stekoll; K. Hall; M. Watson; M. Atkinson

2003-01-01

27

Submarine wastewater discharges: dispersion modelling in the Northern Adriatic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope   Opposite interests must coexist in coastal areas: the presence of significant cities and urban centres, of touristic and recreational\\u000a areas, and of extensive shellfish farming. To avoid local pollution caused by treated wastewaters along the Northern Adriatic\\u000a coast (Friuli Venezia-Giulia and Veneto regions), marine outfall systems have been constructed. In this study, the application\\u000a of a

Isabella Scroccaro; Marco Ostoich; Georg Umgiesser; Francesca De Pascalis; Luigi Colugnati; Giorgio Mattassi; Marina Vazzoler; Marco Cuomo

2010-01-01

28

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138...

2009-07-01

29

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138...

2010-07-01

30

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

31

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

32

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-07-01

33

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-07-01

34

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

35

Assessment of the quality and toxicity of the discharges of a wastewater treatment plant and alternatives to improve its operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies represent a serious ecological problem worldwide. In underdeveloped and developing countries wastewater treatment plants (WTP) only count with basic treatment, leading to the pollution of important aquatic reservoirs causing critical situations. In the present work, a one year evaluation of toxicity and main physical and chemical parameters of one of the major WTP of the

Daniel Robles-Vargas; Sandra Margarita Montoya-Castillo; Francisco Javier Avelar-gonzález; Juan Jauregui-Rincón; Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Valadez; Roberto Rico-Martínez

2012-01-01

36

WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 2. SIX MILL ENGINEERING REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of wastewater and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described ...

37

Forecasting Impacts of a Hypolimnetic Wastewater Discharge on Lake Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality impacts of shifting the shoreline discharge of a major (3.5m\\/s) domestic wastewater treatment faclity (METRO) on polluted, eutrophic Onondaga Lake, NY, to a deep-water location are evaluated with three mechanistic water quality models. Transport and mixing inputs for the simulations are specified from the output of a separate hydrothermal model (Owens and Effler 1996). Model simulations indicate, that

S. M. Doerr; S. W. Effler; E. M. Owens

1996-01-01

38

Treatment of organic wastewater discharged from semiconductor manufacturing process by ultraviolet\\/hydrogen peroxide and biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the feasibility of using a two-stage process combining a photochemical oxidation process (UV\\/H2O2) and a biological fluidized-bed system to treat dilate-organic wastewater discharged from semiconductor manufacturing facilities. This combined process has the merits of decomposing recalcitrant organic chemicals into intermediate products more amenable to biodegradation, thereby achieving high degree of mineralization of organic compounds that are otherwise

W. Den; Fu-Hsiang Ko; Tiao-Yuan Huang

2002-01-01

39

Electrolytic treatment of Standard Malaysian Rubber process wastewater.  

PubMed

A new method of Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) process wastewater treatment was developed based on in situ hypochlorous acid generation. The hypochlorous acid was generated in an undivided electrolytic cell consisting of two sets of graphite as anode and stainless sheets as cathode. The generated hypochlorous acid served as an oxidizing agent to destroy the organic matter present in the SMR wastewater. For an influent COD concentration of 2960 mg/L at an initial pH 4.5+/-0.1, current density 74.5 mA/cm(2), sodium chloride content 3% and electrolysis period of 75 min, resulted in the following residual values pH 7.5, COD 87 mg/L, BOD(5) 60 mg/L, TOC 65 mg/L, total chlorine 146 mg/L, turbidity 7 NTU and temperature 48 degrees C, respectively. In the case of 2% sodium chloride as an electrolyte for the above said operating condition resulted in the following values namely: pH 7.2, COD 165 mg/L, BOD(5) 105 mg/L, TOC 120 mg/L, total chlorine 120 mg/L, turbidity 27 NTU and temperature 53 degrees C, respectively. The energy requirement were found to be 30 and 46 Wh/L, while treating 24 L of SMR wastewater at 2 and 3% sodium chloride concentration at a current density 74.5 mA/cm(2). The observed energy difference was due to the improved conductivity at high sodium chloride content. PMID:17543454

Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Yazid, Ahmad Yuzri Ahmad

2008-01-31

40

Detection of a buoyant coastal wastewater discharge using airborne hyperspectral and infrared imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal wastewater discharged into the ocean through a submerged pipe, or outfall, can rise buoyantly to the sea surface, resulting in a near-field mixing zone and, in the presence of an ambient ocean current, an extended surface plume. In this paper, data from a CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) and an airborne infrared (IR) camera are shown to detect a municipal wastewater discharge off the southeast coast of Florida, U.S.A., through its elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter plus detrital material (CDOM) and cooler sea surface temperatures. CDOM levels within a ~15-m-diameter surface 'boil' are found to be about twice those in the ambient shelf water, and surface temperatures near the boil are lower by ~0.4°C, comparable to the vertical temperature difference across the ambient water column. The CASI and IR imagery show a nearly identically shaped buoyant plume, consistent with a fully surfacing discharge, but the IR data more accurately delineate the area of most rapid dilution as compared with previous in-situ measurements. The imagery also allows identification of ambient oceanographic processes that affect dispersion and transport in the far field. This includes an alongshore front, which limits offshore dispersion of the discharge, and shoreward-propagating nonlinear internal waves, which may be responsible for an enhanced onshore transport of the discharge.

Marmorino, George O.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Miller, W. D.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

41

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553  

EPA Science Inventory

The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

42

Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.  

PubMed

Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season. PMID:20044130

Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

2010-06-01

43

Using sediment chemistry to determine the impact of treated wastewater discharge on a natural wetland in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen cores were collected from a wetland and from a stream discharging treated domestic sewage effluent, and analysed for nutrients, major and trace elements to determine the long-term effect of treated wastewater discharge on a natural wetland in the central North Island, New Zealand. Spatial and temporal distribution of Zn, Cu and Pb suggests a recent input most likely related

C. Chagué-Goff; M. Rosen

2001-01-01

44

FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

Crockett, A.B.

1994-04-01

45

Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity relating to fish in wastewaters discharged from the Vilnius treatment plant.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of untreated raw (RWW) and treated wastewaters (TWW) samples from Vilnius wastewater treatment plant was assessed using fish (rainbow trout) at different stages of development. The survival of larvae and fish exposed to RWW in short-term and longterm tests reduced, whereas gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and relative body mass increase of larvae decreased significantly. The long-term exposure of fish to TWW induced significant decreases in white blood cell count and significant increases in micronuclei in blood of treated Oncorhynchus mykiss. The physical, chemical analysis of oil products (C??-C??), benzo(a)pyrene, suspended solids, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg) in RWW demonstrated that the concentrations of xenobiotics and some heavy metals did not exceed their Maximum Permissible Concentrations in the sewerage system and concentrations of substances in TWW corresponded to their criteria for effluents discharged into receiving waters. PMID:20729589

Vosylien?, M Z; Kazlauskien?, N; Baršien?, J; Andreik?nait?, L; Milukait?, A; Taujanskis, E

2010-01-01

46

Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.  

PubMed

Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O3) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O3 which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na2B4O7 as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200min when the discharge power was 170W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na2B4O7 because B4O7(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O3. The main reason was that O3 can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

2014-08-01

47

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.  

PubMed

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose-responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios. PMID:23634582

Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

2013-03-01

48

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-?m size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose–responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios.

Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

2013-01-01

49

Significance and behaviour of heavy metals in wastewater treatment processes. IV. Water quality standards and criteria.  

PubMed

Literature on the health aspects of the presence of heavy metals in water and wastewaters is reviewed and quality standards, criteria and legislation promulgated by the World Health Organisation, European Economic Community, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Government of the U.S.S.R. are assessed and compared. It is evident from the literature that standards applied differ according to the projected water use and that although standards for potable water are generally based on human health criteria, other factors including available technology and economics may be limiting. Emphasis has been placed on the protection of raw water quality as a result of the limited ability of potable water treatment processes to remove certain heavy metals. It is apparent that limitations on heavy metals in discharges from the chlor-alkali and cadmium salts and pigments industries are more stringent in the United States than in the European Economic Community. It is concluded that the finite availability of unpolluted freshwater will result in greater water re-use and that appropriate standards are required to protect potable supply, raw water and agricultural land from contamination by heavy metals. PMID:6395340

Kirk, P W; Lester, J N

1984-12-01

50

Biological nitrogen removal from industrial wastewater discharged from metal recovery processes.  

PubMed

The wastewater generated from the processes of recovering precious metals from industrial wastes contains high concentrations of acids and alkalis such as nitric acid and aqueous ammonia, and of salts such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Biological nitrogen removal from this wastewater was attempted by using a circulating bioreactor system equipped with an anaerobic packed bed and an aerobic three-phase fluidized bed. As a result of acclimating microorganisms with change of the hydraulic residence time, this system effectively removed nitrogen from diluted wastewater (T-N: from 2,000 to 4,000 g/m3), such that the total nitrogen concentration in the effluent met the sewage discharge control criteria in Japan (240 g/m3). The removal ratio of total nitrogen was 90% to 98% and that of ammonia was 80% to 92%. In addition, the characteristic equations for biological treatment were applied to this system on the assumption that both reactions of denitrification in the anaerobic reactor and nitrification in the aerobic reactor can be approximated to a first-order reaction. This simplified approach successfully led to a new analytical method for simulating the optimum volume ratio of anaerobic reactor to aerobic reactor for minimizing the total hydraulic residence time. PMID:11547981

Hirata, A; Nakamura, Y; Tsuneda, S

2001-01-01

51

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge...AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...

2011-07-01

52

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge...AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...

2012-07-01

53

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge...AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect...

2010-07-01

54

Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

Desimone, L. A.; Howes, B. L.

1996-01-01

55

Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges.  

PubMed

The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid production, gonadosomatic indices, histology [cellular development and intersex]) were assessed upstream and downstream of two municipal discharges. Fish [Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Rainbow Darters E. caeruleum] collected downstream of two municipal wastewater plants had the potential to have greater growth (longer and heavier) when compared to reference fish collections regardless of sex. Fish were not assimilating additional anthropogenic resources into energy storage (increased condition, liver somatic index). Impacts on ovarian development appeared to be minor with no differences in growth, steroid production or cellular development. Sewage exposed male fish were experiencing impairment in the capacity to produce testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in vitro, and in cellular development (GSI, intersex). Male darters of both species collected in the upstream agricultural region demonstrated no evidence of intersex whereas our urban reference sites had incidence of intersex of up to 20%. Rates of intersex were elevated downstream of both sewage discharges studied (33% and>60%, respectively). Lower rates of intersex at the intermediate sites, and then increases downstream of second sewage discharge suggests that fish populations have to potential to recover prior to exposure to the second sewage effluent. Pre-spawning darters demonstrated dramatically higher incidence of intersex in the spring at both urban reference sites (33% and 50%, respectively), and increased more so downstream of the near-field and far-field exposure sites (60% and 100%, respectively). These findings suggest that the compounds released in STP effluents have a tendency to act on the male reproductive system. These effects may become more pronounced as projected human population growth will require the aquatic environment to assimilate an increasing amount of sewage waste. PMID:21641296

Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Shires, K; Knight, B; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

2011-08-01

56

Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.  

PubMed

A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (p<0.05) seasonal differences in wastewater influent concentrations. Removal of CECs by these wastewater treatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (p<0.05) for a range of water quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted to potentially present therapeutic hazards to fish. PMID:23988745

Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2014-01-01

57

Chemical and microbial hypotheses explaining the effect of wastewater treatment plant discharges on the nitrifying communities in freshwater sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification is a microbial key step of the nitrogen cycle, which performs the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, via nitrite. In aquatic environments, it mainly takes place in the sediment or is associated with suspended particles. Wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharges in rivers may disrupt sediment nitrification: this impact is related to nitrogen inputs (mainly NH4+ and organic nitrogen) but

Christine Féray; Bernard Montuelle

2003-01-01

58

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

59

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. he objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded "wastewater" samples u...

60

Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.  

PubMed

Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars. PMID:19542641

Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

2009-01-01

61

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

62

Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green Pond, and Bournes River. Approximately 76 percent of the total nitrate-N mass in the plume will discharge to these receptors within 100 years of 2007; 90 and 94 percent will discharge within 200 and 500 years, respectively. Nitrate loads will peak within about 50 years at all of the major receptors. The highest peak loads will occur at the Coonamessett River (450 kg per year (kg/yr) nitrate-N) and the Backus River (350 kg/yr nitrate-N). Because of adsorption, travel times are longer for ammonium than for nitrate; approximately 5 percent of the total ammonium-N mass in the plume will discharge to receptors within 100 years; 46 and 81 percent will discharge within 200 and 500 years, respectively. The simulations indicate that the Coonamessett River will receive the largest cumulative nitrogen mass and the highest rate of discharge (load). Ongoing discharge to Ashumet Pond is relatively minor because most of the wastewater plume mass has already migrated downgradient from the pond. To evaluate the contribution of the nitrogen loads from the treated-wastewater plume to total nitrogen loads to the discharge areas, the simulated treated-wastewater plume loads were compared to steady-state nonpoint-source loads calculated by the Massachusetts Estuaries Project for 2005. Simulation results indicate that the total nitrogen loads from the treated-wastewater plume are much lower than corresponding steady-state nonpoint-source loads from the watersheds; peak plume loads are equal to 11 percent or less of the nonpoint-source loads.

Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

2013-01-01

63

Assessment of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Health Indicators in Relation to Domestic Wastewater Discharges in Suburbs of Houston, USA.  

PubMed

Personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can impact aquatic organisms. Health indicators were compared for mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) collected above and below WWTP discharges from five streams in suburban areas of the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA. Specimens were evaluated for reproductive, morphological, and histological indicators. Several indicators revealed significant spatial and temporal variation; however, possibly because of their mobility, fish collected upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plants did not reveal consistent trends based on the endpoints examined. CEC concentrations in water samples from stream reaches below WWTP discharges were quantified for the first time in the Houston Metropolitan area. The 18 CECs detected in stream water had concentrations lower than values currently reported to impact fish. Future research should examine caged fish at each site and fish collected over longer stream reaches that receive successive discharges from WWTP and stronger CEC gradients. PMID:24615506

Watkins, Crystal D; Winemiller, Kirk O; Mora, Miguel A; Du, Bowen; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W; Phalen, David

2014-07-01

64

Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effects of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant. The purpose of the model was to simulate condi tions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site. To represent the unsteady streamflows and the dynamic water-quality conditions, a transport modeling system was used that included both a model to route streamflow and a model to transport dissolved conservative constituents with linkage to reaction kinetics similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to simulate nonconservative constituents. These model codes are the Diffusion Analogy Streamflow Routing Model (DAFLOW) and the branched Lagrangian transport model (BLTM) and BLTM/QUAL2E that, collectively, as calibrated models, are referred to as the Ardmore Water-Quality Model. The Ardmore DAFLOW model was calibrated with three sets of streamflows that collectively ranged from 16 to 3,456 cubic feet per second. The model uses only one set of calibrated coefficients and exponents to simulate streamflow over this range. The Ardmore BLTM was calibrated for transport by simulating dye concentrations collected during a tracer study when streamflows ranged from 16 to 23 cubic feet per second. Therefore, the model is expected to be most useful for low streamflow simulations. The Ardmore BLTM/QUAL2E model was calibrated and verified with water-quality data from nine sites where two sets of five samples were collected. The streamflow during the water-quality sampling in Caddo Creek at site 7 ranged from 8.4 to 20 cubic feet per second, of which about 5.0 to 9.7 cubic feet per second was contributed by Sand Creek. The model simulates the fate and transport of 10 water-quality constituents. The model was verified by running it using data that were not used in calibration; only phytoplankton were not verified. Measured and simulated concentrations of dissolved oxygen exhibited a marked daily pattern that was attributable to waste loading and algal activity. Dissolved-oxygen measurements during this study and simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations using the Ardmore Water-Quality Model, for the conditions of this study, illustrate that the dissolved-oxygen sag curve caused by the upstream wastewater discharges is confined to Sand Creek.

Wesolowski, Edwin A.

1999-01-01

65

Effect of wastewater discharge on greenhouse gas fluxes from mangrove soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wastewater on atmospheric fluxes of three greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from mangrove soils were investigated, and the differences among shrimp pond wastewater (SP), livestock wastewater (LS) and municipal (S) sewage were compared. The gas emissions from mangrove soils were significantly enhanced after wastewater irrigation and the highest emission of N2O

G. C. Chen; N. F. Y. Tam; Y. S. Wong; Y. Ye

2011-01-01

66

The application of zero-water discharge system in treating diffuse village wastewater and its benefits in community afforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed on-site zero-water discharge system was comprised of four main components: anaerobic tank, aerobic bioreactor, activated soil filter and water-collecting well. The results demonstrate that at 350 m3 day?1 of hydraulic load, the system can effectively remove pollutants from the wastewater, e.g., 86% removal of COD; 87% removal of SS; 80% removal of TP and 71% removal of TN. The growth

Yonghong Wu; Lizhong Xia; Zhengyi Hu; Shuzhi Liu; Hongbin Liu; Bibhash Nath; Naiming Zhang; Linzhang Yang

2011-01-01

67

The effect of turbulent strain rate on the viability of E.coli in simulated wastewater discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During storm events, release of combined sewage overflows can and does occur throughout the United States, most notably in the Great Lakes. Such overflows can deteriorate overall water quality and also lead to the closure of recreational beaches for many reasons, including due to the presence of harmful microorganisms. Here we report on how different mixing regimes created by varying the Reynolds number of simulated wastewater discharges affect the concentration and viability of microorganisms. A laboratory model was created to simulate a typical discharge containing free-floating Escherichia coli. From the experimental results, it was apparent that in the near field (five diameters from the point of discharge) the viability of E. coli was reduced as the Reynolds number of discharge increased, and such viability was more than could be explained by dilution alone. The discrepancy between observed cell viability and dilution can be attributed to the Kolmogorov strain rate. Such an effect on cell viability was only observed in the near field and did not occur in the far field, suggesting that one possible strategy to mitigate the impact of wastewater discharges, particularly that of combined sewer overflows would be to increase the Kolmogorov strain rate in the near field.

Cotel, Aline; Battani, Brian; Semrau, Jeremy

2003-11-01

68

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

Ansley, Shannon L.

2002-02-20

69

Effects of Wastewater Effluent Discharge and Treatment Facility Upgrades on Environmental and Biological Conditions of the Upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrade...

B. C. Poulton J. L. Graham M. L. Stone T. J. Rasmussen

2010-01-01

70

Definitional-mission report for a feasibility study and conceptual design for the management of domestic and industrial waste-water discharges in the city of Merida, State of Yucatan, Mexico. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The recommended project provides a good opportunity for a U.S. consulting firm to initiate the much needed municipal and industrial wastewater management facilities in Merida, State of Yucatan, Mexico and institute U.S. technology as the standard of preference for pollution control design, construction and equipment. The main objectives of the project are to: Evaluate all current data regarding wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems in the study area; Develop an Industrial Wastewater Discharge Inventory; Develop an inventory of existing domestic wastewater disposal systems; Establish baseline and future conditions; Evaluate non-conventional collection, treatment and disposal systems; Evaluate alternative wastewater management scenarios and conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of all options; Investigate financing options for the proposed project's implementation plan; Investigate cost recovery options (user's rates); Recommend a step implementation plan that is compatible with the proposed financing and cost recovery methods; and Develop technical and financial outputs that meet local standards as well as those accepted by international lending institutions.

Not Available

1992-08-01

71

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho  

PubMed Central

China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction.

Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

2012-01-01

72

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

Petrasek, Al, Jr.

73

UPGRADING FERTILIZER PRODUCTION WASTEWATER EFFLUENT QUALITY FOR AMMONIUM DISCHARGES THROUGH ION EXCHANGE WITH CLINOPTILOLITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

It had previously been shown that ammonium selective natural zeolite clinoptilolite may be used successfully as an ion exchanger for ammonium removal and nitrogen control from domestic wastewater. The process had been reported to be acceptable either by itself alone or as an upgrade. In this work, the possibility of using clinoptilolite for ammonium removal from fertilizer production wastewater was

A. D. Allar

2008-01-01

74

Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek.

Aichele, Stephen Scranton; Ellis, James M.

2000-01-01

75

Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

76

Use of pyrosequencing to explore the benthic bacterial community structure in a river impacted by wastewater treatment plant discharges.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the diversity and composition of benthic bacterial communities collected in river sediments upstream and downstream from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed notable differences between the communities from upstream and downstream sites. In particular, a higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes and a lower proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia sequences were detected at the downstream site compared to the upstream site. These findings represent a first approximation of the impact of WWTP discharges on environmental microbial communities. PMID:24732342

Marti, Elisabet; Balcázar, José Luis

2014-01-01

77

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

78

Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

Frenzel, S. A.

1990-01-01

79

Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0?g\\/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9?g\\/L. These findings indicate that several

Angela L. Batt; Ian B. Bruce; Diana S. Aga

2006-01-01

80

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology to treatment of bio-refractory wastewater. Coking wastewater contains high concentration of refractory and toxic compounds and the water quality usually cannot meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment processes. This paper initially investigated the electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. Under the experimental conditions (current density

Xiuping Zhu; Jinren Ni; Peng Lai

2009-01-01

81

The application of zero-water discharge system in treating diffuse village wastewater and its benefits in community afforestation.  

PubMed

The proposed on-site zero-water discharge system was comprised of four main components: anaerobic tank, aerobic bioreactor, activated soil filter and water-collecting well. The results demonstrate that at 350 m(3) day(-1) of hydraulic load, the system can effectively remove pollutants from the wastewater, e.g., 86% removal of COD; 87% removal of SS; 80% removal of TP and 71% removal of TN. The growth states of the grasses, macrophytes and arbors in the activated soil filter were better than the control. The life of the activated soil filter was estimated to be ~12-15 yrs, based on the laboratory microcosm studies. However, humic acid contents and soil porosity have suggested that the activated soil filter was able to regenerate itself and thereby prolonging its life by reducing clogging of the pores. The results suggest that the zero-water discharge system was a promising bio-measure in treating diffuse village wastewater and benefiting community afforestation. PMID:21575999

Wu, Yonghong; Xia, Lizhong; Hu, Zhengyi; Liu, Shuzhi; Liu, Hongbin; Nath, Bibhash; Zhang, Naiming; Yang, Linzhang

2011-10-01

82

Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

Odeh, M.

2003-01-01

83

Stricter marine pollution standards accelerate move to zero discharge rigs  

SciTech Connect

The trend toward solving pollution problems on site has accelerated the replacement and upgrading of rig equipment, specifically with the conversion of many mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) to zero discharge operations. This approach will increase as governments with jurisdiction over onshore disposal facilities grapple with the shrinking availability of land-based waste disposal facilities. Recent Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing U.S. outer continental shelf mandate compliance using the best available technology to deal with waste disposal. The determination of best is debatable and leaves the door open for requiring the continual replacement of equipment as technology improves. New regulations are being imposed so rapidly that technology is hard pressed to keep pace. This paper reports on the techniques for controlling discharges that cover two general areas: solids and liquids.

Thorson, J.A. (Global Marine Drilling Co., Houston, TX (US))

1991-12-30

84

77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...

2012-03-23

85

77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters'' (Docket No....

2012-03-23

86

Divertor target profiles and recycling studies in TCV single null lower standard discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ‘standard’, single null lower diverted discharge has been developed to enable continuous monitoring of the first wall conditions and to characterise the effectiveness and influence of wall conditioning in the TCV tokamak. Measurements over a period encompassing nearly 2000 ohmic discharges of varying configuration and input power show the global confinement time and main plasma impurity concentrations to be

R. A. Pitts; Ch. Nieswand; H. Weisen; M. Anton; R. Behn; R. F. Chavan; M. J. Dutch; B. P. Duval; S. Franke; F. Hofmann; B. Joye; J. B. Lister; X. Llobet; Y. Martin; J.-M. Moret; J. Petrzilka; Z. A. Pietrzyk; V. Piffl; P. Reinke; M. E. Rensink; G. R. Smith; W. van Toledo

1997-01-01

87

Evaluation of Effects of Wastewater Treatment Discharge on Estuarine Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report marks the completion of a two-year project focused on observed and estimated effects of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs) on estuarine water quality within the New Hampshire (NH) Seacoast region. This study was designed and carried out i...

C. H. Bolster, S. H. Jones, J. M. Bromley

2003-01-01

88

Effect of wastewater discharge on greenhouse gas fluxes from mangrove soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of wastewater on atmospheric fluxes of three greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N 2O), methane (CH 4) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from mangrove soils were investigated, and the differences among shrimp pond wastewater (SP), livestock wastewater (LS) and municipal (S) sewage were compared. The gas emissions from mangrove soils were significantly enhanced after wastewater irrigation and the highest emission of N 2O and CO 2 were obtained from SP. High N 2O emission was also found in S treatment, where fluxes varied from 13.42 to 16.78 ?mol m -2 h -1, but the CH 4 and CO 2 fluxes were as low as the control irrigated with tap water. Results of soil analyses indicated that the high N 2O emissions from mangrove soils receiving SP and S treatments were attributed to the denitrification and nitrification processes, respectively. The highest CH 4 flux was recorded in LS treatment (186.14-762.40 ?mol m -2 h -1), which also had the highest CO 2 flux. The fluxes measured during the non-irrigation period were lower than those measured 4 h after irrigation.

Chen, G. C.; Tam, N. F. Y.; Wong, Y. S.; Ye, Y.

2011-02-01

89

77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S....

2012-06-08

90

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.

2013-01-01

91

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

92

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

93

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2013-07-01

94

40 CFR 420.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.54 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2013-07-01

95

77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...allowable concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters...

2012-06-13

96

Elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge depress primary productivity in the Sacramento River and the Northern San Francisco Estuary.  

PubMed

Primary production in the Northern San Francisco Estuary (SFE) has been declining despite heavy loading of anthropogenic nutrients. The inorganic nitrogen (N) loading comes primarily from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharge as ammonium (NH(4)). This study investigated the consequences for river and estuarine phytoplankton of the daily discharge of 15 metric tons NH(4)-N into the Sacramento River that feeds the SFE. Consistent patterns of nutrients and phytoplankton responses were observed during two 150-km transects made in spring 2009. Phytoplankton N productivity shifted from NO(3) use upstream of the WTP to productivity based entirely upon NH(4) downstream. Phytoplankton NH(4) uptake declined downstream of the WTP as NH(4) concentrations increased, suggesting NH(4) inhibition. The reduced total N uptake downstream of the WTP was accompanied by a 60% decline in primary production. These findings indicate that increased anthropogenic NH(4) may decrease estuarine primary production and increase export of NH(4) to the coastal ocean. PMID:22236959

Parker, Alexander E; Dugdale, Richard C; Wilkerson, Frances P

2012-03-01

97

Modeling wastewater discharge at the planning stage of a marine outfall system.  

PubMed

The possibility of marine discharge of a negatively buoyant industrial waste was evaluated by a modeling study using Killworth 3-D, which is the first version of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM). The Model was run with the recorded wind direction and speed on the cruise dates and the circulation patterns for surface and subsurface were found to be similar with the current meter measurements. Model scenarios have been set-up in order to estimate the intensity and direction of the currents in the Nemrut Bay under the condition of wind blowing from a definite direction for a long time. MOM model has been run for four major wind directions, each having duration of 10 days and the behavior of the discharge plume in the worst case has been traced. Also, the behavior of the discharge plume in the real case has been estimated by using the wind data of the region. According to the model results, impact of trace elements that compose the discharge effluent is limited both in time and space. It is concluded that trace elements will leave the Bay in a short time due to the short residence times. PMID:21713476

Esen, Esin; Sayin, Erdem; Uslu, Orhan; Eronat, Canan

2012-05-01

98

The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska’s Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both

Lincoln C. Loehr; C.-J. Beegle-Krause; Kenwyn George; Charles D. McGee; Alan J. Mearns; Marlin J. Atkinson

2006-01-01

99

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ??g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ??g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 ??g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 ??g/L The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Glassmeyer, S. T.; Furlong, E. T.; Kolpin, D. W.; Cahill, J. D.; Zaugg, S. D.; Werner, S. L.; Meyer, M. T.; Kryak, D. D.

2005-01-01

100

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

Schwing, Carl M.

101

Modeling wastewater discharge at the planning stage of a marine outfall system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of marine discharge of a negatively buoyant industrial waste was evaluated by a modeling study using Killworth\\u000a 3-D, which is the first version of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM). The Model was run with the recorded wind direction and speed\\u000a on the cruise dates and the circulation patterns for surface and subsurface were found to be similar with

Esin Esen; Erdem Sayin; Orhan Uslu; Canan Eronat

102

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12ngL(-1) in the influent and 6ngL(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450nm) the mean values were 3.3?gL(-1) for influent and 0.08?gL(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14mgkg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11?gkg(-1)yr(-1) to the top 20cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1ngL(-1) range but levels up to 4ngL(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50ngL(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135ngL(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

2014-10-01

103

Impact of urban wastewater discharges on the sediments of a small Mediterranean river and associated coastal environment: assessment of estrogenic and dioxin-like activities.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean region includes many small coastal rivers about which little is known concerning organic contaminant loads in their sediment. This study was designed to assess organic contamination in one of these small coastal rivers (Lez River) and associated coastal sediments. Levels of alkylphenols (APs), polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments of the Lez River and two coastal lagoons impacted by wastewater discharges. In parallel, sediment surrounding a recently built submarine outfall that discharges treated wastewater, from an area encompassing some 450,000 inhabitants, into the sea was monitored a year after the beginning of emission via the outfall. Finally, these sediments were characterized by screening estrogenic, PAH-like and dioxin-like activities using in vitro bioassays. Both chemical analyses and bioassays revealed that wastewater inputs were a source of organic contamination of sediments from the Lez and lagoons, which still persisted 2 years after the discharges were stopped. APs could explain a small proportion of the overall estrogenic activities (up to 31%), suggesting that other estrogenic compounds were also present in the sediments. PAHs explained a great share (83% on average) of the EROD induction potency of the extracts. This survey should be the first step in the long-term monitoring of these sites. PMID:20162265

David, A; Gomez, E; Aït-Aïssa, S; Rosain, D; Casellas, C; Fenet, H

2010-04-01

104

Sanitary wastewater management, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

... various alternatives for the effective treatment and management of domestic wastewater discharges ... the proposed action are to establish primary treatment of the wastewater through maceration and ...

105

Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, and Coliphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Near La Pine, Oregon: Occurrence and Implications for Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of personal care products and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and f...

S. R. Hinkle R. J. Weick J. M. Johnson J. D. Cahill S. G. Smith

2005-01-01

106

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

Mason, George J.

107

77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast...collection approval for the Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS)...

2012-09-10

108

The behaviour and fate of Nitrate and Phosphate present in treated wastewater when discharged to the Chalk aquifer of SE England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chalk aquifer of South East England is a major groundwater resource and regionally supplies up to 70% of all water abstracted for potable purposes. The two main pressures on groundwater resources are considered to be climate change and population growth. As the demand for water increases, so does the volume of wastewater that has to be treated to acceptable levels before being discharged back into the environment. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is form of groundwater resource management whereby water is pumped or injected into the ground and allowed to percolate through to the saturated zone before being abstracted at a later date. By injecting water into the ground during periods of high precipitation (i.e. winter months) an increased volume of water is made available for later abstraction (i.e. during summer months) helping water resource planners better manage the supply demand balance. In the case of using treated wastewater as a source for artificial recharge, there is little published research on the behaviour and fate of the main contaminants of concern that are found in treated wastewater when they are discharged to the principal aquifer (the Chalk) of SE England. Nitrate and Phosphate are listed (amongst others) as the main contaminants of concern that are present in treated wastewater and discharged to the Chalk aquifer when this practice occurs. The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of treated wastewater for artificial recharge has been extensively studied in both the field and laboratory to better assess how sustainable this practice is in terms of risk of pollution to the groundwater body. The results of the laboratory programme include breakthrough curves for Nitrate and Phosphate in the Chalk matrix under unsaturated and saturated conditions. Whilst Nitrate is shown not to be sorbed in the Chalk matrix, a proportion of the Phosphate is shown to be retained. The proportion of Phosphate that is retained is less than the total retention capacity of the Chalk matrix and the mechanisms that control this are reported. The laboratory and field data will be compared and geochemical models used to upscale to catchment level. This will allow for a better assessment of the risk of pollution occurring at the groundwater body and how sustainable the use of treated wastewater is as a source for ASR in Chalk catchments to be made.

Phillips, Richard; Smith, Martin; Pope, David

2013-04-01

109

40 CFR 421.44 - Standards of performance for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.44 Standards of performance...source performance standards: There shall be discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable...

2013-07-01

110

Standardizing admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate how hospital capacity was managed focusing on standardizing the admission and discharge processes. Methods This study was set in a 900-bed university affiliated hospital of the National Health Service, near Barcelona (Spain). This is a cross-sectional study of a set of interventions which were gradually implemented between April and December 2008. Mainly, they were focused on standardizing the admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow. Primary administrative data was obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Hospital Database. Main outcome measures were median length of stay, percentage of planned discharges, number of surgery cancellations and median number of delayed emergency admissions at 8:00?am. For statistical bivariate analysis, we used a Chi-squared for linear trend for qualitative variables and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and a Mann–Whitney test for non-normal continuous variables. Results The median patients’ global length of stay was 8.56?days in 2007 and 7.93?days in 2009 (p?discharges went from 43.05% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p?standardization of admission and discharge processes are largely in our control. There is a significant opportunity to create important benefits for increasing bed capacity and hospital throughput.

2012-01-01

111

40 CFR 466.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory...discharge of process wastewater pollutants from all porcelain enameling coating operations shall not exceed the values set forth...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 466.23 - New source performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory...discharge of process wastewater pollutants from all porcelain enameling coating operations shall not exceed the values set forth...

2010-07-01

113

Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.  

PubMed

Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 ?g L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 ?g L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 ?g L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 ?g L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 ?g L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged. PMID:23994821

Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

2014-01-01

114

Average recovery time from a standardized intravenous sedation protocol and standardized discharge criteria in the general dental practice setting.  

PubMed Central

Intravenous sedation has been used in dentistry for many years because of its perceived advantages over general anesthesia, including shorter recovery times. However, there is limited literature available on recovery from intravenous dental sedation, particularly in the private general practice setting. The aim of this study was to describe the recovery times when sedation was conducted in private dental practice and to consider this in relation to age, weight, procedure type, and procedure time. The data were extracted from the intravenous sedation records available with 1 general anesthesia-trained dental practitioner who provides ambulatory sedation services to a number of private general dental practices in the Perth, Western Australia Metropolitan Area. Standardized intravenous sedation techniques as well as clear standardized discharge criteria were utilized. The sedatives used were fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol. Results from 85 patients produced an average recovery time of 19 minutes. Recovery time was not associated with the type or length of dental procedures performed.

Lepere, A. J.; Slack-Smith, L. M.

2002-01-01

115

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

Barry, J.P. [J. P. Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

116

Prediction of the effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant of CASP using gray model and neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWWTP) is put into operation, variations of the wastewater quantity and quality\\u000a must be predicted using mathematical models to assist in operating the wastewater treatment plant such that the treated effluent\\u000a will be controlled and meet discharge standards. In this study, three types of gray model (GM) including GM (1, N), GM (1, 1),

Home-Ming Chen; Shang-Lien Lo

2010-01-01

117

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

2010-01-01

118

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2010-07-01

119

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2011-07-01

120

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2011-07-01

121

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2012-07-01

122

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2012-07-01

124

ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTEWATERS ON REDEAR SUNFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Static bioassays of 24 hours' duration were performed on samples of wastewaters provided by 22 domestic petroleum refiners. These wastewaters represent three types of water discharges prevalent to this industry: process wastewaters prior to dilution with other streams; API separa...

125

Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.  

PubMed

In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production. PMID:24759540

Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

2014-01-01

126

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

Petrasek, Al, Jr.

127

The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments.  

PubMed

We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r(2)=0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production "saturated". The ?(15)N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast. PMID:23838414

Burd, B; Macdonald, T; Bertold, S

2013-09-15

128

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

Barry, J.P. [J.P. Barry Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

129

[Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].  

PubMed

Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward. PMID:24015572

Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

2013-05-01

130

Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). Revised May 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Santa Ana River in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native...

H. M. Oliver J. A. Jenkins R. O. Draugelis-Dale S. A. Sobiech S. L. Goodbred

2009-01-01

131

Spatial and temporal extension of eutrophication associated with shrimp farm wastewater discharges in the New Caledonia lagoon.  

PubMed

Shrimp farming in New Caledonia typically uses a flow-through system with water exchange rates as a tool to maintain optimum hydrological and biological parameters for the crop. Moreover, the effluent shows hydrobiological characteristics (minerals, phytoplankton biomass and organic matter) significantly higher than that of the receiving environment. Separate surveys were carried out in a bay (CH Bay) with a medium-size intensive farm (30 ha) (PO) and in a mangrove-lined creek (TE Creek) near a larger semi-intensive farm (133 ha) (SO). Net loads of nitrogen exported from the semi-intensive farm and the intensive farm amounted to 0.68 and 1.36 kg ha(-1)day(-1), respectively. At CH Bay, discharge effects were spatially limited and clearly restricted to periods of effluent release. The high residence time at site TE favoured the installation of a feedback system in which organic matter was not exported. Mineralization of organic matter led to the release of nutrients, which in turn, caused in an increased eutrophication of this ecosystem. The study of the pico- and nanophytoplankton assemblages showed (i) a shift in composition from picophytoplankton to nanophytoplankton from offshore towards the coast and (ii) a shift within the picophytoplankton with the disappearance of Prochlorococcus and the increase of picoeucaryotes towards the shoreline. These community changes may partially be related to a nitrogen enrichment of the environment by shrimp farm discharges. Thus, in view of the recent addition of the New Caledonian lagoon to the UNESCO World Heritage list, the data presented here could be a first approach to quantify farm discharges and evaluate their impact on the lagoon. PMID:20667556

Thomas, Yoann; Courties, Claude; El Helwe, Yasmin; Herbland, Alain; Lemonnier, Hugues

2010-01-01

132

Volatile emissions from wastewater are regulated, too  

SciTech Connect

Increasing concern about the health effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air has resulted in a comprehensive attempt to regulate all sources of VOC emissions. Several recent regulatory initiatives address not only industrial processes that emit VOCs, but waste streams including process wastewater. Until recently, facilities could discharge aqueous waste streams that contained VOCs to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), or to onsite treatment or pretreatment facilities, with no regard as to whether those processes treated the VOCs or simply vented them to the atmosphere. With several recent regulatory initiatives--the Benzene in Waste Operations National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Neshap) and the Hazardous Organics Neshap (HONM; box, right)--US regulators have begun targeting wastewater as a source of air emissions. Such agencies are continuing to develop a multimedia approach to eliminate the discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere.

Jagiella, T.C. (Environmental Science Engineering, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)); Klickman, M.W. (Environmental Science Engineering, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-06-01

133

Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.  

PubMed

This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 ?g L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 ?g L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater. PMID:24185070

Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

2013-01-01

134

Method for detection of NO x in exhaust gases by pulsed discharge measurements using standard zirconia-based lambda sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a measurement approach to differentiate reliably exhaust gas components using standard zirconia-based thimble-type potentiometric lambda sensors. A self-discharge characteristic after applying different voltage pulses between the sensor electrodes is used as a measurement parameter which depends on the gas component and its concentration in the exhaust. The detection of NO in the lower ppm range is demonstrated. In

S. Fischer; R. Pohle; B. Farber; R. Proch; J. Kaniuk; M. Fleischer; R. Moos

2010-01-01

135

Partitioning of endocrine disrupting compounds in inland waters and wastewaters discharged into the coastal area of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  In the Water Framework Directive 2000\\/60\\/EC, environmental objectives for the proper quality of inland, surface, transitional,\\u000a coastal, and ground waters have been set. Member states are required to identify chemical pollutants of significance in the\\u000a water bodies, to establish emission control measures, and to achieve quality standards. A specific category of pollutants\\u000a are the compounds that may

Anastasia Arditsoglou; Dimitra Voutsa

2010-01-01

136

Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1975-01-01

137

Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1976-01-01

138

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

139

TREATMENT OF OILY WASTEWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Oily wastewaters are generated in many industrial processes, such as petroleum refining, petrochemical, food, leather and\\u000a metal finishing. Fats, oils and greases (FOG’s) present in these wastewaters have to be removed before the water can be reused\\u000a in a closed-loop process or discharged into the sewer system or to surface waters. These oily waters are mainly in the form\\u000a of

JOSÉ COCA; GEMMA GUTIÉRREZ; JOSÉ M. BENITO

140

Rates of Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Vicinity of a Coal-Coking Wastewater Discharge  

PubMed Central

To facilitate predictions of the transport and fate of contaminants at future coal conversion facilities, rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected in the vicinity of a coal-coking treated wastewater discharge from November 1977 through August 1979. Six radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were incubated with sediment and water samples; 14CO2, cell-bound 14C, and polar transformation products were isolated and quantified. Whereas 14CO2 and bound 14C were major transformation products in sediment assays, soluble polar 14C dominated transformation in water samples. Mean rate constants (measured at 20°C) in sediments collected downstream from the effluent outfall were 7.8 × 10?2 h?1 (naphthalene), 1.6 × 10?2 h?1 (anthracene), and 3.3 × 10?3 h?1 [benz(a)anthracene], which corresponded to turnover times of 13, 62, and 300 h, respectively. No unequivocal evidence for transformation of benzo(a)pyrene or dibenz(a,h)anthracene was obtained. Only naphthalene and anthracene transformations were observed in water samples; rate constants were consistently 5- and 20-fold lower, respectively, than in the corresponding sediment samples. The measured rate constants for anthracene transformation in July 1978 sediment samples were not related to total heterotroph numbers. In late July 1978, the effluent was diverted from the primary study area; however, no differences were observed either in transformation rate constants or in the downstream/upstream sediment rate constant ratio. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continuous inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons result in an increased ability within a microbial community to utilize certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because transformation rates remained elevated for more than 1 year after removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source, microbial communities may shift only slowly in response to changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations.

Herbes, Stephen E.

1981-01-01

141

Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

Alvarez, D. A.; Stackelberg, P. E.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Furlong, E. T.; Zaugg, S. D.; Meyer, M. T.

2005-01-01

142

McMurdo's Wastewater-dispersion  

NSF Publications Database

... of Wastewater Released from Submerged and Surface Discharges at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Steven F ... discharged directly to the ice-covered ocean surface, the common practice at Antarctic stations. As ...

143

Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

144

Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

145

Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

146

Risk assessment of wastewater disinfection  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the following: detailed examination of the risks of different types of wastewater disinfection used today; risks of onsite use, transportation, and discharge of disinfected effluents; and disinfection methods considered include chlorination, chlorination/dechlorination, ozonation, UV radiation.

Hulby, D.; Chappell, W.; Lanning, J.; Maltempo, M.; Chiras, D.; Morris, J.

1985-01-01

147

40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...you must * * * 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite treatment i. Maintain records identifying each wastewater stream and documenting...Hard pipe the entire wastewater stream to onsite treatment as a hazardous...

2010-07-01

148

THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CASE FOR ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical domestic wastewater treatment system is a centralized municipal-sized facility that treats wastewater to specified discharge limits, to protect human health and the environment. Yet 10 percent of wastewater generated in the U.S. is not treated in a centralized system, but rather in small systems receiving wastewater from single and multiple dwellings and small commercial establishments. Most of these

B. R. Bradley; G. T. Daigger; R. Rubin; G. Tchobanoglous

149

An Evaluation of Metal Removal During Wastewater Treatment: The Potential to Achieve More Stringent Final Effluent Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals are of particular importance in relation to water quality, and concern regarding the impact of these contaminants on biodiversity is being encapsulated within the latest water-related legislation such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe and criteria revisions to the Clean Water Act in the United States. This review undertakes an evaluation of the potential of 2-stage wastewater treatment

D. Ziolko; O. V. Martin; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester

2011-01-01

150

Alaska Wastewater Treatment Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment has been made of wastewater treatment technology in Alaska. Some of the larger municipalities such as Juneau and Fairbanks have biological treatment plants that are meeting secondary standards. By the middle of 1976, the pipeline camps and p...

R. A. Johnson

1978-01-01

151

Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

Ward, R. D.

1974-01-01

152

TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: DINOSEB AND ATRAZINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies of the treatability of pesticide manufacturing wastewaters, in an investigation of the suitability of individual pesticide manufacturing wastewaters for discharge to biological treatment systems, whether on site or publicly...

153

Hazardous Waste and Wastewater Characterization Survey, Columbus AFB, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wastewater characterization and hazardous waste survey was conducted to address problems concerning the discharge of industrial wastes to the sanitary sewer system and subsequently to the base wastewater treatment plant. The treatment plant is authorize...

A. T. Zimmer F. E. Slavich R. A. Tetla

1988-01-01

154

TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies on the biological treatability of wastewaters from the manufacture of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide. At concentration levels representative of EBDC production units and total plant wastewaters discharged to pu...

155

Stroke - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... fibrillation - discharge; Cardioembolic stroke - discharge; Brain bleeding - discharge; Brain hemorrhage - discharge; Stroke - hemorrhagic - discharge; Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease - discharge; Cerebrovascular accident - discharge

156

Modeling trihalomethane formation potential from wastewater chlorination. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The deletion of federally mandated fecal coliform limits has led many states to review and modify their wastewater disinfection requirements. One issue in analyzing wastewater disinfection is the discharge of potentially carcinogenic halogenated organics formed during the chlorination process. This research investigates the formation of one class of the halogenated organics, the trihalomethanes. The applicability of using drinking water trihalomethane formation models for use with wastewater effluent is examined. Three models are compared for predictive capability by using measured trihalomethane values from previous research data. The results show that a previously developed model is applicable for use based on assumptions stated. Results provide environmental managers with worst case predictions for a range of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) parameters. Predictions indicate that trihalomethane formation from the chlorination of wastewater is typically lower than the Safe Drinking Water Act trihalomethane standard of 100 ug/L. The worst case model predictions reach, and in certain extreme cases, pass the standard of 100 ug/L. This level of trihalomethanes formed is minimized if aeration of the receiving bodies of water occurs. Based on this research, the risk of forming trihalomethanes as disinfection by-products from chlorination do not outweigh the benefits gained from proper chlorine disinfection of effluent.

McCormick, C.A.

1994-09-01

157

Study of atmospheric discharges caracteristics using with a standard video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study is showed some preliminary statistics on lightning characteristics such as: flash multiplicity, number of ground contact points, formation of new and altered channels and presence of continuous current in the strokes that form the flash. The analysis is based on the images of a standard video camera (30 frames.s-1). The results obtained for some flashes will be compared to the images of a high-speed CCD camera (1000 frames.s-1). The camera observing site is located in São José dos Campos (23°S,46° W) at an altitude of 630m. This observational site has nearly 360° field of view at a height of 25m. It is possible to visualize distant thunderstorms occurring within a radius of 25km from the site. The room, situated over a metal structure, has water and power supplies, a telephone line and a small crane on the roof. KEY WORDS: Video images, Lightning, Multiplicity, Stroke.

Ferraz, E. C.; Saba, M. M. F.

158

40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions. ...wastewater streams that contain styrene when conducting performance tests for the purposes of calculating the required mass...

2013-07-01

159

Uncertainty analysis of the simulations of effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two separate studies to simulate the effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, have been completed. In the first study, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. In the second study, the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model was verified for ice-cover conditions. To better understand and apply the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model, the uncertainty associated with simulated constituent concentrations and property values was analyzed and quantified using the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model-Uncertainty Analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation and first-order error analysis methods were used to analyze the uncertainty in simulated values for six constituents and properties at sites 5, 10, and 14 (upstream to downstream order). The constituents and properties analyzed for uncertainty are specific conductance, total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-cover conditions and ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-free conditions, and dissolved oxygen. Results are given in detail for both the ice-cover and ice-free conditions for specific conductance, total ammonia, and dissolved oxygen. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the simulated constituent concentrations and property values to input variables differ substantially between ice-cover and ice-free conditions. During ice-cover conditions, simulated specific-conductance values are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values upstream of site 10 and the point-source specific-conductance values downstream of site 10. These headwater-source and point-source specific-conductance values also are the key sources of uncertainty. Simulated total ammonia concen- trations are most sensitive to the point-source total ammonia concentrations at all three sites. Other input variables that contribute substantially to the variability of simulated total ammonia concentrations are the headwater-source total ammonia and the instream reaction coefficient for biological decay of total ammonia to total nitrite. Simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at all three sites are most sensitive to headwater-source dissolved-oxygen concentration. This input variable is the key source of variability for simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at sites 5 and 10. Headwater-source and point-source dissolved-oxygen concentrations are the key sources of variability for simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations at site 14. During ice-free conditions, simulated specific-conductance values at all three sites are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values. Headwater-source specific- conductance values also are the key source of uncertainty. The input variables to which total ammonia and dissolved oxygen are most sensitive vary from site to site and may or may not correspond to the input variables that contribute the most to the variability. The input variables that contribute the most to the variability of simulated total ammonia concentrations are point-source total ammonia, instream reaction coefficient for biological decay of total ammonia to total nitrite, and Manning's roughness coefficient. The input variables that contribute the most to the variability of simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations are reaeration rate, sediment oxygen demand rate, and headwater-source algae as chlorophyll a.

Wesolowski, E. A.

1996-01-01

160

Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) wastewater by internal electrolysis--biological contact oxidation process.  

PubMed

Surfactant wastewater is usually difficult to treat due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. A separate physico-chemical or biochemical treatment method achieves a satisfactory effect with difficulty. In this study, treatment of the wastewater collected from a daily chemical plant by the combination processes of Fe/C internal electrolysis and biological contact oxidation was investigated. For the internal electrolysis process, the optimal conditions were: pH = 4-5, Fe/C = (10-15):1, air-water ratio = (10-20):1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT)= 2 h. For the biological contact oxidation process, the optimal conditions were: HRT = 12 h, DO = 4.0-5.0 mg/L. Treated by the above combined processes, the effluent could meet the I-grade criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The results provide valuable information for full-scale linear alkylbenzene sulfonate wastewater treatment. PMID:22053469

Cao, X Z; Li, Y M

2011-01-01

161

Municipal wastewater treatment through an aerobic biofilm SBR integrated with a submerged filtration bed.  

PubMed

A biofilm reactor and a gravitational filtration bed were integrated as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to aerobically treat a municipal wastewater. Polyacrylonitrile balls (50 mm diameter, 90% porosity) were filled into the upper part of the SBR as biofilm attaching materials and anthracite coal (particle size approximately 1.17 mm) was placed into the lower part as filter media. The SBR was aerated during filling and reaction phases, followed by a 10 min discharge phase during which the wastewater went through the filtration bed without aeration. The SBR was tested with raw wastewater from a municipal WWTP in Wuhan, China from July 2006 to January 2007, during both a warm season and a cold season. The SBR showed a capability to accept COD and turbidity fluctuations in the receiving wastewater. Seasonal influence on COD and nitrogen removal by the biofilm reactor was significant. Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were limited by COD levels in the wastewater. The filtration process removed considerable COD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity. The overall SBR effluent quality consistently satisfied the national secondary effluent discharge standard of China, except for total phosphorus. An anaerobic phase before the aerobic reaction is proposed to improve phosphorus and nitrogen removal. The filter normally required a backwash every seven days and the water needed for backwash was less than 4% of the wastewater treated by the SBR. This experiment provides information needed for further investigation to improve performance of the SBR. PMID:19273890

Yang, Kai; He, Jiajie; Dougherty, Mark; Yang, Xiaojun; Li, Lu

2009-01-01

162

Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation. PMID:17897694

Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

2008-02-01

163

Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment  

PubMed Central

The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry.

2014-01-01

164

Skimming oily wastewater  

SciTech Connect

As large generators of oily wastewater tighten effluent controls, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is targeting smaller generators. Some of the firms receiving their attention are smaller manufacturing plants, automotive garages, mobile equipment service shops and truck farms. Many of these firms do not have access to a sanitary sewer system that will accept oily wastewater. One EPA concern is that oily wastewater will find its way into an underground aquifer that is a source of drinking water. Many oily wastes contain organic and inorganic chemicals in concentrations that exceed the primary drinking water standards established by the Safe Drinking Water Act. So the focus of one EPA program is aimed at preventing contamination of groundwater by controlling oil wastewater at the generator`s site.

Hobson, T.

1996-10-01

165

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Laposata, Mark

166

Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year. PMID:19273902

Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

2009-01-01

167

Microalgae and wastewater treatment  

PubMed Central

Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

2012-01-01

168

Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continuing depletion of fresh water resources, focus has shifted more toward water recovery, reuse, and recycling, which require an extension of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Downstream external factors like stricter compliance requirements for wastewater discharge, rising treatment costs, and spatial constraints necessitate renewed investigation of alternative technologies. Coupled with biological treatment processes, membrane technology has gained considerable attention due

C. Visvanathan; R. Ben Aim; K. Parameshwaran

2000-01-01

169

TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATIONS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A policy to develop water-quality-based permit limitations for toxic pollutants entering treatment plants is being developed because, even with efficient removal of conventional pollutants, significant amounts of toxic substances are being discharged through the Nation's wastewat...

170

Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence and behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Hospital wastewater in Hanoi is usually not treated and this untreated wastewater is directly discharged into one of the wastewater channels of the city and eventually reaches the ambient aquatic environment. The concentrations of the FQs, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) in six hospital

Hong Anh Duong; Ngoc Ha Pham; Hoang Tung Nguyen; Thi Thuong Hoang; Hung Viet Pham; Van Ca Pham; Michael Berg; Walter Giger; Alfredo C. Alder

2008-01-01

171

Combined Magnetic Field and Electrocoagulation Process for Suspended Solid Removal from Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative, cheap and effective methods of purifying and cleaning wastewater before discharging into any other water systems are needed. This paper study combined magnetic field and EC technology for removal suspended solid in wastewater treatment. The synthetic wastewater was treated in a batch mode by magnetic field combined with electrocoagulation. Wastewater sample was prepared from milk powder with a concentration

Fadil Othman; Johan Sohaili; Zulfa Fauzia

2006-01-01

172

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...phthalate 279 103 Carbon Tetrachloride 38...Total Zinc for Rayon Fiber Manufacture that uses the viscose process and Acrylic Fiber Manufacture that uses the...

2009-07-01

173

Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water\\/wastewater (W\\/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses

Baiyang Chen; Youngil Kim; Paul Westerhoff

2011-01-01

174

Evaluation of onsite wastewater treatment technologies using sustainable development criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The typical domestic wastewater treatment system is a centralized municipal-sized facility that treats wastewater to specified\\u000a discharge limits, to protect human health and the environment. Yet 10% of wastewater generated in the U.S. is not treated\\u000a in a centralized system, but rather in small systems receiving wastewater from single and multiple dwellings and small commercial\\u000a establishments. Most of these

Barbara R. Bradley; Glen T. Daigger; Robert Rubin; George Tchobanoglous

2002-01-01

175

The Impact of Imposing a Water Quality Standard on a Live Stream.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation is presented of the influence of water quality standards on the planning and development of a river basin and on the treatment requirements for wastewater discharges. The Big Sioux River in eastern South Dakota was selected for a case study ...

J. N. Dornbush J. R. Andersen J. Herreid D. J. Naughton K. L. Rakness

1971-01-01

176

Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.  

PubMed

It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated. PMID:19955626

Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

2009-01-01

177

[Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].  

PubMed

As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery. PMID:24946624

Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

2014-04-01

178

[Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed. PMID:21717746

Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

2011-04-01

179

Wastewater Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wastewater Management: EPA's page from the Office of Wastewater Management (OWM) contains many articles focusing on control of water that is collected in discrete conveyances (also called point sources), including pipes, ditches, and sanitary or storm sewers while adhereing to the Clean Water Act.

2008-10-07

180

Wastewater Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

1978-01-01

181

COD fractionation and biological treatability of mixed industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at a centralized wastewater treatment plant that receives discharges from nearly 160 industries. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was fractionated for two objectives: delineation of the limits of the activated sludge process being used at the plant, and evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the treated effluent. Physico-chemical analyses, respirometric and biodegradation tests, as well as COD fractionation were carried out. Molasses-wastewaters were determined to be the major contribution to the plant. The influent was dark brown in color, with a relatively high content of both organics (2503 mg/L COD) and salts (5459 ?S/cm conductivity), but a low biochemical oxygen demand (568 mg/L BOD(5)) and BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.24). The degradability of the organics was limited by the high content of inert soluble COD (S(I)). The COD fractionation pattern was 40-20-40% for S(I), X(I) (inerts) and S(H) (soluble hydrolyzable), respectively. More than 90% BOD(5) removal was obtained, which was sufficient for the plant to meet the national Standards. However, the effluent discharged into the river was intensely colored and polluted (>1000 mg/L COD, >5000 ?S/cm), emphasizing the need for legislation regulating COD, color and salinity, and for upgraded treatment methods worldwide for molasses wastewaters. PMID:22996003

Fall, C; Millán-Lagunas, E; Bâ, K M; Gallego-Alarcón, I; García-Pulido, D; Díaz-Delgado, C; Solís-Morelos, C

2012-12-30

182

Performance of COD removal from oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater using iron electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the feasibility of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement from oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater. The process variables, including applied voltage, electrolyte concentration and temperature, were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and temperature on electric energy consumption were evaluated. Under the optimum balance of variables, satisfactory COD removal efficiency and relatively low energy consumption were achieved. The optimum electrolyte concentration, applied voltage, and temperature were found to be 200 mg/L NaCl, 20 V, and 25 degrees C, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD concentration in oxide-CMP wastewater decreased by more than 90%, resulting a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg/L). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. COD removal rates obtained during the electrocoagulation process can be described using a pseudo-kinetic model. The present study results show that the kinetic data fit the pseudo first-order kinetic model well. Finally, the morphology and composition of the sludge produced were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectra (EDS). PMID:19847717

Wang, Chih-Ta; Chou, Wei-Lung

2009-10-01

183

Towards a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment and disposal.  

PubMed

We propose a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment systems and use it to quantitatively compare the performance of Chilean wine-making operations. The benchmarking model integrates three components: the influent characteristics, the wastewater treatment alternatives, and the location constraints. Four performance levels may be defined when plotting the available data of the wine production versus the ratio of wastewater to wine, for the French, US, and Chilean industries. Knowing where a certain system lies in this diagram helps to quantify the gap between the current and a target performance, and to set performance goals for planned expansions. The analysis of construction and operating costs of treatment systems currently in operation in Chile shows that similar compliance levels can be achieved at remarkably different costs. A steep decrease in the unitary cost is observed as wastewater flow increases; yet, the treatment alternative for achieving that cost may change. Further selection is obtained when location constraints are considered, including stringent discharge standards and proximity to urban settlements. The application of this simple benchmark model to three Chilean winery facilities shows how it produces meaningful quantitative and qualitative results. However, there is still ample room to improve this benchmarking model by considering additional complexity, including technical detail in the treatment options and costs related to technology conversion. PMID:17849990

Aybar, M; Carvallo, M; Fabacher, F; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

2007-01-01

184

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-01-01

185

Organic contaminants of emerging concern in sediments and flatfish collected near outfalls discharging treated wastewater effluent to the Southern California Bight.  

PubMed

To investigate the occurrence and bioaccumulation of organic contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) near four major wastewater ocean outfalls in the Southern California Bight, more than 75 pharmaceutical and personal care products, current-use pesticides, and industrial/commercial chemicals were analyzed in sediment and liver tissues of hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although most CECs targeted were infrequently detected or not detectable, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate) were detected in all sediments at median (maximum) concentrations of 5.1 (8.6), 30 (380), and 121 (470) µg/kg, respectively. In the liver, 4-NP and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99 were detected in >90% of samples at median (maximum) concentrations of 85 (290) and 210 (480) µg/kg, respectively. The sedative diazepam was detected in all liver samples, but was infrequently detected in sediments. Sediment and liver concentrations across outfall locations ranged over several orders of magnitude and were elevated relative to a reference site. Relative to sediment, accumulation in liver of PBDEs 47 and 99 was comparable to that for legacy organochlorines, confirming their high bioaccumulation potential and suggesting their inclusion in future tissue monitoring studies. Mean tissue PBDE and diazepam concentrations were higher in livers from male versus female P. verticalis, suggesting that gender differences also be considered in designing such studies. PMID:22987513

Maruya, Keith A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Kwon, Jeong W; Xia, Kang; Armbrust, Kevin L

2012-12-01

186

Treatment of wastewater from paracetamol factory by using non-thermal plasma and active carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-thermal plasma combined with activated carbon was developed to purify wastewater from paracetamol factory. The effect of discharge time, discharge voltage, initial pH value of wastewater, velocity of the air flow and whether adding activated carbon on the COD degradation and decolorization ratio were investigated. It was found that as discharge time prolonged, decolorization ratio decreased but the COD degradation

Ming-gong Chen; Fang Zhang; Can Cui; Xia Liao; Jing Chen; Jun-feng Rong; Dong-xu Yu

2011-01-01

187

Microalgae and wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The performance of microalgae aquaculture wastewater treatment system predominated mainly by Scenedesmus and Chlorella was assessed. Treatment induced a progressive reduction in both COD and BOD to values below the discharge limits. Different patterns were obtained for removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, and ammonia; however, the algal culture efficiencies reached 100% in their removal by the end of the treatment period. The applied aquatic systems demonstrated percentage reduction of heavy metals in the range between 52.3 and 100% in the batch system and 64.2 and 100% in the continuous system. Wastewater supported algal growth by inducing the incorporation of a significantly higher content of the individual amino acids Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, and Tyr, and a markedly higher level of Pro. However, His, Lys, and Arg were markedly reduced compared to their levels in synthetic-medium-grown algae. PMID:7498057

Hammouda, O; Gaber, A; Abdel-Raouf, N

1995-08-01

188

Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast and the influence of land use, storm water discharge, and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification. PMID:23849955

Dodder, Nathan G; Maruya, Keith A; Lee Ferguson, P; Grace, Richard; Klosterhaus, Susan; La Guardia, Mark J; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Ramirez, Juan

2014-04-30

189

Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the bay, in the Pacific Ocean, or on land. Also, wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse concepts seem to be growing in favor with the public and should become and important part of future wastewater-management plans. Because most wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse systems would involve the use of land (that is agricultural irrigation, ground-water recharge, recreational reservoirs) local and regional lang-use planners can ass much to wastewater-management planning by identifying local and subregional waterwater-reclamation and water-reuse possibilities within their jurisdictions and integrating them with future land-use plans. The timely participation of planner is essential because Federal and State planning and funding deadlines for a regional wastewater-management system become effective in July 1973 and 1974, respectively.

Hines, Walter G.

1973-01-01

190

Reusing Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates how peat filtration beds at Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky purify and conserve wastewater and eliminate one cause of non-point-source water pollution.

Ket

2011-01-11

191

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the USGS Water Science for School's comes this information on what wastewater is and why it is treated, by looking at the potential ways it can affect fisheries, wildlife habitats, recreational sites, and human health concerns.

2008-04-24

192

Wastewater Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

1978-01-01

193

40 CFR 440.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills using the acid leach, alkaline leach or combined acid and alkaline leach...elimination of the discharge of pollutants to navigable waters may result in an increase in discharges...

2013-07-01

194

Wastewater treatment in the oil-shale industry  

SciTech Connect

Because of the stringent state and federal standards governing the discharge of wastes into local waters and the limited water supplies in this area, an oil shale industry will probably reuse process effluents to the maximum extent possible and evaporate the residuals. Therefore, discharge of effluents into surface and ground waters may not be necessary. This paper reviews the subject of wastewater treatment for an oil shale industry and identifies key issues and research priorities that must be resolved before a large-scale commercial industry can be developed. It focuses on treatment of the waters unique to an oil shale industry: retort water, gas condensate, and mine water. Each presents a unique set of challenges.

Fox, J.P.; Phillips, T.E.

1980-08-01

195

Managing commercial and light-industrial discharges to POTWs  

SciTech Connect

Discharging commercial and light-industrial wastewater to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) is risky business. Pretreating wastewater using traditional methods may leave a wastestream's originator vulnerable to fines, civil and criminal punishment, cleanup costs, and cease-and-desist orders. EPA has tightened regulations applying to discharges from POTWs, which, in turn, are looking to industrial and commercial discharge sources to determine responsibility for toxic contaminants. Although EPA in the past focused on large point sources of contamination, the Agency has shifted its emphasis to smaller and more diverse nonpoint sources. One result is that POTWs no longer act as buffers for light-industrial and commercial wastewater dischargers.

Fink, R.G. (RGF Environmental Group, West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

1993-02-01

196

An isotope dilution-precipitation process for removing radioactive cesium from wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel isotope dilution-precipitation method has been developed to remove cesium-137 from radioactive wastewater. The process involves adding stable cesium chloride to wastewater in order to raise the total cesium concentration, which then allows both the stable and radioactive cesium ions to be precipitated together using sodium tetraphenylborate. This process was investigated utilizing laboratory solutions to determine stable cesium dose rates, mixing times, effects of pH, and filtration requirements. Once optimized, the process was then tested on synthetic wastewater and aqueous low-level waste. Experiments showed the reaction to be very quick and stable in the pH range tested, 2.5-11.5. The wastewater may need to be filtered using a 0.45-?m filter, though ferric sulfate has been shown to promote coagulation and settling, thereby eliminating the necessity for filtration. This investigation showed that this isotope dilution-precipitation process can remove Cs-37 levels below the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Derived Concentration Standard (DCS) of 3.0 × 10(-6) ?Ci/mL using a single dosage, potentially allowing the wastewater to be discharged directly to sanitary sewers. PMID:23116720

Rogers, Harold; Bowers, John; Gates-Anderson, Dianne

2012-12-01

197

Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries  

SciTech Connect

The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

1981-02-01

198

Delaware River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on its proposed amendments to the comprehensive plan relating to water quality standards  

SciTech Connect

Under the proposal, suspended solids discharged to the Delaware River from municipal and industrial wastewater-treatment facilities would both have limitations of 30 and 45 mg/l. as 30 day and 7 day averages, respectively. In industrial wastewater-treatment facilities would be allowed up to 100 mg/l. as an average of samples collected during a 30 day period, provided that a reduction of at least 85% as a 30 day average is achieved. The Interstate Commission on the Delaware (INCODEL) standards for BOD of waste discharged to certain areas of the Delaware River would be deleted. The hearing will be held in Philadelphia on 1/23/80.

Not Available

1980-01-09

199

The genetic toxicology of organic compounds in natural waters and wastewaters.  

PubMed

This review was drawn from the literature describing genotoxic organic compounds in natural water (rivers, lakes, streams) and wastewater, as well as from recent discussions with industrial scientists and environmental regulators. Testing of wastewaters for genotoxicity may become a routine requirement for some industrial wastewater discharge permits, not unlike the more common requirement for routine aquatic toxicity tests. The stimuli for this are concerns that aquatic organisms inhabiting waters impacted by wastewater discharges suffer an increased risk of genetic damage or cancer, and that humans utilizing these waters for recreational and drinking water purposes may suffer similar genetic or carcinogenic risks. Some evidence suggests that neoplasia in aquatic organisms is related to habitat contamination, yet field evaluations fail to substantiate adequately a cause-and-effect relationship. Because aquatic organisms respond like mammals to the same genotoxic compounds, the increased burden of genotoxic compounds to the environment may impact certain endemic species. Wastewater discharges may be one source of genotoxic organic compounds in those impacted areas. With respect to potential human health impacts, evidence is supportive of increased cancer risk to individuals drinking water from surface sources; however, this risk may or may not relate to whether the drinking water source received input of wastewater discharges or known carcinogens. Throughout the published literature reviewed herein, the Salmonella/Ames gene mutation test was widely used to assess genotoxic activity, although studies using indigenous plants and aquatic organisms as in vivo monitors of genotoxic activity exist. No "standard" or frequently followed protocols for sample collection, sample processing, selection of tests or their conduct, or interpretation of data exist for most of the genotoxicity studies reviewed. For the Salmonella/Ames test, the aqueous samples were concentrated usually on XAD resin or by liquid:liquid extraction, and without this concentration step few samples exhibited genotoxic activity. Hence, in most instances, the ambient concentration of the compounds causing this activity is below that which is readily detectable by this test, a finding not new to this review. In contrast, aquatic organisms in laboratory and field studies responded to ambient concentrations of genotoxic compounds, thus alleviating the need for sample concentration. However, there appears to be a reluctance to utilize this information for extrapolation to potential human health effects. Unfortunately, no generally accepted and scientifically validated protocol for preparing aqueous samples for genotoxicity testing exists. Developing such a protocol is necessary before embarking on widespread genotoxicity testing of wastewaters, especially if results are to be used for permit compliance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1915000

Stahl, R G

1991-08-01

200

Characterisation of medical-waste sterilisation-plant wastewater and a preliminary study of coagulation-flocculation treatment options.  

PubMed

Wastewater from a medical-waste sterilisation plant (MWSP) contains unique pollutants and requires on-site treatment to prevent contamination of the municipal sewage system and receiving water bodies. Therefore, to meet the prescribed discharge standards and comply with the legal regulations, pre-treatment must be applied to MWSP wastewater. In this study, the capabilities of coagulation-flocculation processes were investigated for MWSP wastewater treatment. Processes using ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and aluminium sulfate as coagulants were characterised. During the coagulation experiments, seven different coagulant dosages and four different pH values were evaluated to determine the optimum coagulant dosage and pH value. The highest removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was obtained using 300 mg/L of ferric chloride at pH 10. A COD removal of about 60% as well as considerable reductions in the amounts of suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus were realised. PMID:20651429

Ozkan, O; Mihçiokur, H; Azgin, S T; Ozdemir, O

2010-01-01

201

Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant  

SciTech Connect

Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

Shah, A.R. [Motorola SCG, McDowell, MD (United States). Environmental, Safety, and Industrial Hygiene Dept.; Ploeser, J.H. [Phoenix Water Services Dept., AZ (United States). Water Conservation Office

1999-08-01

202

Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - discharge

203

Guidance manual for battery-manufacturing pretreatment standards. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The manual provides guidance to POTWs on the application and enforcement of the categorical pretreatment standards for the battery manufacturing category. It is estimated that there are 255 battery manufacturing plants in the United States. Of the 255 identified battery manufacturing plants, 22 are direct dischargers, 150 are indirect dischargers, and 83 plants do not discharge wastewater. The manual is divided into 5 parts: (1) Introduction; (2) Battery Manufacturing Categorical Standards (subcategorization of cadmium; calcium; lead; leclanche; lithium; magnesium; zinc); (3) Treatment Technologies (end-of-pipe; in-process control technologies); (4) Requirements of the General Pretreatment Regulations (monitoring; reporting; recordkeeping); (5) Application of Battery Manufacturing Categorical Pretreatment Standards. There are three appendices: Appendix A = Glossary of Terms; Appendix B = PSES and PSNS For Battery Manufacturing Subcategories; and Appendix C = List of EPA and State Pretreatment Coordinators.

Not Available

1987-08-01

204

Freshwater wetlands for wastewater management: environmental assessment handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Freshwater Wetlands Handbook provides institutional, scientific and engineering guidance for the use of natural, freshwater wetlands for wastewater management. Wetlands have long been recognized for their pollutant removal capabilities and many have been used for wastewater management for some time. Little technical or institutional guidance currently exists for regulating these systems or for planning new systems. This Handbook provides guidance for state and federal regulatory agencies and potential dischargers evaluating wetlands for wastewater disposal or pollutant removal.

Not Available

1985-09-01

205

[Adsorbable organic halogen compounds and bio-toxicity in hospital wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

Adsorbable organic halogen compounds (AOX) exist persistently in the aquatic environment, and accumulate in the food chain. Some of them are toxic for humans and other organisms. However, hospital wastewater is considered as an important source of AOX in municipal wastewater. The aim of this study was to evaluate the generation of AOX both in a raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from a membrane sequencing batch reactor, also the effect of cR t value and the bio-toxicity were investigated. The results show that the removal of AOX in the hospital wastewater is 63.6% after treated by the membrane sequencing batch reactor, and the contribution of membrane rejection accounts for 14.5%. The concentration of AOX in the raw hospital wastewater is much higher than that of the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor at the same value of cR t for its higher chlorine-demands. Along with the increasing of cR t value, the fitting curves of AOX present exponential growth for the raw hospital wastewater, while linearity relation for the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor. To meet the requirement for indicative microorganism (fecal coliform) in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Medical Organization (GB 18466-2005), the demands of cR t value for the raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor are 5.5 (mg x h)/L and 0.0075 (mg x h)/L respectively, the bio-toxity by acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna are 40.39 microg/L (K2Cr2O7) and 8.96 microg/L (K2Cr2O7), and correspondingly the concentration of AOX produced are 607.1 microg/L and 102.5 microg/L. PMID:18268982

Sun, Ying-xue; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke-li; Gu, Ping

2007-10-01

206

Gallstones - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic cholecystitis - discharge; Dysfunctional gallbladder - discharge; Choledocholithiasis - discharge; Cholelithiasis - discharge ... You have gallstones, hard, pebble-like deposits that formed ... gallbladder. You may have had an infection in your gallbladder. ...

207

Stressor identification and health assessment of fish exposed to wastewater effluents in Miho Stream, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) and a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents on a variety of bioindicators ranging from biochemical, organism, and population-level responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) and fish community structure. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) indicated that the site upstream of these wastewater treatment plant discharges is in

Dong-Hyuk Yeom; Soon-Ae Lee; Gi Soo Kang; Jinwon Seo; Sung-Kyu Lee

2007-01-01

208

Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Wastewater: Constituents, Effects, and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reuse is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for conservation of limited resources of freshwater and as a mean of safeguarding the aquatic environment due to contaminants present in wastewater. Although secondary and tertiary treated wastewater is often discharged into surface waters, it cannot be reused without further treatment. One of the parameters of concern for human and environmental

H. K. Shon; S. Vigneswaran; S. A. Snyder

2006-01-01

209

Economics of Wastewater Treatment and Recycling: An Investigation of Conceptual Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of continuous droughts, the search for alternative water sources and increasing environmental restrictions on discharge of treated wastewater into natural water bodies, treated wastewater recycling offers a potential solution. In this paper the methods needed to assess the questions - to what extent treated wastewater can complement the existing water sources in different sectors and at what

Mekala Gayathri Devi; Brian Davidson; Anne-Maree Boland

2007-01-01

210

Characterization of Ankara meat packing plant wastewater and treatment with a rotating biological contactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general characteristics of Ankara Meat Packing Plant wastewater have been determined by taking samples and analyzing them. Also, treatability of wastewater from the plant has been studied at different hydraulic and organic loading rates by using a rotating biological contactor (RBC). The experimental results showed that the channel where wastewater of the slaughtering unit is discharged has a higher

Mustafa O?uz; Meral O?uz

1993-01-01

211

Managing seafood processing wastewater on the Oregon coast: A time of transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seafood processors along the Oregon coast practice a wastewater management plan that is unique within the state. Most of these operations discharge wastewater under a General Permit issued by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) that requires only that they screen the wastewater to remove particles that will not pass through a 40 mesh screen. The General Permit was

M. D. Anderson; J. R. Miner

1997-01-01

212

Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen

Mostafa F. Hashad; Surabhi Sharma; Loring F. Nies; James E. Alleman

2006-01-01

213

Effects of tanneries wastewater on chemical and biological soil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from leather processing, a major industry that produces up to 64320t wastewater year?1 in the town of León (Guanajuato, Mexico), are normally discharged to the river Turbio without treatment. This water is downstream used to irrigate agricultural land. Tannery wastewater contains valuable nutrients, but also contaminants, such as salts and chromium (Cr), that might affect soil processes and crop

D. Alvarez-Bernal; S. M. Contreras-Ramos; N. Trujillo-Tapia; V. Olalde-Portugal; J. T. Frías-Hernández; L. Dendooven

2006-01-01

214

Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewaters generated during petroleum refining, coal coking, and coal gasification contain a variety of organic compounds which pollute the environment and may be toxic to aquatic life if discharged into natural waters. Recent research has demonstrated the ability of the anaerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) reactor to successfully treat coal gasification wastewater. In this system pollutants can be classified as

M. T. Suidan; J. T. Pfeffer; G. F. Nakhla; U. K. Traegner; R. Vidic

1989-01-01

215

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water-technology.net web site for the water industry contains links to many sites for detailed information on industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants as well as water supply and transmission. Also find information on current news releases, expos, conferences and much more.

2008-10-13

216

Standardizing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'ÃÂÃÂs Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

2009-02-04

217

Using a simple dilution model to estimate wastewater contaminant concentrations behind moving passenger vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An independent Science Advisory Panel (The Panel) was formed to assist the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation evaluate the effects of wastewater discharges from cruise ships in Alaskan waters. The Panel evaluated the dilution of wastewater discharges from moving cruise ships. The results of that evaluation were used in turn to evaluate possible effects on water quality. This paper describes

Lincoln C. Loehr; M. Atkinson; K. George; C. J. Beegle-Krause

2003-01-01

218

Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

2001-05-01

219

Study of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater in an Urban Agglomeration in Romania  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants.

Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P.

2012-01-01

220

Feasibility of using oil shale wastewater for waterfowl wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This ecological, engineering, and institutional research study evaluated the use of selected wastewaters from oil shale development to establish wetland habitats for waterfowl. It also evaluated the capability of the wetlands as an innovative wastewater treatment system. The first phase of this two-phase study included inventorying the physical and chemical properties of the potential wastewater sources, evaluating the wastewater capacity of wetlands, and determining the availability of each wastewater source. Critical waterfowl habitat requirements and effects of wastewater on wetlands were used, along with wastewater chemical characterizations, to establish minimum environmental standards for water quality and quantity. The second phase involved selecting candidate sites suitable for possible demonstration projects, including comparing the cost and effectiveness of wetland wastewater treatment with conventional treatment technologies.

Snyder, B.D.; Snyder, J.L.

1984-01-01

221

Water and wastewater examination manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual was written using newly revised procedures from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Microbial Methods for Monitoring the Environment: Water and Wastes, Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, and other pertinent references. It is intended to be used as a working laboratory guide and reference to water quality analysis for upper level undergraduates,

1990-01-01

222

Role of a comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of a wastewater receiving stream.  

PubMed

National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream. PMID:21573910

Greeley, Mark S; Kszos, Lynn A; Morris, Gail W; Smith, John G; Stewart, Arthur J

2011-06-01

223

Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

2011-06-01

224

Shoulder replacement - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - ...

225

Radical prostatectomy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

226

Meatpacking Wastewater Treatment by Spray Runoff Irrigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spray runoff irrigation is a treatment process in which wastewater is applied to sloping, plant covered land. The process yields a treated effluent which is collected on the toe of the slope for discharge. The process is also referred to as an overland fl...

J. L. Witherow M. L. Rowe

1975-01-01

227

Treatment of tannery wastewater by chemical coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop a treatment system that can effectively reduce the concentration of pollutants in tannery wastewater to environmentally acceptable levels and that can greatly reduce the cost of discharging the effluents. Aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride were used as a coagulant in the process. The influence of pH and coagulant dosages on the coagulation

Z Song; C. J Williams; R. G. J Edyvean

2004-01-01

228

Effects of Wastewater on Forested Wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

Doyle, Thomas W.

2002-01-01

229

Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).  

PubMed

Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state. PMID:20334971

He, Shengbing; Xue, Gang

2010-06-15

230

Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

231

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

232

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

233

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

234

Oily wastewaters treatment using Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the compost fertilizer  

PubMed Central

Background Discharging the oily wastewater in the environment causes serious problems, because of the oil compounds and organic materials presence. Applying biological methods using the lipase enzyme producer microorganisms can be an appropriate choice for treatment of these wastewaters. The aim of this study is to treat those oil wastewaters having high concentration of oil by applying lipase enzyme producer bacteria. Materials and methods Oil concentration measurement was conducted using the standard method of gravimetric and the wastewater under study was synthetically made and contained olive, canola and sunflower oil. The strain used in this study was Pseudomonas strain isolated from compost fertilizer. The oil under study had concentration of 1.5 to 22 g/l. Results The oil removal amount in concentrations lower than 8.4 g/l was over 95?±?1.5%. Increase of the oil's concentration to 22 g/l decreases the amount of removal in retention time of 44 hours to 85?±?2.5%. The best yield of removing this strain in retention time of 44 hours and temperature of 30°C was achieved using Ammonium Nitrate as the nitrogen resource which yield was about 95 percent. Conclusion The findings of the research showed that Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from the compost fertilizer can degrade high concentration oils.

2014-01-01

235

Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants  

PubMed Central

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

2012-01-01

236

Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants.  

PubMed

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40-90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

Phillips, P J; Chalmers, A T; Gray, J L; Kolpin, D W; Foreman, W T; Wall, G R

2012-05-15

237

Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

Phillips, P. J.; Chalmers, A. T.; Gray, J. L.; Kolpin, D. W.; Foreman, W. T.; Wall, G. R.

2012-01-01

238

Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology to treatment of bio-refractory wastewater. Coking wastewater contains high concentration of refractory and toxic compounds and the water quality usually cannot meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment processes. This paper initially investigated the electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. Under the experimental conditions (current density 20-60mAcm(-2), pH 3-11, and temperature 20-60 degrees C) using BDD anode, complete mineralization of organic pollutants was almost achieved, and surplus ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) was further removed thoroughly when pH was not adjusted or at alkaline value. Moreover, the TOC and NH(3)-N removal rates in BDD anode cell were much greater than those in other common anode systems such as SnO(2) and PbO(2) anodes cells. Given the same target to meet the National Discharge Standard of China, the energy consumption of 64kWhkgCOD(-1) observed in BDD anode system was only about 60% as much as those observed in SnO(2) and PbO(2) anode systems. Further investigation revealed that, in BDD anode cell, organic pollutants were mainly degraded by reaction with free hydroxyl radicals and electrogenerated oxidants (S(2)O(8)(2-), H(2)O(2), and other oxidants) played a less important role, while direct electrochemical oxidation and indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by active chlorine can be negligible. These results showed great potential of BDD anode system in engineering application as a final treatment of coking wastewater. PMID:19595422

Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Lai, Peng

2009-09-01

239

Identification of relevant micropollutants in Austrian municipal wastewater and their behaviour during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The European Union has defined environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface waters for priority substances and several other pollutants. Furthermore national EQSs for several chemicals are valid in Austria. The study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In a first screening of 15 WWTPs relevant substances were identified, which subsequently were monitored in 9 WWTPs over 1 year (every 2 months). Out of 77 substances or groups of substances (including more than 90 substances) 13 were identified as potentially relevant in respect to water pollution and subjected to the monitoring, whereas most other compounds were detected in concentrations far below the respective EQS for surface waters and therefore not further considered. The preselected 13 compounds for monitoring were cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), diuron, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(ethyl-hydroxyl)phthalate (DEHP), tributyltin compounds (TBT), nonylphenoles (NP), adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and the complexing agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). In the effluents of WWTPs the concentrations of the priority substances Cd, NP, TBT and diuron frequently exceeded the respective EQS, whereas the concentrations for DEHP and Ni were below the respective EQS. The effluent concentrations for AOX, EDTA, NTA, Cu, Se and Zn frequently are in the range or above the Austrian EQS for surface waters. Besides diuron and EDTA all compounds are removed at least partially during wastewater treatment and for most substances the removal via the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. For the 13 compounds which were monitored in WWTP effluents population equivalent specific discharges were calculated. Since for many compounds no or only few information is available, these population equivalent specific discharges can be used to assess emissions from municipal WWTPs to surface waters as well as to make a first assessment of the impact of a discharge on surface waters chemical status. Comparing discharges and river pollution on a load basis, the influence of diffuse sources becomes obvious and therefore should also be taken into consideration in river management. PMID:22342340

Clara, M; Windhofer, G; Weilgony, P; Gans, O; Denner, M; Chovanec, A; Zessner, M

2012-06-01

240

Epilepsy or seizures - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Focal seizure - discharge; Jacksonian seizure - discharge; Seizure - partial (focal) - discharge; TLE - discharge; Seizure - temporal lobe - discharge; Seizure - tonic-clonic - discharge; Seizure - grand mal - discharge; Grand mal seizure - discharge; Seizure - generalized - discharge

241

40 CFR 413.04 - Standards for integrated facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions...Pretreatment Regulations. In cases where electroplating process wastewaters are combined...corresponding 30 day average standard for the electroplating wastewaters must be used....

2013-07-01

242

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

2013-07-01

243

Feasibility study for evaluating the client application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for decentralised municipal wastewater treatment in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scarcity of water is becoming an increasingly serious problem in many Asian countries. The situation is aggravated further by the pollution of fresh water resources due to the discharge of untreated wastewater from industrial enterprises and municipal wastewater. These problems have become worse since ground water reservoirs are also exhausted. The concurrent wastewater treatment and water re-use secures the sufficient

Miriam Sartor; Martin Kaschek; Valko Mavrov

2008-01-01

244

40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table...

2013-07-01

245

Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) for removal of carbon and nutrients from municipal wastewater treatment plants: a case study of Shanghai.  

PubMed

With Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) as the short-term process, the capacity of Bailonggang Wastewater Treatment Plant accounts for almost 25% of the total capacity of wastewater treatment in Shanghai, China. However, shortly after this plant was placed in operation in 2004, it was found that the effluent of CEPT couldn't meet the new national discharge criteria. Although the removal of phosphate is almost 80%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the effluent is frequently found to exceed the standards. The primary goal of this research is to investigate the possibility of optimizing the CEPT to make it meet the discharge criteria before it is upgraded to a secondary treatment. An oxidant is adopted to remove NH3-N, and a high performance polyaluminum chloride (HP-PACl) is synthesized to enhance the removal of COD. It is found that HP-PACl improves the removal of COD, and the oxidant enhances NH3-N removal effectively. However, to meet the requirement of a newly implemented stricter discharge standard, it is necessary to upgrade this CEPT to a secondary treatment. The results of this study provide scientific evidence for the upgrade of the Bailonggang Wastewater Treatment Plant. PMID:19809143

Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting; Keller, Arturo A; Xu, Ran

2009-01-01

246

Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.  

PubMed

This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59,000-270,000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

2014-02-01

247

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well  

PubMed Central

This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input–output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20?000 m3 (with a range from 6700 to 33?000 m3) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300–3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900–23?000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0–370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800–71?000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59?000–270?000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.

2013-01-01

248

Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater\\u000a treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen\\u000a as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor\\u000a was used to treat such type of

A. Lon?ari? Boži?; N. Koprivanac; P. Šunka; M. ?lupek; V. Babický

2004-01-01

249

40 CFR 471.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (dd) Dye Penetrant Testing Wastewater. Subpart CâPSES Pollutant or pollutant...million off-pounds) of nickel-cobalt tested with dye penetrant method Chromium 0.079 0.032 Nickel...

2009-01-01

250

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2009-01-01

251

Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.  

PubMed

This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. PMID:20399551

Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

2010-08-01

252

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before this activity the students will have heard about groundwater and water resources through lecture to give them a background on where our drinking water comes from. The activity involves a tour of the local wastewater treatment plant where the students told about the treatment processes and shown the treatment facility. They are also introduced to the water quality testing done at the plans and they learn about the energy usage/management at the plant. As part of the activity they write up a paper on the processes in the treatment process from the time water enters the plant until it exits. The students are encouraged before hand to ask questions to ensure that they gather the needed information. This always means that each tour has a slightly different content based on these questions.

Pedersen, Bianca

253

Genotoxicity of vegetables irrigated by industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

Wastewater effluents from textile dyeing and printing industries of Sanganer are discharged directly, without any treatment, into Amani Shah Nallah drainage. The drainage water takes the dissolved toxicants to flora and fauna, including crops and seasonal vegetables, being grown in the land adjoining the Nallah drainage. Thus mutagenic potential of vegetables irrigated by the water of Amani Shah Nallah drainage was investigated in the present study. The vegetables irrigated by ground water from Sanganer have also been analyzed to determine possible adverse effects of these wastewater effluents on aqua duct. PMID:17278755

Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Verma, Hemraj

2006-01-01

254

Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

2011-01-01

255

Review on endocrine disrupting-emerging compounds in urban wastewater: occurrence and removal by photocatalysis and ultrasonic irradiation for wastewater reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the vast use of organic chemicals in modern society, almost any wastewater stream from industrial processes or households contains such compounds and disposal without proper treatment will therefore result in exposure to humans and the environment. Some of them may exhibit endocrine disrupting effects (EDCs) and they widely exist in wastewater. The current effluent standards for Urban Wastewater

Vincenzo Belgiorno; Luigi Rizzo; Despo Fatta; Claudio Della Rocca; Giusy Lofrano; Anastasia Nikolaou; Vincenzo Naddeo; Sureyya Meric

2007-01-01

256

Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.  

PubMed

Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. PMID:24583525

Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

2014-05-01

257

Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

Wpsu

2008-11-20

258

Release of dye into McM Wastewater  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Release of dye into McM Wastewater Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23, 1992 File : opp93082 DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: October 23, 1992 From: Environmental Officer, DPP Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Releases of Rhodamine WT? Dye into McMurdo Wastewater Discharge at McMurdo Station Antarctica) To: Safety and Health Officer, DPP Head, Safety, Environment and Health Implementation Team, DPP ...

259

Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

P. A. Taylor; D. R. McTaggart

1990-01-01

260

A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of saline (>2% w\\/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost?effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes.

Yeyuan Xiao; Deborah J. Roberts

2010-01-01

261

Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China. PMID:24650528

Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

2014-05-01

262

Catalytic ozonation-biological coupled processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing refractory chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds*  

PubMed Central

A treatability study of industrial wastewater containing chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs) by a catalytic ozonation process (COP) with a modified Mn/Co ceramic catalyst and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. A preliminary attempt to treat the diluted wastewater with a single SBR resulted in ineffective removal of the color, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Next, COP was applied as a pretreatment in order to obtain a bio-compatible wastewater for SBR treatment in a second step. The effectiveness of the COP pretreatment was assessed by evaluating wastewater biodegradability enhancement (the ratio of biology oxygen demand after 5 d (BOD5) to COD), as well as monitoring the evolution of TOC, carbon oxidation state (COS), average oxidation state (AOS), color, and major pollutant concentrations with reaction time. In the COP, the catalyst preserved its catalytic properties even after 70 reuse cycles, exhibiting good durability and stability. The performance of SBR to treat COP effluent was also examined. At an organic loading rate of 2.0 kg COD/(m3·d), with hydraulic retention time (HRT)=10 h and temperature (30±2) °C, the average removal efficiencies of NH3-N, COD, BOD5, TOC, and color in a coupled COP/SBR process were about 80%, 95.8%, 93.8%, 97.6% and 99.3%, respectively, with average effluent concentrations of 10 mg/L, 128 mg/L, 27.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L, and 20 multiples, respectively, which were all consistent with the national standards for secondary discharge of industrial wastewater into a public sewerage system (GB 8978-1996). The results indicated that the coupling of COP with a biological process was proved to be a technically and economically effective method for treating industrial wastewater containing recalcitrant CNACs.

Li, Bing-zhi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

2010-01-01

263

Formation of iron plaque on mangrove roots receiving wastewater and its role in immobilization of wastewater-borne pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) plaque formed on mangrove root increased with wastewater discharge, but the extent was species-specific. For Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Fe plaque concentration was 0.80mgg?1 root d.wt at Day 0 and increased to 4.59, 6.84 and 7.52mgg?1 at Day 75 in the fresh water control (FW), synthetic wastewater with pollutant concentrations five times of municipal sewage (5SW) and double of 5SW

N. Pi; N. F. Y. Tam; M. H. Wong

2011-01-01

264

Pediatric heart surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

265

Wastewater cleanup: Put activated-sludge treatment to work  

SciTech Connect

Strict wastewater treatment and discharge limits continue to challenge wastewater treatment systems. For industrial wastewater, the selected system must not only meet regulatory requirements, but must also be flexible enough to handle the variations in volume, flowrate and pollutant load that typify industrial effluent streams. At existing industrial sites, the selection of a wastewater treatment system is also impacted by constraints, such as limited space or the desire to minimize downtime or process interruptions. Meanwhile, for municipalities, wastewater treatment requirements are often made or complicated by the need to add a disinfection step to destroy waterborne pathogens in the discharge stream. Biological treatment processes, based on the use of activated sludge, have long been used to degrade organic contaminants in municipal and industrial wastewater. For years, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been used to treat wastewater using activated sludge. However, in recent years, the variable depth reactor (VDR) has emerged as an alternative system, by addressing some of the shortcomings of the SBR.

Scroggins, D. [Pollution Control, Inc., Florence, KY (United States); Deiters, S. [Diffused Gas Technologies, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

266

Application of membrane technology on semiconductor wastewater reclamation: A pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater discharged from semiconductor industry contains high turbidity and conductivity. When membrane systems are used for semiconductor wastewater reclamation without pretreatment, membranes will soon be clogged by the nano-size particles. In this pilot-scale study, a three-stage system has been developed for semiconductor wastewater reclamation. This system (flow=5m3d?1) contained fiber ball (material: polypropylene, diameter=25mm) filtration (FF) followed by ultrafiltration (UF) and

C. J. Huang; B. M. Yang; K. S. Chen; C. C. Chang; C. M. Kao

2011-01-01

267

Removal of phenol in water by pulsed high voltage discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Recently, environmental pollution has been become a global problem. The development of advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for treatment of hazardous chemical contaminated wastes has grown rapidly. Of all these treatments, pulsed high voltage electrical discharge that produce non-thermal plasma, has been studied for degrading small organic species in wastewater. The discharge in water and aqueous solutions

S. Kunitomo; B. Sun

2001-01-01

268

Isolation and characterization of synthetic detergent- degraders from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradability of the principal component of synthetic detergent products known as linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) has been contentious, hence the need to evaluate its primary biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in wastewater ecosystem. The native microbial consortium of a wastewater ecosystem found to utilize detergent components were characterized using standard and conventional methods. The organisms identified were Enterococcus majodoratus, Klebsiella

Olusola Abayomi Ojo; Benjamin A. Oso

2008-01-01

269

Wastewater reuse and risk: definition of key objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reclamation holds promise as an important water resource as the desire to develop arid regions continues to place increasing demands on finite water resources. The debate surrounding the consumption of reclaimed wastewater finds risk managers pondering the question of what types of water quality standards might be set in order to provide the proper level of safety associated with

M. Salgot; E. Huertas; S. Weber; W. Dott; J. Hollender

2006-01-01

270

Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced with aerobic digestion for sludge that is intended for land application. PMID:24239827

Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

2014-02-01

271

MULTI-YEAR RESEARCH ON THE USE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of constructed wetlands for tertiary wastewater treatment is emerging as a cost-effective wastewater treatment technology. Constructed wetlands are theoretically designed and operated so that the target constituents have ample time to interact with wetland substrates and microbiota to effect constituent removal necessary to achieve water quality discharge limits. Unfortunately, engineering natural systems is complicated and operational criteria are

Gene W. Eidson; Oscar P. Flite

2005-01-01

272

Biological treatment of nitrogen-rich refinery wastewater by partial nitritation (SHARON) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater discharges containing high nitrogen levels can be toxic to aquatic life and cause eutrophication. In this study, the application of the SHARON (Single reactor for High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the treatment of refinery wastewater (sour water) was evaluated, in view of its coupling with the ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) process. A Continuous Flow Stirred Tank

S. Milia; G. Cappai; M. Perra; A. Carucci

2012-01-01

273

Reducing organic loads in wastewater effluents from paper recycling plants using microbial fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industries are charged fees based on the organic loads in effluents. Therefore, it can be advantageous to reduce the wastewater strength prior to discharge. We investigated the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of a paper?plant wastewater while at the same time producing electricity in a continuous flow system. At a hydraulic

Liping Huang; Shaoan Cheng; Farzaneh Rezaei; Bruce E. Logan

2009-01-01

274

Inverted polarity micellar enhanced ultrafiltration for the treatment of heavy metal polluted wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane separation technologies are being applied with increasing frequency in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater, as a means of coping with increasingly stringent environmental regulations regarding waste-water discharge. In particular, the research work presented here is driven by the need to reduce the amount of heavy metals released into aquatic environments. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) is a colloidal-based

Nick Hankins; Nidal Hilal; Oluwaseun O. Ogunbiyi; Barry Azzopardi

2005-01-01

275

Investigation on the preparation of calcium magnesium acetate as deicing salt using furfural wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an environmentally friendly deicing salt, was prepared from furfural wastewater. A production line of CMA (5t\\/day) was established according to laboratory study, and CMA was produced using the line. The results indicated that the designed preparation process can be applied to actual production, and acetic acid and water from furfural wastewater basically attain to zero discharge

Xiuyi Hua; Zhiyong Guo; Deming Dong; Fei Zhao; Guangjun Yu; Chunhong Wang; Delin Xu

2011-01-01

276

Coagulation of Wastewater by Synthetic Organic Polymers (Koagulering av Avlopsvann med Syntetiske Organiske Polymerer).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When the project was applied for, environmental protection measures in Norway did not specifically include removal of inorganic nutrients from wastewater that is discharged directly into the sea. In fact, siling was often the only treatment stage. In some...

J. Fettig H. C. Ratnaweera H. Odegaard

1988-01-01

277

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2013-07-01

278

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2013-07-01

279

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2013-07-01

280

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.46 Pretreatment standards...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2013-07-01

281

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.46 Pretreatment standards...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2010-07-01

282

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.46 Pretreatment standards...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting process wastewater introduced into a POTW shall not...

2009-07-01

283

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...performance test results, and inspection using the methods and...694. (d)(1) Stormwater sewer systems are not subject to the...from the wastewater system and does not...

2013-07-01

284

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...performance test results, and inspection using the methods and...694. (d)(1) Stormwater sewer systems are not subject to the...from the wastewater system and does not...

2010-07-01

285

40 CFR 465.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory § 465.14 Pretreatment...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW...

2010-07-01

286

40 CFR 465.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory § 465.14 Pretreatment...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW...

2009-01-01

287

40 CFR 465.15 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory § 465.15 Pretreatment...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW...

2010-07-01

288

40 CFR 465.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory § 465.14 Pretreatment...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW...

2013-07-01

289

40 CFR 465.15 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory § 465.15 Pretreatment...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW...

2009-01-01

290

40 CFR 465.15 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steel Basis Material Subcategory § 465.15 Pretreatment...sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in coil coating process wastewater introduced into a POTW...

2013-07-01

291

40 CFR 413.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Printed Circuit...10,000 gal) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2013-07-01

292

40 CFR 413.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electroless...000 gal.) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2013-07-01

293

40 CFR 413.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coatings Subcategory...10,000 gal) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2013-07-01

294

40 CFR 413.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Anodizing...10,000 gal) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2013-07-01

295

40 CFR 413.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical...000 gal.) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal.) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2013-07-01

296

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wastewaters, Surface Waters, and Oysters from an Urban Riverine System?  

PubMed Central

The antibiotic resistance (AR) patterns of 462 Escherichia coli isolates from wastewater, surface waters, and oysters were determined. Rates of AR and multiple-AR among isolates from surface water sites adjacent to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge sites were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those among other isolates, whereas the rate of AR among isolates from oysters exposed to WWTP discharges was low (<10%).

Watkinson, A. J.; Micalizzi, G. B.; Graham, G. M.; Bates, J. B.; Costanzo, S. D.

2007-01-01

297

Zero discharge programs require careful planning  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations, increasing scarcity of fresh water supplies and rising costs of clean water production have contributed to greater water conservation throughout the country. Reduced or zero discharge programs have become much more commonplace at electric utilities, chemical process industries and manufacturing facilities. Water conservation can be a very complicated issue, with methods varying considerably from site to site. The issues that influence water reduction programs include: quality, quantity and cost of fresh water available to the plant; quality of water needed for various plant processes; ability to recycle wastewater streams to other plant processes; techniques for water treatment; capital, operations, maintenance and labor costs, and floor space and construction requirements for water treatment equipment, pilot testing of proposed treatment methods and environmental restrictions on the quantity and quality of any wastewater that may be discharged. This article describes several water discharge programs available to address the complex needs of each unique plant site.

Buecker, B.

1997-05-01

298

40 CFR 423.17 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that the regulated pollutants are not detectable in the final discharge by the analytical methods in 40 CFR part 136. (e) There shall be no discharge of wastewater pollutants from fly ash transport...

2013-07-01

299

Glow discharge mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years or so, glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) has become the industry standard for the analysis of trace elements in metals and semiconductors. A review of its history is followed by a picture of the present situation and a look to where the future may lie. Applications are summarised, including the ability of GDMS to offer depth-resolved

Volker Hoffmann; Martin Kasik; Peter K. Robinson; Cornel Venzago

2005-01-01

300

Water-quality assessment and wastewater-management alternatives for Dardenne Creek in St Charles County, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of water in the 15 mile downstream reach of Dardenne Creek in St. Charles County, Missouri, was assessed to determine if it met the Missouri water quality standards. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and total ammonia failed to meet water quality standards downstream from the Harvester-Dardenne and St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plants. The QUAL-II SEMCOG water quality model was calibrated and verified using two independent data sets from Dardenne Creek. Management alternatives using current, design capacity, and future expansion wastewater discharges from the St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plant were evaluated. Results of the computer simulation indicate that a nitrification-type advanced-treatment facility installed at the plant would produce a 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand of 10 mg/L. An effluent limit of 5.0 mg/L of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand would further improve the water quality of Dardenne Creek; however, an additional treatment process, such as sand filtration, would be needed to meet this criterion. (USGS)

Berkas, W. R.; Lodderhose, J. R.

1985-01-01

301

Verification of water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater during ice-cover conditions to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) Model, which used the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E) computer program, was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. The purpose of this study was to verify the model for ice-cover conditions using the same Red River of the North study reach that was used for ice-free conditions. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile downstream of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo, North Dakota, and extends 30.8 miles downstream to a site 0.8 mile upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo River and the Red River of the North. The study reach receives treated wastewater outflow from municipal wastewater-treatment plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and inflow from the Sheyenne River. For simulations conducted for ice-cover conditions, the RRatFGO QW Model will be referred to as the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality (RRatFGOIC QW) Model. Streamflow measurements were made at 10 sites during February 21-24, 1995, and water-quality samples were collected and field properties were measured at 12 sites during February 23-24, 1995. Properties and constituents analyzed for include specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total phosphorus (reported as phosphorus), chlorophyll a, and algal biomass. The RRatFGOIC QW Model simulated streamflow, specific conductance, total organic nitrogen, total ammonia, total nitrite, total nitrite plus nitrate, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The model was considered verified for ice-cover conditions for all of the values or concentrations simulated except for the total organic nitrogen concentrations. Based on the results of this study, the QUAL2E Model computer program that was calibrated for ice-free conditions is capable of simulating water quality for both ice-free and ice-cover conditions.

Wesolowski, E. A.

1995-01-01

302

Vaginal Discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... who is infected. What about other infections? Two sexually transmitted infections, chlamydia and gonorrhea, can also cause vaginal discharge. ... I need any tests, such as tests for sexually transmitted infections? What do my test results mean? Based on ...

303

Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Occurrence and behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Hospital wastewater in Hanoi is usually not treated and this untreated wastewater is directly discharged into one of the wastewater channels of the city and eventually reaches the ambient aquatic environment. The concentrations of the FQs, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) in six hospital wastewaters ranged from 1.1 to 44 and from 0.9 to 17 micrgl(-1), respectively. Total FQ loads to the city sewage system varied from 0.3 to 14 g d(-1). Additionally, the mass flows of CIP and NOR were investigated in the aqueous compartment in a small wastewater treatment facility of one hospital. The results showed that the FQ removal from the wastewater stream was between 80 and 85%, probably due to sorption on sewage sludge. Simultaneously, the numbers of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were measured and their resistance against CIP and NOR was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration. Biological treatment lead to a 100-fold reduction in the number of E. coli but still more than a thousand E. coli colonies per 100ml of wastewater effluent reached the receiving water. The highest resistance was found in E. coli strains of raw wastewater and the lowest in isolates of treated wastewater effluent. Thus, wastewater treatment is an efficient barrier to decrease the residual FQ levels and the number of resistant bacteria entering ambient waters. Due to the lack of municipal wastewater treatment plants, the onsite treatment of hospital wastewater before discharging into municipal sewers should be considered as a viable option and consequently implemented. PMID:18485444

Duong, Hong Anh; Pham, Ngoc Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Tung; Hoang, Thi Thuong; Pham, Hung Viet; Pham, Van Ca; Berg, Michael; Giger, Walter; Alder, Alfredo C

2008-06-01

304

Separation of Tritium from Wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

JEPPSON, D.W.

2000-01-25

305

HF wastewater remediation by electrocoagulation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater from surface treatment of silicon wafers is rich in fluoride ions. This is attributed to the use of hydrofluoric acid in huge quantities during stripping operation. Lime precipitation is insufficient to comply with environmental standards. In this work, the electrocoagulation (EC) was used for polishing treatment after neutralizing step. Synthetic solutions were used for the investigation into main operational

S. Aoudj; A. Khelifa; N. Drouiche; M. Hecini

2012-01-01

306

Cost-Based Optimization of a Papermaking Wastewater Regeneration Recycling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater can be regenerated for recycling in an industrial process to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. Such an environment friendly approach will also lead to cost savings that accrue due to reduced freshwater usage and wastewater discharge. However, the resulting cost savings are offset to varying degrees by the costs incurred for the regeneration of wastewater for recycling. Therefore, systematic procedures should be used to determine the true economic benefits for any water-using system involving wastewater regeneration recycling. In this paper, a total cost accounting procedure is employed to construct a comprehensive cost model for a paper mill. The resulting cost model is optimized by means of mathematical programming to determine the optimal regeneration flowrate and regeneration efficiency that will yield the minimum total cost.

Huang, Long; Feng, Xiao; Chu, Khim H.

2010-11-01

307

ASSESSING MERCURY LEVELS IN THE WASTEWATER OF AN AGING RESEARCH LABORATORY BUILDING  

PubMed Central

Increasingly stringent restrictions on mercury concentrations in wastewater discharge may be problematic for aging research laboratory facilities. Relatively high levels of mercury compounds may exist and concentrate deep in the plumbing system and their sediments, resulting in elevated wastewater concentrations. This study was conducted to assess total mercury levels in an aging laboratory building wastewater system. Wastewater outflow, sink trap water, and pipe sediment samples were collected from the building. The Jerome 431™ Mercury Vapor Analyzer was assessed as a tool for screening lab sink trap drains for mercury deposition. Results revealed that the three day average for mercury discharge from this single structure, if not diluted by other waters, would be above the local total release parameters to the wastewater treatment plant. The sink traps did not contain a majority of the mercury; however, the pipe sediment and outflow samples revealed consistently elevated concentrations.

Ragan, Gregory A.; Gregory Alvord, W.

2007-01-01

308

Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.  

PubMed

In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system. PMID:11379144

Kärrman, E; Jönsson, H

2001-01-01

309

Phosphorus retention by wetlands soils used for treated wastewater disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands function as buffers for nutrients loaded from terrestrial ecosystems through drainage and surface discharges. The objectives of our study were to (1) determine the P retention capacity of representative wetland soils being used for disposal of treated wastewater and (2) relate P retention characteristics to selected physicochemical properties to evaluate likely mechanisms of P removal to the solls. Intact

P. M. Gale; K. R. Reddy; D. A. Graetz

1994-01-01

310

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

311

TREATMENT OF PACKINGHOUSE WASTEWATER BY INTERMITTENT SAND FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A full scale wastewater treatment system consisting of a novel extended aeration unit and intermittent sand filter was demonstrated. The treatment system was designed to meet the special needs of small plants and to meet future industrial discharge limitations. With a hydraulic l...

312

Clay Mineral Batch Process for Color Removal of Textile Wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile industry effluents exhibit large amounts of dye chemicals, which create severe water pollution. It is therefore important to reduce the dye concentration in the wastewater before discharging into the environment. In this study, the ability of sepiolite to uptake different reactive dyes is investigated. The dyes used in the experiments are Everzol Black B, Everzol Yellow 3RS H\\/C, and

Bulent Armagan; Orhan Ozdemir; Mustafa Turan; M. Sabri Celik

2003-01-01

313

FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF TEXTILE DYE WASTEWATER REUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an examination of technologies by which textile processing wastewaters could be recycled or reused, thereby reducing the amounts discharged. One of these technologies, dyebath reconstitution and reuse, was investigated in detail: it was found to be envi...

314

Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an environmental systems analysis of four wastewater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to

E. Kärrman; H. Jönsson

315

Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH  

SciTech Connect

A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). It is recommended that pH be used as the diversion criteria for wastewater from manhole 190 and the pump station to be sent to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Any wastewater with a pH less than 6.0 or greater than 10.0 should be sent to the metals tank. Based on the results of 29 weeks of sampling, it is expected that on the order of 36m{sup 3}/wk (9500 gal/wk) of wastewater will be diverted to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Wastewater from REDC and HFIR can be sent to the nonmetals tank, but it should be sampled periodically and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrophotometer to confirm that the metals concentration is not increasing. 1 ref., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.

1990-10-01

316

Amendments to the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) Background Documents for Wastes for Which Wastewater Treatment Standards Were Determined Based on Concentrations in Incinerator Scrubber Water: K015, K016, K018, K019, K020, K023, K024, K028, K030, K048, K049, K050, K051, K052, K087, K093, K094, U028, U069, U088, U102, U107, and U190.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is today revising the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) treatment standards for organic constituents regulated in wastewater forms of the hazardous wastes listed as K015, K016, K018, K01...

1992-01-01

317

TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

318

Methods for Estimating Annual Wastewater Nutrient Loads in the Southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes an approach for estimating annual total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads from point-source dischargers in the southeastern United States. Nutrient load estimates for 2002 were used in the calibration and application of a regional nutrient model, referred to as the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model. Loads from dischargers permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System were calculated using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System database and individual state databases. Site information from both state and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency databases, including latitude and longitude and monitored effluent data, was compiled into a project database. For sites with a complete effluent-monitoring record, effluent-flow and nutrient-concentration data were used to develop estimates of annual point-source nitrogen and phosphorus loads. When flow data were available but nutrient-concentration data were missing or incomplete, typical pollutant-concentration values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were used to estimate load. In developing typical pollutant-concentration values, the major factors assumed to influence wastewater nutrient-concentration variability were the size of the discharger (the amount of flow), the season during which discharge occurred, and the Standard Industrial Classification code of the discharger. One insight gained from this study is that in order to gain access to flow, concentration, and location data, close communication and collaboration are required with the agencies that collect and manage the data. In addition, the accuracy and usefulness of the load estimates depend on the willingness of the states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance and review for at least a subset of the load estimates that may be problematic.

McMahon, Gerard; Tervelt, Larinda; Donehoo, William

2007-01-01

319

Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

Wolverton, B. C.

1986-01-01

320

Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

None

1983-10-01

321

Electrochemical oxidation of wastewater - opportunities and drawbacks.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation by means of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes generates a very efficient oxidizing environment by forming hydroxyl radicals, providing effective water purification for elimination of persistent pollutants. In this project the degradation rates of organic and inorganic substances are investigated. Experiments were performed in laboratory and pilot scale with synthetic and industrial wastewaters. Performance parameters were evaluated in terms of total organic carbon/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, specific energy consumption and current efficiency. The integration of this advanced oxidation technology combined with conventional technology was then applied in a wastewater treatment concept of landfill leachate. The raw leachate with a low biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio was electrochemically oxidized to prepare the purified leachate for discharge into a sewage system or a receiving water body. The cost estimation regarding operation and capital costs addresses the economics for the treatment of heavily polluted effluents. PMID:24037171

Woisetschläger, D; Humpl, B; Koncar, M; Siebenhofer, M

2013-01-01

322

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

323

Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor was used to treat such type of contaminant. Applying HV pulses 30 kV, 3.15 J/pulse, 50 Hz repetition rate, complete decolorisation and partial mineralization of RB49 has been reached and demonstrated by means of UV/VIS absorption, TOC and AOX measurements.

Lon?ari? Boži?, A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, P.; ?lupek, M.; Babický, V.

2004-03-01

324

Full-Wave Simulation of an Electrostatic Discharge Generator Discharging in Air-Discharge Mode Into a Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a methodology to simulate the currents and fields during an air discharge electrostatic discharge (ESD) into a product by combining a linear description of the be- havior of the DUT with a nonlinear arc resistance equation. The most commonly used test standard IEC 61000-4-2 requires us- ing contact-mode discharges to metallic surfaces and air-discharge mode to nonconducting

Dazhao Liu; Argha Nandy; Fan Zhou; Wei Huang; Jiang Xiao; Byongsu Seol; Jongsung Lee; Jun Fan; David Pommerenke

2011-01-01

325

Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this

Clinei D. Magro; Maitê C. Deon; Andreia De Rossi; Christian O. Reinehr; Marcelo Hemkemeier; Luciane M. Colla

2012-01-01

326

Potentials of high-temperature anaerobic treatment and redox mediators for the reductive decolorization of azo dyes from textile wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge of dye-colored wastewaters in surface water represents a serious environmental problem because it may decrease the water transparency, therefore having an effect on photosynthesis, and a public health concern because dyes and their reducing products are carcinogenic. In recent years, big achievements have been made in the use of anaerobic granular sludge not only on colored wastewaters but

Santos dos A. B; F. J. Cervantes; Lier van J. B

2006-01-01

327

APPLYING THE ASM3 MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR A BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN REMOVAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological nutrient removal processes for municipal wastewaters have received quite some attention during the past decades, especially due to the introduction of stricter legislation with respect to allowable effluent pollutant discharge limits. The necessity for performance improvement of existing activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (ASWWTPs) has created a need for detailed process models that can be used in the development

Juan M. Bertello; Miguel C. Mussati; Krist V. Gernaey; Pio A. Aguirre

328

An economic analysis of using wetlands for treatment of shrimp processing wastewater — a case study in Dulac, LA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two crucial environmental problems in Louisiana are high rates of wetland loss and surface water pollution. Using wetlands for wastewater treatment can address both of these concerns by reducing the amount of pollutant discharge into surface water bodies while simultaneously serving to restore and replenish deteriorating marshes by enhancing productivity and accretion. Using wetlands for wastewater assimilation can also result

Lynette Cardoch; John M. Rybczyk; G. Paul Kemp

2000-01-01

329

Groundwater contamination by microbiological and chemical substances released from hospital wastewater: Health risk assessment for drinking water consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by hospital wastewater is a major environmental and human health issue. Disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents are widely used in hospitals for medical purposes and research. After application, some of these substances combine with hospital effluents and, in industrialised countries, reach the municipal sewer network. In certain developing countries, hospitals usually discharge their wastewater into

Evens Emmanuel; Marie Gisèle Pierre; Yves Perrodin

2009-01-01

330

Fate of Toxic and Nonconventional Pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Systems Within the Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field studies were undertaken to determine the fate of toxic and nonconventional pollutants present in the wastewaters discharged from the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. A sampling and analysis program was conducted at two deink mills and a groundw...

B. K. Wallin, A. J. Condren

1981-01-01

331

Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were <1 mg/L; suggesting that >99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (<1.05-m soil profile depth). In the vadose zone of advanced system, heterotrophic and autrotrophic denitrification reduced nitrate-N concentrations to <0.12 mg/L, compared with >20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg/L) indicating enhanced P attenuation in the vadose zone of all systems.

Toor, G.; De, M.

2013-05-01

332

Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.  

PubMed

Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification. PMID:24292468

Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

2013-01-01

333

Prediction of the effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant of CASP using gray model and neural network.  

PubMed

When a domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWWTP) is put into operation, variations of the wastewater quantity and quality must be predicted using mathematical models to assist in operating the wastewater treatment plant such that the treated effluent will be controlled and meet discharge standards. In this study, three types of gray model (GM) including GM (1, N), GM (1, 1), and rolling GM (1, 1) were used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS) from the DWWTP of conventional activated sludge process. The predicted results were compared with those obtained using backpropagation neural network (BPNN). The simulation results indicated that the minimum mean absolute percentage errors of 43.79%, 16.21%, and 30.11% for BOD, COD, and SS could be achieved. The fitness was higher when using BPNN for prediction of BOD (34.77%), but it required a large quantity of data for constructing model. Contrarily, GM only required a small amount of data (at least four data) and the prediction results were analogous to those of BPNN, even lower than that of BPNN when predicting COD (16.21%) and SS (30.11%). According to the prediction, results suggested that GM could predict the domestic effluent variation when its effluent data were insufficient. PMID:19267211

Chen, Home-Ming; Lo, Shang-Lien

2010-03-01

334

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2012-02-01

335

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

336

Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from <1% to >99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. PMID:17180989

Conn, Kathleen E; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Gregory K; Siegrist, Robert L

2006-12-01

337

[Effect of coagulation on the performance of microfiltration in treating phosphorus-containing wastewater].  

PubMed

Treatment of high-concentration phosphorus-containing wastewater produced from automobile painting-industry using microfiltration with and without coagulation pretreatment was studied. The results show that the membrane fouling decreased by reducing the extent of pore plugging and improving the shape of cake layer formed on membrane surface and the permeate flux increased with coagulation as pretreatment. In comparison with direct microfiltration (without coagulation), pretreatment with lime improves removal of phosphate from 11.0% to 99.7%. The permeate obtained from coagulation and microfiltration can meet the national discharge standard and be reused under very safe conditions. With the same cleaning method, the recovery of permeate flux is approximately 18% greater than that of without coagulation pretreatment, which may be due to the differences in the shape of deposited cake and the extent of irreversible fouling. PMID:16921942

Zhang, Jin; Sun, Yu-xin; Dong, Qiang; Liu, Xing-qin; Meng, Guang-yao

2006-06-01

338

Removal of color and residual chemical oxygen demand from synfuel wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Color has been classified as a nonconventional'' water pollutant by the Clean Water Act of 1977. This designation allows the government to regulate the amount of color in discharged effluent where warranted. Discharged color detracts from the aesthetic value of the receiving water, and can be a source of public concern. Color may also have negative effects on aquatic life due to decreased light transmittance and toxic effects. The production of synthetic natural gas from coal results in a wastewater with high levels of phenols, ammonia, and organics. This wastewater requires a multiple-stage treatment process to meet discharge regulations. Treatment processes commonly used for coal conversion wastewaters include solvent extraction, stream stripping, and biological oxidation and nitrification. An additional concern with these wastewaters is the presence of color. High levels of color are common in coal conversion wastewaters, even subsequent to secondary treatment. Since the discharge of colored water presents an environmental concern as discussed above, the need for economical, effective methods to remove this color exists. The objective of this research is to evaluate color removal from a coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction, adsorption, and biological methods. 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Gallagher, J.R.; San, T.M.; Mayer, G.G.

1988-06-01

339

WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The CWA requires EPA to collect, evaluate, and disseminate technical information on various treatment technologies, management practices, and operating methods. Technical information has been/is/will be developed in such areas as wastewater treatment, wet ...

340

UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

341

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AQUACULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The developmental status of the aquacultural alternative for treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the reduction or fate of pollutants in such areas as organics, solids, nutrients, heavy metals, residual hydrocarbons, and potentially ...

342

Upgrading Foundry Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtratio...

R. Osantowski J. S. Ruppersberger

1984-01-01

343

Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic). The occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds varied considerably among sampling sites, but at least one compound was detected at every location. The most organic wastewater compounds (19) were detected at the Neuse River above U.S. 70 at Smithfield, where two-thirds of the total number of samples were collected. The fewest organic wastewater compounds (1) were detected at the Eno River at Hillsborough. The detection of multiple organic wastewater compounds was common, with a median of 3.5 and as many as 12 compounds observed in individual samples. Some compounds, including acetaminophen, cotinine, tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and metolachlor, were detected at numerous sites and in numerous samples, indicating that they are widely distributed in the environment. Other organic wastewater compounds, including acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran, were detected in numerous samples but at only one location, indicating that sources of these compounds are more site specific. Results indicate that municipal wastewater may be a source of antibiotics and synthetic musks; however, the three sites in this study that are located downstream from wastewater discharges also receive runoff from agricultural, urban, and rural residential lands. Source identification was not an objective of this study. Concentrations of individual compounds generally were less than 0.5 microgram per liter. No concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards or health advisories, nor water-quality criteria established by the State of North Carolina; however, such criteria are available for only a few of the compounds that were studied. Compared with other surface waters that have been sampled across the United States, the Triangle Area water-supply sites had fewer detections of organic wastewater compounds; however, differences in study design and analytical methods used among studies must be considered when mak

Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

2007-01-01

344

Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses the use of natural and constructed wetlands for treatment of wastewaters. Mechanisms of treatment processes\\u000a for wetlands were described. Function, roles, types, and selection of wetland plants were discussed. This chapter also covers\\u000a design, monitoring, and maintenance of wetland treatment systems for wastewater. Case studies in Malaysia and UK were discussed.

Azni Idris; Abdul Ghani Liew Abdullah; Yung-Tse Hung; Lawrence K. Wang

345

MIUS wastewater technology evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

Poradek, J. C.

1976-01-01

346

40 CFR 413.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electroplating of Common Metals Subcategory § 413...10,000 gal.) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2013-07-01

347

Physicochemical quality of an urban municipal wastewater effluent and its impact on the receiving environment.  

PubMed

The physicochemical qualities of the final effluents of an urban wastewater treatment plant in South Africa were assessed between August 2007 and July 2008 as well as their impact on the receiving watershed. The pH values across all sampling points ranged between 6.8 and 8.3, while the temperature varied from 18°C to 25°C. Electrical conductivity (EC) of the samples was in the range of 29-1,015 ?S/cm, and turbidity varied between 2.7 and 35 NTU. Salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) varied from 0.36 to 35 psu and 16 to 470 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of the other physicochemical parameters are as follows: chemical oxygen demand (COD, 48-1,180 mg/L); dissolved oxygen (DO, 3.9-6.6 mg/L); nitrate (0.32-6.5 mg NO?? as N/L); nitrite (0.06-2.4 mg NO?? as N/L); and phosphate (0.29-0.54 mg PO?³? as P/L). pH, temperature, EC, turbidity, TDS, DO, and nitrate varied significantly with season and sampling point (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), while salinity varied significantly with sampling point (P<0.01) and COD and nitrite varied significantly with season (P<0.05). Although the treated effluent fell within the recommended water quality standard for pH temperature, TDS, nitrate and nitrite, it fell short of stipulated standards for other parameters. The result generally showed a negative impact of the discharged effluent on the receiving watershed and calls for a regular and consistent monitoring program by the relevant authorities to ensure best practices with regard to treatment and discharge of wastewater into the receiving aquatic milieu in South Africa. PMID:19921451

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E O; Okoh, Anthony I

2010-11-01

348

Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

Dieu, B

2001-01-01

349

Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent\\u000a in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the\\u000a current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS\\u000a are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public

Steven Carroll; Ashantha Goonetilleke; Evan Thomas; Megan Hargreaves; Ray Frost; Les Dawes

2006-01-01

350

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

351

Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO/sub 3//sup -/ and as large as 2000 m/sup 3//d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/ by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m/sup 3/. A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m/sup 3/ and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation.

Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

1981-01-01

352

New treatment for uranium in wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The design of an advanced wastewater treatment facility at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, focuses on minimizing discharge of uranium and other priority pollutant metals. The treatment facility will use chemical pretreatment to remove most dissolved and suspended solids, radionuclides, and priority pollutant metals. Ion exchange will be used to ensure that the concentration of uranium discharged to the environment is less than 1.0 [mu]g/L. Designers have evaluated a potassium ferrate (iron VI) treatment procedure for uranium removal, focusing not only on the treatment's efficiency in removing uranium, but also on the volume of contaminated solids that are generated. When performance levels for removal of uranium, volume of contaminated solids generated, and overall costs of treatment and waste removal are considered, potassium ferrate technology compares favorably with conventional treatments. 2 tabs.

Potts, M.E. (Analytical Development Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)); Hampshire, L.H. (Westinghouse Environmental Management Co. of Ohio, Cincinnati (United States))

1993-01-01

353

Health effects associated with wastewater treatment and disposal. [Wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review dealing with the health hazards associated with working in wastewater treatment plants and those hazards to the general public from land disposal of wastewater and sludge is presented. Specific areas reviewed include the health effects associated with the incineration and composting of sludge, aquaculture, and various onsite systems of wastewater treatment. The presence of organic chemicals, inorganic

N. E. Kowal; H. R. Pahren

1982-01-01

354

HEALTH ASPECTS OF WASTEWATER AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency arranged for several studies, by universities or research institutions, to gather information on health effects associated with wastewater aerosols. Five studies were conducted at wastewater treatm...

355

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is pleased to publish the Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. This manual provides up-to-date information on onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) siting, design, installation, maintenance, and replacem...

2002-01-01

356

The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step.

Rytwo, Giora

2012-01-01

357

Comparison of vertical and horizontal flow planted and unplanted subsurface flow wetlands treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

In the search for design criteria for constructed wetlands (CWs) in Nepal a semi-scale experimental setup including horizontal flow (HF) and vertical flow (VF) CWs was developed. This paper compares the performance of HF and VF wetlands, and planted with unplanted beds. The experimental setup consists of two units of HF and VF beds of size 6 m × 2 m × 0.6 m and 6 m × 2 m × 0.8 m (length × width × depth) respectively. For both HF and VF systems, one unit was planted with Phragmites karka (local reed) and one was not planted. The systems were fed with wastewater drawn from the grit chamber of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The media consisted of river gravel. In the first phase of the experiment the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was varied in steps; 0.2, 0.08, 0.04 m(3)/m(2)/d and the percent removal increase with decrease in HLR for all beds and parameters except for total phosphorus. In the second phase the loading rate of 0.04 m(3)/m(2)/d was run for 7 months. In both parts of the experiment the planted beds performed better than the unplanted beds and the VF better than the HF beds. To meet Nepalese discharge standards HF beds are sufficient, but to meet stricter requirements a combination of HF and VF beds are recommended. PMID:23823547

Pandey, M K; Jenssen, P D; Krogstad, T; Jonasson, Sven

2013-01-01

358

Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.  

PubMed

Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems. PMID:23376111

Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

2013-02-15

359

SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOLOGICAL NUTRIENT REMOVAL AT CALGARY'S 500 ML\\/d BONNYBROOK WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calgary is the largest city in the Province of Alberta, Canada, with a 2003 population approaching 1,000,000. The City of Calgary owns and operates two wastewater treatment plants, Bonnybrook and Fish Creek, which together provide treatment to 100 percent of Calgary wastewater prior to its discharge to the Bow River. The Bow River is a world-class sport fishery, an important

Prasanna L. Amatya; Wolf E. Keller

360

Release of infectious human enteric viruses by full-scale wastewater utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, infectious human enteric viruses are introduced daily into the environment through the discharge of treated water and the digested sludge (biosolids). In this study, a total of 30 wastewater and 6 biosolids samples were analyzed over five months (May–September 2008–2009) from five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Michigan using real-time PCR and cell culture assays.

Fredrick James Simmons; Irene Xagoraraki

2011-01-01

361

Impacts of biomonitoring requirements on DOD waste-water treatment facilities. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Legislative emphasis on reducing the toxicity of wastewater effluent has resulted in increasingly sophisticated methods of determining toxicity. The purpose of this research project is to assess the impacts on DoD wastewater treatment facilities of one new monitoring method, biomonitoring. Biomonitoring has impacted DoD wastewater treatment facilities, however not to the degree anticipated. For bases that have been impacted, cost of contracting the tests is the primary problem associated with biomonitoring. Many bases have not been impacted because wastewater reuse has negated the need for discharge permits, and the inherent monitoring requirements. Bases subject to biomonitoring should assess water reuse as a means of wastewater disposal. Additionally, other bases have not as yet had biomonitoring requirements imposed on them. It is recommended that these bases prepare for future biomonitoring requirements by having their effluent tested to determine toxicity in anticipation of biomonitoring implementation by the states.

Brady, J.R.

1991-09-01

362

FISH TISSUE QUALITY IN NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO RECEIVING POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless o...

363

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations  

PubMed Central

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds.

2009-01-01

364

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

2009-10-01

365

Economy of precipitating agent application in municipal wastewater treatment facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purification by precipitation in this study is not considered primarily as a means of phosphate removal but as a method for reduction of suspended solids BOD and COD. A dynamic calculation procedure is used to allow for exact determination of time dependent variation of costs. The results show that costs of wastewater treatment by precipitation may equal those of conventional primary clarification and secondary biological treatment, especially with low-cost iron-II-salts in simultaneous precipitation and in larger plants ( 20,000 PF). Cost advantages may be accrued in smaller plants by using the more expensive trivalent salts in pre-precipitation as compared to conventional low-load biological treatment. This is due mainly to better effluent quality and, consequently, lower wastewater fees (Wastewater Discharge Act). If the precipitant is dosed temporarily only during periods of highest pollution the savings can be about 5 to 10%.

Neis, U.; Geppert, B.; Hahn, H. H.; Gleisberg, D.

1983-01-01

366

Supply-chain environmental effects of wastewater utilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter describes a comprehensive modeling framework and the Wastewater-Energy Sustainability Tool (WWEST) designed for conducting hybrid life-cycle assessments of the wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge infrastructure in the United States. Results from a case study treatment plant which produces electricity using methane offgas are discussed. The case study system supplements influent with 'high-strength organic waste' to augment electricity production. The system balance is 55 kg of greenhouse gases per million liters of wastewater. Sensitivity analysis confirms that reusing biogas from anaerobic digestion for electricity reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by nine times. When biogas is captured and reused for electricity, material production (e.g., chemicals and pipes) and the corresponding supply chains, rather than energy production, are responsible for most of the environmental effects. When biogas is flared, the material and energy production contributions are similar.

Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

2010-01-01

367

Wastewater salinity assessment using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a fast and inexpensive non-destructive technique for the prediction of concentrations of salts in wastewater. Conventional chemical methods are usually used, which are very accurate, take more time and require special techniques for sampling, storing and pretreatment of wastewater. In this work we studied the spectral characteristics of water and the effect of salts on the perturbations in the water absorption bands. The generation of multiple regression models with principal components was carried out on standard solutions with composition of salts similar to that of wastewater samples taken along the drainage channel network of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The spectral signatures were obtained in situ and in the laboratory using a portable high-resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec 3). The prediction model generated showed high precision in the estimation of salinity in wastewater, a coefficient of determination of 89.6% and a low root mean square error of 0.12‰. Other compounds, which are not discussed here, cause distortion of the absorption bands of water at wavelengths less than 900 nm or near the visible region, while our results showed distortions in the water spectrum at higher wavelengths (>1,000 nm). PMID:23985519

Ontiveros, Ronald; Diakite, Lamine; Edna Alvarez, M; Coras, Pablo

2013-01-01

368

Occurrence and fate of nitrosamines and nitrosamine precursors in wastewater-impacted surface waters using boron as a conservative tracer.  

PubMed

Using boron as a conservative tracer of municipal wastewater effluents, a mass balance was developed to determine river flowrates that requires only wastewater discharge flowrates and boron concentrations in wastewater effluents and in the river upstream and downstream of these discharges. Furthermore, this method permits calculation of the percentage of the river deriving from wastewater. This method could be useful within river sections featuring no independent data regarding river discharge. We assessed the decay of nitrate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors within an engineered treatment wetland and, using our boron analysis technique to account for dilution, within the Quinnipiac River (CT). Although both decayed with several day half-lives, their slow decay indicates they can persist to impact downstream drinking water supplies. Concentrations of NDMA and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were measurable within the river, but concentrations of four other nitrosamines, their precursors, and NMOR precursors were not detectable. PMID:16749682

Schreiber, I Marie; Mitch, William A

2006-05-15

369

Amendments to the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) background documents for wastes for which wastewater treatment standards were determined based on concentrations in incinerator scrubber water: K015, k016, k018, k019, k020, k023, k024, k028, k030, k048, k049, k050, k051, k052, k087, k093, k094, u028, u069, u088, u102, u107, and u190. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is today revising the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) treatment standards for organic constituents regulated in wastewater forms of the hazardous wastes listed as K015, K016, K018, K019, K020, K023, K024, K028, K030, K048, K049, K050, K051, K052, K087, K093, K094, U028, U069, U088, U102, U107, and U190. The document presents EPA`s rational and technical support for the revision of treatment standards for organic constituents in the wastewater forms of the previously mentioned wastes. In the document, the wastes identified by the aforementioned codes may also be referred to as `the wastes of interest.`

NONE

1992-06-01

370

Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan. PMID:16413595

Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

2006-06-01

371

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

372

Frequency analysis of river water quality using integrated urban wastewater models.  

PubMed

In recent years integrated models have been developed to simulate the entire urban wastewater system, including urban drainage systems, wastewater treatment plants, and receiving waterbodies. This paper uses such an integrated urban wastewater model to analyze the frequency of receiving water quality in an urban wastewater system with the aim of assessing the overall system performance during rainfall events. The receiving water quality is represented by two indicators: event mean dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and event mean ammonium concentration. The compliance probability of the water quality indicators satisfying a specific threshold is used to represent the system performance, and is derived using the rainfall events from a series of 10 years' rainfall data. A strong correlation between the depth of each rainfall event and the associated volume of combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges is revealed for the case study catchment, while there is a low correlation between the intensity/duration of the rainfall event and the volume of the CSO discharges. The frequency analysis results obtained suggest that the event mean DO and ammonium concentrations have very different characteristics in terms of compliance probabilities at two discharging points for CSO and wastewater treatment plant effluent, respectively. In general, the simulation results provide an understanding of the performance of the integrated urban wastewater system and can provide useful information to support water quality management. PMID:22643404

Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

2012-01-01

373

A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

374

Role of quantum dots nanoparticles in the chemical treatment of colored wastewater: Catalysts or additional pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the presence and the activity of quantum dots nanoparticles in colored wastewaters. The special interest is devoted to the investigation of their role in the typical treatment of water or wastewater, studying their influence on the effectiveness of applied treatments methods. The standard chemical processes for water treatment and disinfection (direct UV

Hrvoje Kusic; Danuta Leszczynska; Natalija Koprivanac; Igor Peternel

2011-01-01

375

The pT-method as a Hazard Assessment Scheme for wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pT-method is an evaluation strategy for investigating the toxic effects of wastewaters. With this Hazard Assessment Scheme (HAS), wastewater is tested with standardized bioassays, using dilution series in geometric sequence with a dilution factor of two. Its toxic status is then equated with the first dilution stage at which the effluent is no longer toxic. The numerical designation of

Falk Krebs

376

Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

1967-01-01

377

2009 CSREES National Water Conference; St. Louis, MO Installation Curriculum for Small Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A training course discussing the best practice standards for onsite wastewater treatment system installation processes has been developed through a multi-state collaborative effort facilitated through the Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment. Cooperative Extension groups in Texas, Minnesota, Rhode Island, and North Carolina have joined together to develop the training manual and associated presentation materials to go along with

Bruce Lesikar; Rebecca Melton; Nancy Deal; George Loomis; David Kalen; David Lindbo

2009-01-01

378

Evaluation of disinfection techniques in the treatment of advanced primary treated wastewater for Ciudad Juárez, México.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative disinfection techniques at the bench-scale level using wastewater from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, as model feed. This paper presents findings on the effectiveness of UV radiation, peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as disinfectants for advanced primary treatment (APT) plant effluent. Wastewater samples for bench-scale testing were collected from an agua negra ("black water") ditch that is part of the combined sewer system in Ciudad Juarez. Bench-scale simulations of the APT process used in Ciudad Juarez were run using a jar test apparatus and aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] as the coagulant. Jar test effluent from the bench system was used for disinfection testing. The Mexican discharge quality standard for total coliforms is 10 000/100 mL. Ultraviolet radiation met this standard at a dose of 47.5 mW-s/cm2. Ultraviolet disinfection proved reliable and effective despite the presence of suspended solids, and UV dose effectiveness expressed as a total coliforms survival ratio was best explained by a linear regression model. The ClO2 dose ranged from 10 to 20 mg/L and was only effective under ambient temperature conditions found during the winter months; PAA disinfection never met Mexican standards. Chlorine disinfection was effective at a dose range of 8 to 10 mg/L on samples collected at low temperature conditions. Since the completion of this research, Ciudad Juarez has discontinued the use of chlorine disinfection because of its high cost and ineffectiveness. PMID:16553166

Carrasco, Leirad; Turner, Charles D

2006-01-01

379

Effect of Kima drain wastewaters on Nile river waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged from the Kima drain (Aswan, Egypt) on the quality of the Nile river waters is described by measuring the concentrations of inorganic nonmetals (free CO2, CO32?, HCO3?, OH?, Cl?, SO42?, PO43?, NO2?, NO3?, SiO2, COD, DO, and pH value), metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), and

M. E. Soltan

1995-01-01

380

Distribution of injected wastewater in the saline-lava aquifer, Wailuku-Kahului wastewater treatment facility, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field studies and digital modeling of a lava rock aquifer system near Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, describe the distribution of planned injected wastewater from a secondary treatment facility. The aquifer contains water that is almost as saline as seawater. The saline water is below a seaward-discharging freshwater lens, and separated from it by a transition zone of varying salinity. Injection of wastewater at an average rate of 6.2 cubic feet per second is planned through wells open only to the aquifer deep within the saline water zone. The lava rock aquifer is overlain by a sequence of residual soil, clay, coral reef deposits, and marine sand that form a low-permeability caprock which semiconfines the lava rock aquifer. Under conditions measured and assumed without significant change. After reaching a new steady state, the wastewater will discharge into and through the caprock sequence within an area measuring approximately 1,000 feet inland, 1,000 feet laterally on either side of the injection site, and about 2,000 feet seaward. Little, if any, of the injected wastewater may be expected to reach the upper part of the caprock flow system landward of the treatment plant facility. (Woodard-USGS)

Burnham, Willis L.; Larson, S. P.; Cooper, Hilton Hammond

1977-01-01

381

Consider Fenton`s chemistry for wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

The chemical process industries (CPI) must treat wastewaters containing a wide variety of contaminants, ranging from toxic organics like phenol, benzene, other aromatics, formaldehyde, and amines, to inorganics such as sulfite, sulfide, mercaptans, and cyanide, to heavy metals such as hexavalent chrome. These wastewaters also have a wide range of concentrations and combinations of contaminants. The streams must be treated as inexpensively as possible and in a safe manner, preferably by processes that are easy to operate on-site and that require a minimum of labor and technical know-how. And, of course, the ultimate goal of this treatment is that the treated water meet all federal, state, and local discharge regulations. One available wastewater treatment technology that few engineers seem to be familiar with is the Fenton reactor. In this advanced oxidation process, toxic wastewater is reacted with inexpensive ferrous sulfate catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in a simple, nonpressurized (typically batch) reactor to yield (if reacted to completion) carbon dioxide and water. This article offers guidance on the use of this process by first explaining the mechanisms of Fenton`s chemistry and then outlining how to apply it to industrial wastewater treatment.

Bigda, R.J.

1995-12-01

382

Environmental assessment of urban wastewater reuse: treatment alternatives and applications.  

PubMed

The main function of a Wastewater Treatment Plant is to minimize the environmental impact of discharging untreated water into natural water systems. Also a Wastewater Treatment Plant may get a resource from wastewater carrying out a tertiary treatment on the treated wastewater which can be reused in non-potable applications. Water reuse strategies are intended to address the problem of water scarcity without aggravating other environmental problems, thus reflecting the need of their environmental assessment. In this paper we used Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate different disinfection treatments (chlorination plus ultraviolet treatment, ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide) and to assess the environmental advantages and drawbacks of urban wastewater reuse in non-potable applications. To do so, we compared the environmental impacts of producing 1m(3) of water for non-potable uses from reclaimed water, potable water and desalinated water sources. The calculation has used current operating data from a Wastewater Treatment Plant located in the Mediterranean area, although the results can be applied to any other plant with similar technology. The ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide disinfection treatment technologies have similar environmental profiles. However most of the indicators are about 50% higher than the ultraviolet disinfection except for the acidification (100% higher) and photochemical oxidation (less than 5%). Non-potable uses (both agricultural and urban uses) of reclaimed water have environmental and economical advantages. Reuse of treated wastewater is particularly beneficial when it can replace desalinated water. Consequently, reclaimed water should be promoted for non-potable uses, when there is scarcity of freshwater. PMID:20580058

Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina C; Castells, Francesc

2010-09-01

383

Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and shifting of environmental loads in the wastewater treatment sector. Part I: Case study of the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material that is separated from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants has to be transferred from the water phase to the atmosphere, lithosphere, and\\/or biosphere (and also the technosphere). After the initial discharges into the different environmental media (and the technosphere), there are further ‘inter?sphere’ leakages or redirections. However, these happen over protracted periods of time and have not been

G. Venkatesh; Helge Brattebo

2009-01-01

384

Occurrence and suitability of sucralose as an indicator compound of wastewater loading to surface waters in urbanized regions.  

PubMed

Urban watersheds are susceptible to numerous pollutant sources and the identification of source-specific indicators can provide a beneficial tool in the identification and control of input loads, often times needed for a water body to achieve designated beneficial uses. Differentiation of wastewater flows from other urban wet weather flows is needed in order to more adequately address such environmental concerns as water body nutrient impairment and potable source water contamination. Anthropogenic compounds previously suggested as potential wastewater indicators include caffeine, carbamazepine, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, and TCEP. This paper compares the suitability of a variety of anthropogenic compounds to sucralose, an artificial sweetener, as wastewater indicators by examining occurrence data for 85 trace organic compounds in samples of wastewater effluents, source waters with known wastewater point source inputs, and sources without known wastewater point source inputs. The findings statistically demonstrate the superior performance of sucralose as a potential indicator of domestic wastewater input in the U.S. While several compounds were detected in all of the wastewater effluent samples, only sucralose was consistently detected in the source waters with known wastewater discharges, absent in the sources without wastewater influence, and consistently present in septic samples. All of the other compounds were prone to either false negatives or false positives in the environment. PMID:21665241

Oppenheimer, Joan; Eaton, Andrew; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Haghani, Ali W; Jacangelo, Joseph G

2011-07-01

385

Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more effective at improving HRQOL or patient satisfaction. Compared with usual care, there was low quality evidence that the discharge planning plus postdischarge support is more effective at reducing readmissions but not more effective at reducing hospital LOS or mortality. There was very low quality evidence that it is more effective at improving HRQOL or patient satisfaction. Plain Language Summary Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in their health status and multiple transitions between care settings and care providers (e.g., hospital to home). Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. A review of the effects of different discharge plans was conducted. After searching for relevant studies, 11 studies were found that compared discharge planning with routine discharge care. This review indicates that: Individualized discharge planning reduces initial hospital length of stay and subsequent readmission to hospital but does not reduce mortality. The effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) or patient satisfaction is uncertain. Discharge planning plus postdischarge support reduces readmissions but does not reduce the initial hospital length of stay or mortality after discharge. The effect on HRQOL or patient satisfaction is uncertain.

McMartin, K

2013-01-01

386

Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

Haas, C.N. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago); McCreary, J.J.

1982-06-01

387

Metrics for Wastewater Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in wastewater technology, this instructional package is part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology, measurement terms, and tools currently in use.…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

388

WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

389

Sedimentation of tannery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannery wastewater is a powerful pollutant. It can cause severe environmental problems related to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with elevated chrome concentration and deep colour content. The strength parameters employed are COD and suspended solids (SS). Chromium (III) is widely used as tanning agent in the leather industry, and is a significant source of environmental contamination. Tannery

Z Song; C. J Williams; R. G. J Edyvean

2000-01-01

390

Wastewater treatment with microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic

Oswald

1992-01-01

391

IMPROVING HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many rural and suburban homes and virtually all farmsteads use a septic system or similar onsite waste- water treatment system. While these systems are generally economical and safe, household wastewater can contain contaminates that degrade water quality for such uses as drinking, stock watering, food preparation and cleaning. A properly designed, installed, and maintained system minimizes the impact of that

Anthony Tyson

392

Hybrid Sargassum-sand sorbent: a novel adsorbent in packed column to treat metal-bearing wastewaters from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

Laboratory batch and column experiments were carried out to examine the efficiency of algal-based treatment technique to clean-up wastewaters emanating from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Chemical characterization revealed the extreme complexity of the wastewater, with the presence of 14 different metals under very low pH (pH = 1.1), high conductivity (6.98 mS/cm), total dissolved solid (4.46 g/L) and salinity (3.77). Batch experiments using Sargassum biomass indicated that it was possible to attain high removal efficiencies at optimum pH of 4.0. Efforts were also made to continuously treat ICP-OES wastewater using up-flow packed column. However, swelling of Sargassum biomass leads to stoppage of column. To address the problem, Sargassum was mixed with sand at a ratio of 40: 60 on volume basis. Remarkably, the hybrid Sargassum-sand sorbent showed very high removal efficiency towards multiple metal ions with the column able to operate for 11 h at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. Metal ions such as Cu, Cd, and Pb were only under trace levels in the treated water until 11 h. The results of the treatment process were compared with trade effluent discharge standards. Further the process evaluation and cost analysis were presented. PMID:23947707

Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M

2013-01-01

393

Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes.

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.O.; Obi, Larry C.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2010-01-01

394

Feasibility and simulation model of a pilot scale membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and reuse from Chinese traditional medicine.  

PubMed

The lack and pollution of water resource make wastewater reuse necessary. The pilot scale long-term tests for submerged membrane bioreactor were conducted to treat the effluents of anaerobic or aerobic treatment process for the high-strength Chinese traditional medicine wastewater. This article was focused on the feasibility of the wastewater treatment and reuse at shorter hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.0, 3.2 and 2.13 h. MLSS growth, membrane flux, vacuum values and chemical cleaning periods were also investigated. The experimental results of treating two-phase anaerobic treatment effluent demonstrated that the CODfilt was less than 100 mg/L when the influent COD was between 500-10000 mg/L at HRT of 5.0 h, which could satisfy the normal discharged standard in China. The experimental results to treat cross flow aerobic reactor effluent demonstrated that the average value of CODfilt was 17.28 mg/L when the average value of influent COD was 192.84 mg/L at HRT of 2.13 h during 106 d, which could completely meet the normal standard for water reuse. The maximum MLSS and MLVSS reached 24000 and 14500 mg/L at HRT of 3.2 h respectively. Membrane flux had maximal resume degrees of 94.7% at vacuum value of 0.02 MPa after cleaning. Chemical cleaning periods of membrane module were 150 d. A simulation model of operational parameters was also established based on the theory of back propagation neural network and linear regression of traditional mathematical model. The simulation model showed that the optimum operational parameters were suggested as follows: HRT was 5.0 h, SRT was 100 d, the range of COD loading rate was between 10.664-20.451 kg/(m3xd), the range of MLSS was between 7543-13694 mg/L. PMID:17915718

Ren, Nan-qi; Yan, Xian-feng; Chen, Zhao-bo; Hu, Dong-xue; Gong, Man-li; Guo, Wan-qian

2007-01-01

395

Concentration of Norovirus during Wastewater Treatment and Its Impact on Oyster Contamination  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of Escherichia coli, F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNA bacteriophage), and norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI) and norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) in wastewater were monitored weekly over a 1-year period at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) providing secondary wastewater treatment. A total of 49 samples of influent wastewater and wastewater that had been treated by primary and secondary wastewater treatment processes (primary and secondary treated wastewater) were analyzed. Using a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), the mean NoV GI and NoV GII concentrations detected in effluent wastewater were 2.53 and 2.63 log10 virus genome copies 100 ml?1, respectively. The mean NoV concentrations in wastewater during the winter period (January to March) (n = 12) were 0.82 (NoV GI) and 1.41 (NoV GII) log units greater than the mean concentrations for the rest of the year (n = 37). The mean reductions of NoV GI and GII during treatment were 0.80 and 0.92 log units, respectively, with no significant difference detected in the extent of NoV reductions due to season. No seasonal trend was detected in the concentrations of E. coli or FRNA bacteriophage in wastewater influent and showed mean reductions of 1.49 and 2.13 log units, respectively. Mean concentrations of 3.56 and 3.72 log10 virus genome copies 100 ml?1 for NoV GI and GII, respectively, were detected in oysters sampled adjacent to the WWTP discharge. A strong seasonal trend was observed, and the concentrations of NoV GI and GII detected in oysters were correlated with concentrations detected in the wastewater effluent. No seasonal difference was detected in concentrations of E. coli or FRNA bacteriophage detected in oysters.

Flannery, John; Keaveney, Sinead; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; O'Flaherty, Vincent

2012-01-01

396

Development Document for Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines, New Source Performance Standards, and Pretreatment Standards for the Petroleum Refining Point Source Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarized EPA's review of the petroleum refining industry with respect to discharge of toxics into waters of the U.S. Information in the report included profile of industry by refining capacity and wastewater generation rate, characteristics o...

J. Cunningham J. Lum

1979-01-01

397

Treatability Studies of Pesticide Manufacturing Wastewaters: Carbaryl.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a bench-scale, experimental treatability study of wastewaters from the manufacture of the pesticide carbaryl. Results indicate that both carbaryl manufacturing wastewater (mixed one part in nine parts municipal wastewater) and ...

E. Monnig M. Murphy R. Zweidinger L. Little

1980-01-01

398

Prostate brachytherapy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

399

Model Test of Proposed Loading Rates for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

State regulatory agencies set standards for onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS), commonly known as septic systems, based on expected hydraulic performance and nitrogen (N) treatment in soils of differing texture. In a previous study, hydraulic loading rates were proposed fo...

400

Biooxidation of coal gasification wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out on the feasibility of using a fixed-film fluidised-bed bioreactor to treat coal gasification wastewaters. Dilute synthetic wastewaters were treated successfully by this process for over a year, and dilute actual wastewaters for 9 months. The bioreactors were stable, and no serious operating problems occurred. Effluent phenol concentration of <0.001 kg\\/m³ was achieved with a synthetic

T. L. Donaldson; G. W. Strandberg; J. D. Hewitt; G. S. Shields

1984-01-01

401

[Application of wastewater land treatment technique to the construction of ecological engineering in sand land].  

PubMed

In this paper studies on the feasibility of harmlessness and resource of wastewater, which was discharged from a thermal power plant, by using slow rate filtration of land treatment technique for the fast recovery of vegetation in the Kubuqi sand land were carried out. The selected arbor, shrub and herbage in the land treatment system were poplar (Populus alba Var. Pyramidalis bunge), seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and sweet clover (Melilotus suaveolens) respectively. Three levels of wastewater hydraulic loading were designed in the field pilot experiment. They were high plot with 3000 mm/a irrigation (H), medium plot with 1500 mm/a irrigation (M) and low plot (L) with small volume of irrigation only used in the period of transplant seedlings. The performance indicate that the purification function of power plant wastewater by pre-treatment through combination of precipitation pool with storage ponds is effective and therefore the effluent after pretreatment can be used to irrigation vegetation. The experiment results show that the volume of tree crown for poplar in H plot and M plot was up to 1.07 and 2.21 times comparing with L plot respectively. The annual yield (dry weight) of sweet clover in H plot and M plot was up to 2.33 and 3.0 times comparing with L plot respectively. The height of seabuckthorn in H zone and M plot was up to 1.08 and 1.32 times comparing with L plot respectively. There is direct proportion between growth status of vegetation and hydraulic loading of irrigation. The contents of heavy metals for sweet clover (Cd 0.021 mg/kg, Pb<0.001 mg/kg, Cr <0.01 mg/kg, As 0.043 mg/kg) are much lower than the food standards of grain and vegetables, therefore the sweet clover for raising livestock is safe. Wastewater in this area is valuable source. Its reasonable utilization can contribute important benefits in economy and ecology in the ecological construction and developing effective agriculture and animal husbandry. PMID:16124473

Li, Pei-jun; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Sun, Tie-heng; Tai, Pei-dong; Chang, Shi-jun; Xiong, Xian-zhe; Li, Ying-mei

2005-05-01

402

Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to develop measures to reduce the foam index. As no criterion exists for foam in rivers in Austria, as well as in Hungary, the not accepted degree of foam formation was defined as the limit at which population protests from Hungary arose. This approach resulted in a foam index higher than 3.5, which was observed with 40% probability during the investigation period. By developing and performing a simple mathematical regression model the required reduction of foam potential emissions could be calculated in order to minimize the foam index to an accepted standard. By the elimination of 75% of foam potential, a foam index lower than 3.5 would be assured with 95% probability based on long term discharge development.

Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

403

Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

1987-01-01

404

Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies.  

PubMed

In the past, emission standard indicators have been adopted by environmental regulation authorities in order to preserve the quality of a receiving water body. Such indicators are based on the frequency or magnitude of a polluted discharge that may be continuous or intermittent. In order to properly maintain the quality of receiving waters, the Water Framework Directive, following the basic ideas of British Urban Pollution Manual, has been established. The Directive has overtaken the emission-standard concept, substituting it with the stream-standard concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on the self-depurative characteristics of receiving waters. Stream-standard assessment requires the deployment of measurement campaigns that can be very expensive; furthermore, the measurement campaigns are usually not able to provide a link between the receiving water quality and the polluting sources. Therefore, it would be very useful to find a correlation between the quality status of the natural waters and the emission-based indicators. Thus, this study is aimed to finding a possible connection between the receiving water quality indicators drawn by environmental regulation authorities and emission-based indicators while considering both continuous (i.e. from the wastewater treatment plants) and intermittent pollution discharges (mainly from combined sewer overflows). Such research has been carried out by means of long-term analysis adopting a holistic modelling approach. The different parts of the integrated urban drainage system were modelled by a parsimonious integrated model. The analysis was applied to an ephemeral river bounding Bologna (Italy). The study concluded that the correlation between receiving water quality and polluting emissions cannot be generally stated. Nevertheless, specific analyses on polluting emissions were pointed out in the study highlighting cause-effect link between polluting sources and receiving water quality. PMID:20351441

Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

2010-01-01

405

Assessment of multiple sustainability demands for wastewater treatment alternatives: a refined evaluation scheme and case study.  

PubMed

Current estimation schemes as decision support tools for the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives focus primarily on the treatment efficiency, effluent quality, and environmental consequences for receiving water bodies. However, these schemes generally do not quantify the potential to convert pollutants in wastewater to recoverable resources. This study proposes a refined evaluation scheme for choices of wastewater treatment processes that quantifies not only adverse environmental effects but also bioenergy and nutrient recovery indices. An original means of data processing was established and clear estimate indicators were consequently obtained to allow a smooth overall estimation. An array of wastewater treatment alternatives that meet three effluent limits were used as case studies to demonstrate how the present scheme works, simultaneously, to identify optimum choices. It is concluded in the overall estimation that the lower sustainability of wastewater treatment contributed by increasingly stringent discharge demands was offset and mitigated by the resource-recovery scenarios involved, and the scenario of recovering nutrients via excess-sludge composting was of more benefit. Thus, before tightening wastewater discharge requirements, one should bear in mind the situation of multiple sustainability by setting a goal to achieve not only the greatest reduction in environmental burden but also the maximum resource-recovery benefits. PMID:22530769

Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Yu, Han-Qing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Guo, Xuesong

2012-05-15

406

Biodegradation of wastewater of Najafgarh drain, Delhi using autochthonous microbial consortia : a laboratory study.  

PubMed

There are seventeen drains, which discharge their untreated urban and industrial wastewaters into the Delhi segment of river Yamuna. The Najafgarh drain is the first and the largest drain, and it alone contributes 1667.84 mld i.e. 60% of the total wastewater discharge into the river Yamuna and as such add 81.36 tons of BOD load per day. As per the available data approximately 95% of the wastewater of this drain is biodegradable. In the present study, an attempt has been made to reduce the BOD load and COD levels of wastewater of Najafgarh drain using autochthonous microbial consortium. During this study the raw wastewater samples were treated for 6 h time interval with different concentration of consortium. It was observed that by increasing the existing microbial population in the wastewater sample by 150-200% there is a significant decrease in BOD and COD levels. Finally, BOD/COD ratios before and after biotreatment have been analyzed to assess the efficacy of the natural consortium. PMID:12674375

Sharma, Garima; Mehra, N K; Kumar, Rita

2002-10-01

407

Fenton-biological treatment processes for the removal of some pharmaceuticals from industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

A treatability study of pharmaceutical wastewater from El-Nasr Pharmaceutical and Chemical Company, South-East of Cairo, was carried out. The company discharges both industrial (6000 m(3)/d) and municipal wastewater (128 m(3)/d) into a nearby evaporation pond without any treatment. The generated raw wastewater is characterized by high values of COD (4100-13,023), TSS (20-330 mg/L), and oil grease (17.4-600 mg/L). In addition, the presence of refractory compounds decreases BOD/COD ratio (0.25-0.30). Analysis of raw wastewater confirmed that pre-treatment is required prior to discharge into public sewers to comply with the Egyptian Environmental laws and regulations. The obtained results indicated that the refractory compounds and their by-products cannot be readily removed by biological treatment and always remain in the treated effluent or adsorbed on the sludge flocs. The application of Fenton oxidation process as a pre-treatment improved the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater and appears to be an affective solution to achieve compliance with the law legislation with respect to discharge in a determined receptor medium. PMID:19195782

Badawy, Mohamed I; Wahaab, Rifaat A; El-Kalliny, A S

2009-08-15

408

Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

2009-08-01

409

Inputs of total and labile trace metals from wastewater treatment plants effluents to the Seine River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seine river basin has long been impacted by metal inputs from the Paris area, but the water quality has been gradually improving for the last 20 years. Among all metal pollution sources (surface runoff, industries), urban wastewater discharge has been shown to significantly contribute, during low-flow periods, to metal fluxes of the River Seine. This paper assesses the current wastewater contribution to metal inputs in the Seine river basin, based on sampling of nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Seven metals were targeted (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb) during dry weather periods. Since total and dissolved concentrations alone are not relevant enough for an ecological risk assessment, labile metals (free + weekly complexed) were also measured by means of DGT (diffusive gradient in thin film technique). Results show that WWTPs greatly reduce total metal concentrations but reduce labile metal concentrations only slightly. Estimations made for direct total metal inputs in the River Seine via treated effluent discharge confirm the decrease observed for the 1994-1995 period. Labile metals released by WWTP were also considered by comparing fluxes in the effluent discharge of two different WWTPs to those flowing in the receiving river. Fluxes discharged by the largest plant were similar to those measured in the river during low-flow periods whereas they were negligible for the smaller one. Nevertheless, labile metal concentrations in both discharges were similar and the wastewater discharge’s contribution to labile fluxes in receiving waters seems to depend mostly on the relative significance of the discharge flow compared to the receiving water flow.

Buzier, Rémy; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Keirsbulck, Marion; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

410

40 CFR 471.95 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...part 136, that the concentrations of nitrosamine compounds in the wastewater discharged...demonstration has been made for all three nitrosamine compounds for six consecutive months...found to contain any of the foregoing nitrosamine compounds at concentrations...

2010-07-01

411

Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and compare it to another, and to mix an effluent in a receiving water to estimate bioavailability in the near- and far-field. As part of this project, a study was undertaken to evaluate methylmercury and reactive mercury in wastewater effluents. Effluent samples from 7 municipal wastewater plants from around the Unites States were collected weekly over a ten week period from late June through August of 2008. These data represent the first comprehensive study of bioavailable mercury in wastewater effluents and have not been published elsewhere. Initial data suggest that bioavailable (methyl plus reactive) mercury is less than 30 percent of total unfiltered mercury. Reactive mercury percentages (relative to dissolved total mercury) are somewhat higher than were initially predicted from theoretical calculations. This presentation will overview the project as a whole with a focus on the bioavailability study of these 7 wastewater plants.

Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

2008-12-01

412

Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

413

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

414

[Study on the pollutants removal performance along the advanced treatment in tannery wastewater by O3-BAF].  

PubMed

A pilot-scale hybrid process of ozone and biological aerated filters (BAF) with the capacity of 36 t x d(-1) was applied for advanced treatment of the secondary biologically effluent from a dyeing and tannery park wastewater treatment plant. The pollutants removal performance along the height of different medias BAFs were investigated. The results showed that the average COD and color were 55.4 mg x L(-1) and 12.6 times at the height of 1500 mm in activated carbon BAF, and were 55.6 mg x L(-1) and 9.4 times at the height of 1 800 mm in composite BAF, both of the effluent at each height met the first level B criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002). Along the height of ceramist BAF, the COD and color were seldom removed. In activated carbon BAF and composite BAF, COD and ammonia nitrogen were both greatly decreased at the height of 1 200 mm, then decreased slowly. The biomasses simultaneously reached the maximum at the height of 900 mm in activated carbon, composite and ceramist BAF, with the maxims of 30.69, 28.87 and 15.94 nmol x g(-1), respectively. PMID:23745403

Yu, Bin; Liu, Rui; Cheng, Jia-Di; Fan, Ju-Hong; Li, Chang-Hu; Ran, Kun; Cao, Guo-Hua; Chen, Li-Jun

2013-03-01

415

A full-scale sequencing batch reactor system for swine wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system was evaluated for its ability to remove carbon and nitrogen from swine wastewater. The SBR was operated on four, six-hour cycles each day, with each cycle consisting of 4.5 hours of "React," 0.75 hours of "Settling", 0.75 hours for "Draw" and "Fill." Within each cycle, an amount of wastewater equivalent to about 5% of the reactor volume (5,500 litres) was removed and added. The SBR system was able to remove 82% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and more than 75% of nitrogen. Even though the SBR effluent, with an average effluent BOD5 of about 588 mg L(-1), did not meet the discharge criteria, it enabled a reduction of the land base required for land application of swine wastewater by about 75%. Results indicated that the SBR system was a viable method for the treatment of swine wastewater. PMID:17365339

Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

2007-02-01

416

A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.  

PubMed

Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design. PMID:22699329

Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

2012-01-01

417

Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability. PMID:17163009

Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

2006-01-01

418

Design more flexibility into wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Several case histories illustrates how to design a refinery wastewater treatment system (WWTS). The heart of WWTS, the biological oxidation (BIOX) process, is the main focus. The design case history shows how to calculate BIOX parameters such as system flow, hydraulic retention time, sludge age, destruction/removal efficiency, reactor loading, etc. Tighter control on equipment size prevents overdesign and minimizes capital and operating costs. A BIOX system that is too large can cause as many problems as one that is too small. Improved WWTSs specification allows cost-effective operations at extreme flow and contaminant conditions. The paper describes the complex and variable scheme, WWTS design concepts, waste water biodegradability, destruction/removal efficiency, food-to-microorganisms, mixed liquor suspended solids, hydraulic retention time, sludge age, BIOX reactor loading, aeration, temperature, clarifier, discharge permit limits, operating diagram, operability review, and three case histories.

Capps, R.W. (Pace Consultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Matelli, G.N.; Bradford, M.L. (Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-12-01

419

TREATED WASTEWATER AS A SOURCE OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO NEAR-COASTAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore wa...

420

Textile Wastewater Treatment Using Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption in Fixed Beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work involved the treatment of industrial wastewater from a nylon carpet printing plant which currently receives no treatment and is discharged to sea. As nylon is particularly difficult to dye, acid dyes are required for successful coloration and cause major problems with the plant's effluent disposal in terms of color removal. Granular activated carbon Filtrasorb 400 was used to

G. M. WALKER; L. R. WEATHERLEY

2000-01-01

421

Management of wastewater from ink production and metal plating industries in an Egyptian industrial city  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on selecting an appropriate treatment technology for wastewater discharged from two metal plating and one ink production factories. All located in an Egyptian industrial city. The study aims to form a useful guideline and reference for application by operating units in similar types of industry. Metal industry in the city was responsible for the highest quantity of

F. A. Nasr; A. M. Ashmawy; H. S. Ibrahim; M. A. El-Khateeb

2010-01-01

422

WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, JAMAICA BAY, NEW YORK. VOLUME I. SUMMARY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Jamaica Bay ecosystem and wastewater discharges to the bay were characterized during a comprehensive 3-year study. The primary objective of the project was the development of management criteria and procedures for the bay ecosystem, with major emphasis on combined sewer overf...

423

Planning an urban wastewater system with centralised greywater reuse: a case in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a proposed centralised greywater reuse (CGR) system for Daxing New City, Beijing. This system would use separate greywater and blackwater discharge pipes in residences and public buildings. Greywater would be treated in a centralised plant and reused for public purposes. Water supply–demand balance analysis showed that this system would conserve 28.5% of freshwater resources. A centralised wastewater

Siyu Zeng; Xin Dong; Jining Chen; Pan Li

2012-01-01

424

Scale-up of a bioprocess for textile wastewater treatment using Bjerkandera adusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve basidiomycetes were investigated for their ability to degrade 13 industrial dyes and to treat four model wastewaters from textile and tannery industry, defined on the basis of discharged amounts, economic relevance and representativeness of chemical structures of the contained dyes. The best degradation yields were recorded for one strain of Bjerkandera adusta able to completely decolourise most of the

Antonella Anastasi; Federica Spina; Valeria Prigione; Valeria Tigini; Pietro Giansanti; Giovanna Cristina Varese

2010-01-01

425

Anaerobic filter reactor performance for the treatment of complex dairy wastewater at industrial scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewaters discharged by raw milk quality control laboratories are more complex than the ones commonly generated by dairy factories because of the presence of certain chemicals such as sodium azide or chloramphenicol, which are used for preserving milk before analysis. The treatment of these effluents has been carried out in a full-scale plant comprising a 12m3 anaerobic filter (AF)

Francisco Omil; Juan M Garrido; Belén Arrojo; Ramón Méndez

2003-01-01

426

REVISE AND UPDATE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DESIGN MANUAL FOR THE LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Land treatment is a reliable engineering process for wastewater management. It has been practiced in a number of modes, including crop and landscape irrigation (i.e., reuse); as a treatment process with collection and direct or indirect discharge of treated to surface water (i.e...

427

The treatment of brewery wastewater for reuse: State of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beer brewing process often generates large amounts of wastewater effluent and solid wastes that must be disposed off or treated in the least costly and safest way so as to meet the strict discharge regulations that are set by government entities to protect life (both human and animal) and the environment. It is widely estimated that for every one

Geoffrey S. Simate; John Cluett; Sunny E. Iyuke; Evans T. Musapatika; Sehliselo Ndlovu; Lubinda F. Walubita; Allex E. Alvarez

2011-01-01

428

Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite

Ahmet Baban; Ayfer Yediler; NilgunKiran Ciliz; Antonius Kettrup

2004-01-01

429

Anaerobic treatment of protein, lipid and carbohydrate containing wastewaters using the EGSB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industries such as margarine, meat packing, dairy, slaughterhouse, edible oil (palm and olive oil) generate large amount of effluents. Strict environment laws in numerous countries has forced these agro-industries to apply suitable wastewater treatment in order to reduce the organic pollution load before discharging the effluents to receiving waters. Anaerobic treatment comprises a very attractive and suitable method for these

R. Petruy

1999-01-01

430

Ecological Effectiveness of Vetiver Constructed Wetlands in Treating Oil-Refined Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater produced from the oil refinery of the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro-Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants, therefore it cannot be discharged directly into river or sea unless being treated first. Four plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironia articutala we re planted in large containers as a ver tical flow wetland

Hanping Xia; Honghua Ke; Zhaoping Deng; Peng Tan; Shizhong Liu

431

Characterizing the Passage of Personal Care Products Through Wastewater Treatment Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment facilities use secondary treatment to stabilize the effect of discharged effluent on receiving waters by oxidizing biodegradable organic matter and reducing suspended solids and nutrients. The process was never specifically intended to remove trace quantities of xenobiotics, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceu- ticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Nevertheless, European studies performed at bench-scale or at

Joan Oppenheimer; Roger Stephenson; Arturo Burbano; Li Liu

432

Heavy metals in industrial wastewater, soil and vegetables in Lohta village, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted at four major sites that were irrigated by either treated or untreated wastewater in the Lohta village of Varanasi, India, receiving the discharged water from DLW (Diesel Locomotive Works) sewage treatment plant. Samples of irrigation water, soil and the edible portion of various vegetables were collected monthly during the summer and winter seasons. Heavy metals

Prabhat Kumar Rai; B. D. Tripathi

2008-01-01

433

Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2013-06-01

434

Water/Wastewater Process Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has information about water treatment and wastewater treatment as well as additional topics such as, cogeneration, fuel cells and energy efficiency in water treatment. Sponsored by the California Energy Commission, this site is an excellent introduction to the topic of wastewater treatment.

2007-02-10

435

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

436

Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

1992-01-01

437

Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater irrigation is a widespread phenomenon. Although its main drivers differ between regions and along the sanitation ladder, they clearly indicate that the practice will continue to increase. This is especially the case in low-income countries where farmers in the economically interesting peri-urban interface are hardly able to find unpolluted surface water sources, as a result of inadequate wastewater collection

Pay Drechsel; Alexandra E. V. Evans

2010-01-01

438

Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aq...

E. N. Coppola J. Rine

2002-01-01

439

Tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal evaluation for 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses and analyzes information and issues regarding tritium and tritium management. It was prepared in response to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-05A for the evaluation of tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal. The key elements of the report are summarized as follows: Discharge of tritiated water is regulated worldwide. Differences exist in discharge limits and in regulatory philosophy from country to country and from state to state in the United States. Tritium from manmade sources is emitted into the atmosphere and discharged into the ground or directly to the oceans and to waterways that empty into the oceans. In 1989, reported worldwide emissions of tritium from nuclear power generating plants totaled almost 1,000,000 Curies (Ci).

Not Available

1994-08-01

440

Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.  

PubMed

Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5?±?8.9 to 216?±?20.2 ?g/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8?±?2.7 to 31.9?±?6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters. PMID:23589270

Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

2013-09-01

441

Tidal Pumping and the Fate of Wastewater Nutrients in the Florida Keys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient-rich wastewater from injection wells in the Florida Keys has been implicated in the eutrophication of coastal waters and, through long-distance subsurface transport, the degradation of offshore coral reefs. The flowpath of such wastewater in the saline aquifer system of the Keys is determined not only by the local geology, but more significantly by the differential hydraulic head applied by the two distinct tidal signals on either side of the island chain. While the Atlantic Ocean to the south exhibits typical oceanic tides, the constrained Florida Bay tidal signal to the north is significantly damped as compared to the oceanic tide and has a higher mean value. This system of tides presumably results in a reversing groundwater flow regime in which wastewater plumes are tidally pumped across the Keys with net flow to the Atlantic Ocean \\(the "tidal pumping mechanism" of Halley et al., 1997, Develop. Sedimentol. 54: 217-248\\). We have performed a quantitative analysis of the tidal pumping mechanism using FEFLOW, a commercially available 3-dimensional finite-element model designed to simulate variable density flow and reactive contaminant transport. We find that the tidal-pumping mechanism does indeed influence the transport of wastewater plumes in the subsurface. However, the buoyancy of the low-salinity wastewater plume dominates transport when injection volumes are large, bringing wastewater to the surface in the near-vicinity of injection and discharging it to nearby canals or coastal zones. Discharging wastewaters have variably reduced nutrient loads depending on travel times (for nitrate) and pathlengths (for phosphate) because of biogeochemical transformation in the subsurface (denitrification and adsorption/precipitation, respectively). The interface between nitrate-rich wastewaters and sulfide-rich groundwaters may be supporting a chemoautotrophic bacterial community in the bedrock of the Florida Keys.

Bachmann, M.; Kump, L.

2003-12-01

442

40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator...

2013-07-01

443

40 CFR 60.692-5 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-5 Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices. (a) Enclosed...

2013-07-01

444

[The sanitary and parasitological characteristics of environmental objects in the south of Russia. Wastewaters and their precipitations].  

PubMed

The relative uniformity of helminthic eggs has been noted in the wastewaters of the Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory, and the Republic ofAdygea. An ovogram is mainly presented by the eggs of Ascaris, Toxocaras, and whipworms. By taking into account incomplete dehelmintization during waste treatment, 5,000 to 1,080,000 helminth eggs may annually come into the water reservoirs where purified wastewaters are discharged, 33% remaining viable. Irrespective of the efficiency of dehelmintization, wastewaters and their precipitations continue to remain epidemiologically dangerous substrates and to create prerequisites for the spread of an invasive source in the environment, by risking the infection of the population with parasitic diseases. PMID:18557361

Khromenkova, E P; Vaserin, Iu I; Romanenko, N A; Dimidova, L L; Upyrev, A V; Shishkanova, L V; Kovalev, E N; Moroz, N V; Liubimova, S V; Agirov, A Kh; Trufanov, N D; Papatsenko, L B; Pliasovitsa, S G; Viatkina, N A; Avsiukova, T M

2008-01-01

445

The formation of colour during biological treatment of pulp and paper wastewater.  

PubMed

Colour discharges are gaining renewed focus in the pulp and paper industry as increasingly strict regulatory limits are placed on wastewater quality and aesthetics. In-mill process improvements, such as ECF bleaching and oxygen delignification, have decreased wastewater colour loadings. However, a survey of 12 pulp and paper mill systems found that effluent treatment using aerated stabilisation basins (ASB) leads to average increases in colour of 20-40%. In some instances, this phenomenon may even double the influent colour levels. Activated sludge systems did not produce a colour increase. The measured increases that follow ASB secondary treatment may be sufficient for a mill to fail prescribed discharge standards. A detailed field survey focusing on sections of an integrated bleached kraft mill ASB treatment system was undertaken. The average increase in colour at the final point of discharge was 45%. The major changes in colour concentration occurred in the inlet to the main treatment pond, and in polishing ponds that followed the main treatment pond. Both of these areas receive little or no aeration. No significant change was observed in the highly aerated main pond. These results, along with literature reports, suggested that redox conditions play a major role in influencing colour behaviour. To test this, two series of paired continuously stirred reactors were used to treat whole mill effluent from two ECF bleached kraft mills in parallel. The first series initially treated under anaerobic conditions, followed by an aerobic reactor, while the second series reversed this order. With the initial anaerobic stage, effluent colour increased by 18% and 19% for the first and second series respectively. Subsequent treatment by aerobic bacteria further increased colour by 14% and 6%, for a total increase of 32% and 25%. Initial aerobic treatment, however, did not lead to any significant change in colour for either effluent. Further anaerobic treatment following aerobic conditions produced only small increases in colour. These results are consistent with the ASB and activated sludge system survey, suggesting that anaerobic conditions at the head of treatment systems initiate the observed increases in effluent colour in ASB treatment systems. PMID:15461402

Milestone, C B; Fulthorpe, R R; Stuthridge, T R

2004-01-01

446

Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus.  

PubMed

In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies. PMID:23393987

Laohaprapanon, S; Kaczala, F; Salomon, P S; Marques, M; Hogland, W

2012-01-01

447

Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in effluent-dominated streams in Northeastern Kansas.  

PubMed

Fifty-nine stream-water samples and 14 municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharge samples in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were analyzed for 55 compounds collectively described as organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). Stream-water samples were collected upstream, in, and downstream from WWTF discharges in urban and rural areas during base-flow conditions. The effect of secondary treatment processes on OWC occurrence was evaluated by collecting eight samples from WWTF discharges using activated sludge and six from WWTFs samples using trickling filter treatment processes. Samples collected directly from WWTF discharges contained the largest concentrations of most OWCs in this study. Samples from trickling filter discharges had significantly larger concentrations of many OWCs (p-value<0.05) compared to samples collected from activated sludge discharges. OWC concentrations decreased significantly in samples from WWTF discharges compared to stream-water samples collected from sites greater than 2000 m downstream. Upstream from WWTF discharges, base-flow samples collected in streams draining predominantly urban watersheds had significantly larger concentrations of cumulative OWCs (p-value=0.03), caffeine (p-value=0.01), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p-value<0.01) than those collected downstream from more rural watersheds. PMID:16935319

Lee, Casey J; Rasmussen, T J

2006-12-01

448

Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in effluent-dominated streams in Northeastern Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-nine stream-water samples and 14 municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharge samples in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were analyzed for 55 compounds collectively described as organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). Stream-water samples were collected upstream, in, and downstream from WWTF discharges in urban and rural areas during base-flow conditions. The effect of secondary treatment processes on OWC occurrence was evaluated by collecting eight samples from WWTF discharges using activated sludge and six from WWTFs samples using trickling filter treatment processes. Samples collected directly from WWTF discharges contained the largest concentrations of most OWCs in this study. Samples from trickling filter discharges had significantly larger concentrations of many OWCs (p-value < 0.05) compared to samples collected from activated sludge discharges. OWC concentrations decreased significantly in samples from WWTF discharges compared to stream-water samples collected from sites greater than 2000??m downstream. Upstream from WWTF discharges, base-flow samples collected in streams draining predominantly urban watersheds had significantly larger concentrations of cumulative OWCs (p-value = 0.03), caffeine (p-value = 0.01), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p-value < 0.01) than those collected downstream from more rural watersheds.

Lee, C. J.; Rasmussen, T. J.

2006-01-01

449

A model to quantify wastewater odor strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of quantifying the odor strength of wastewater samples has been investigated. Wastewater samples from two locations of a wastewater treatment plant were collected and subjected to air stripping. The off-gas odor concentration was measured by a dynamic olfactometer at various time intervals. Applying a first order model to the decay of odorous substances in the wastewater under air

Lawrence C. C. Koe; N. C. Tan

1988-01-01