Science.gov

Sample records for wastewater discharge standard

  1. Deliberation about the Safety of Industrial Wastewater Discharges into Wastewater Treatment Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolchinsky, Pancho; Aulinas, Montse; Cortés, Ulises; Poch, Manel

    The daily operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in industrialized areas is of particular concern because of the severe problems that can occur in the WWTP caused by the incoming inflow, which in turn may cause an ecological imbalance in the fluvial ecosystem. In order to minimize the environmental impact caused by the industrial wastewater discharges, guidelines and regulations exists. However, due to the complexity of the domain, there are still no golden standards by which to decide whether a WWTP can cope with wastewater discharges, and so strict adherence to regulations may not always be convenient. Special circumstances may motivate to accept discharges that are above established thresholds or to reject discharges that comply with guidelines. Nonetheless, because of the criticality of the actions to be taken, such decisions require to be well justified. Hence, in this work it is proposed the use of the argumentation-based model Pro- CLAIM to provide a more flexible decision making process, in which expertise can deliberate whether an industrial wastewater can safely be discharged into a WWTP, and thus adapt each decision to the particular circumstance. To ensure a safe decision, agents’ given arguments for or against the industrial spill are evaluated accounting for the domain guidelines and regulations, for similar past cases and for confidence in the expertise’s assessments.

  2. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  3. Victoria`s wastewater discharges: Effects on the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.A.; Miller, R.A.; Pym, R.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Capital Regional District discharges screened wastewater through two long deep outfalls into Juan de Fuca Strait, a water body bordered by both Canada and the US. Concerns have been expressed about the effects of this discharge on water quality in US waters. The wastewater is released into an oceanic environment characterized by strong turbulent tidal flows. Monitoring of the receiving waters has indicated that conventional water quality parameters have not been affected by the discharges. Fecal coliform levels above the outfalls are periodically elevated but remain well below the swimming standard. Shoreline studies of fecal coliform levels have shown that the deep outfalls have not measurably affected water quality at beaches. Recently, monitoring efforts have concentrated on effects to the seafloor environment. One of the outfalls (Macaulay Point) discharges to a depositional environment. At Macaulay Point chemical levels of concern were confined to within 100--400 m of the outfall with the exception of high PAH levels associated with the shipwreck of a collier. Similarly, sediment toxicity was detected at stations up to 400 m from the diffusers. This toxicity was limited to effects on growth and development. Survival was not affected. The benthic infaunal community exhibited a typical response to organic enrichment. Within 100 m of the outfall abundance was increased and richness depressed. The other outfall (Clover Point) discharges to an area of cobble substrate. Consequently, sediment analysis was not practical. Instead, tissue chemistry of resident mussels was examined. No consistent pattern with distance from the outfall was evident. Some tissue chemicals increased with distance from the diffuser while others decreased. Overall the impact of the outfalls on the seafloor was found to be minimal and restricted in extent.

  4. [Assessment on the COD discharge status of municipal wastewater treatment plant in a city of China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Hua; Lu, Yan-Na; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Jing; Lei, Jing; Shen, Chen; Wu, Xue-Fang

    2014-10-01

    Based on the statistical theory, the paper collected routine monitoring data for 3 years of 11 municipal wastewater treatment plants with secondary treatment or enhanced secondary treatment in a northern city in China, and analysis of the discharge concentration distribution of COD showed a Delta-lognormal distribution. On this basis, referring to the formulation methods of water pollutant discharge limits used in the USA, the paper studied and assessed the discharge status of COD of the municipal wastewater treatment plants in the city, including the daily maximum and the monthly average discharge status, and came to the conclusion that the daily maximum discharge status met the first grade A class discharge standard (50 mg · L(-1)) required by the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002). Meanwhile, the assessment conclusion was obtained for the monthly average discharge status, and the conclusions were discussed. The assessment method and the conclusions in this paper might provide reference for formulation and revision of water discharge standards. PMID:25693413

  5. Impacts of urban wastewater discharge on seagrass meadows ( Zostera noltii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaço, Susana; Machás, Raquel; Vieira, Vasco; Santos, Rui

    2008-06-01

    The abiotic disturbance of urban wastewater discharge and its effects in the population structure, plant morphology, leaf nutrient content, epiphyte load and macroalgae abundance of Zostera noltii meadows were investigated in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, southern Portugal using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Four sites were assessed, on a seasonal basis, along a gradient from a major Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW) discharge to a main navigation channel. The wastewater discharge caused an evident environmental disturbance through the nutrient enrichment of the water and sediment, particularly of ammonium. Zostera noltii of the sites closest to the nutrient source showed higher leaf N content, clearly reflecting the nitrogen load. The anthropogenic nutrient enrichment resulted in higher biomass, and higher leaf and internode length, except for the meadow closest to the wastewater discharge (270 m). The high ammonium concentration (158-663 μM) in the water at this site resulted in the decrease of biomass, and both the leaf and internode length, suggesting a toxic effect on Z. noltii. The higher abundance of macroalgae and epiphytes found in the meadow closest to the nutrient source may also affect the species negatively. Shoot density was higher at the nutrient-undisturbed site. Two of the three abiotic processes revealed by Principal Component Analysis were clearly related to the WWTW discharge, a contrast between water column salinity and nutrient concentration and a sediment contrast between both porewater nutrients and temperature and redox potential. A multiple regression analysis showed that these abiotic processes had a significant effect on the biomass-density dynamics of meadows and on the overall size of Z. noltii plants, respectively. Results show that the wastewater discharge is an important source of environmental disturbance and nutrients availability in Ria Formosa lagoon affecting the population structure, morphology and N content of Z

  6. Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

  7. Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

  8. The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Lincoln C; Beegle-Krause, C-J; George, Kenwyn; McGee, Charles D; Mearns, Alan J; Atkinson, Marlin J

    2006-06-01

    In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both black water and gray water discharges sometimes exceeded state water quality standards for toxicants. The state convened a Science Advisory Panel (the Panel) to evaluate impacts associated with cruise ship wastewater discharges. The effluent data received wide media coverage and increased public concerns. Consequently, legislative decisions were made at the State and Federal level, and regulations were imposed before the Panel completed its evaluation. The Panel demonstrated that following the rapid dilution from moving cruise ships, the effluent data from the Summer of 2000 would not have exceeded water quality standards, and environmental effects were not expected. PMID:16406006

  9. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Sun Mok; Hyun, Tae Ahn; Joeng, Tai Kim

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  10. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge on stream quality in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants from point and other urban sources affect stream quality in Indian Creek, which is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities discharge to Indian Creek. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, during June 2004 through June 2013 were used to evaluate stream quality in Indian Creek. This fact sheet summarizes the effects of wastewater effluent discharge on physical, chemical, and biological conditions in Indian Creek downstream from the Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

  11. Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

    2013-01-15

    Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and

  12. WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of waste-water and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described...

  13. Analysis of 16S Sediment Microbial Communities from a Southern California Wastewater-Treatment Discharge Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated sewage effluent from several large wastewater treatment plants in the Los Angeles metropolitan area is discharged into the Pacific Ocean through a network of outfalls located between 5 and 7 miles offshore. To support development of new indicators of wastewater effects o...

  14. Water-Quality Assessment of Southern Florida - Wastewater Discharges and Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly 800 million gallons per day of treated wastewater was discharged in the Southern Florida National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit in 1990, most to the Atlantic Ocean (44 percent) and to deep, saline aquifers (25 percent). About 9 percent was discharged to fresh surface waters and about 22 percent to shallow ground water, of which septic tanks accounted for 9 percent. Runoff from agricultural and urban lands, though not directly measured, is a large source of wastewater in southern Florida.

  15. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored. PMID:27152994

  16. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 μg/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 μg/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17α-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17β-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17β-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

  17. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  18. Municipal wastewater characteristics in Thailand and effects of soft intervention measures in households on pollutant discharge reduction.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Y; Koottatep, T; Jiawkok, S; Saengpeng, S

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries with large Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) sanitation indicator, pollutant discharge reduction function of wastewater treatment systems should be considered. In this paper, pollutant generations per capita (PGCs) and pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) are estimated as a base dataset for wastewater management in Thailand. PDCs of black water, i.e. toilet wastewater, are found to be much smaller than PGCs of black water. However, PDCs of gray water, i.e. municipal wastewater other than toilet wastewater are large. Gray water is often discharged without treatment and contributes much to ambient water deterioration. Moreover, possible 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) discharge reductions with "soft interventions", i.e. measurements in households to reduce wastewater pollutant discharge such as using a paper filter or a plastic net in kitchen sinks and so on, are estimated as 39, 21 and 34% for BOD5, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphate (PO4-P), respectively. For the estimation, environmental accounting housekeeping (EAH) books of domestic wastewater, spreadsheets with pollutant discharges by water usages and possible effects of "soft interventions" are applied. The framework of this study with "soft intervention" effects on pollutant discharge reductions should enhance wastewater management especially in the areas under development of wastewater treatment systems. PMID:20651426

  19. The removal of Direct Orange 39 by pulsed corona discharge from model wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vujevic, D; Koprivanac, N; Bozic, A Loncaric; Locke, B R

    2004-07-01

    Untreated wastewater from the dye industry and dyehouses cannot be directly discharged into the environment due to the high content of organic matter and intensive colouration, even with low concentrations of dye. In this paper, the application of a high voltage pulsed electrical discharge in the aqueous phase has been assessed for the dye degradation. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor using model wastewater of the commercial water-soluble monoazo dye C.I. Direct Orange 39 (DO39). The effects of zeolite and ferrous sulphate in combination with the corona discharge were examined. Experiments were conducted for a range of process parameters including pH, conductivity, type and amount of zeolite, and ferrous sulphate concentration. A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of DO39 degradation in the corona reactor was developed. Aqueous phase pulsed streamer corona discharge as a method for coloured wastewater treatment showed very high effectiveness in the case of iron salt addition (Fenton's reaction). Low pH enhanced dye removal by corona in the absence of zeolite, thus implying that the acid properties of zeolites are important in dye degradation. Ecological parameters such as COD, TC, IC, TOC and IC50 measured before and after corona treatment showed that the treated wastewater can be discharged into the environment or reused as process water. PMID:15346860

  20. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  1. Evaluation and Optimization of Electrode Configuration of Multi-Channel Corona Discharge Plasma for Dye-Containing Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jingyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    A discharge plasma reactor with a point-to-plane structure was widely studied experimentally in wastewater treatment. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of active species and the energy efficiency of this kind of discharge plasma reactor during wastewater treatment, the electrode configuration of the point-to-plane corona discharge reactor was studied by evaluating the effects of discharge spacing and adjacent point distance on discharge power and discharge energy density, and then dye-containing wastewater decoloration experiments were conducted on the basis of the optimum electrode configuration. The experimental results of the discharge characteristics showed that high discharge power and discharge energy density were achieved when the ratio of discharge spacing to adjacent point distance (d/s) was 0.5. Reactive Brilliant Blue (RBB) wastewater treatment experiments presented that the highest RBB decoloration efficiency was observed at d/s of 0.5, which was consistent with the result obtained in the discharge characteristics experiments. In addition, the biodegradability of RBB wastewater was enhanced greatly after discharge plasma treatment under the optimum electrode configuration. RBB degradation processes were analyzed by GC-MS and IC, and the possible mechanism for RBB decoloration was also discussed. supported by China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M562460), the Initiative Funding Programs for Doctoral Research of Northwest A&F University (No. 2013BSJJ121), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21107085)

  2. The effects of wastewater discharge on the microbiological nitrogen cycle of the lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarenheimo, Jatta; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic wastewater inputs alter the natural dynamics of nitrogen (N) cycle by providing high concentrations of nitrate and organic matter to the sediment microbes. It can also change the microbial community composition and N removal potential but this is currently not that well studied. To study these aspects, we conducted ecosystem-scale experiment in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland. In the experiment, the wastewater discharge to the recipient lake was optimized with sediment filtration, which increased the surface and retention time of the nitrified wastewater with the sediment. In addition to N transformation rates, which showed that optimization enhanced denitrification, we studied the microbial responses at the sediment. Genetic potential of nitrogen transformation processes, such as denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and nitrification were studied by targeting the functional genes (i.e. nirS, nirK, nosZI, nosZII, nrfA, amoAarchaea and amoAbacteria) with quantitative PCR and digital droplet PCR. In addition, changes in the microbial community composition along the wastewater gradient were examined by using next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In line with our hypothesis, the relative abundance of denitrifying genes followed the observed denitrification rates, being highest near the nitrate-rich wastewater discharge. Furthermore the microbial community composition in the discharge point differed clearly from the control and downstream sites, having also the highest numbers of rare OTUs. Abundance of nitrifying bacteria was higher than nitrifying archaea near the waste water discharge, whereas the opposite was seen at the control site. The results indicate that wastewater is not only increasing the denitrification rates, but can also alter the structure and genetic potential microbial communities.

  3. Nitrogen transport and transformations in a shallow aquifer receiving wastewater discharge: A mass balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen transport and transformations were followed over the initial 3 years of development of a plume of wastewater-contaminated groundwater in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone and ammonium sorption in the saturated zone were predominant, while loss of fixed nitrogen through denitrification was minor. The major effect of transport was the oxidation of discharged organic and inorganic forms to nitrate, which was the dominant nitrogen form in transit to receiving systems. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone transformed 16-19% and 50-70%, respectively, of the total nitrogen mass discharged to the land surface during the study but did not attenuate the nitrogen loading. Nitrification in the unsaturated zone also contributed to a pH decrease of 2 standard units and to an N2O increase (46-660 ??g N/L in the plume). Other processes in the unsaturated zone had little net effect: Ammonium sorption removed <1% of the total discharged nitrogen mass; filtering of particulate organic nitrogen was less than 3%; ammonium and nitrate assimilation was less than 6%; and ammonia volatilization was less than 0.25%. In the saturated zone a central zone of anoxic groundwater (DO ??? 0.05 mg/L) was first detected 17 months after effluent discharge to the aquifer began, which expanded at about the groundwater-flow velocity. Although nitrate was dominant at the water table, the low, carbon-limited rates of denitrification in the anoxic zone (3.0-9.6 (ng N/cm3)/d) reduced only about 2% of the recharged nitrogen mass to N2. In contrast, ammonium sorption in the saturated zone removed about 16% of the recharged nitrogen mass from the groundwater. Ammonium sorption was primarily limited to anoxic zone, where nitrification was prevented, and was best described by a Langmuir isotherm in which effluent ionic concentrations were simulated. The initial nitrogen load discharged from the groundwater system may depend largely on

  4. A COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES FOR DISCHARGING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a study to meet the following congressional directive: 8Within available funds, the conferees direct EPA to conduct a relative risk assessment of deep well injection, ocean disposal, surface discharge, and aquifer recharge of treated effluent in South Florida,...

  5. Potential impacts of discharging tertiary-treated wastewater into Port Royal Sound, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment of physical characteristics of Port Royal Sound was combined with the results of a dye tracer study and with data collected from a previous environmental study to describe the impact on the water quality from discharging tertiary treated wastewater into the sound. Calculated velocities for the time of maximum velocity in the tidal cycle ranged from 2.32 ft/sec near the bottom to 4.65 ft/sec near the surface of the sound in a cross section in the vicinity of a proposed wastewater outfall. Vertical velocity distributions calculated for the time of maximum velocity were similar at all stations at which velocities were measured except the station in shallow water near the shore. A recent bathymetric chart of the vicinity of the proposed outfall indicates that a bar extends farther along the northern shore of Hilton Head Island than indicated on earlier nautical charts of Port Royal Sound. Continued extension of this bar could alter the impact on water quality from discharge of treated wastewater into the sound. Further study may be needed to monitor changes in the bar if the outfall is located between the bar and Hilton Head Island. Conservative calculations based on the results of the dye tracer study indicate that the discharge of 10.9 million gallons/day of wastewater having concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids of 15 mg/L will result in a maximum cumulative increase in concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand of < 0.01 mg/L and no increase in concentrations of suspended solids at high slack tide in the part of Port Royal Sound most affected by the proposed wastewater discharge. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Causal modelling applied to the risk assessment of a wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Paul, Warren L; Rokahr, Pat A; Webb, Jeff M; Rees, Gavin N; Clune, Tim S

    2016-03-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs), or causal Bayesian networks, have become quite popular in ecological risk assessment and natural resource management because of their utility as a communication and decision-support tool. Since their development in the field of artificial intelligence in the 1980s, however, Bayesian networks have evolved and merged with structural equation modelling (SEM). Unlike BNs, which are constrained to encode causal knowledge in conditional probability tables, SEMs encode this knowledge in structural equations, which is thought to be a more natural language for expressing causal information. This merger has clarified the causal content of SEMs and generalised the method such that it can now be performed using standard statistical techniques. As it was with BNs, the utility of this new generation of SEM in ecological risk assessment will need to be demonstrated with examples to foster an understanding and acceptance of the method. Here, we applied SEM to the risk assessment of a wastewater discharge to a stream, with a particular focus on the process of translating a causal diagram (conceptual model) into a statistical model which might then be used in the decision-making and evaluation stages of the risk assessment. The process of building and testing a spatial causal model is demonstrated using data from a spatial sampling design, and the implications of the resulting model are discussed in terms of the risk assessment. It is argued that a spatiotemporal causal model would have greater external validity than the spatial model, enabling broader generalisations to be made regarding the impact of a discharge, and greater value as a tool for evaluating the effects of potential treatment plant upgrades. Suggestions are made on how the causal model could be augmented to include temporal as well as spatial information, including suggestions for appropriate statistical models and analyses. PMID:26832914

  7. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  8. WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 2. SIX MILL ENGINEERING REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of wastewater and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described ...

  9. Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, P.M.; Barber, L.B., II; Schroeder, M.P.; Becker, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of instantaneous flux values of selected organic compounds in water from downstream sites indicates: (1) the formation of chloroform in the stream following the discharge of the treated effluent, and that (2) instream biodegradation may be decreasing concentrations of linear alkylbenzene compounds in water. The relative persistence of many of the selected organic compounds in Rowlett Creek downstream from the municipal wastewater-treatment plant indicates that they could be transported into Lake Ray Hubbard, a source of municipal water supply.

  10. Detection of a buoyant coastal wastewater discharge using airborne hyperspectral and infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Miller, W. D.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal wastewater discharged into the ocean through a submerged pipe, or outfall, can rise buoyantly to the sea surface, resulting in a near-field mixing zone and, in the presence of an ambient ocean current, an extended surface plume. In this paper, data from a CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) and an airborne infrared (IR) camera are shown to detect a municipal wastewater discharge off the southeast coast of Florida, U.S.A., through its elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter plus detrital material (CDOM) and cooler sea surface temperatures. CDOM levels within a ~15-m-diameter surface 'boil' are found to be about twice those in the ambient shelf water, and surface temperatures near the boil are lower by ~0.4°C, comparable to the vertical temperature difference across the ambient water column. The CASI and IR imagery show a nearly identically shaped buoyant plume, consistent with a fully surfacing discharge, but the IR data more accurately delineate the area of most rapid dilution as compared with previous in-situ measurements. The imagery also allows identification of ambient oceanographic processes that affect dispersion and transport in the far field. This includes an alongshore front, which limits offshore dispersion of the discharge, and shoreward-propagating nonlinear internal waves, which may be responsible for an enhanced onshore transport of the discharge.

  11. Treatment of Dye Wastewater by Using a Hybrid Gas/Liquid Pulsed Discharge Plasma Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan; Masayuki, Sato

    2012-02-01

    A hybrid gas/liquid pulsed discharge plasma reactor using a porous ceramic tube is proposed for dye wastewater treatment. High voltage pulsed discharge plasma was generated in the gas phase and simultaneously the plasma channel was permeated through the tiny holes of the ceramic tube into the water phase accompanied by gas bubbles. The porous ceramic tube not only separated the gas phase and liquid phase but also offered an effective plasma spreading channel. The effects of the peak pulse voltage, additive gas varieties, gas bubbling rate, solution conductivity and TiO2 addition were investigated. The results showed that this reactor was effective for dye wastewater treatment. The decoloration efficiency of Acid Orange II was enhanced with an increase in the power supplied. Under the studied conditions, 97% of Acid Orange II in aqueous solution was effectively decolored with additive oxygen gas, which was 51% higher than that with argon gas, and the increasing O2 bubbling rate also benefited the decoloration of dye wastewater. Water conductivity had a small effect on the level of decoloration. Catalysis of TiO2 could be induced by the pulsed discharge plasma and addition of TiO2 aided the decoloration of Acid Orange II.

  12. Reducing the discharge of micropollutants in the aquatic environment: the benefits of upgrading wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Eggen, Rik I L; Hollender, Juliane; Joss, Adriano; Schärer, Michael; Stamm, Christian

    2014-07-15

    Micropollutants (MPs) as individual compounds or in complex mixtures are relevant for water quality and may trigger unwanted ecological effects. MPs originate from different point and diffuse sources and enter water bodies via different flow paths. Effluents from conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in which various MPs are not or not completely removed, is one major source. To improve the water quality and avoid potential negative ecological effects by micropollutants, various measures to reduce the discharge should be taken. In this feature we discuss one of these measures; the benefits of upgrading WWTPs toward reduced MP loads and toxicities from wastewater effluents, using the recently decided Swiss strategy as an example. Based on (i) full-scale case studies using ozonation or powder activated carbon treatment, showing substantial reduction of MP discharges and concomitant reduced toxicities, (ii) social and political acceptance, (iii) technical feasibility and sufficient cost-effectiveness, the Swiss authorities recently decided to implement additional wastewater treatment steps as mitigation strategy to improve water quality. Since MPs are of growing global concern, the concepts and considerations behind the Swiss strategy are explained in this feature, which could be of use for other countries as well. It should be realized that upgrading WWTPs is not the only solution to reduce the discharge of MPs entering the environment, but is part of a broader, multipronged mitigation strategy. PMID:24915506

  13. An obstacle to China's WWTPs: the COD and BOD standards for discharge into municipal sewers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hu, Tiantian; Roker, Scott Albert C

    2015-11-01

    In 2001, a construction campaign regarding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) occurred in China. Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet achieved anticipated effectiveness. A critical reason for this is that the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in WWTPs are unacceptably low. This paper indicates that a fundamental, but commonly overlooked contributing factor to this problem is that a large portion of easily degradable COD and BOD is degraded prematurely before entering municipal sewers, and this is directly correlated to China's standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers. This perspective is further unfolded through retrospection of the history of Chinese wastewater treatment and the investigation of standards among developed zones and districts. This paper suggests that in China, the standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers should be relaxed. Meanwhile, unnecessary pretreatment of COD and BOD should cease for the purpose of ensuring that easily degradable COD and BOD can be transferred to WWTPs to improve treatment efficiency. Moreover, additional alternatives are presented to resolve this problem. PMID:26341334

  14. The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open/closed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of South Africa, the Mhlanga Estuary. This estuary receives significant inflows of treated effluent from upstream wastewater treatment works. Water and nutrient budgets were used together with biological sampling to investigate changes in the functioning of the system. The increase in inflows due to the effluent discharges has significantly increased the mouth breaching frequency. Furthermore, when the mouth closes, the accumulation of nutrients leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. A grey water index, namely the proportion of effluent in the estuary and an indicator of the additional nutrient inputs into the estuary, reached high values (≳50%) during low flow regimes and when the mouth was closed. In these hyper-eutrophic conditions (DIN and DIP concentrations up to 457 μM and 100 μM respectively), field measurements showed that algal blooms occurred within about 14 days following closure of the mouth (chlorophyll-a concentrations up to 375 mg chl-a m -3). Water and nutrient balance simulations for alternative scenarios suggest that further increases in wastewater discharges would result in more frequent breaching events and longer open mouth conditions, but the occurrence of hyper-eutrophic conditions would initially intensify despite more frequent openings. The study indicates how water and nutrient balance simulations can be used in the planning and impact assessment of wastewater treatment facilities.

  15. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathleen Patnode; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson; Lora Zimmerman; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  16. Standardized or narrative discharge summaries. Which do family physicians prefer?

    PubMed Central

    van Walraven, C.; Duke, S. M.; Weinberg, A. L.; Wells, P. S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether family physicians prefer discharge summaries in narrative or standardized format and to determine factors affecting this preference. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: Internal medicine ward at a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 180 family physicians practising in the Ottawa-Carleton area. Of the original sample, 20 were not family physicians and were excluded. Of the 160 physicians remaining, 126 responded for a response rate of 78.8%. INTERVENTION: For a stratified random sample of patients, medical records and narrative discharge summaries were abstracted using a data acquisition form to capture essential information. Information on completed forms was transformed into standardized summaries. Physicians were sent both narrative and standardized summaries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Physicians' format preference as indicated on an ordinal 7-point scale. RESULTS: The standardized format was preferred with a score of 4.28 versus 3.84 for the narrative (P < .05). Responses indicated the standardized format provided information most relevant to ongoing care, with a mean score of 4.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.48 to 5.15), and easier access to summary information (5.60, CI 5.30 to 5.89). The narrative summary better described patients' admission (3.54, CI 3.18 to 3.90). Preference for standardized summaries correlated with lengthier narrative summary (P < .05), shorter length of stay (P < .05), and physicians' dissatisfaction with previous summaries (P < .001). Standardized discharge summaries were significantly shorter (302 versus 619 words, P = .004) than narrative summaries. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians preferred a standardized format for discharge summaries. Format preference is influenced by physician, patient, and discharge summary characteristics. PMID:9481464

  17. Recovery of astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Shengfeng; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, studies were carried out to extract astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin and to reveal the scavenging effect of the obtained pigment on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Different ratios of dichloromethane/methanol (V/V) were used to extract astaxanthin. When the ratio of dichloromethane/methanol was 2:8 and the ratio between the mixed organic solvent (dichloromethane/methanol, 2:8, V/V) and wastewater was 1:1, the highest yield of pigment was obtained (8.4 mg/50 mL). The concentration of free astaxanthin in the obtained pigment analyzed by HPLC was 30.02%. The obtained pigment possessed strong scavenging ability on DPPH radical and IC50 was 0.84mg/ml.

  18. FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

  19. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity relating to fish in wastewaters discharged from the Vilnius treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Vosylienė, M Z; Kazlauskienė, N; Baršienė, J; Andreikėnaitė, L; Milukaitė, A; Taujanskis, E

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of untreated raw (RWW) and treated wastewaters (TWW) samples from Vilnius wastewater treatment plant was assessed using fish (rainbow trout) at different stages of development. The survival of larvae and fish exposed to RWW in short-term and longterm tests reduced, whereas gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and relative body mass increase of larvae decreased significantly. The long-term exposure of fish to TWW induced significant decreases in white blood cell count and significant increases in micronuclei in blood of treated Oncorhynchus mykiss. The physical, chemical analysis of oil products (C₁₄-C₂₈), benzo(a)pyrene, suspended solids, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg) in RWW demonstrated that the concentrations of xenobiotics and some heavy metals did not exceed their Maximum Permissible Concentrations in the sewerage system and concentrations of substances in TWW corresponded to their criteria for effluents discharged into receiving waters. PMID:20729589

  20. Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O₃) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O₃ which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na₂B₄O₇ as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200 min when the discharge power was 170 W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na₂B₄O₇ because B₄O₇(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O₃. The main reason was that O₃ can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

  1. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewaters Discharged by Petroleum Industries (HMD/Algeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Sellami, MH; Loudiyi, K; Boubaker, MC; Habbaz, H

    2015-12-23

    Industrial wastewaters discharged by petroleum industries contains: oil, heavy metals and chemicals used in the process of oil separation and treatment. These waters are a source of soil, water and air pollution, and lead a mortal danger to the ecosystem. Our aim in this work has an aspect that can contribute to the collective effort to address the enormous amount of water purges storage bins and reuse them to avoid any environmental damage. This was achieved by chemical treating of these wastewaters discharged from three different locations of Hassi Messaoud (HMD) petroleum field by flocculation with (C-5563) followed by coagulation with (C-2061) using two different acids as sequestering namely: Ascorbic and Citric acid. After experiments, the results showed that the wastewater can be treated without sequestering by adding 40 ppm of activated silicates. The best result was obtained by addition of 160 ppm of Ascorbic acid as sequestering agent and 20 ppm of activated silicates; resulting in removal of 92.81 % of suspended matter and 95.53 % of turbidity. Finally we concluded that this wastewater was satisfactorily treated and we recommend either inject it for enhanced oil recovery in industrial closest field (North field) to maintain the reservoir pressure and the improved rate recovery of oil reserves or reuse it in garden irrigation. In order to see the impact of the treated water on plants, irrigation tests have conducted on two types of plants (date palm and shaft apocalyptic) for one year. The tests showed that the thick layer of 5 cm and 0.08mm of particles diameter of dune sand removes most of remaining oil. The sand layer that fills the basin surrounding the shaft is removed and replaced every 06 months. So, Dune sand plays the role of natural filter. The garden plants appear and grow normally.

  2. In-Stream Microbial Denitrification Potential at Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharge Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N. B.; Rahm, B. G.; Shaw, S. B.; Riha, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen loading from municipal sewage discharge provides point sources of nitrate (NO3-) to rivers and streams. Through microbially-mediated denitrification, NO3- can be converted to dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases, which are released to the atmosphere. Preliminary observations made throughout summer 2011 near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall in the Finger Lakes region of New York indicated that NO3- concentrations downstream of the discharge pipe were lower relative to upstream concentrations. This suggested that nitrate processing was occurring more rapidly and completely than predicted by current models and that point "sources" can in some cases be point "sinks". Molecular assays and stable isotope analyses were combined with laboratory microcosm experiments and water chemistry analyses to better understand the mechanism of nitrate transformation. Nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes were detected in water and sediment samples using qPCR. Denitrifcation genes were present attached to stream sediment, in pipe biofilm, and in WWTP discharge water. A comparison of δ18-O and δ15-N signatures also supported the hypothesis that stream NO3- had been processed biotically. Results from microcosm experiments indicated that the NO3- transformations occur at the sediment-water interface rather than in the water column. In some instances, quantities of denitrification genes were at higher concentrations attached to sediment downstream of the discharge pipe than upstream of the pipe suggesting that the wastewater discharge may be enriching the downstream sediment and could promote in-stream denitrification.

  3. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  4. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  5. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to... SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.5 National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges. (a)(1) General.... (e) EPA enforcement actions under section 309(f) of the Clean Water Act. If, within 30 days...

  6. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  7. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  8. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  9. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  10. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard discharge connection. 158.250 Section 158.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria...

  11. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  12. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  13. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  15. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  16. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  17. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  18. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  19. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  20. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  1. Degradation of Aniline Wastewater Using Dielectric Barrier Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Haixia; FANG, Zhi; XU, Yanhua

    2015-03-01

    Aniline is a toxic water pollutant detected in drinking water and surface water, and this chemical is harmful to both human and aquatic life. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was designed in this study to investigate the treatment of aniline in aqueous solution. Discharge characteristics were assessed by measuring voltage and current waveforms, capturing light emission images, and obtaining optical emission spectra. The effects of several parameters were analyzed, including treatment distance, discharge power, DBD treatment time, initial pH of aniline solutions, and addition of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the treatment. Aniline degradation increased with increasing discharge power. Under the same conditions, higher degradation was obtained at a treatment distance of 0 mm than at other treatment distances. At a discharge power of 21.5 W, 84.32% of aniline was removed after 10 min of DBD treatment. Initial pH significantly influenced aniline degradation. Adding a certain dosage of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater can accelerate the degradation rate of aniline. Possible degradation pathways of aniline by DBD plasmas were proposed based on the analytical data of GC/MS and TOC. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. BK20131412), the Environmental Protection Scientific Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. 201004)

  2. Application of ICP-OES for evaluating energy extraction and production wastewater discharge impacts on surface waters in Western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Norris, Gary A; Landis, Matthew S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; McGee, John K; Kamal, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify inorganic species in wastewater and river samples using a method based on EPA Method 200.7 rev4.4. A total of 53 emission lines from 30 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn) were investigated. Samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 2% HNO3 and 0.5% HCl. Lower interferences and better detection characteristics resulted in selection of alternative wavelengths for Al, As, Sb, Mg, Mo, and Na. Radial view measurements offered accurate determinations of Al, Ba, K, Li, Na, and Sr in high-brine samples. Spike recovery studies and analyses of reference materials showed 80-105% recoveries for most analytes. This method was used to quantify species in samples with high to low brine concentrations with method detection limits a factor of 2 below the maximum contaminant limit concentrations of national drinking water standards. Elements B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, and Sr were identified as potential tracers for the sources impacting PDWS intakes. Usability of the ICP-OES derived data for factor analytic model applications was also demonstrated. PMID:26005746

  3. Dielectric barrier discharge-based investigation and analysis of wastewater treatment and pollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, N; Lousdad, A; Tilmatine, A; Nemmich, S

    2016-01-01

    Current research reveals that the oxidation by ozone is considered as an effective solution and offers irrefutable advantages in wastewater treatment. It is also well known that ozone is used to treat different types of water due to its effectiveness in water purification and for its oxidation potential. This process of ozonation is becoming progressively an alternative technology and is inscribed in a sustainable development perspective in Algeria. In this regards, the present paper investigates the wastewater treatment process by ozone produced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) under high potential. Three (DBD) ozone generators of cylindrical form have been used, at a laboratory scale, for treating collected samples from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Sidi-Bel-Abbes located in the west of Algeria. Our experimental results reveal the efficiency of this type of treatment on the basis of the physicochemical analysis (pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, heavy metals) and microbial analysis downstream of the WWTP, which showed a high rate of elimination of all the parameters. PMID:27332830

  4. Biological nitrogen removal from industrial wastewater discharged from metal recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Hirata, A; Nakamura, Y; Tsuneda, S

    2001-01-01

    The wastewater generated from the processes of recovering precious metals from industrial wastes contains high concentrations of acids and alkalis such as nitric acid and aqueous ammonia, and of salts such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Biological nitrogen removal from this wastewater was attempted by using a circulating bioreactor system equipped with an anaerobic packed bed and an aerobic three-phase fluidized bed. As a result of acclimating microorganisms with change of the hydraulic residence time, this system effectively removed nitrogen from diluted wastewater (T-N: from 2,000 to 4,000 g/m3), such that the total nitrogen concentration in the effluent met the sewage discharge control criteria in Japan (240 g/m3). The removal ratio of total nitrogen was 90% to 98% and that of ammonia was 80% to 92%. In addition, the characteristic equations for biological treatment were applied to this system on the assumption that both reactions of denitrification in the anaerobic reactor and nitrification in the aerobic reactor can be approximated to a first-order reaction. This simplified approach successfully led to a new analytical method for simulating the optimum volume ratio of anaerobic reactor to aerobic reactor for minimizing the total hydraulic residence time. PMID:11547981

  5. Non-intrusive characterization methods for wastewater-affected groundwater plumes discharging to an alpine lake.

    PubMed

    Roy, James W; Robillard, Jasen M; Watson, Susan B; Hayashi, Masaki

    2009-02-01

    Streams and lakes in rocky environments are especially susceptible to nutrient loading from wastewater-affected groundwater plumes. However, the use of invasive techniques such as drilling wells, installing piezometers or seepage meters, to detect and characterize these plumes can be prohibitive. In this work, we report on the use of four non-intrusive methods for this purpose at a site in the Rocky Mountains. The methods included non-invasive geophysical surveys of subsurface electrical conductivity (EC), in-situ EC measurement of discharging groundwater at the lake-sediment interface, shoreline water sampling and nutrient analysis, and shoreline periphyton sampling and analysis of biomass and taxa relative abundance. The geophysical surveys were able to detect and delineate two high-EC plumes, with capacitively coupled ERI (OhmMapper) providing detailed two-dimensional images. In situ measurements at the suspected discharge locations confirmed the presence of high-EC water in the two plumes and corroborated their spatial extent. The nutrient and periphyton results showed that only one of the two high-EC plumes posed a current eutrophication threat, with elevated nitrogen and phosphorus levels, high localized periphyton biomass and major shifts in taxonomic composition to taxa that are commonly associated with anthropogenic nutrient loading. This study highlights the need to use non-intrusive methods in combination, with geophysical and water EC-based methods used for initial detection of wastewater-affected groundwater plumes, and nutrient or periphyton sampling used to characterize their ecological effects. PMID:18253851

  6. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction-modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. PMID:26403720

  7. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  8. Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

  9. Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Shires, K; Knight, B; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

    2011-08-01

    The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid production, gonadosomatic indices, histology [cellular development and intersex]) were assessed upstream and downstream of two municipal discharges. Fish [Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Rainbow Darters E. caeruleum] collected downstream of two municipal wastewater plants had the potential to have greater growth (longer and heavier) when compared to reference fish collections regardless of sex. Fish were not assimilating additional anthropogenic resources into energy storage (increased condition, liver somatic index). Impacts on ovarian development appeared to be minor with no differences in growth, steroid production or cellular development. Sewage exposed male fish were experiencing impairment in the capacity to produce testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in vitro, and in cellular development (GSI, intersex). Male darters of both species collected in the upstream agricultural region demonstrated no evidence of intersex whereas our urban reference sites had incidence of intersex of up to 20%. Rates of intersex were elevated downstream of both sewage discharges studied (33% and>60%, respectively). Lower rates of intersex at the intermediate sites, and then increases downstream of second sewage discharge suggests that fish populations have to potential to recover prior to exposure to the second sewage effluent. Pre-spawning darters demonstrated dramatically higher incidence of intersex in the spring at both urban reference sites (33% and 50%, respectively), and increased more so downstream of

  10. Direct Discharges of Domestic Wastewater are a Major Source of Phosphorus and Nitrogen to the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Powley, Helen R; Dürr, Hans H; Lima, Ana T; Krom, Michael D; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2016-08-16

    Direct discharges of treated and untreated wastewater are important sources of nutrients to coastal marine ecosystems and contribute to their eutrophication. Here, we estimate the spatially distributed annual inputs of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) associated with direct domestic wastewater discharges from coastal cities to the Mediterranean Sea (MS). According to our best estimates, in 2003 these inputs amounted to 0.9 × 10(9) mol P yr(-1) and 15 × 10(9) mol N yr(-1), that is, values on the same order of magnitude as riverine inputs of P and N to the MS. By 2050, in the absence of any mitigation, population growth plus higher per capita protein intake and increased connectivity to the sewer system are projected to increase P inputs to the MS via direct wastewater discharges by 254, 163, and 32% for South, East, and North Mediterranean countries, respectively. Complete conversion to tertiary wastewater treatment would reduce the 2050 inputs to below their 2003 levels, but at an estimated additional cost of over €2 billion yr(-1). Management of coastal eutrophication may be best achieved by targeting tertiary treatment upgrades to the most affected near-shore areas, while simultaneously implementing legislation limiting P in detergents and increasing wastewater reuse across the entire basin. PMID:27409146

  11. Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

    2014-10-15

    During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800 m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800 m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica. PMID:25173596

  12. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  13. The Global Rise of Zero Liquid Discharge for Wastewater Management: Drivers, Technologies, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tiezheng; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-01

    Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)-a wastewater management strategy that eliminates liquid waste and maximizes water usage efficiency - has attracted renewed interest worldwide in recent years. Although implementation of ZLD reduces water pollution and augments water supply, the technology is constrained by high cost and intensive energy consumption. In this critical review, we discuss the drivers, incentives, technologies, and environmental impacts of ZLD. Within this framework, the global applications of ZLD in the United States and emerging economies such as China and India are examined. We highlight the evolution of ZLD from thermal- to membrane-based processes, and analyze the advantages and limitations of existing and emerging ZLD technologies. The potential environmental impacts of ZLD, notably greenhouse gas emission and generation of solid waste, are discussed and the prospects of ZLD technologies and research needs are highlighted. PMID:27275867

  14. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Li; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged.

  15. Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars. PMID:19542641

  16. Effects of a nearshore wastewater discharge: Water column and sediment pore water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R.; Carr, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between water column and sediment pore water toxicity was investigated near a municipal-industrial wastewater discharge in southern Texas. Toxicity associated with effluent distributions in the water column are known to vary in both time and space. Toxicity of sediment, however, is often more stable over time. Sediment can serve as a long-term integrator of toxicity in areas subject to chronic exposure of effluents. This study addressed the relationship between water column toxicity and that found in the sediments on both spatial and temporal scales. Four 2 Km transacts were established around a nearshore wastewater outfall. Eight stations along each transact were sampled for both surface waters and sediment pore water toxicity. Toxicity was determined using a modified sea urchin fertilization test. Surface waters were sampled and tested for eight consecutive months, while sediment pore waters were sampled on three occasions over the length of this study. Results have shown that toxicity in receiving waters was a good indicator to trace movements of the highly variable effluent plume. The distribution of effluent in the water column, and hence water column toxicity, was primarily driven by local wind conditions. Toxicity in sediment porewater was, much less variable and more evenly distributed over the study site. Sediment pore water toxicity was also a good predictor of the distribution of benthic infaunal invertebrates over much of the study site.

  17. Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.

    PubMed

    Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (p<0.05) seasonal differences in wastewater influent concentrations. Removal of CECs by these wastewater treatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (p<0.05) for a range of water quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted

  18. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4 weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1 km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and

  19. Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1999-01-01

    A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effects of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant. The purpose of the model was to simulate condi tions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site. To represent the unsteady streamflows and the dynamic water-quality conditions, a transport modeling system was used that included both a model to route streamflow and a model to transport dissolved conservative constituents with linkage to reaction kinetics similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to simulate nonconservative constituents. These model codes are the Diffusion Analogy Streamflow Routing Model (DAFLOW) and the branched Lagrangian transport model (BLTM) and BLTM/QUAL2E that, collectively, as calibrated models, are referred to as the Ardmore Water-Quality Model. The Ardmore DAFLOW model was calibrated with three sets of streamflows that collectively ranged from 16 to 3,456 cubic feet per second. The model uses only one set of calibrated coefficients and exponents to simulate streamflow over this range. The Ardmore BLTM was calibrated for transport by simulating dye concentrations collected during a tracer study when streamflows ranged from 16 to 23 cubic feet per second. Therefore, the model is expected

  20. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. 414.111 Section 414.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a standard shore connection for reception facilities to discharge oily mixtures from machinery space... from machinery space bilges may be substituted for the standard discharge connection requirement...

  5. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  6. Transport and transformation of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern from wastewater discharge through surface water to drinking water intake and treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in surface-water resources have necessitated research that better elucidates pathways of transport and transformation for these compounds from their discharged wastewater, thro...

  7. The mussel caging approach in assessing biological effects of wastewater treatment plant discharges in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Turja, Raisa; Lehtonen, Kari K; Meierjohann, Axel; Brozinski, Jenny-Maria; Vahtera, Emil; Soirinsuo, Anna; Sokolov, Alexander; Snoeijs, Pauline; Budzinski, Hélène; Devier, Marie-Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Viitasalo, Markku; Kronberg, Leif

    2015-08-15

    Biological effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents were investigated in Baltic mussels (Mytilus trossulus) caged for one month 800m and 1100m from the WWTP discharge site and at a reference site 4km away. Significant antioxidant, genotoxic and lysosomal responses were observed close to the point of the WWTP discharge. Passive samplers (POCIS) attached to the cages indicated markedly higher water concentrations of various pharmaceuticals at the two most impacted sites. Modeling the dispersal of a hypothetical passive tracer compound from the WWTP discharge site revealed differing frequencies and timing of the exposure periods at different caging sites. The study demonstrated for the first time the effectiveness of the mussel caging approach in combination with passive samplers and the application of passive tracer modeling to examine the true exposure patterns at point source sites such as WWTP pipe discharges in the Baltic Sea. PMID:26117817

  8. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... treat the wastewater in an enhanced biological treatment system that is located either onsite or offsite. ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... treat the wastewater in an enhanced biological treatment system that is located either onsite or offsite. ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of...

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... treat the wastewater in an enhanced biological treatment system that is located either onsite or offsite. ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... treat the wastewater in an enhanced biological treatment system that is located either onsite or offsite. ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... treat the wastewater in an enhanced biological treatment system that is located either onsite or offsite. ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of...

  14. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

  15. Using high-throughput sequencing to assess the impacts of treated and untreated wastewater discharge on prokaryotic communities in an urban river.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Qi, Weixiao; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-02-01

    In many megacities wastewater is an important source of surface water, particularly during drought periods. While changes in surface water chemistry associated with effluent inflow have generally been well-studied, few data have been collected on the effects to prokaryotic communities. The objective of this study was to explore the impacts of treated and untreated wastewater discharges on prokaryotic community in an urban river. High-throughput sequencing was conducted for analyzing the prokaryotic community composition and function in river water, treated wastewater and untreated wastewater. Results revealed that the prokaryotic community compositions in the upstream river reach were dominated by treated wastewater discharge. In the middle- and downstream river reaches, untreated effluent volumes are higher, thus affecting the structure of the prokaryotic community, promoting a rise in Cyanobacteria and Thaumarchaeota. Function annotation revealed a number of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and human diseases were observed in river and wastewater samples, suggesting wastewater discharge to river may pose a risk to human health. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that the treated and untreated wastewater discharges also affected the abundance of ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidation archaea (AOA) in river. PMID:23912119

  16. The effect of turbulent strain rate on the viability of E.coli in simulated wastewater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotel, Aline; Battani, Brian; Semrau, Jeremy

    2003-11-01

    During storm events, release of combined sewage overflows can and does occur throughout the United States, most notably in the Great Lakes. Such overflows can deteriorate overall water quality and also lead to the closure of recreational beaches for many reasons, including due to the presence of harmful microorganisms. Here we report on how different mixing regimes created by varying the Reynolds number of simulated wastewater discharges affect the concentration and viability of microorganisms. A laboratory model was created to simulate a typical discharge containing free-floating Escherichia coli. From the experimental results, it was apparent that in the near field (five diameters from the point of discharge) the viability of E. coli was reduced as the Reynolds number of discharge increased, and such viability was more than could be explained by dilution alone. The discrepancy between observed cell viability and dilution can be attributed to the Kolmogorov strain rate. Such an effect on cell viability was only observed in the near field and did not occur in the far field, suggesting that one possible strategy to mitigate the impact of wastewater discharges, particularly that of combined sewer overflows would be to increase the Kolmogorov strain rate in the near field.

  17. Nickel biosorption by discharged biomass from wastewater treatment bioreactor: size plays a key role.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dandan; Yang, Yang; Li, Yunbao; Xu, Zhengxue; Dong, Shanshan

    2015-03-01

    Biomass size significantly affects the characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances, which in turn influences the biosorption mechanisms. In this work, nickel biosorption mechanisms and the capacity of excess aerobic granules (AGs) of >850 μm, 500-850 μm, 212-500 μm, and bioflocs <212 μm, discharged during wastewater treatment operation, were investigated by elemental composition and spectroscopic analysis. Ni(2+) biosorption capacity decreased apparently from 1.28-1.53 to 0.93 mEq/g with the increase of biomass size from 0-850 to >850 μm due to their different biosorption mechanisms. Chemical binding between nickel and protein was dominant for biomass less than 850 μm, whereas nickel adsorption was mainly physical when biogranule size was greater than 850 μm, because the nickel had no opportunity to interact with protein located in the core of the biogranule. Only low levels of ion exchange (<15.22 %) and precipitation (negligible) were observed for all kinds of biomass. Thus, biomass greater and less than 850 μm presented quite different biosorption mechanisms. PMID:25343974

  18. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: before and after plant shutdown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  19. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to...) It did not know or have reason to know that its Discharge, alone or in conjunction with a discharge... paragraph (c) of this section for each pollutant in the User's Discharge that caused Pass Through...

  20. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review... automatic change or denial of a change in a discharge. Neither the DRB nor the Secretary of the Air...

  1. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review... automatic change or denial of a change in a discharge. Neither the DRB nor the Secretary of the Air...

  2. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.120 Discharge review... automatic change or denial of a change in a discharge. Neither the DRB nor the Secretary of the Air...

  3. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service of which the applicant was a member, made expressly retroactive to the type of discharge under... type under consideration provided that: (i) Current policies or procedures represent a substantial... discharge review; (J) Prior military service and type of discharge received or outstanding...

  4. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-06-01

    China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  5. Discharge of three benzotriazole corrosion inhibitors with municipal wastewater and improvements by membrane bioreactor treatment and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stefan; Jakobs, Jutta; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2006-12-01

    A set of three benzotriazole corrosion inhibitors was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in wastewaters and in a partially closed water cycle in the Berlin region. Benzotriazole (BTri) and two isomers of tolyltriazole (TTri) were determined in untreated municipal wastewater with mean dissolved concentrations of 12 microg/L (BTri), 2.1 microg/L (4-TTri), and 1.3 microg/L (5-TTri). Removal in conventional activated sludge (CAS) municipal wastewater treatment ranged from 37% for BTri to insignificant removal for 4-TTri. In laboratory batch tests 5-TTri was mineralized completely and 4-TTri was mineralized to only 25%. This different behavior of the three benzotriazoles was confirmed by following the triazoles through a partially closed water cycle, into bank filtrate used for drinking water production, where BTri (0.1 microg/L) and 4-TTri (0.03 microg/ L) but no 5-TTri were detected after a travel time of several months. The environmental half-life appears to increase from 5-TTri over BTri to 4-TTri. Treatment of municipal wastewater by a lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) instead of CAS improved the removal of BTri and 5-TTri but could not avoid their discharge. Almost complete removal was achieved by ozonation of the treatment plant effluent with 1 mg O3/mg DOC. PMID:17180966

  6. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  7. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  8. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  9. Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen Scranton; Ellis, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek. 

  10. Multiple Discharges of Treated Municipal Wastewater Have a Small Effect on the Quantities of Numerous Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Madson, Matthew; Borchardt, Spencer; Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated multiple discharges of treated wastewater on the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River. Surface water and treated wastewater samples were collected along the Mississippi River during three different periods of 4 days during the summer of 2012, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate several ARGs and related targets. Even though the wastewater effluents contained 75- to 831-fold higher levels of ARGs than the river water, the quantities of ARGs in the Mississippi River did not increase with downstream distance. Plasmids from the incompatibility group A/C were detected at low levels in the wastewater effluents but not in the river water; synthetic DNA containing an ampicillin resistance gene (bla) from cloning vectors was not detected in either the wastewater effluent or river samples. A simple 1D model suggested that the primary reason for the small impact of the wastewater discharges on ARG levels was the large flow rate of the Mississippi River compared to that of the wastewater discharges. Furthermore, this model generally overpredicted the ARG levels in the Mississippi River, suggesting that substantial loss mechanisms (e.g., decay or deposition) were occurring in the river. PMID:26325533

  11. Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

  12. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant standards for indirect... Discharge Point Sources § 414.111 Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources. (a) Any...) shall be determined by multiplying the concentrations listed in the following table for these...

  13. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

  14. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). V. Microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of Bacillus subtilis in simulated electroplating wash wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Abe, Masahiko; Ohba, Naoki; Uchida, Masayoshi; Serpone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This short article examines the microwave-assisted photolytic disinfection of aqueous solutions contaminated by Bacillus subtilis microorganisms using UV and vacuum-UV radiation emitted from a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL), a device containing a Hg/Ar gas-fill that was proposed recently for use in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Results of the disinfection are compared with those obtained from UV radiation emitted by a low-pressure electrode Hg lamp and by an excimer lamp. Also examined is the disinfection of B. subtilis aqueous media that contained Au3+ or Ni2+ ions, species often found in the treatment of electroplating wash wastewaters. PMID:21721320

  15. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  16. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  17. Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

  18. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  19. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, S.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  20. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  1. Ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharges: a case study in Prato (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, E; Galli, S; Limberti, A; Giovannelli, L

    2004-01-01

    Textile wastewaters, which contain numerous chemicals such as dyes, surfactants, solvents, organic and inorganic salts, can cause severe pollution problems for the receiving freshwaters. The ecotoxicity of wastewaters in Prato, where there are about 14,000 textile and related factories, was investigated from 1996-1999 by means of bioassays. 147 samples of reclaimed wastewater were collected at the outlets of 4 centralized wastewater treatment plants. The acute and chronic toxicity of the effluents was measured with bioassays using three different target organisms: green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Toxicity was expressed as Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) and Toxic Units (TU). The results indicated that the effluents did not have significant acute toxicity: only 2.74% (EC50<100%, TU>1) of the 146 samples tested with crustaceans and 6.52% (EC50<50%, TU>2) of the 78 tested with bioluminescent bacteria showed toxic effects. With algae, slight chronic toxicity was found in 49.33% (mean EC50 value=86.56%, mean TU=1.16) of the 140 samples tested. The highest relative response was found with the algal assay using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: 49.33% of 140 samples showed chronic toxicity at 96 hours (EC50<100%). PMID:15366513

  2. Wastewater standards and extraction chemistry in validation of microwave-assisted EPA method 3015A

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Walter, P.J.; Kingston, H.M. . Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry)

    1999-07-15

    The difficulties associated with the control and transfer of environmental leach methods are discussed. Optimized EPA Method 3015A, a microwave-assisted leach of wastewater and drinking water matrices and aqueous extracts, is evaluated. The option to add HCl in addition to HNO[sub 3] provides better complexation and recovery of certain metals that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) than the original HNO[sub 3]-only Method 3015. Also discussed is the preparation and appropriate use of simulated wastewater standards. Standard reference materials for a wastewater matrix are unavailable, and this novel approach provides NIST-traceability of results for the first time on this matrix type. Leach concentrations from these simulated standards were determined using both the 5 mL HNO[sub 3] and the 4 mL HNO[sub 3] and 1 mL HCl leach options of new Method 3015A. Validation of the new mixed-acid option of Method 3015A has been provided by evaluating its performance on the 23 elements for which original Method 3015 was validated. In addition, validation is provided for boron, mercury, and strontium, elements that were not validated in original Method 3015. Method 3015A has been developed into a method capable of evaluating 26 elements in a single, efficient, 20-min procedure.

  3. 40 CFR 429.24 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory... mechanical barking installations: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters. (b) The following limitations constitute the maximum permissible discharge for hydraulic...

  4. 40 CFR 429.24 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory... mechanical barking installations: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters. (b) The following limitations constitute the maximum permissible discharge for hydraulic...

  5. 40 CFR 429.24 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory... mechanical barking installations: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants into navigable waters. (b) The following limitations constitute the maximum permissible discharge for hydraulic...

  6. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

  7. Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

  8. Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction

  9. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

  10. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  11. Water withdrawals, wastewater discharge, and water consumption in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, 2005, and water-use trends, 1970-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Fanning, Julia L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, an estimated 49 percent of the water withdrawn for public supply in the basin was consumed, and the remaining 51 percent was returned to the hydrologic system through wastewater treatment systems. In 2005, an estimated 38 percent was consumed and 62 percent was returned to the hydrologic system. This contrast between water withdrawals and wastewater discharges for these years was caused primarily by below-average rainfall during 2000 (a dry year) and above-average rainfall during 2005 (a wet year).

  12. Standardizing ICU management of pediatric traumatic brain injury is associated with improved outcomes at discharge.

    PubMed

    O'Lynnger, Thomas M; Shannon, Chevis N; Le, Truc M; Greeno, Amber; Chung, Dai; Lamb, Fred S; Wellons, John C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of critical care in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reduce secondary brain injury by limiting cerebral ischemia and optimizing cerebral blood flow. The authors compared short-term outcomes as defined by discharge disposition and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in children with TBI before and after the implementation of a protocol that standardized decision-making and interventions among neurosurgeons and pediatric intensivists. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective pre- and postprotocol study of 128 pediatric patients with severe TBI, as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores < 8, admitted to a tertiary care center pediatric critical care unit between April 1, 2008, and May 31, 2014. The preprotocol group included 99 patients, and the postprotocol group included 29 patients. The primary outcome of interest was discharge disposition before and after protocol implementation, which took place on April 1, 2013. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess outcomes while accounting for injury severity and clinical parameters. Favorable discharge disposition included discharge home. Unfavorable discharge disposition included discharge to an inpatient facility or death. RESULTS Demographics were similar between the treatment periods, as was injury severity as assessed by GCS score (mean 5.43 preprotocol, mean 5.28 postprotocol; p = 0.67). The ordered logistic regression model demonstrated an odds ratio of 4.0 of increasingly favorable outcome in the postprotocol cohort (p = 0.007). Prior to protocol implementation, 63 patients (64%) had unfavorable discharge disposition and 36 patients (36%) had favorable discharge disposition. After protocol implementation, 9 patients (31%) had unfavorable disposition, while 20 patients (69%) had favorable disposition (p = 0.002). In the preprotocol group, 31 patients (31%) died while 6 patients (21%) died after protocol implementation (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Discharge disposition and mortality

  13. Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze for these bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 μg/L at the reference location to 97.7 μg/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01−1.0 μg/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5−38 μg/L. The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend:  they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge.

  14. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  15. Influence of wastewater treatment plant discharges on microplastic concentrations in surface water.

    PubMed

    Estahbanati, Shirin; Fahrenfeld, N L

    2016-11-01

    The abundance of microplastic particles in the marine environment is well documented, but less is known about microplastics in the freshwater environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may not effectively remove microplastics allowing for their release to the freshwater environment. To investigate concentration of microplastic in fresh water and the impact of WWTP effluent, samples were collected upstream and downstream of four major municipal WWTPs on the Raritan River, NJ. Microplastics were categorized into three quantitative categories (500-2000 μm, 250-500 μm, 125-250 μm), and one semi-quantitative category (63-125 μm). Then, microplastics were classified as primary (manufactured in small size) or secondary (derived from larger plastics) based on morphology. The concentration of microplastics in the 125-250 and 250-500 μm size categories significantly increased downstream of WWTP. The smaller size classes, often not quantified in microplastic studies, were in high relative abundance across sampling sites. While primary microplastics significantly increased downstream of WWTP, secondary microplastic was the dominant type in the quantitative size categories (66-88%). A moderate correlation between microplastic and distance downstream was observed. These results have implications for understanding the fate and transport of microplastics in the freshwater environment. PMID:27508863

  16. The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jörg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400 ng/L and 2400 ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. PMID:24399464

  17. Novel industrial wastewater treatment integrated with recovery of water and salt under a zero liquid discharge concept.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sengodagounder

    2016-03-01

    Conventional industrial effluent treatment systems are designed to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) but not total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly contributed by chlorides. In addition to the removal of TDS, it is necessary to recover water for reuse to meet the challenges of shortage of quality water. To recover water, the wastewater needs to be further treated by adopting treatment systems including microfilters, low pressure membrane units such as ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactors (MBR), etc., for the application of reverse osmosis (RO) systems. By adopting the RO system, 75%-80% of quality water with <500 mg/L of TDS is recovered from treated effluent. The management of 20%-25% of the saline water rejected from the RO system with high TDS concentration is being addressed by methods such as forced evaporation systems. The recovery of water from domestic and industrial waste for reuse has become a reality. The membrane system has been used for different applications. It has become mandatory to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in many states in India and other countries such as Spain, China, etc., and resulted in development of new treatment technologies to suit the local conditions. PMID:26982606

  18. Research on dye wastewater decoloration by pulse discharge plasma combined with charcoal derived from spent tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Pei, Shuzhao; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed discharge plasma (PDP) combined with charcoal (PDP-charcoal) was employed to treat dye wastewater, with methyl orange (MO) as the model pollutant. The charcoal was prepared using spent tea leaves and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Boehm titration to investigate the adsorption and catalytic characteristics before and after adsorption and PDP treatment. The prepared charcoal exhibited a high MO adsorption capacity, and the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich model. The MO decoloration efficiency reached 69.8 % within 7.5 min of treatment in the PDP-charcoal system, whereas values of 29.2 and 25.9 % were achieved in individual PDP and charcoal systems, respectively. The addition of n-butanol and H2PO4 (-) presented inhibitive effects on MO decoloration in the PDP system. However, these effects were much weaker in the PDP-charcoal system. In addition, the effects of charcoal on O3 and H2O2 formation were evaluated, and the results showed that both the O3 and H2O2 concentrations decreased in the presence of charcoal. The MO decomposition intermediates were analyzed using UV-Vis spectrometry and GC-MS. 1,4-Benzoquinone, 4-nitrophenol, 4-hydroxyaniline, and N,N'-dimethylaniline were detected. A possible pathway for MO decomposition in this system was proposed. PMID:27026548

  19. Will stringent total nitrogen wastewater treatment plant discharge regulations achieve stream water quality goals?

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2012-11-01

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) proposed the in-stream numeric nutrient criteria as 2 mg TN per L and 0.16 mg TP per L for warm surface waters and 0.40 mg TN per L and 0.11 mg TP per L for cold surface waters. Consequently the department presented the nutrient limits for the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as annual averages of 0.7 mg TP per L and 5.7 mg TIN per L and quarterly averages of 1.0 mg TP per L and 9.0 mg TIN per L. Implementing stringent nutrient reduction at point sources is unlikely to result in improvements to the environment without non-point source controls. In this study, total nitrogen (TN) load inputs from known point source, WWTPs, and other non-point sources at six sub-basins of the Cache La Poudre (CLP) River Basin were estimated and compared under various hydrologic conditions. Significant loading exceedance from the proposed limits was observed during lower flow conditions and other sources dominated during events when the exceedance was observed except for one point. The point receives direct TN inputs from a WWTP which has the highest TN concentration in its effluent among all WWTPs in the study area; however, TN loads entered the point from other sources were significant during higher flow conditions. TN loads in the CLP River were simulated to determine whether the loads meet the proposed in-stream limits in a case in which all WWTPs comply with the proposed regulations for WWTPs. From this study, it was observed that reducing TN concentrations only at WWTPs merely impacts total TN loads in the river. PMID:23032438

  20. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  1. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63.11498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply with the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) and (2) of this section and in Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater...

  5. The impact of treated sewage wastewater discharges on the phosphorus levels and hydrology of two second order rivers flowing into the Thames.

    PubMed

    Millier, Helen K G R; Hooda, Peter S; Downward, Stuart R

    2010-06-01

    Rivers Bourne and Hogsmill, urban tributaries of the Thames, were sampled up and downstream of sewage treatment works (STWs) wastewaters outflows. River water was analysed for total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and, in conjunction with river flow data, this study aimed to assess the impact of treated wastewaters on P concentrations in rivers where wastewater volumes frequently exceed those of the underlying river and to consider whether these rivers are likely to achieve "good ecological status" under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). P concentrations downstream of the STW discharge points were generally an order of magnitude greater than upstream, the flow weighted mean concentration in the River Bourne increased from 0.078 mg SRP l(-1) to 0.45 mg SRP l(-1) downstream of the input source. In the Hogsmill, the flow weighted mean concentration rose from 0.19 mg SRP l(-1) to 1.78 mg SRP l(-1) downstream of the input source prior to the introduction of P removal at the STW. Once P removal commenced, flow weighted mean concentrations downstream of the STW reduced to 0.56 mg SRP l(-1). Headwaters in the River Bourne, upstream of the STW outflow showed evidence of irregular, minor, diffuse inputs but overall mean figures indicate that the proposed UK Technical Advisory Group (UK TAG) for the WFD limit of 0.12 mg SRP l(-1) would be met. Headwaters in the Hogsmill are subject to small, continuous discharges of sewage effluent, sufficient to raise SRP levels above the UK TAG limit. Downstream, neither river meets the UKTAG recommendations in terms of P, despite the use of P-stripping processes at both STWs, an indication that current discharge consents for P concentrations in wastewaters are too high. PMID:20523930

  6. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  7. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  8. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  9. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  10. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  11. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414.91... Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a) Any point source subject...

  12. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  13. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  14. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  15. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. (a)Any...

  16. Standardizing admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate how hospital capacity was managed focusing on standardizing the admission and discharge processes. Methods This study was set in a 900-bed university affiliated hospital of the National Health Service, near Barcelona (Spain). This is a cross-sectional study of a set of interventions which were gradually implemented between April and December 2008. Mainly, they were focused on standardizing the admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow. Primary administrative data was obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Hospital Database. Main outcome measures were median length of stay, percentage of planned discharges, number of surgery cancellations and median number of delayed emergency admissions at 8:00 am. For statistical bivariate analysis, we used a Chi-squared for linear trend for qualitative variables and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and a Mann–Whitney test for non-normal continuous variables. Results The median patients’ global length of stay was 8.56 days in 2007 and 7.93 days in 2009 (p < 0.051). The percentage of patients admitted the same day as surgery increased from 64.87% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.05). The number of cancelled interventions due to lack of beds was 216 patients in 2007 and 42 patients in 2009. The median number of planned discharges went from 43.05% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.01). The median number of emergency patients waiting for an in-hospital bed at 8:00 am was 5 patients in 2007 and 3 patients in 2009 (p < 0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, standardization of admission and discharge processes are largely in our control. There is a significant opportunity to create important benefits for increasing bed capacity and hospital throughput. PMID:22741542

  17. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  19. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  20. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

  1. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  2. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  3. Assessing potential risks of wastewater discharges to benthic biota: an integrated approach to biomarker responses in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Maranho, L A; DelValls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-03-15

    Marine clams Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed under laboratory conditions to sediments sampled at five sites affected by wastewater effluents at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain). Contamination and early biological stress were determined. Metabolism and antioxidant system differed according to seasons. Health status diminished in summer. Metabolism of detoxification, and oxidative effect were related to concentration of metals, PAH, secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) and antibiotics in winter. Antioxidant system and DNA damage were linked to metals and pharmaceutical products. Phase I and antioxidant system were associated to PAH and SAS in summer. Oxidative stress and effects were related to pharmaceuticals. Phase II was linked to metals and pharmaceuticals. Seasonality of sediment contamination by organic compounds and biological responses was determined. Clams were useful bioindicators, since the set of biomarkers applied was validated as potential tools for sediment quality assessment of wastewater discharges areas. PMID:25641574

  4. Evaluation of the levels of alcohol sulfates and ethoxysulfates in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of Tenerife Island.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, C; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Blanc, R; Navalón, A; Pérez-Trujillo, J P; Vílchez, J L

    2014-02-15

    Alcohol sulfates (AS) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are all High Production Volume and 'down-the-drain' chemicals used globally in detergent and personal care products, resulting in low levels ultimately released to the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluents. They have a strong affinity for sorption to sediments. Almost 50% of Tenerife Island surface area is environmentally protected. Therefore, determination of concentration levels of AS/AES in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of the Island is of interest. These data were obtained after pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Short chains of AES and especially of AS dominated the homologue distribution for AES. The Principal Components Analysis was used. The results showed that the sources of AS and AES were the same and that both compounds exhibit similar behavior. Three different patterns in the distribution for homologues and ethoxymers were found. PMID:24398419

  5. Enhanced degradation of azo dye in wastewater by pulsed discharge plasma coupled with MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 in pulsed discharge plasma systems, easily recycled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-TiO2 supported on γ-Al2O3 (MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3) composite photocatalyst were prepared. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated using XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of azo dye acid orange II (AO7) in wastewater under pulsed discharge plasma. The results indicate that the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite catalyst possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity facilitating the decomposition of AO7 compared with TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems. Under pulsed discharge plasma, almost 100% AO7 is degraded by the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite after 60 min at optimal conditions. The degradation efficiency of AO7 is also affected by the dosage of the composite catalyst and pulsed discharge peak voltage. As the amount of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite and pulsed discharge peak voltage increases, the degradation efficiency of AO7 increases. The photocatalyst was implemented for 6 cycles and the degradation efficiency of AO7 remains higher than 85% under pulsed discharge plasma. Results indicate that the catalyst displays easy separation and minimal deactivation after several uses. Possible decomposition mechanisms were also investigated. MWCNTs are capable of improving the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems primarily due to the photo-induced-electron absorption effect and the electron trap effect of MWCNTs. The results of this study establish the feasibility and potential implementation of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composites in pulsed discharge plasma systems for the degradation of dye wastewater. PMID:26946167

  6. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  7. Average recovery time from a standardized intravenous sedation protocol and standardized discharge criteria in the general dental practice setting.

    PubMed Central

    Lepere, A. J.; Slack-Smith, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Intravenous sedation has been used in dentistry for many years because of its perceived advantages over general anesthesia, including shorter recovery times. However, there is limited literature available on recovery from intravenous dental sedation, particularly in the private general practice setting. The aim of this study was to describe the recovery times when sedation was conducted in private dental practice and to consider this in relation to age, weight, procedure type, and procedure time. The data were extracted from the intravenous sedation records available with 1 general anesthesia-trained dental practitioner who provides ambulatory sedation services to a number of private general dental practices in the Perth, Western Australia Metropolitan Area. Standardized intravenous sedation techniques as well as clear standardized discharge criteria were utilized. The sedatives used were fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol. Results from 85 patients produced an average recovery time of 19 minutes. Recovery time was not associated with the type or length of dental procedures performed. PMID:15384295

  8. Residue levels and discharge loads of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), hospital lagoons, and rivers within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimosop, Selly Jemutai; Getenga, Z M; Orata, F; Okello, V A; Cheruiyot, J K

    2016-09-01

    The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.36 ± 0.04 and 0.79 ± 0.07 μg/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 276 ± 12 ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9 mg day(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85 mg day(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment. PMID:27553946

  9. Implementation and Testing of Interdisciplinary Decision Support Tools to Standardize Discharge Planning

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kathryn H.; Holland, Diane E.; Potashnik, Sheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Improving transitions in care is an international priority. In acute care, this complex process starts upon admission and requires multiple interventions to appropriately transition patients from one setting to the next. Within this multi-step process are two important decision points that warrant standardization and support. Our research teams have developed decision support tools that meet this critical need. The Early Screen for Discharge Planning (ESDP) and the Discharge Decision Support System (D2S2) bring evidence based, interdisciplinary decision support to two common and important decisions. The purpose of this paper is to share information about “real life” experiences in implementing decision support covering the development and use of the tools, advising about implementation considerations, making suggestions for automating the process, and sharing findings from our recent implementation study. PMID:24199045

  10. Discharge and referral data exchange using global standards--the SCIPHOX project in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Kai U; Schweiger, Ralf; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-07-01

    The goal of the German project "Standardization of Communication between Information Systems in Physician Offices and Hospitals using XML" (aka SCIPHOX) in its first phase is to provide information exchange based on the Extended Markup Language XML between Hospital Information Systems (HIS) and Physician Office Systems (POS). The Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a standard developed by the Health Level Seven organization (HL7), was chosen to serve as the "backbone" specification. The CDA is an ANSI approved document architecture for exchange of clinical information using XML. In phase I of the SCIPHOX project the proposal specifies the use of the CDA as a generalized international standard in the national context of discharge and referral letters in Germany. The specification defines how to use the CDA header and associated vocabularies by providing a translation and interpretation of the CDA header tags and provides a solution for taking local needs (insurance information etc.) into account. PMID:12909170

  11. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

  12. Biological treatment of printing ink wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Shi, H; Qian, Y

    2003-01-01

    Printing ink wastewater is usually very difficult to treat biologically and its chemical oxygen demand (COD) far exceeds standards of discharge. The COD in wastewater is usually 3,000 to 8,000 mg/L after flocculation and sedimentation. Herein, a strain of bacterium was isolated from the sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. and utilized to treat printing ink wastewater. The application of bacteria to degrade printing ink in wastewater is discussed in this paper. The influence of N and P sources on COD removal, and COD removal in combination with glucose was also discussed. More than 85 per cent of the COD could be removed using the proposed biological process. A novel internal airlift loop bioreactor with bacteria immobilized onto ceramic honeycomb support was used for the wastewater treatment. PMID:12578205

  13. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

  14. Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh; Sinha, Sarita; Dalwani, R

    2004-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs. PMID:14761695

  15. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S... March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water... Standards Directorate''. Notification should be provided to U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Center. In FR...

  16. Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median

  17. A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively. PMID:21121456

  18. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological

  19. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 by zero-valent iron/activated carbon combined with microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Xu, Zhen; Li, Qing-Shan; Chen, Song; An, Shu-Qing; Zeng, Qing-Fu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 using zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC), microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite (MDEL/NaClO) and the combination of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO was conducted. The preliminary results showed the two steps method of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO had much higher degradation efficiency than both single steps. The final color removal percentage was nearly up to 100% and the chemical oxygen demand reduction percentage was up to approximately 82%. The effects of operational parameters, including initial pH value of simulated wastewater, ZVI/AC ratio and particle size of ZVI were also investigated. In addition, from the discussion of synergistic effect between ZVI/AC and MEDL/NaClO, we found that in the ZVI/AC-MEDL/NaClO process, ZVI/AC could break the azo bond firstly and then MEDL/NaClO degraded the aromatic amine products effectively. Reversing the order would reduce the degradation efficiency. PMID:20617726

  20. 40 CFR 443.25 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.25 Standards of performance... subpart: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters....

  1. 40 CFR 443.25 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.25 Standards of performance... subpart: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters....

  2. 40 CFR 443.25 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.25 Standards of performance... subpart: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters....

  3. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard also established an approval process for ballast water management systems (77 FR 17254... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 46 CFR Part 162 RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in...

  4. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. 155.430 Section 155.430 Navigation and Navigable... oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. (a) All oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above must...

  5. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. 155.430 Section 155.430 Navigation and Navigable... oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above. (a) All oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above must...

  6. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  7. Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

    2012-12-01

    Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

  8. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  9. The influence of wastewater discharge on water quality in Hawai'i: A comparative study for Lahaina and Kihei, Maui.

    PubMed

    Miller-Pierce, Mailea R; Rhoads, Neil A

    2016-02-15

    In Maui, Hawai'i, wastewater reclamation facilities (WWRFs) dispose of partially treated effluent into injection wells connected to the nearshore environment. Hawai'i State Department of Health data from 2004-2015 were assessed for qualitative trends in nutrient, turbidity, and Chlorophyll a water quality (WQ) impairments for fourteen marine sites on Maui Island. We introduce a novel method, the Qualitative Impact Percentage (QIP), to facilitate a qualitative comparison of disparate factors contributing to WQ impairment. Sites near the Lahaina WWRF in West Maui, which was found in violation of the Clean Water Act in 2014, had fewer exceedances and lower geometric means compared to sites near the Kihei WWRF. Our results suggest that WQ impairments may be a greater concern in Kihei than previously acknowledged. This paper attempts to raise the awareness of policymakers and the public and to encourage further research assessing the effects of the Kihei WWRF on the marine environment. PMID:26778501

  10. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

  11. Membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment - a viable option to reduce the amount of polar pollutants discharged into surface waters?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stefan; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2008-08-01

    The potential of a lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to remove polar pollutants from municipal wastewater was studied for industrial and household chemicals over a period of 22 months parallel to a conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. For half of the compounds, such as benzotriazole, 5-tolyltriazole (5-TTri), benzothiazole-2-sulfonate and 1,6-naphthalene disulfonate (1,6-NDSA), removal by MBR was significantly better than in CAS, while no improvement was recorded for the other half (1,5-NDSA, 1,3-NDSA, 4-TTri and naphthalene-1-sulfonate). The influence of operational conditions on trace pollutant removal by MBR was studied but no significant effects were found for variation of hydraulic retention time (7h-14h) and sludge retention time (26d-102d), suggesting that the lowest values selected have already been high enough for good removal. It is shown that the seemingly inconsistent results reported here and in previous studies regarding the comparison of trace pollutant removal in MBR and CAS are highly consistent. MBR is neither superior for well degradable compounds that are already extensively degraded in CAS treatment nor for recalcitrant compounds that are not amenable to biodegradation. For most compounds of intermediate removal in CAS treatment (15-80%), among them pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, the MBR is clearly superior and reduces the effluent concentration by 20-50%. Despite of this clear benefit of MBR, the effect is not pronounced enough to serve as a sole argument for employing MBR in municipal wastewater treatment. PMID:18684484

  12. Quantifying the Contribution of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems to Stream Discharge Using the SWAT Model.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C W; Radcliffe, D E; Risse, L M; Habteselassie, M; Mukundan, R; Jeong, J; Hoghooghi, N

    2014-03-01

    In the southeastern United States, on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are widely used for domestic wastewater treatment. The degree to which OWTSs represent consumptive water use has been questioned in Georgia. The goal of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs on streamflow in a gauged watershed in Gwinnett County, Georgia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed-scale model, which includes a new OWTS algorithm. Streamflow was modeled with and without the presence of OWTSs. The model was calibrated using data from 1 Jan. 2003 to 31 Dec. 2006 and validated from 1 Jan. 2007 to 31 Dec. 2010 using the auto-calibration tool SWAT-CUP 4. The daily and monthly streamflow Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.49 and 0.71, respectively, for the calibration period and 0.37 and 0.68, respectively, for the validation period, indicating a satisfactory fit. Analysis of water balance output variables between simulations showed a 3.1% increase in total water yield at the watershed scale and a 5.9% increase at the subbasin scale for a high-density OWTS area. The percent change in water yield between simulations was the greatest in dry years, implying that the influence of OWTSs on the water yield is greatest under drought conditions. Mean OWTS water use was approximately 5.7% consumptive, contrary to common assumptions by water planning agencies in Georgia. Results from this study may be used by OWTS users and by watershed planners to understand the influence of OWTSs on water quantity within watersheds in this region. PMID:25602655

  13. Total and methyl mercury transformations and mass loadings within a wastewater treatment plant and the impact of the effluent discharge to an alkaline hypereutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Gbondo-Tugbawa, Solomon S; McAlear, Joseph A; Driscoll, Charles T; Sharpe, Charles W

    2010-05-01

    Concerns over the fate and bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) inputs to Onondaga Lake, a hypereutrophic lake in central New York, prompted an investigation into the concentrations and fluxes of Hg discharge from the Onondaga County Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (METRO WWTP). Discharge of methyl Hg (MeHg) is of concern because it is the form of Hg that readily bioaccumulates along the aquatic food chain. This study incorporated clean protocols for sampling and Hg analysis to evaluate: seasonal patterns in the concentrations of total Hg (THg) and MeHg in the WWTP unit processes; the production of MeHg within the unit processes of the WWTP; the overall fate of THg and MeHg within the WWTP; and the relative impact of the Hg discharged from the WWTP to Onondaga Lake. Concentrations of THg (range: 80-860 ng/L) and MeHg (0.7-17 ng/L) in raw sewage were highly variable, with higher concentrations observed in the summer months. The dynamics of THg though the WWTP were correlated with total suspended solids (TSS). As a result, the majority of the THg removal (55%) occurred during primary treatment. Overall, about 92% of the THg entering the plant was removed as sludge, with volatilization likely a minor component of the overall Hg budget. The transformation of MeHg through the plant differed from THg in that MeHg was not correlated with TSS, and displayed strong seasonal differences between winter (November to April) and summer (May-October) months. During the summer months, substantial net methylation occurred in the activated sludge secondary treatment, resulting in higher MeHg concentrations in secondary effluent. Net demethylation was the dominant mechanism during tertiary treatment, resulting in removal of substantial MeHg from the secondary effluent. The overall MeHg removal efficiency through the plant was about 70% with more efficient removal during summer months. Sediment trap collections made below the epilimnion of Onondaga Lake indicated average deposition

  14. ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTEWATERS ON REDEAR SUNFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static bioassays of 24 hours' duration were performed on samples of wastewaters provided by 22 domestic petroleum refiners. These wastewaters represent three types of water discharges prevalent to this industry: process wastewaters prior to dilution with other streams; API separa...

  15. The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Burd, B; Macdonald, T; Bertold, S

    2013-09-15

    We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r(2)=0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production "saturated". The δ(15)N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast. PMID:23838414

  16. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard. PMID:26942530

  17. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater. PMID:24185070

  18. 40 CFR 440.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.44 New... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines, either open pit or underground, that produce mercury ores... discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills beneficiating mercury ores by...

  19. 40 CFR 440.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.44 New... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines, either open pit or underground, that produce mercury ores... discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills beneficiating mercury ores by...

  20. The GREAT-ER model in China: Evaluating the risk of both treated and untreated wastewater discharges and a consideration to the future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Benjamin; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    agreement between modelled and observed concentrations. Unlike many other water quality models, GREAT-ER is relatively simple to setup and use. This provides value for catchment managers, and for chemical end-users and manufacturers alike. As of yet, GREAT-ER has not been used in Chinese catchments, but there is much potential. Our study involves the creation and validation of a model for the Dongjiang catchment, South China. The Dongjiang catchment is a highly populated area, draining into Guangzhou and the Pearl River delta. The catchment area is 25,325 km2 (above Boluo gauging station), of which approximately 90% resides in Guangdong Province. The downstream section of the catchment is densely populated, whilst upstream there is a more significant rural population. This study focuses upon chemical ingredients found in personal care products and pharmaceuticals and the potential risk they may impose upon the catchment. The relative impact of rural discharges has also been examined along with the potential effect of a range of future wastewater upgrade scenarios. The model has been validated with measurement data collected over a number of sampling campaigns. We believe that this study provides insights into the challenges faced by China as it drives to improve water quality.

  1. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  2. 40 CFR 420.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking Subcategory § 420.44 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from any new...

  3. 40 CFR 420.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking Subcategory § 420.44 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater pollutants from any new...

  4. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward. PMID:24015572

  5. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

  6. Evaluation of phytotoxic elements, trace elements and nutrients in a standardized crop plant, irrigated with raw wastewater treated by APT and ozone.

    PubMed

    Orta de Velásquez, M T; Rojas-Valencia, M N; Reales-Pineda, A C

    2006-01-01

    This project studied the benefits of applying Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) and ozone (O3) to raw wastewater destined for reuse in agriculture. The ozone was applied directly to raw wastewater, as well as to wastewater already treated with APT, and the results compared against a control sample of potable water. The experimental conditions that reported the best results was wastewater treated with O3 (at a dose of 4.8 mg/L, at pH 7, temperature 23 degrees C, for 1 hr), given that it met standards in force in Mexico with regard to micro-organism and heavy metal content. Under these conditions, after 15 min of ozonation, 100% destruction of the following bacteria was observed: V. cholerae, S. typhi as well as total and faecal coliforms. Destruction of helminth eggs and Giardia sp. took one hour. No phytotoxic elements or heavy metals were found. The balance of nutrients N:P:K (300:100:200 mg/kg) required for lettuce growth, was found in wastewater subjected to both treatment plans. However, ozone favoured the nitrification and assimilation of the nutrients, by contributing oxygen to the soil. Therefore, these conditions produced the greatest lettuce growth, the entire plant averaging 38 cm in length and 125 g. in weight. Moreover, a better appearance of the leaves was also noted. PMID:17302317

  7. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  8. Rates of Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Vicinity of a Coal-Coking Wastewater Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Herbes, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    To facilitate predictions of the transport and fate of contaminants at future coal conversion facilities, rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected in the vicinity of a coal-coking treated wastewater discharge from November 1977 through August 1979. Six radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were incubated with sediment and water samples; 14CO2, cell-bound 14C, and polar transformation products were isolated and quantified. Whereas 14CO2 and bound 14C were major transformation products in sediment assays, soluble polar 14C dominated transformation in water samples. Mean rate constants (measured at 20°C) in sediments collected downstream from the effluent outfall were 7.8 × 10−2 h−1 (naphthalene), 1.6 × 10−2 h−1 (anthracene), and 3.3 × 10−3 h−1 [benz(a)anthracene], which corresponded to turnover times of 13, 62, and 300 h, respectively. No unequivocal evidence for transformation of benzo(a)pyrene or dibenz(a,h)anthracene was obtained. Only naphthalene and anthracene transformations were observed in water samples; rate constants were consistently 5- and 20-fold lower, respectively, than in the corresponding sediment samples. The measured rate constants for anthracene transformation in July 1978 sediment samples were not related to total heterotroph numbers. In late July 1978, the effluent was diverted from the primary study area; however, no differences were observed either in transformation rate constants or in the downstream/upstream sediment rate constant ratio. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continuous inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons result in an increased ability within a microbial community to utilize certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because transformation rates remained elevated for more than 1 year after removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source, microbial communities may shift only

  9. The effects of irrigation waste-water disposal in a former discharge zone of the Murray Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. A.; Williams, B. G.; Barnes, C. J.; Wasson, R. J.

    1992-08-01

    In the Murray Basin in southeastern Australia, saline waste irrigation waters are often discharged to natural depressions and saline lakes as a salinity and land management strategy. At the Noora disposal basin in South Australia the waste irrigation water ( EC = 17-19 dS m-1) has formed a lens in the top of the highly saline (50-80 dS m -1) regional groundwater (Parilla Sands) aquifer. Using salinity and environmental isotopes of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) the lens has been shown to extend about 500 m in a northwesterly direction from the disposal pond. The major effects of this lens have been: (1) to cause upwards displacement of the regional ground water over an area of about 285 km 2, implying increased evaporation from areas surrounding the lens; (2) to reduce evaporation of regional ground water from the central low-lying area. Electromagnetic induction techniques for detecting preferred flowpaths away from the basin were rendered ineffective in this environment because of lithologic variations within the dune system. However, examination of bore-logs and groundwater gradients indicated that there was little evidence of stratigraphic control of mound development. Salinity in the Parilla Sands aquifer was closely related to the depth of the water table from the soil surface. Shallow (2-4 m) water tables were affected by recharge and evaporation to a much greater extent than ground water located below the higher dunes. There was, however, an almost instantaneous pressure response throughout the whole groundwater system to changes induced in the low-lying areas. Analyses of piezometric data showed that there was a seasonal variation imposed on the groundwater mound development. Corrected mean annual water-table increments and estimates of the mound volume and area were derived from a Theis response curve of the water table rise associated with the mound alone. Calculations using fitted parameters from the Theis analyses also suggested high transmissivity

  10. Environmental impact analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants: case study of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Brattebø, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants, while performing the important function of treating wastewater to meet the prescribed discharge standards, consume energy and a variety of chemicals. This paper analyses the consumption of energy and chemicals by wastewater treatment plants in Oslo over eight years, and their potential environmental impacts. Global warming and acidification were the dominant impacts for chemicals and energy, respectively. Avoided impacts due to usable by-products - sludge, ammonium nitrate and biogas - play a key role in shrinking the environmental footprint of the wastewater plants. The scope for decreasing this footprint by streamlining energy and chemicals consumption is limited, however, considering that over 70% of the impact is accounted for by the eutrophication potential (thanks to the nitrogen and phosphorus which is discharged to the sink) of the treated effluent wastewater. PMID:21411954

  11. Improving the quality of discharge summaries: implementing updated Academy of Medical Royal Colleges standards at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    May-Miller, Hannah; Hayter, Joanne; Loewenthal, Lola; Hall, Louis; Hilbert, Rebecca; Quinn, Michael; Pearson, Nicola; Patel, Alisha; Law, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Quality of documentation is harder to quantify and incentivise, but it has a significant impact on patient care. Good discharge summaries facilitate continuity between secondary and primary care. The junior doctors' forum led this project to improve the quality of electronic discharge summaries (eDS). Baseline measurement revealed significant room for improvement. We measured the quality of 10 summaries per month (across all inpatient specialties), against 23 indicators from the revised Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC) standards (2013) that were prioritised by GPs as a "minimum dataset". Junior doctors felt that the Trust's dual eDS systems were responsible for great variation in quality. This was confirmed by the results of a comparison audit of the systems in April 2014: one system greatly outperformed the other (57% mean compliance with iSoft clinical management (iCM) based system vs. 77% with InfoPath-based system). We recommended that the Trust move to a single eDS system, decommissioning the iCM-based system, and this proposal was approved by several Trust committees. We worked with information services, junior doctors, general practitioners and hospital physicians to develop and implement a generic template to further improve compliance with AoMRC standards. In August 2014, the iCM-based system was withdrawn, the new template went live, and training was delivered, coinciding with the changeover of junior doctors to minimise disruption. Median compliance increased from 66.7% to 77.8%. Quality of discharge summaries had improved across the specialties. There was a reduction in the number of complaints and positive qualitative feedback from general practitioners and junior doctors. Completion of discharge summaries within 24 hours was not affected by this change. There is still more to be done to improve quality; average compliance with the full AoMRC standards (39 indicators) is 59.5%. With the approval of the Trust executive committee further plan

  12. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  13. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  14. 40 CFR 464.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....16 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source subject... CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a) Casting Cleaning....0 (e) Grinding Scrubber Operations. No discharge of process wastewater pollutants to a POTW....

  15. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDELs). Part IX. A novel MDEL photoreactor for the photolytic and chemical oxidation treatment of contaminated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Shinomiya, Tomohiro; Serpone, Nick

    2015-12-01

    This article reports on the fabrication and enhanced performance of a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) consisting of a three layered cylindrical structure that was effective in the remediation of wastewater containing the 2,4-D herbicide and the near total sterilization of bacteria-contaminated pond water (E. coli and other microorganisms) through photolysis with the emitted vacuum-UV (185 nm) and UVC (254 nm) light from the MDEL and through chemical oxidation with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the photolysis of dioxygen and air oxygen through one of the photoreactors. The flow rates of the 1.0 L contaminated waters were 0.6 and 1.2 L min(-1). The integrated UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair methods used to carry out the degradation of 2,4-D and sterilization processes were more effective than either the UV method alone or the ROSO2 and ROSair methods for short time periods (5 or 8 min). At a lower flow rate, 79% of 2,4-D was degraded by the UV/ROSO2 method and 55% by UV/ROSair after 8 min. At a faster flow rate of 1.2 L min(-1), degradation of 2,4-D in 1.0 L volume of water was 84% and 77% complete by the UV/ROSO2 and the UV/ROSair method, respectively, after 8 min of irradiation. The number of kills of E. coli bacteria was nearly quantitative (98 and 99%) by the UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair methods after treating the contaminated water for 5 min. The decrease of total viable microorganisms in pond water was 90% and 80% after 5 min of microwave irradiation at a flow rate of 1.2 L min(-1) by the integrated methods UV/ROSO2 and UV/ROSair, respectively. The rate of flow of oxygen gas through the photoreactor impacted the extent of degradation and the related dynamics of the 2,4-D herbicide. PMID:26456244

  16. Chromium and copper removed, wastewater can now go to sewer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.W.; Toy, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    Alco Gravure faced a wastewater problem at its printing facility in Broadview, IL. Hexavalent chrome-bearing wastewater was generated during chrome plating and etching and acidic copper wastewater was produced during the plating of rotogravure printing rolls. The chromium and copper levels in the wastewater were too high to discharge to the municipal sewer. At the company's previous location, the wastewater had been stored in underground tanks and periodically removed by a hazardous waste treatment firm. Because the wastewater contained less than 1% heavy metals, volume reduction of the waste became an economic necessity when Alco moved to the Broadview site. A metals precipitation and removal system was chosen with the following equipments: oil/water separator, chrome reduction tank, neutralization tank, clarifier, filter press, and all associated instrumentation, metering pumps, valves, piping and mixers. The system was chosen after company personnel inspected a similar treatment system in a plating operation at a plant across the street from Alco. Since installation in the fall of 1984, the heavy metal treatment system has reduced the volume of waste to less than 1% of the initial wastewater volume. By treating the 99 + % of the aqueous waste for disposal to the municipal water treatment works, significant savings have been achieved in waste disposal costs. Effluent quality exceeds all standards established by the sewer district and by the EPA.

  17. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards. PMID:18799262

  18. Automatable on-line generation of calibration curves and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-03-01

    Two methods are described that enable on-line generation of calibration standards and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample solution, and diluent to achieve a desired solution composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line solution mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in solution composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing solution streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.

  19. Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

  20. Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

  1. Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  2. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  3. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  4. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  5. Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q H; Yang, W N; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Jin, P K; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Yang, S J; Wang, Q; Wang, X C; Ao, D

    2016-01-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the perspective of treatment technologies, pollutant removals, operating load and effluent discharge standards. By the end of 2013, 3508 WWTPs have been built in 31 provinces and cities in China with a total treatment capacity of 1.48×10(8)m(3)/d. The uneven population distribution between China's east and west regions has resulted in notably different economic development outcomes. The technologies mostly used in WWTPs are AAO and oxidation ditch, which account for over 50% of the existing WWTPs. According to statistics, the efficiencies of COD and NH3-N removal are good in 656 WWTPs in 70 cities. The overall average COD removal is over 88% with few regional differences. The average removal efficiency of NH3-N is up to 80%. Large differences exist between the operating loads applied in different WWTPs. The average operating loading rate is approximately 83%, and 52% of WWTPs operate at loadings of <80%, treating up to 40% of the wastewater generated. The implementation of discharge standards has been low. Approximately 28% of WWTPs that achieved the Grade I-A Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) were constructed after 2010. The sludge treatment and recycling rates are only 25%, and approximately 15% of wastewater is inefficiently treated. Approximately 60% of WWTPs have capacities of 1×10(4)m(3)/d-5×10(4)m(3)/d. Relatively high energy consumption is required for small-scale processing, and the utilization rate of recycled wastewater is low. The challenges of WWTPs are discussed with the aim of developing rational criteria and appropriate technologies for water recycling. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures are provided. PMID:27045705

  6. TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies on the biological treatability of wastewaters from the manufacture of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide. At concentration levels representative of EBDC production units and total plant wastewaters discharged to pu...

  7. Enhanced metal removal from wastewater by coagulant addition

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Elliott, H.A.; Cannon, F.S.

    1996-11-01

    Besides metallurgical industries, metal-containing wastewaters are generated in the manufacturing/processing of batteries, petroleum, photographic materials, paints, inks, leather, and wood. The toxic nature of the heavy metals has resulted in the promulgation of standards requiring very low concentration of metals in the treated effluent. To comply with the strict regulatory requirements, it is necessary to treat the wastewaters (both industrial and municipal) before discharging them into natural water bodies. The objective of this study was to compare the pH-dependent Cu and Cd removal profiles for simple precipitation, adsorption, and coprecipitation in the presence of freshly-formed hydrous oxides of Fe and Al. Because of the significantly different pH at which hydrolysis/precipitation occurs, Cu and Cd were chosen as representative heavy metals. The results have been interpreted in the context of investing the use of coagulants to achieve low metal concentrations in wastewater effluents.

  8. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Buleté, A; Vulliet, E; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Mirande-Bret, C; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92

  9. Modeling trihalomethane formation potential from wastewater chlorination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The deletion of federally mandated fecal coliform limits has led many states to review and modify their wastewater disinfection requirements. One issue in analyzing wastewater disinfection is the discharge of potentially carcinogenic halogenated organics formed during the chlorination process. This research investigates the formation of one class of the halogenated organics, the trihalomethanes. The applicability of using drinking water trihalomethane formation models for use with wastewater effluent is examined. Three models are compared for predictive capability by using measured trihalomethane values from previous research data. The results show that a previously developed model is applicable for use based on assumptions stated. Results provide environmental managers with worst case predictions for a range of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) parameters. Predictions indicate that trihalomethane formation from the chlorination of wastewater is typically lower than the Safe Drinking Water Act trihalomethane standard of 100 ug/L. The worst case model predictions reach, and in certain extreme cases, pass the standard of 100 ug/L. This level of trihalomethanes formed is minimized if aeration of the receiving bodies of water occurs. Based on this research, the risk of forming trihalomethanes as disinfection by-products from chlorination do not outweigh the benefits gained from proper chlorine disinfection of effluent.

  10. 40 CFR 471.75 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Forming Subcategory § 471.75 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new... be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (b) Extrusion tool contact cooling water. Subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  12. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  14. 40 CFR 440.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory... mercury ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average... shall be no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills beneficiating mercury ores...

  15. 40 CFR 440.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory... mercury ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average... shall be no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills beneficiating mercury ores...

  16. 40 CFR 440.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory... mercury ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average... shall be no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills beneficiating mercury ores...

  17. 40 CFR 461.73 - New source performance standards. (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Subcategory § 461.73 New... times. (b) There shall be no discharge allowance for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operation other than those battery manufacturing operations listed above....

  18. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS) Final Rule (77 FR 35268). The rulemaking... (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard is now publishing a document to advise the public that we received four...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information...

  19. Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) wastewater by internal electrolysis--biological contact oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Cao, X Z; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant wastewater is usually difficult to treat due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. A separate physico-chemical or biochemical treatment method achieves a satisfactory effect with difficulty. In this study, treatment of the wastewater collected from a daily chemical plant by the combination processes of Fe/C internal electrolysis and biological contact oxidation was investigated. For the internal electrolysis process, the optimal conditions were: pH = 4-5, Fe/C = (10-15):1, air-water ratio = (10-20):1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT)= 2 h. For the biological contact oxidation process, the optimal conditions were: HRT = 12 h, DO = 4.0-5.0 mg/L. Treated by the above combined processes, the effluent could meet the I-grade criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The results provide valuable information for full-scale linear alkylbenzene sulfonate wastewater treatment. PMID:22053469

  20. Wastewater reuse in Mediterranean semi-arid areas: The impact of discharges of tertiary treated sewage on the load of polar micro pollutants in the Llobregat river (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Ginebreda, Antoni; Postigo, Cristina; López-Serna, Rebeca; Pérez, Sandra; Brix, Rikke; Llorca, Marta; de Alda, Miren López; Petrović, Mira; Munné, Antoni; Tirapu, Lluís; Barceló, Damià

    2011-01-01

    The presence of sewage-borne micro contaminants in environmental waters is directly related to the discharge of treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the flow rate of the receiving river waters. Mediterranean rivers, in particular, are characterized by important fluctuations in the flow rates and heavy pollution pressures resulting from extensive urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This translates into contamination levels in these rivers often higher than those in other larger European basins. The present work provides an overview of the occurrence of five groups of organic contaminants (131 compounds) namely pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, polar pesticides, estrogens, alkylphenols and related ethoxylates in WWTP tertiary treatment effluents. Data gathered during a period of water reuse carried out in the lower stretch of the Llobregat river (NE Spain), in the surroundings of the town of Barcelona as a consequence of the severe drought that took place along the years 2007-2008 are presented as illustrative example. In general, measured concentrations of the target compounds were in the low to mid ngL(-1) range. The total concentration of each compound class downstream to the discharge point was similar or slightly higher than that found upstream. Regarding the loads calculated for each compound, the relative contribution from the river upstream and the tertiary effluent were highly compound depending with no apparent trend. However, estimation of the overall bulk loads for each compound class determined in the Llobregat river showed the following rank order: pharmaceuticals>alkylphenols>pesticides>illicit drugs≫estrogens. PMID:21115189

  1. Bioaugmentation treatment of PV wafer manufacturing wastewater by microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Chen, Maoxia; He, Xin; Xiao, Zili; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang

    2015-01-01

    The wastewater of silicon photovoltaic (PV) battery manufacturing contained polyethylene glycol (PEG) and detergents, which possessed the characteristics of high content of organics and low bioavailability, and then resulted in high treatment costs. To address the difficulties of existing treatment facilities in stably meeting discharge standards, eight tons of microbial culture (consisting of Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp.) were added into the aerobic treatment unit. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the microbial culture in small-scale biological wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the operating conditions for engineering applications were optimized. The application study showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 95.0% when the pH value was 7, the gas-water ratio was 28:1, the reflux ratio was 50%, which indicated an increase of 51.2% contrasting with the situation without bioaugmentation. The volume load of the treatment facilities after augmentation increased by 127.9% and could tolerate the COD shock load reached 2,340 mg·L(-1). At last, the effluence met the class I standard of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). PMID:26287834

  2. Plutonium discharges to the sanitary sewer: Health impacts at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, B.K.

    1993-04-16

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest discharger of sewage treated by the Livermore Water Reclamation (LWRP), contributing approximately 7% by volume of the LWRP influent LILNL operations, as potential sources both of industrial pollutants and radioactivity, are therefore of particular concern to the LWRP. For this reason, LLNL has maintained vigorous wastewater discharge control and monitoring programs. In particular, the monitoring program has demonstrated that, except in a few rare instances, the concentration of contaminants in LLNL effluent have always remained below the appropriate regulatory standards. The exceptions have generally been due to inadvertent discharges of metals-bearing solutions produced by metal plating or cleaning operations.

  3. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD. PMID:26471181

  4. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment. PMID:25354334

  5. Removal of color from textile dyeing wastewater by foam separation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wu, Zhao-Liang

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of foam separation for color removal from direct dyes-containing wastewater was assessed using actual textile wastewater as the research system and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the collector. The influences of liquid loading volume, air flow rate, surfactant concentration, and initial pH on the removal efficiency and reuse of CTAB in the foamate were studied. The results indicated that using CTAB as a collector for foam separation can provide good foaming quality and effectively remove color from textile wastewater. Under optimum operational conditions (liquid loading volume 450 mL, gas flow rate of 500 mL/min, CTAB concentration 20 mg/L, and an initial pH of 7.0), the removal efficiency reached 88.9%. The residual dye content met the discharge standard for the dyeing and finishing textile industry (GB4287-92) published by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. Using recycled foamate in untreated wastewater, the removal efficiency of 87.5% was obtained with CTAB concentration 10 mg/L of the wastewater. PMID:20599321

  6. Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

    2009-05-01

    Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. PMID:19102584

  7. Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  8. Treatment of chitin-producing wastewater by micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue-ping; Xu, Xin-hua; Chen, Hai-feng

    2004-04-01

    The technique of micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization was exploited to treat chitin-producing wastewater. Results showed that Fe-C micro-electrolysis can remove about 30% COD(cr), raise pH from 0.7 to 5.5. The COD(cr) removal efficiency by biochemical process can be more than 80%. During a half year's operation, the whole system worked very stably and had good results, as proved by the fact that every quality indicator of effluent met the expected discharge standards; which means that chitin wastewater can be treated by the technique of micro-electrolysis, contact oxidization. PMID:14994434

  9. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China. PMID:27262686

  10. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135