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1

Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains  

E-print Network

Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains to provide rapid, field-ready, inexpen- sive testing of these chemicals in wastewater is also needed estrogenic chemicals, and 2) develop sensor technology for the rapid measure- ment in wastewater of two key

Fay, Noah

2

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2013-07-01

3

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2011-07-01

4

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2014-07-01

5

Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

Marella, R. L.

1994-01-01

6

Optimal Water Network with Zero Wastewater Discharge in an Alumina Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero wastewater discharge has been the ultimate goal of green water utilization in process industries. To make the water network with zero wastewater discharge economically beneficial, the system should be optimized. Alumina industry is a heavy water consumption industry, hence studying water re-use and zero wastewater discharge (ZWD) for water system in alumina plants is very important. This paper analyzes

CHUN DENG; XIAO FENG

2009-01-01

7

Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

2014-07-01

8

Argumentation-based framework for industrial wastewater discharges management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in unitary sewer systems of industrialized areas is of special concern. Severe problems can occur due to the characteristics of incoming flow. In order to avoid decision that leads to hazardous situations, guidelines and regulations exist. However, there are still no golden standards by which to a priori decide whether a WWTP

M. Aulinas; P. Tolchinsky; C. Turon; M. Poch; U. Cortés

9

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges  

E-print Network

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges in the implications of seasonal disinfection practices of wastewater effluents for meeting water quality goals from municipal wastewater outfalls along the river, as well as upstream and downstream of each outfall

Mitch, William A.

10

Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

1940-01-01

11

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge on stream quality in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminants from point and other urban sources affect stream quality in Indian Creek, which is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities discharge to Indian Creek. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, during June 2004 through June 2013 were used to evaluate stream quality in Indian Creek. This fact sheet summarizes the effects of wastewater effluent discharge on physical, chemical, and biological conditions in Indian Creek downstream from the Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.

2014-01-01

12

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2010-07-01

13

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2012-07-01

14

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2011-07-01

15

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2013-07-01

16

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the time the 240-hour limit is exceeded and the control device is again operational, and it must be submitted...days before the 240-hour limit will be exceeded. Wastewater...or other gases without an operational control device....

2010-07-01

17

Comparison of spectrolyser device measurements with standard analysis of wastewater samples in Novi Sad, Serbia.  

PubMed

On-line monitoring was performed using spectrolyser equipment, coupled with laboratory analysis for samples collected from wastewater discharge in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, during first 24 h of three and 48 h of six monitoring campaigns from December of 2012 to April of 2013. Significant correlation with R(2) > 0.9 was observed between laboratory analysis and spectrolyser measurements for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations. COD/BOD5 ratio in combined industrial and municipal wastewater ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 indicating the presence of biodegradable organic matter which could be easily removed using aeration treatment process. Micro/trace element and/or heavy metals in wastewater samples were within the limits as per the standard prescribed for wastewater, and should not pose any serious hazard risk. However BOD, COD, ammonia and total phosphorus concentrations were measured above the limit value according to Serbian and EU legislation and should be reduced before discharging wastewater directly into the Danube River. PMID:24990395

Mihajlovi?, I; Pap, S; Srema?ki, M; Brbori?, M; Babunski, D; Dogo, M

2014-09-01

18

Management Options Supporting a Dual Discharge Strategy for a Major Municipal Wastewater Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (METRO) discharges ~80 MGD of treated effluent to the waters of Onondaga Lake, the outflow of which is received by the Seneca River. Trophic conditions in the lake are severely degraded by this input. A dual discharge strategy has been proposed under which the effluent would be diverted to the river. This, together with

Daniel K. Rucinski; Martin T. Auer; David W. Watkins; Steven W. Effler; Rakesh K. Gelda; Susan M. Doerr O'Donnell; David M. O'Donnell

19

33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.250 Standard discharge connection...that received bilge water containing oily mixtures must have a standard discharge connection...that removes bilge water containing oily mixtures from oceangoing ships. [CGD...

2013-07-01

20

33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.250 Standard discharge connection...that received bilge water containing oily mixtures must have a standard discharge connection...that removes bilge water containing oily mixtures from oceangoing ships. [CGD...

2010-07-01

21

33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.250 Standard discharge connection...that received bilge water containing oily mixtures must have a standard discharge connection...that removes bilge water containing oily mixtures from oceangoing ships. [CGD...

2011-07-01

22

Effect of Wastewater Discharge on Root Anatomy and Radial Oxygen Loss (ROL) Patterns of Three Mangrove Species in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wastewater discharge on radial oxygen loss (ROL) and root anatomy varied among mangrove species. ROL of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) increased from 22.44 ng cm min in the control (just fresh water) to 31.09 ng cm min when received normal wastewater (NW) and to 44.22 ng cm min when treated with strong wastewater (10NW). However, discharge of both

N. Pi; N. F. Y. Tam; M. H. Wong

2010-01-01

23

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9 National Defense ...AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards...provided that: (i) Current policies or procedures...such as: (A) Service history, including date of...

2011-07-01

24

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9 National Defense ...AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards...provided that: (i) Current policies or procedures...such as: (A) Service history, including date of...

2013-07-01

25

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9 National Defense ...AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards...provided that: (i) Current policies or procedures...such as: (A) Service history, including date of...

2010-07-01

26

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...review standards. 70.9 Section 70.9 National Defense ...AND STANDARDS § 70.9 Discharge review standards...provided that: (i) Current policies or procedures...such as: (A) Service history, including date of...

2012-07-01

27

Submarine wastewater discharges: dispersion modelling in the Northern Adriatic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope   Opposite interests must coexist in coastal areas: the presence of significant cities and urban centres, of touristic and recreational\\u000a areas, and of extensive shellfish farming. To avoid local pollution caused by treated wastewaters along the Northern Adriatic\\u000a coast (Friuli Venezia-Giulia and Veneto regions), marine outfall systems have been constructed. In this study, the application\\u000a of a

Isabella Scroccaro; Marco Ostoich; Georg Umgiesser; Francesca De Pascalis; Luigi Colugnati; Giorgio Mattassi; Marina Vazzoler; Marco Cuomo

2010-01-01

28

Economic analysis of a zero discharge industrial wastewater treatment process. Final report, September 1994-September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of an economic analysis of advanced and emerging industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) technologies. New regulations and the increase in disposal costs for solid wastes have required the Navy to focus on improving the metal removal efficiency and waste generation rates. The Navy is developing Zero Discharge Technologies for three waste steams: (1) chromium, (2) cyanide, and (3) acid/alkali cleaning wastewaters. A Zero Discharge IWTP conceptual design described in this document incorporates advanced separation technologies for metals removal and recovery, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for mineralization of organics, and membrane separation technologies. This document reports an economic analysis of the unit processes identified in the Zero Discharge IWTP design, identification of further effluent polishing/purification methods, and an assessment of system costs for each effluent recycling option.

NONE

1995-12-01

29

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2012-07-01

30

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2010-07-01

31

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2011-07-01

32

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2013-07-01

33

A COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES FOR DISCHARGING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a study to meet the following congressional directive: 8Within available funds, the conferees direct EPA to conduct a relative risk assessment of deep well injection, ocean disposal, surface discharge, and aquifer recharge of treated effluent in South Florida,...

34

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

35

Treated domestic wastewater traditionally has been discharged offshore in coastal areas via ocean outfalls. In response to environmental concerns associated with ocean outfalls, deep  

E-print Network

1 Abstract Treated domestic wastewater traditionally has been discharged offshore in coastal areas injection of treated wastewater into non-potable aquifers has become increasingly used as an alternative. These deep aquifers tend to be saline, and the discharge of fresh wastewater into them raises concerns

Sukop, Mike

36

Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall,Aveiro Coast, Portugal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(6), 983989 (2002) EGS  

E-print Network

Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall,Aveiro Coast by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal J. Figueiredo da Silva1 , R.W. Duck2 in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Detection of a buoyant coastal wastewater discharge using airborne hyperspectral and infrared imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal wastewater discharged into the ocean through a submerged pipe, or outfall, can rise buoyantly to the sea surface, resulting in a near-field mixing zone and, in the presence of an ambient ocean current, an extended surface plume. In this paper, data from a CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) and an airborne infrared (IR) camera are shown to detect a municipal wastewater discharge off the southeast coast of Florida, U.S.A., through its elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter plus detrital material (CDOM) and cooler sea surface temperatures. CDOM levels within a ~15-m-diameter surface 'boil' are found to be about twice those in the ambient shelf water, and surface temperatures near the boil are lower by ~0.4°C, comparable to the vertical temperature difference across the ambient water column. The CASI and IR imagery show a nearly identically shaped buoyant plume, consistent with a fully surfacing discharge, but the IR data more accurately delineate the area of most rapid dilution as compared with previous in-situ measurements. The imagery also allows identification of ambient oceanographic processes that affect dispersion and transport in the far field. This includes an alongshore front, which limits offshore dispersion of the discharge, and shoreward-propagating nonlinear internal waves, which may be responsible for an enhanced onshore transport of the discharge.

Marmorino, George O.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Miller, W. D.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

38

Reducing the discharge of micropollutants in the aquatic environment: the benefits of upgrading wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Micropollutants (MPs) as individual compounds or in complex mixtures are relevant for water quality and may trigger unwanted ecological effects. MPs originate from different point and diffuse sources and enter water bodies via different flow paths. Effluents from conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in which various MPs are not or not completely removed, is one major source. To improve the water quality and avoid potential negative ecological effects by micropollutants, various measures to reduce the discharge should be taken. In this feature we discuss one of these measures; the benefits of upgrading WWTPs toward reduced MP loads and toxicities from wastewater effluents, using the recently decided Swiss strategy as an example. Based on (i) full-scale case studies using ozonation or powder activated carbon treatment, showing substantial reduction of MP discharges and concomitant reduced toxicities, (ii) social and political acceptance, (iii) technical feasibility and sufficient cost-effectiveness, the Swiss authorities recently decided to implement additional wastewater treatment steps as mitigation strategy to improve water quality. Since MPs are of growing global concern, the concepts and considerations behind the Swiss strategy are explained in this feature, which could be of use for other countries as well. It should be realized that upgrading WWTPs is not the only solution to reduce the discharge of MPs entering the environment, but is part of a broader, multipronged mitigation strategy. PMID:24915506

Eggen, Rik I L; Hollender, Juliane; Joss, Adriano; Schärer, Michael; Stamm, Christian

2014-07-15

39

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-07-01

40

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2014-07-01

41

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

42

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2014-07-01

43

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

44

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-07-01

45

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138...

2013-07-01

46

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138...

2011-07-01

47

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138...

2012-07-01

48

Effect of Standardized Electronic Discharge Instructions on Post-Discharge Hospital Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Several physician organizations and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) support compliance measures for written\\u000a discharge instructions. CMS has identified clear discharge instructions with specific attention to medication management as\\u000a a necessary intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  We tested the hypothesis that implementing a standardized electronic discharge instructions document with embedded computerized\\u000a medication reconciliation would decrease post-discharge hospital utilization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN  Retrospective pre- and

John W. Showalter; Colleen M. Rafferty; Nicole A. Swallow; Kolapo O. DaSilva; Cynthia H. Chuang

2011-01-01

49

Biomonitoring for effective management of wastewater discharges and the health of the river environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of wastewater effluents in South Africa has to date been based on physico-chemical standards although recently the assimilative capacity of the receiving stream has been included but not widely implemented. Very few assessments of the success of these management practices in protecting the downstream aquatic environment have been done. Bioassessments using benthic macro invertebrates were conducted up and

C. W. S. Dickens; P. M. Graham

1998-01-01

50

Identification of Welldeck Washout Discharge Constituents: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 325 of the 1996 National Defense Authorization Act, 'Discharges from Vessels of the Armed Forces', requires the Navy to comply with Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS) to control the overboard discharge of incidental wastewaters from ships...

M. L. Wenzel, J. D. Sugeon, J. W. Bailiargeon

2001-01-01

51

FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

Crockett, A.B.

1994-04-01

52

Zero discharge may prove expensive  

SciTech Connect

Although many of the wastewater sources from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) powerplant are similar to those from a conventional coal-fired powerplant, the contaminated process blowdowns from gasification and gas cleanup are new to the electric utility industry. The treatment and ultimate disposal of these process wastewaters can be a principal concern in the overall wastewater management strategy for an IGCC plant. Work carried out by CH2M Hill and the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center has been addressing the unknowns in this area. This paper summarizes their analysis, discussing wastewater sources and quality, discharge standards, new source performance standards, water quality based standards, zero liquid discharge, systems for NSPS discharge standard, systems for water quality limited standard, systems for zero discharge, and wastewater treatment costs. 2 tables.

Not Available

1987-03-01

53

Electrolytic treatment of Standard Malaysian Rubber process wastewater.  

PubMed

A new method of Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) process wastewater treatment was developed based on in situ hypochlorous acid generation. The hypochlorous acid was generated in an undivided electrolytic cell consisting of two sets of graphite as anode and stainless sheets as cathode. The generated hypochlorous acid served as an oxidizing agent to destroy the organic matter present in the SMR wastewater. For an influent COD concentration of 2960 mg/L at an initial pH 4.5+/-0.1, current density 74.5 mA/cm(2), sodium chloride content 3% and electrolysis period of 75 min, resulted in the following residual values pH 7.5, COD 87 mg/L, BOD(5) 60 mg/L, TOC 65 mg/L, total chlorine 146 mg/L, turbidity 7 NTU and temperature 48 degrees C, respectively. In the case of 2% sodium chloride as an electrolyte for the above said operating condition resulted in the following values namely: pH 7.2, COD 165 mg/L, BOD(5) 105 mg/L, TOC 120 mg/L, total chlorine 120 mg/L, turbidity 27 NTU and temperature 53 degrees C, respectively. The energy requirement were found to be 30 and 46 Wh/L, while treating 24 L of SMR wastewater at 2 and 3% sodium chloride concentration at a current density 74.5 mA/cm(2). The observed energy difference was due to the improved conductivity at high sodium chloride content. PMID:17543454

Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Yazid, Ahmad Yuzri Ahmad

2008-01-31

54

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553  

EPA Science Inventory

The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

55

Degradation of palm oil refinery wastewaters by non-thermal gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

The gliding electric discharge in humid air is a source of activated species forming (e.g. (•)OH, (•)NO and their derivatives H2O2, ONO2H and NO3H) which are present in a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. These species are able to degrade organic pollutants in palm oil refinery wastewaters (PORW). The increase in acidity (pH decrease), conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) and the decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of PORW samples exposed to the discharge are reported. More than 50% TOC abatement is obtained for 15 min treatment in batch conditions with a laboratory reactor. The organic pollutants of PORW, i.e. mainly fatty acids are degraded according to a pseudo first-order reaction (k*?=?0.06 min(-1)). Post discharge reactions are also observed after having switched off the discharge, which suggests that the pseudo first-order (k???0.05 min(-1)) degradation reactions should be attributed to the diffusion of soluble reactive species, e.g. H2O2 and ONOOH in the liquid target. PMID:23229278

Mountapmbeme-Kouotou, P; Laminsi, S; Acayanka, E; Brisset, J-L

2013-07-01

56

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.  

PubMed

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose-responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios. PMID:23634582

Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

2013-03-01

57

Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

Desimone, L. A.; Howes, B. L.

1996-01-01

58

Starch Wastewater Treatment with Effective Microorganisms Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch wastewater has high turbidity and COD, heavy odor after anaerobic processing. Discharging this kind of sewage could cause serious environmental pollution, and therefore it need to be treated and reached the national standard before discharge. This experiment based on the specific characteristics of starch wastewater. The process was designed as follows: after anaerobic hydrolysis prior to degradation of refractory

Zhou Guizhong; Li Jia; Fan Huiju; Sun Jing; Zhao Xiaoqing

2010-01-01

59

Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges.  

PubMed

The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid production, gonadosomatic indices, histology [cellular development and intersex]) were assessed upstream and downstream of two municipal discharges. Fish [Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Rainbow Darters E. caeruleum] collected downstream of two municipal wastewater plants had the potential to have greater growth (longer and heavier) when compared to reference fish collections regardless of sex. Fish were not assimilating additional anthropogenic resources into energy storage (increased condition, liver somatic index). Impacts on ovarian development appeared to be minor with no differences in growth, steroid production or cellular development. Sewage exposed male fish were experiencing impairment in the capacity to produce testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in vitro, and in cellular development (GSI, intersex). Male darters of both species collected in the upstream agricultural region demonstrated no evidence of intersex whereas our urban reference sites had incidence of intersex of up to 20%. Rates of intersex were elevated downstream of both sewage discharges studied (33% and>60%, respectively). Lower rates of intersex at the intermediate sites, and then increases downstream of second sewage discharge suggests that fish populations have to potential to recover prior to exposure to the second sewage effluent. Pre-spawning darters demonstrated dramatically higher incidence of intersex in the spring at both urban reference sites (33% and 50%, respectively), and increased more so downstream of the near-field and far-field exposure sites (60% and 100%, respectively). These findings suggest that the compounds released in STP effluents have a tendency to act on the male reproductive system. These effects may become more pronounced as projected human population growth will require the aquatic environment to assimilate an increasing amount of sewage waste. PMID:21641296

Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Shires, K; Knight, B; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

2011-08-01

60

Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.  

PubMed

During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica. PMID:25173596

Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

2014-10-15

61

Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.  

PubMed

A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (p<0.05) seasonal differences in wastewater influent concentrations. Removal of CECs by these wastewater treatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (p<0.05) for a range of water quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted to potentially present therapeutic hazards to fish. PMID:23988745

Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2014-01-01

62

Reducing effluent discharge and recovering bioenergy in an osmotic microbial fuel cell treating domestic wastewater  

E-print Network

domestic wastewater Zheng Ge, Qingyun Ping, Li Xiao, Zhen He Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics cell is developed to treat domestic wastewater. Wastewater effluent can be greatly reduced due to osmotic water extraction. Bioenergy recovered from wastewater can potentially support pumping system

63

Identification of Weather Deck Runoff Discharge Constituents Onboard a U.S. Coast Guard Island Class (WPB) Patrol Boat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 325 of the 1996 National Defense Authorization Act, 'Discharges from Vessels of the Armed Forces', requires the Navy to comply with Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS) to control the overboard discharge of incidental wastewaters from ships...

M. L. Wenzel

2000-01-01

64

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stream or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (i) One megagram total source mass flow...

2010-07-01

65

40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...  

...stream or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (i) One megagram total source mass flow...

2014-07-01

66

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

67

Modeling the Effects of Low Flow Augmentation by Discharge from a Wastewater Treatment Plant on Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas.  

E-print Network

to evaluate base flow augmentation scenarios to remedy dissolved oxygen problems during dry, low-flow periods. The effects were demonstrated by increasing base flow in a stream by discharging recycled water from Leon Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant during a...

Matlock, Dr. Marty D.; Hann, Dr. Roy W. Jr.; Gholkar, Tejal A.

68

Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the

A. Ait Alla; P. Gillet; B. Deutsch; A. Moukrim; H. Bergayou

2006-01-01

69

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

Ansley, Shannon L.

2002-02-20

70

The effect of turbulent strain rate on the viability of E.coli in simulated wastewater discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During storm events, release of combined sewage overflows can and does occur throughout the United States, most notably in the Great Lakes. Such overflows can deteriorate overall water quality and also lead to the closure of recreational beaches for many reasons, including due to the presence of harmful microorganisms. Here we report on how different mixing regimes created by varying the Reynolds number of simulated wastewater discharges affect the concentration and viability of microorganisms. A laboratory model was created to simulate a typical discharge containing free-floating Escherichia coli. From the experimental results, it was apparent that in the near field (five diameters from the point of discharge) the viability of E. coli was reduced as the Reynolds number of discharge increased, and such viability was more than could be explained by dilution alone. The discrepancy between observed cell viability and dilution can be attributed to the Kolmogorov strain rate. Such an effect on cell viability was only observed in the near field and did not occur in the far field, suggesting that one possible strategy to mitigate the impact of wastewater discharges, particularly that of combined sewer overflows would be to increase the Kolmogorov strain rate in the near field.

Cotel, Aline; Battani, Brian; Semrau, Jeremy

2003-11-01

71

Are standard wastewater treatment plant design methods suitable for any municipal wastewater?  

PubMed

The design and operational parameters of an activated sludge system were analyzed treating the municipal wastewaters in Istanbul. The design methods of ATV131, Metcalf & Eddy together with model simulations were compared with actual plant operational data. The activated sludge model parameters were determined using 3-month dynamic data for the biological nutrient removal plant. The ATV131 method yielded closer sludge production, total oxygen requirement and effluent nitrogen levels to the real plant after adopting correct influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation. The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) could not easily be predicted with ATV131 method due to low volatile fatty acids (VFA) potential. PMID:22699337

Insel, G; Güder, B; Güne?, G; Ubay Cokgor, E

2012-01-01

72

Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.  

PubMed

China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

2012-06-01

73

Possible impact of treated wastewater discharge on incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in river water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli and coliform group bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics were investigated in the Tama River, a typical urbanized river in Tokyo, Japan, and at a wastewater treatment plant located on the river. The percentages of antibiotic resistance in the wastewater effluent were, in most cases, higher than the percentages in the river water, which were observed increasing downstream. Since

T. Iwane; T. Urase; K. Yamamoto

2001-01-01

74

Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek.

Aichele, Stephen Scranton; Ellis, James M.

2000-01-01

75

Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

1986-04-01

76

Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

Frenzel, S. A.

1990-01-01

77

Behavior of Pathogenic Microbes in a Treated Wastewater Reuse System and Examination of New Standards for the Reuse of Treated Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

We researched the behavior of pathogenic microbes in a treated wastewater reuse system to acquire knowledge for establishing\\u000a new standards for the reuse of treated wastewater. Based on the results that showed occasional growth of total coliforms but\\u000a barely any growth of Escherichia coli in the supply tank, we found that the total coliform, which includes bacteria that also breed

Atsushi Tajima; Kensuke Sakurai; Mizuhiko Minamiyama

2007-01-01

78

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

Petrasek, Al, Jr.

79

Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

Frenzel, S.A. (Geological Survey, Boise, ID (USA))

1990-04-01

80

Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

Odeh, M.

2003-01-01

81

National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers nearly 62,600 square miles along the southeastern United States coast in Georgia and Florida. In 1990, the estimated population of the study unit was 9.3 million, and included all or part of the cities of Atlanta, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, and St. Petersburg. Estimated freshwater withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 was nearly 5,075 million gallons per day. Ground-water accounted for more than 57 percent of the water withdrawn during 1990 and the Floridan aquifer system provided nearly 91 percent of the total ground-water withdrawn. Surface-water accounted for nearly 43 percent of the water withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 with large amounts of withdrawals from the Altamaha River, Hillsborough River, the Ocmulgee River, the Oconee River, the St. Johns River, and the Suwannee River. Water withdrawn for public supply in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled 1,139 million gallons per day, of which 83 percent was ground water and 17 percent was surface water. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled nearly 230 million gallons per day. Ground water supplied over 80 percent of the study units population for drining water purposes; nearly 5.8 million people were served by public supply and 1.8 million people were served by self-supplied systems. Water withdrawn for self-supplied domestic use in Georgia and Florida is derived almost exclusively from ground water, primarily because this source can provide the quantity and quality of water needed for drinking purposes. Nearly 1.7 million people served by public supply utilized surface water for their drinking water needs. Water withdrawn for self-supplied commercial-industrial uses in the study unit in 1990 totaled 862 million gallons per day, of which 93 percent was ground water and 7 percent was surface water. Water withdrawn for agriculture purposes in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,293 million gallons per day, of which 69 percent was ground water and 31 percent was surface water. An estimated 1.254 millon acres were irrigated within the study unit during 1990. Water withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,552 million gallons per day, of which 99 percent was surface water and 1 percent was ground water. An additional 6,919 million gallons per day of saline surface water were withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in 1990, solely for cooling purposes. Treated wastewater discharged within the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit totaled nearly 1,187 million gallons per day in 1990. Of the total water discharged, 58 percent was discharged directly into surface water and the remaining 42 percent was discharged to ground water (through drain fields, injection wells, percolation ponds or spray fields). Domestic wastewater facilities discharged in the study unit totaled nearly 789 million gallons per day, industrial wastewater facilities discharged 213 million gallons per day, and releases from septic tanks was estimated at 185 million gallons per day. More than 1.3 million septic tanks were estimated in use within the study unit in 1990.

Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

1996-01-01

82

Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

2002-02-01

83

Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction-coefficient values as input, were used to simulate total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen for water-quality conditions that result from three hypothetical boundary conditions. The model was applied to various combinations of three hypothetical waste loads when the headwater stream flow was either 50 or 75 cubic feet per second, when Fargo's wastewater-treatment plant outflow was either 15 or 37.8 cubic feet per second, and when total ammonia as nitrogen concentration of the outflow was either 5, 9, or 15 milligrams per liter. For each hypothetical waste load, at least one water-quality standard for either total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, or dissolved oxygen was contravened, and, for one scenario, all three standards were contravened.

Wesolowski, E. A.

1994-01-01

84

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

85

Elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge depress primary productivity in the Sacramento River and the Northern San Francisco Estuary.  

PubMed

Primary production in the Northern San Francisco Estuary (SFE) has been declining despite heavy loading of anthropogenic nutrients. The inorganic nitrogen (N) loading comes primarily from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharge as ammonium (NH(4)). This study investigated the consequences for river and estuarine phytoplankton of the daily discharge of 15 metric tons NH(4)-N into the Sacramento River that feeds the SFE. Consistent patterns of nutrients and phytoplankton responses were observed during two 150-km transects made in spring 2009. Phytoplankton N productivity shifted from NO(3) use upstream of the WTP to productivity based entirely upon NH(4) downstream. Phytoplankton NH(4) uptake declined downstream of the WTP as NH(4) concentrations increased, suggesting NH(4) inhibition. The reduced total N uptake downstream of the WTP was accompanied by a 60% decline in primary production. These findings indicate that increased anthropogenic NH(4) may decrease estuarine primary production and increase export of NH(4) to the coastal ocean. PMID:22236959

Parker, Alexander E; Dugdale, Richard C; Wilkerson, Frances P

2012-03-01

86

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.5 National pretreatment standards: Prohibited...in the case of Interference, applicable requirements for sewage sludge use or disposal. (b) Specific prohibitions....

2013-07-01

87

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.5 National pretreatment standards: Prohibited...in the case of Interference, applicable requirements for sewage sludge use or disposal. (b) Specific prohibitions....

2012-07-01

88

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

...GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.5 National pretreatment standards: Prohibited...in the case of Interference, applicable requirements for sewage sludge use or disposal. (b) Specific prohibitions....

2014-07-01

89

The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska’s Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both

Lincoln C. Loehr; C.-J. Beegle-Krause; Kenwyn George; Charles D. McGee; Alan J. Mearns; Marlin J. Atkinson

2006-01-01

90

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ??g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ??g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 ??g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 ??g/L The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

2005-01-01

91

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING...cause Interference with the POTW. (5) Heat in amounts which will inhibit biological...resulting in Interference, but in no case heat in such quantities that the...

2011-07-01

92

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING...cause Interference with the POTW. (5) Heat in amounts which will inhibit biological...resulting in Interference, but in no case heat in such quantities that the...

2010-07-01

93

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was achieved at the Middle Basin WWTF. At the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment in 2009, effluent discharges also had total phosphorus concentrations below 1.5 mg/L. After the addition of biological nutrient removal, annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Middle Basin WWTF decreased by 42 and 54 percent, respectively, even though effluent volume increased by 11 percent. Annual total phosphorus loads from the Tomahawk Creek WWTF after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment decreased by 54 percent despite a 33-percent increase in effluent volume. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the WWTFs contributed between 30 and nearly 100 percent to annual nutrient loads in Indian Creek depending on streamflow conditions. In-stream total nitrogen primarily came from wastewater effluent except during years with the highest streamflows. Most of the in-stream total phosphorus typically came from effluent during dry years and from other urban sources during wet years. During 2010 through 2013, annual mean discharge from the Middle Basin WWTF was about 75 percent of permitted design capacity. Annual nutrient loads likely will increase when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity; however, estimated maximum annual nutrient loads from the Middle Basin WWTF were 27 to 38 percent lower than before capacity upgrades and the addition of biological nutrient removal to treatment processes. Thus, the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin wastewater treatment process should reduce overall nutrient loads from the facility even when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water quality of Indian Creek were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time) when wastewater effluent represented about 24 percent or more of total streamflow. Wastewater effluent had the most substantial effect on nutrient concentrations in Indian Creek. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

2014-01-01

94

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

2014-10-01

95

40 CFR 420.114 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.114 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2011-07-01

96

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2010-07-01

97

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2011-07-01

98

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

99

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2012-07-01

100

40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2012-07-01

101

40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

102

40 CFR 420.114 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.114 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2010-07-01

103

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

Schwing, Carl M.

104

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

Schwing, Carl M.

105

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

Perley, Gordon F.

106

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

107

The behaviour and fate of Nitrate and Phosphate present in treated wastewater when discharged to the Chalk aquifer of SE England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chalk aquifer of South East England is a major groundwater resource and regionally supplies up to 70% of all water abstracted for potable purposes. The two main pressures on groundwater resources are considered to be climate change and population growth. As the demand for water increases, so does the volume of wastewater that has to be treated to acceptable levels before being discharged back into the environment. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is form of groundwater resource management whereby water is pumped or injected into the ground and allowed to percolate through to the saturated zone before being abstracted at a later date. By injecting water into the ground during periods of high precipitation (i.e. winter months) an increased volume of water is made available for later abstraction (i.e. during summer months) helping water resource planners better manage the supply demand balance. In the case of using treated wastewater as a source for artificial recharge, there is little published research on the behaviour and fate of the main contaminants of concern that are found in treated wastewater when they are discharged to the principal aquifer (the Chalk) of SE England. Nitrate and Phosphate are listed (amongst others) as the main contaminants of concern that are present in treated wastewater and discharged to the Chalk aquifer when this practice occurs. The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of treated wastewater for artificial recharge has been extensively studied in both the field and laboratory to better assess how sustainable this practice is in terms of risk of pollution to the groundwater body. The results of the laboratory programme include breakthrough curves for Nitrate and Phosphate in the Chalk matrix under unsaturated and saturated conditions. Whilst Nitrate is shown not to be sorbed in the Chalk matrix, a proportion of the Phosphate is shown to be retained. The proportion of Phosphate that is retained is less than the total retention capacity of the Chalk matrix and the mechanisms that control this are reported. The laboratory and field data will be compared and geochemical models used to upscale to catchment level. This will allow for a better assessment of the risk of pollution occurring at the groundwater body and how sustainable the use of treated wastewater is as a source for ASR in Chalk catchments to be made.

Phillips, Richard; Smith, Martin; Pope, David

2013-04-01

108

Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 ?g L? 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 ?g L? 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L? 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 ?g L? 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 ?g L? 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 ?g L? 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

2014-01-01

109

QUALITY OF PALOUSE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT AND IMPACT OF DISCHARGE TO THE NORTH FORK PALOUSE RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The Washington State Department of Ecology conducted a limited Class II inspection and receiving water survey at Palouse Wastewater Treatment Plant (17060108) from September 28 to October 1, 1987. Treatment efficiency was good, considering facility age and design. Several chang...

110

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and crops after irrigation of wastewater discharged from domestic sewage treatment plants.  

PubMed

The effects of domestic wastewater application on the translocation and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and crops (rice, lettuce, and barley) were investigated by Wagner's pot experiment. In the soils and crops after domestic wastewater irrigation, high-molecular weight PAHs (5 to 6 ring) were not detected, but low-molecular weight PAHs (3 to 4 ring) were only detected at trace levels. PMID:18483782

Chung, N J; Cho, J Y; Park, S W; Park, B J; Hwang, S A; Park, T I

2008-08-01

111

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

Barry, J.P. [J. P. Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

112

Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate ranged from 5.1 to 6.1 mg/L and were 4 to 7 times larger than concentrations at the nearest upstream site on Monument Creek, site 07103970 (MoCr_Woodmen). The source of these larger dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations has not been identified, but the fact that all measurements had elevated dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations indicates a relatively constant source. Most stormflow concentrations of dissolved trace elements were smaller than concentrations from base-flow or normal-flow samples. However, median concentrations of total arsenic, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc generally were much larger during periods of stormflow than during base flow or normal flow. Concentrations of dissolved and total copper, total manganese, total nickel, dissolved and total selenium, and dissolved and total zinc ranged from 3 to 27 times larger at site 07103707 (FoCr_8th) than site 07103700 (FoCr_Manitou) during base flow, indicating a large source of trace elements between these two sites. Both of these sites are located on Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek. The likely source area is Gold Hill Mesa, a former tailings pile for a gold refinery located just upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, and upstream from site 07103707 (FoCr_8th). Farther downstream in Fountain Creek, stormflow samples for total copper, manganese, lead, nickel, and zinc were larger at the downstream site near the city of Security, site 07105800 (FoCr_Security), than at the upstream site near Janitell Road, site 07105530 (FoCr_Janitell), compared with other main-stem sites and indicated a relatively large source of these metals between the two sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace-element loads substantially increased during stormflow. Suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields associated with stormflow were significantly larger than those associated with normal flow. The Apr

Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W., Sr.; Edelmann, Patrick

2007-01-01

113

A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively. PMID:21121456

Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2010-11-01

114

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

2010-01-01

115

The need for industry and occupation standards in hospital discharge data.  

PubMed

Occupational injuries and illnesses affect the productivity of the U.S. workforce, yet public health surveillance in the United States does not adequately track and report these incidents. Adding industry and occupation standards to US hospital data collection would enable physicians, researchers, and payors to accurately account for occupational injuries and illnesses as well as support prevention initiatives. The authors petitioned for the inclusion of standards for industry and occupation within hospital data; however, additional support from the occupational and environmental health community is needed to move the petition to adoption. This article discusses the policy implications and benefits to occupational medicine and public health provided by collecting industry and occupation in hospital discharge data, as well as the process of initiating a data change request with the National Uniform Billing Committee. PMID:23618882

Taylor, Jennifer A; Frey, Leslie T

2013-05-01

116

Treatment of domestic wastewater by an hydroponic NFT system.  

PubMed

The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate Datura innoxia plants. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analysed to determine the various parameters relating to the water quality. The legal discharge levels for total suspended, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were reached with the plant system after 24 h of wastewater treatment. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus reduction were also obtained. NH4(+)-N was reduced by 93% with nitrification proving to be the predominant removal process. Significant nitrification occurred when the BOD5 level dropped 45 mg/l. Similar results were obtained for six months although the sewage composition varied widely. D. innoxia develops and uses the wastewater as the unique nutritive source. PMID:12656237

Vaillant, Nathalie; Monnet, Fabien; Sallanon, Huguette; Coudret, Alain; Hitmi, Adnane

2003-01-01

117

Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.  

PubMed Central

The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures. PMID:384901

Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

1979-01-01

118

Pollutant runoff yields in the Yamato-gawa River, Japan, to be applied for EAH books of municipal wastewater intending pollutant discharge reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA Social Experiment Program to decrease municipal wastewater pollutant discharge by "soft interventions" in households and to improve river water quality was conducted in the Yamato-gawa River Basin, Japan. Environmental accounting housekeeping (EAH) books of municipal wastewater were prepared mainly for dissemination purpose to be applied during the Social Experiment Program. The EAH books are table format spreadsheets to estimate pollutant discharges. Pollutant load per capita flowing into water body (PLC wb) and pollutant runoff yields from sub-river basins to the river mouth are indispensable parameters for their preparation. In order to estimate the pollutant runoff yields of the pollutants, BOD, TN and TP, a concept of pollutant runoff yield from upper monitoring point, MP n, to lower monitoring point, MP n+1 ( Rm n(n+1)), and that from corresponding sub-river basin ( Rd(n+1)(n+1)) was introduced in this paper. When proportion of the pollutant runoff yields, p n (= Rm n(n+1)/ Rd(n+1)(n+1)), was equal to 1.0 in all the river sections, which was determined based on the simulation results of Rm and Rd, pollutant runoff yield from sub-river basin n to the monitoring point nearest to the river mouth, Ry n7, were estimated to be 0.3-66.8% for BOD, 25.8-75.8% for TN and 18.9-78.5% for TP. The EAH books of municipal wastewater were prepared by adopting the estimated pollutant runoff yields, Ry n7. The EAH books were thought to be distributed widely, however, they did not seem to be used by many ordinary citizens in the Social Experiment Program in February, 2010, judging from the small number of website visitor counter and less responses from people. Possible reasons for less usage than expected were considered to be unsuccessful negotiation with the official organizations of the Social Experiment Program on the EAH books utilization as official tools and some difficulties in using the EAH books for ordinary people.

Tsuzuki, Yoshiaki; Yoneda, Minoru

2011-04-01

119

Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

Payne, W.L.

2003-09-15

120

Optimal design and operation of a wastewater purification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of coastal areas, is of the highest interest to implement purification systems that with minimum cost are able to assure water quality standards in agreement with the regional legislations. This work addresses the optimal design (outfall locations) and optimal operation (level of oxygen discharges) of a wastewater treatment system. This problem can be mathematically formulated as

Lino J. Alvarez-vázquez; Eva Balsa-canto; Aurea Martínez

2008-01-01

121

Advanced wastewater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced treatment of highly polluted domestic and industrial wastewater has become a vital necessity. Not only is the environment endangered by an uncontrolled discharge of effluents, the availability of fresh water is also at stake. Advanced wastewater systems are primarily concerned with the conservation of the aqueous environment and, as such, should ensure that the natural biological balance is not

Jan de Wind; Hans van Leeuwen; F. M. Middleton

1980-01-01

122

Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.  

PubMed

Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

2012-12-01

123

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

Barry, J.P. [J.P. Barry Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

124

Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.  

PubMed

Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product. PMID:19712652

Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

2009-01-01

125

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

Petrasek, Al, Jr.

126

UV Disinfection Equipment Marketing Plan. "The Impact of New Water Quality Effluent Standards and Whole Body Contact Classification of Missouri Waters"  

E-print Network

of Missouri finalized and passed new effluent regulations for wastewater treatment plants that discharge into these waterways. These changes were effective as state law on December 31, 2005, providing a compliance schedule for all facilities. The standards...

Koehler, Paul

2006-05-19

127

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Indirect Discharge Point...phthalate 258 95 Carbon Tetrachloride 380 142... 2 Total Zinc for Rayon Fiber Manufacture that uses the viscose process and Acrylic Fiber Manufacture that uses...

2010-07-01

128

63 FR 45298 - Uniform National Discharge Standards for Vessels of the Armed Forces  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Post-Launch Retraction Exhaust. Chain Locker Effluent...Firemain Systems. Gas Turbine Water Wash. Graywater...Small Boat Engine Wet Exhaust. Sonar Dome Discharge...Post-Launch Retraction Exhaust...Gas Turbine Washdown...

1998-08-25

129

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

...b) In the case of lead, zinc, and total cyanide the discharge quantity (mass) shall be...streams for metals and times the flow from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams...

2014-07-01

130

Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the soils. The rice grain produced in the polluted paddy fields are highly contaminated by heavy metals, with concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn being 14.1 mg kg-1, 21.4 mg kg-1, 0.55 mg kg-1, 16.3 mg kg-1 and 38.5 mg kg-1 on average, respectively. According to our investigations, the rate of rice with Cd exceeding the national allowable limit (0.2 mg kg-1) reaches 59.6% of the total in the county; that with Cd higher than 1 mg kg-1, called as Cd Rice, reaches 11.1%. This suggests that wastewater irrigation caused by indigenous mining has led to the severe heavy metal pollution of farming land in Hunan province. Moreover, toxic metals in the soils have been accumulated in rice grain and do harm to human health.

Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

2013-04-01

131

Rates of Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Vicinity of a Coal-Coking Wastewater Discharge  

PubMed Central

To facilitate predictions of the transport and fate of contaminants at future coal conversion facilities, rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected in the vicinity of a coal-coking treated wastewater discharge from November 1977 through August 1979. Six radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were incubated with sediment and water samples; 14CO2, cell-bound 14C, and polar transformation products were isolated and quantified. Whereas 14CO2 and bound 14C were major transformation products in sediment assays, soluble polar 14C dominated transformation in water samples. Mean rate constants (measured at 20°C) in sediments collected downstream from the effluent outfall were 7.8 × 10?2 h?1 (naphthalene), 1.6 × 10?2 h?1 (anthracene), and 3.3 × 10?3 h?1 [benz(a)anthracene], which corresponded to turnover times of 13, 62, and 300 h, respectively. No unequivocal evidence for transformation of benzo(a)pyrene or dibenz(a,h)anthracene was obtained. Only naphthalene and anthracene transformations were observed in water samples; rate constants were consistently 5- and 20-fold lower, respectively, than in the corresponding sediment samples. The measured rate constants for anthracene transformation in July 1978 sediment samples were not related to total heterotroph numbers. In late July 1978, the effluent was diverted from the primary study area; however, no differences were observed either in transformation rate constants or in the downstream/upstream sediment rate constant ratio. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continuous inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons result in an increased ability within a microbial community to utilize certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because transformation rates remained elevated for more than 1 year after removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source, microbial communities may shift only slowly in response to changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. PMID:16345686

Herbes, Stephen E.

1981-01-01

132

Wastewater quality relationships with reuse options.  

PubMed

The trend towards reuse of effluent for land application of domestic and industrial wastewater is driven by the need to maximise limited water resources and benefit from the plant nutrients available in the effluent. Of significant impact upon the value of the wastewater for reuse is its chemical properties as well as biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids. While the sewage treatment plant is expected to treat all wastewater received to a minimum environmental standard, no efforts are given to reducing the chemical load derived from uses of chemicals in the domestic household. That the regulation of industry and commerce far exceeds those of the combined effects of thousands of household is remiss of environmental regulators. This paper examines the results of research into the more common sources of chemical additives to the wastewater stream. Twenty five potable water supplies are examined for their salt load, 20 liquid and 40 powder laundry detergents and five dishwashing products were used to simulate discharges to the sewer, measured for their phosphorus, salt and sodium concentrations. The results of the research indicate that choices in the products available for general use within the house can be made only where product labelling and consumer education is improved. Technical improvements in wastewater treatment are not the answer. The improvement in effluent quality will have significant beneficial effects upon land application areas and expand the range of reuse options available for commercial operations. PMID:11436774

Patterson, R A

2001-01-01

133

Chromium and copper removed, wastewater can now go to sewer  

SciTech Connect

Alco Gravure faced a wastewater problem at its printing facility in Broadview, IL. Hexavalent chrome-bearing wastewater was generated during chrome plating and etching and acidic copper wastewater was produced during the plating of rotogravure printing rolls. The chromium and copper levels in the wastewater were too high to discharge to the municipal sewer. At the company's previous location, the wastewater had been stored in underground tanks and periodically removed by a hazardous waste treatment firm. Because the wastewater contained less than 1% heavy metals, volume reduction of the waste became an economic necessity when Alco moved to the Broadview site. A metals precipitation and removal system was chosen with the following equipments: oil/water separator, chrome reduction tank, neutralization tank, clarifier, filter press, and all associated instrumentation, metering pumps, valves, piping and mixers. The system was chosen after company personnel inspected a similar treatment system in a plating operation at a plant across the street from Alco. Since installation in the fall of 1984, the heavy metal treatment system has reduced the volume of waste to less than 1% of the initial wastewater volume. By treating the 99 + % of the aqueous waste for disposal to the municipal water treatment works, significant savings have been achieved in waste disposal costs. Effluent quality exceeds all standards established by the sewer district and by the EPA.

Smith, L.W.; Toy, D.A.

1987-06-01

134

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

135

Frequently Asked Questions & Answers about Wastewater and Biosolids Worker Health & Safety  

E-print Network

Do wastewater and biosolids workers have a higher rate of potential exposure to pathogens than the general public? A common characteristic of untreated wastewater is its high concentration of microorganisms. Biological secondary treatment followed by disinfection is an important way to treat wastewater because it significantly reduces microorganisms. The disinfection process that follows then kills many pathogens before the cleaned water is discharged to the receiving streams. Because of their daily exposure and contact with biological materials, wastewater personnel may have a higher incidence of potential exposure to pathogens than the general public. For most workers, however, the risk of developing an occupational illness is significantly reduced or eliminated when standard safety and personal hygiene procedures are followed. What are some of the common wastewater facility hazards? As in many occupational settings ranging from hospitals, restaurants,

unknown authors

136

Risk assessment of wastewater disinfection  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the following: detailed examination of the risks of different types of wastewater disinfection used today; risks of onsite use, transportation, and discharge of disinfected effluents; and disinfection methods considered include chlorination, chlorination/dechlorination, ozonation, UV radiation.

Hulby, D.; Chappell, W.; Lanning, J.; Maltempo, M.; Chiras, D.; Morris, J.

1985-01-01

137

Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

NONE

1995-08-03

138

Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1975-01-01

139

Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1976-01-01

140

Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

Alvarez, D. A.; Stackelberg, P. E.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Furlong, E. T.; Zaugg, S. D.; Meyer, M. T.

2005-01-01

141

Sanitary wastewater management, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

Currently, wastewater effluent from McMurdo Station is discharged directly to McMurdo Sound. TABLES Table 1. McMurdo Station wastewater analysis Table 2. McMurdo Station sewage and brine flow INTRODUCTION The United States Antarctic Program (USAP) is the nation's program for research and presence in Antarctica. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS The proposed action involves the initiation of primary treatment of McMurdo Station's wastewater by the processes of maceration and dilution; and, the discharge ...

142

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS ...flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times...from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and...

2012-07-01

143

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS ...flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times...from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and...

2013-07-01

144

40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS ...flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times...from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and...

2011-07-01

145

Distillery wastewater: bioremediation approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alcohol distilleries are growing extensively worldwide due to widespread industrial applications of alcohol such as in chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, beverages, food and perfumery industry, etc. The industrial production of ethanol by fermentation results in the discharge of large quantities of high-strength liquid wastes. Distillery wastewater is one of the most polluted waste products to dispose because of the low

Yogita Kharayat

2012-01-01

146

Most modern wastewater treatment systems rely on microbial processes to remove contaminants. This makes wastewater  

E-print Network

Most modern wastewater treatment systems rely on microbial processes to remove contaminants. This makes wastewater treatment one of the largest biotechnology industries in the world. In New Zealand alone, about 1.5 billion litres of treated domestic wastewater is discharged each day

Auckland, University of

147

TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies on the biological treatability of wastewaters from the manufacture of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide. At concentration levels representative of EBDC production units and total plant wastewaters discharged to pu...

148

TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: DINOSEB AND ATRAZINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies of the treatability of pesticide manufacturing wastewaters, in an investigation of the suitability of individual pesticide manufacturing wastewaters for discharge to biological treatment systems, whether on site or publicly...

149

Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

Ward, R. D.

1974-01-01

150

5.1. Reproduction of standard deviations and autocorrelation Extreme river discharges in the Meuse basin are mostly caused by prolonged heavy  

E-print Network

5. RBsulrs 5.1. Reproduction of standard deviations and autocorrelation Extreme river discharges in the Meuse basin are mostly caused by prolonged heavy rainfall in winter. The reproduction of the standard, the quality of reproduction of sr,a is much better than in the straightforward 6-h simulations. For the same

Stoffelen, Ad

151

An Evaluation of Metal Removal During Wastewater Treatment: The Potential to Achieve More Stringent Final Effluent Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals are of particular importance in relation to water quality, and concern regarding the impact of these contaminants on biodiversity is being encapsulated within the latest water-related legislation such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe and criteria revisions to the Clean Water Act in the United States. This review undertakes an evaluation of the potential of 2-stage wastewater treatment

D. Ziolko; O. V. Martin; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester

2011-01-01

152

A Supply-Chain Analysis of Food Safety Standards Related to the Use of Wastewater for Irrigation of Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation with raw or diluted wastewater is a widespread phenomenon, occurring on 20 million hectares across the developing world, especially in Asian countries, but also in peri-urban areas around almost every city of sub-Saharan Africa and in many Latin American cities. Growing urban populations and consequent increases in demand for food and water has spurred the use of sewage to

Carl Johan Lagerkvist; Helena Johansson; Ekin Birol; Devesh Roy; Clare A. Narrod

2009-01-01

153

40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in...

2010-07-01

154

Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

The processes presently used for industrial wastewater treatment are shown. This article presents an overview of the wastewaters and the processes, and then describes each process in detail, explaining how it works, what it can accomplish, and how it should be applied. Costs are also discussed. The authors explain how a combination of wastewaters can be economically treated so as to meet effluent limits.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Patoczka, J.; Watkin, A.T.

1985-09-02

155

Wastewater reuse in Mediterranean semi-arid areas: The impact of discharges of tertiary treated sewage on the load of polar micro pollutants in the Llobregat river (NE Spain).  

PubMed

The presence of sewage-borne micro contaminants in environmental waters is directly related to the discharge of treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the flow rate of the receiving river waters. Mediterranean rivers, in particular, are characterized by important fluctuations in the flow rates and heavy pollution pressures resulting from extensive urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This translates into contamination levels in these rivers often higher than those in other larger European basins. The present work provides an overview of the occurrence of five groups of organic contaminants (131 compounds) namely pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, polar pesticides, estrogens, alkylphenols and related ethoxylates in WWTP tertiary treatment effluents. Data gathered during a period of water reuse carried out in the lower stretch of the Llobregat river (NE Spain), in the surroundings of the town of Barcelona as a consequence of the severe drought that took place along the years 2007-2008 are presented as illustrative example. In general, measured concentrations of the target compounds were in the low to mid ngL(-1) range. The total concentration of each compound class downstream to the discharge point was similar or slightly higher than that found upstream. Regarding the loads calculated for each compound, the relative contribution from the river upstream and the tertiary effluent were highly compound depending with no apparent trend. However, estimation of the overall bulk loads for each compound class determined in the Llobregat river showed the following rank order: pharmaceuticals>alkylphenols>pesticides>illicit drugs?estrogens. PMID:21115189

Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Ginebreda, Antoni; Postigo, Cristina; López-Serna, Rebeca; Pérez, Sandra; Brix, Rikke; Llorca, Marta; de Alda, Miren López; Petrovi?, Mira; Munné, Antoni; Tirapu, Lluís; Barceló, Damià

2011-01-01

156

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Laposata, Mark

157

40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The volume of process wastewater which may be discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed the volume of infiltration...concentration of pollutants in process wastewater discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed: Effluent characteristics...

2010-07-01

158

40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The volume of process wastewater which may be discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed the volume of infiltration...concentration of pollutants in process wastewater discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed: Effluent characteristics...

2011-07-01

159

40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The volume of process wastewater which may be discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed the volume of infiltration...concentration of pollutants in process wastewater discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed: Effluent characteristics...

2013-07-01

160

40 CFR 440.144 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The volume of process wastewater which may be discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed the volume of infiltration...concentration of pollutants in process wastewater discharged from a dredge plant site shall not exceed: Effluent characteristics...

2012-07-01

161

The genetic toxicology of organic compounds in natural waters and wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

This review was drawn from the literature describing genotoxic organic compounds in natural water and wastewater, as well as from recent discussions with industrial scientists and environmental regulators. Testing of wastewaters for genotoxicity may become a routine requirement for some industrial wastewater discharge permits, not unlike the more common requirement for routine aquatic toxicity tests. The stimuli for this are concerns that aquatic organisms inhabiting waters impacted by wastewater discharges suffer an increased risk of genetic damage or cancer, and that humans utilizing these waters may suffer similar genetic or carcinogenic risks. Some evidence suggests that neoplasia in aquatic organisms is related to habitat contamination, yet field evaluations fail to substantiate adequately a cause-and-effect relationship. Because aquatic organisms respond like mammals to the same genotoxic compounds, the increased burden of genotoxic compounds to the environment may impact certain endemic species. Wastewater discharges may be one source of genotoxic organic compounds in those impacted areas. With respect to potential human health impacts, evidence is supportive of increased cancer risk to individuals drinking water from surface sources; however, this risk may or may not relate to whether the drinking water source received input of wastewater discharges or known carcinogens. Throughout the published literature reviewed herein, the Salmonella/Ames gene mutation test was widely used to assess genotoxic activity, although studies using indigenous plants and aquatic organisms as in vivo monitors of genotoxic activity exist. No 'standard' or frequently followed protocols for sample collection, sample processing, selection of tests or their conduct, or interpretation of data exist for most of the genotoxicity studies reviewed. 197 references.

Stahl, R.G. Jr. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Central Research and Development. Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine, Newark, DE (United States))

1991-08-01

162

Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continuing depletion of fresh water resources, focus has shifted more toward water recovery, reuse, and recycling, which require an extension of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Downstream external factors like stricter compliance requirements for wastewater discharge, rising treatment costs, and spatial constraints necessitate renewed investigation of alternative technologies. Coupled with biological treatment processes, membrane technology has gained considerable attention due

C. Visvanathan; R. Ben Aim; K. Parameshwaran

2000-01-01

163

Innovations in the water and wastewater fields  

SciTech Connect

Topics examined include operational cost savings, water filtration rates and filtration media, as well as current theories and technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Contents: Unconventional Filtration Rates, Media and Backwashing Techniques; Direct Filtration; Application of Tube Settlers to Improve Water Quality; Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment to Remove Ammonia; Overview of New Treatment Techniques; Innovative Applications of Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment; Activated Carbon Treatment for Removal of Potentially Hazardous Compounds from Water Supplies and Wastewaters; New Laboratory Techniques; Energy Conservation in Water and Wastewater Systems; Computer Use in Water Systems; Computer Use in Wastewater Treatment; Innovations in Telemetering and Controls; Pilot Plant Utilization; Oxidation Ditch Aeration Systems: Types and Characteristics-Innovative Advancements; Advancements in Bio-Disc Treatment Technology; Hydrogeologic Investigation for Remedial Action Related to a Chromium-Arsenic-Copper Discharge to Soil and Groundwater; Study of Wastewater Treatment Plant Optimization for the USA EPA; Innovations in the Proper Management of Hazard.

Glysson, E.A.; Way, E.J.

1984-01-01

164

Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.  

PubMed

Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. PMID:19102584

Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

2009-05-01

165

Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

Iwanowicz, L. R.; Blazer, V. S.; Guy, C. P.; Pinkney, A. E.; Mullcan, J. E.; Alvarezw, D. A.

2009-01-01

166

ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2011-01-01

167

Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence and behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Hospital wastewater in Hanoi is usually not treated and this untreated wastewater is directly discharged into one of the wastewater channels of the city and eventually reaches the ambient aquatic environment. The concentrations of the FQs, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) in six hospital

Hong Anh Duong; Ngoc Ha Pham; Hoang Tung Nguyen; Thi Thuong Hoang; Hung Viet Pham; Van Ca Pham; Michael Berg; Walter Giger; Alfredo C. Alder

2008-01-01

168

Mastectomy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... discharge; Total mastectomy - discharge; Simple mastectomy - discharge; Modified radical mastectomy - discharge ... see if the cancer spread. For a modified radical mastectomy, the surgeon removed the entire breast along ...

169

Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and Rialto Drain, followed by Prado Dam and Sunnyslope Creek. Each of these sites is suitable habitat for the Santa Ana sucker, especially Sunnyslope Creek and Rialto Drain where juveniles reside. Various OWCs and EDCs were detected at each Santa Ana River site, although one specific compound or group of compounds could not be singled out as a causative factor. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was strongly negatively correlated with testosterone in male mosquitofish. One group of potent environmental estrogens that likely contributed to endocrine and reproductive impairment are the natural and synthetic estrogen hormones, especially ethinyl estradiol; however, this compound was not targeted in these investigations. The multiple lines of evidence for impaired reproductive and endocrine function in western mosquitofish due to OWCs and EDCs from the Santa Ana River can be used to identify potential problems for the Santa Ana sucker inhabiting the same and nearby sites.

Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

2009-01-01

170

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge Point...phthalate 258 95 Carbon Tetrachloride 380 142... 2 Total Zinc for Rayon Fiber Manufacture that uses the viscose process and Acrylic Fibers Manufacture that...

2010-07-01

171

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge Point...phthalate 279 103 Carbon Tetrachloride 38 18... 2 Total Zinc for Rayon Fiber Manufacture that uses the viscose process and Acrylic Fiber Manufacture that...

2010-07-01

172

33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...discharge oily mixtures from machinery space bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture...

2011-07-01

173

33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...discharge oily mixtures from machinery space bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture...

2010-07-01

174

33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...discharge oily mixtures from machinery space bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture...

2012-07-01

175

33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...discharge oily mixtures from machinery space bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture...

2013-07-01

176

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

...copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total cyanide, the discharge quantity (mass) shall be...streams for the metals and times the flow from cyanide bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and...

2014-07-01

177

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

...copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total cyanide, the discharge quantity (mass) shall be...waste streams for the metals and times the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and...

2014-07-01

178

Promoting Fairness: A Proposal For a More Reasonable Standard of Constructive Discharge in Title VII Denial of Promotion Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constructive discharge rule states that if intolerable working conditions associated with the employer's discrimination force the employee to resign, then the employee will be considered to have been \\

Richard M. DeAgazio

1992-01-01

179

[Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].  

PubMed

As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery. PMID:24946624

Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

2014-04-01

180

Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

1996-12-31

181

Removal of ammonium from wastewater using calcium form clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

The paper concerns the removal of ammonium ions from aqueous solution using a modified clinoptilolite-Ca(2+)-formed clinoptilolite (CaY) prepared from natural clinoptilolite. The batch study results show that the pH has an effect on ammonium adsorption capacity as it can influence both the character of the exchanging ions and the clinoptilolite itself; the CaY has a high selectivity to NH(4)(+) and the exchange decreases with increasing temperature; ammonium ion uptake onto CaY was suitably described by the Langmuir model. The column results indicated that the effluent of simulated wastewater treated with CaY could meet the integrated wastewater discharge standard of China, and CaY can be circulated through regenerating by Ca(OH)(2). PMID:17007999

Ji, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Jun-Sheng; Li, Xin-Gang

2007-03-22

182

The challenge of zero discharge: from water balance to regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment is traditionally considered a separate part of an industrial activity, hardly connected to the production units themselves. Scarcity of water and energy, and legal requirements for discharge of waste and wastewater will force the industry to change this approach to a more integrated concept of connecting the residual output (in terms of waste, wastewater and energy loss) to

B. Van der Bruggen; L. Braeken

2006-01-01

183

Wastewater Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wastewater Management: EPA's page from the Office of Wastewater Management (OWM) contains many articles focusing on control of water that is collected in discrete conveyances (also called point sources), including pipes, ditches, and sanitary or storm sewers while adhereing to the Clean Water Act.

2008-10-07

184

Wastewater Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

1978-01-01

185

Wastewater characterization survey, Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico. Final report, 28 September 1992-9 October 1992  

SciTech Connect

A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Cannon AFB, New Mexico, from 28 September 1992 - 9 October 1992 by personnel from the Water Quality Branch of Armstrong Laboratory. Extensive sampling of the wastewater lagoon influent, effluent, and sludge was conducted. In addition, 9 industrial sites were sampled in the industrial areas of the base. The average influent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was 197 milligrams per liter (mg/1) and the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 436 mg/1. The lagoons removed 63% of the BOD in the wastewater. Low levels of metals were found, but levels of oils and greases, chloride, sulfate, solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus were higher than typical of weak wastewater levels. Selenium levels in the wastewater were higher than allowed by New Mexico Water Quality Regulations for irrigation. The new wastewater treatment plant to be built must comply with New Mexico standards for discharges of water into or below the surface of the ground.... Wastewater characterization, Cannon AFB, New Mexico, Selenium, Irrigation, Lagoon, Biochemical oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand.

McCoy, R.P.

1993-05-01

186

Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast and the influence of land use, storm water discharge, and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50 ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification. PMID:23849955

Dodder, Nathan G; Maruya, Keith A; Lee Ferguson, P; Grace, Richard; Klosterhaus, Susan; La Guardia, Mark J; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Ramirez, Juan

2014-04-30

187

COD fractionation and biological treatability of mixed industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at a centralized wastewater treatment plant that receives discharges from nearly 160 industries. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was fractionated for two objectives: delineation of the limits of the activated sludge process being used at the plant, and evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the treated effluent. Physico-chemical analyses, respirometric and biodegradation tests, as well as COD fractionation were carried out. Molasses-wastewaters were determined to be the major contribution to the plant. The influent was dark brown in color, with a relatively high content of both organics (2503 mg/L COD) and salts (5459 ?S/cm conductivity), but a low biochemical oxygen demand (568 mg/L BOD(5)) and BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.24). The degradability of the organics was limited by the high content of inert soluble COD (S(I)). The COD fractionation pattern was 40-20-40% for S(I), X(I) (inerts) and S(H) (soluble hydrolyzable), respectively. More than 90% BOD(5) removal was obtained, which was sufficient for the plant to meet the national Standards. However, the effluent discharged into the river was intensely colored and polluted (>1000 mg/L COD, >5000 ?S/cm), emphasizing the need for legislation regulating COD, color and salinity, and for upgraded treatment methods worldwide for molasses wastewaters. PMID:22996003

Fall, C; Millán-Lagunas, E; Bâ, K M; Gallego-Alarcón, I; García-Pulido, D; Díaz-Delgado, C; Solís-Morelos, C

2012-12-30

188

Towards a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment and disposal.  

PubMed

We propose a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment systems and use it to quantitatively compare the performance of Chilean wine-making operations. The benchmarking model integrates three components: the influent characteristics, the wastewater treatment alternatives, and the location constraints. Four performance levels may be defined when plotting the available data of the wine production versus the ratio of wastewater to wine, for the French, US, and Chilean industries. Knowing where a certain system lies in this diagram helps to quantify the gap between the current and a target performance, and to set performance goals for planned expansions. The analysis of construction and operating costs of treatment systems currently in operation in Chile shows that similar compliance levels can be achieved at remarkably different costs. A steep decrease in the unitary cost is observed as wastewater flow increases; yet, the treatment alternative for achieving that cost may change. Further selection is obtained when location constraints are considered, including stringent discharge standards and proximity to urban settlements. The application of this simple benchmark model to three Chilean winery facilities shows how it produces meaningful quantitative and qualitative results. However, there is still ample room to improve this benchmarking model by considering additional complexity, including technical detail in the treatment options and costs related to technology conversion. PMID:17849990

Aybar, M; Carvallo, M; Fabacher, F; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

2007-01-01

189

Full-scale blending treatment of fresh MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater in a wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 2g/L and CaO 25g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60mg/L), BOD5 (<20mg/L), ammonium (<8mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters. PMID:25052339

Ye, Zhi-Long; Xie, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lanhua; Wang, Ziwen; Wu, Wenhua; Zhao, Fuyi; Xie, Xiaoming; Huang, Shiqing; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Shaohua

2014-11-01

190

Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the bay, in the Pacific Ocean, or on land. Also, wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse concepts seem to be growing in favor with the public and should become and important part of future wastewater-management plans. Because most wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse systems would involve the use of land (that is agricultural irrigation, ground-water recharge, recreational reservoirs) local and regional lang-use planners can ass much to wastewater-management planning by identifying local and subregional waterwater-reclamation and water-reuse possibilities within their jurisdictions and integrating them with future land-use plans. The timely participation of planner is essential because Federal and State planning and funding deadlines for a regional wastewater-management system become effective in July 1973 and 1974, respectively.

Hines, Walter G.

1973-01-01

191

Wastewater Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes. Why Treat Wastewater? It's a matter ... fishing enthusiasts, and future generations. Wildlife Habitats Our rivers and ocean waters teem with life that depends ...

192

Reusing Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates how peat filtration beds at Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky purify and conserve wastewater and eliminate one cause of non-point-source water pollution.

Ket

2011-01-11

193

Wastewater Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

1978-01-01

194

Plant growth and nutrient removal in simulated secondary-treated municipal wastewater in wetland microcosms.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] The use of constructed wetlands for tertiary purification of municipal wastewater has received increasing attention around the world because direct discharge of secondary-treated… (more)

Zhang, Zhenhua

2008-01-01

195

Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits. PMID:20022351

Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

2010-03-01

196

Use of commercial plant species in a hydroponic system to treat domestic wastewaters.  

PubMed

The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate wooly digitalis (Digitalis lanata Ehrh.) and foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L.). These plants are medicinal and produce cardenolide compounds. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analyzed to determine the various parameters relating to water quality. The legal discharge levels for total suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reached for the two tested plants after 48 h of wastewater treatment; the removal was 82, 93, and 79%, respectively, for wooly digitalis and 92, 92, and 84%, respectively, for foxglove. Similar results were obtained during a 6-mo period although the sewage composition varied widely. The system tended to be unable to remove N and P to concentrations below regulated levels. Compared with the nutrient solution composition, the wastewater was more concentrated in Na+ and Cl- and less in N, K+, and Ca2+. These variations can lead to the decline of wooly digitalis plants. Foxglove developed a significant root system to increase mineral absorption wastewater being used as the unique nutritive source. After 10 wk all the wooly digitalis seedlings were dead. Despite this fact, however, the root system remained in place for a significant time (< 4 mo), thus continuing to filter wastewater and to be used as a bacterial support thus making it possible to have a security period to replace the dead plants. PMID:15074822

Vaillant, Nathalie; Monnet, Fabien; Sallanon, Huguette; Coudret, Alain; Hitmi, Adnane

2004-01-01

197

Challenge of psychrophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment is an attractive option for wastewaters that are discharged at moderate to low temperature. The expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor has been shown to be a feasible system for anaerobic treatment of mainly soluble and pre-acidified wastewater at temperatures of 5–10°C. An organic loading rate (OLR) of 10–12 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic meter

Gatze Lettinga; Salih Rebac; Grietje Zeeman

2001-01-01

198

Wastewater Recycle- A Sustainable Approach Towards Desalination  

E-print Network

as industrial wastewaters. ESL-IE-13-05-07 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Strictly Confidential ? In MBR system membrane replaces the clarifier of an ASP plant with an ultimate barrier... and optimizes energy usage in case of ZLD. ? Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in combination with HEROTM can be an economical recycle treatment scheme for refinery and petrochemical wastewater applications. ? Zero Liquid discharge (ZLD) systems, though...

Mittal, A.

2013-01-01

199

40 CFR 415.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants...waters. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater which is...equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 415.135 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants...waters. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater which is...equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2012-07-01

201

40 CFR 415.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants...waters. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater which is...equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2012-07-01

202

40 CFR 415.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants...waters. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater which is...equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2010-07-01

203

40 CFR 415.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants...waters. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater which is...equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2011-07-01

204

77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...population viability analysis PSU practical salinity unit PWS RCAC Prince William Sound Regional...processes that function independently of salinity, such as filtration and ultraviolet...BWMS to meet the phase-two standard. Salinity Classes One commenter stated that...

2012-03-23

205

An isotope dilution-precipitation process for removing radioactive cesium from wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel isotope dilution-precipitation method has been developed to remove cesium-137 from radioactive wastewater. The process involves adding stable cesium chloride to wastewater in order to raise the total cesium concentration, which then allows both the stable and radioactive cesium ions to be precipitated together using sodium tetraphenylborate. This process was investigated utilizing laboratory solutions to determine stable cesium dose rates, mixing times, effects of pH, and filtration requirements. Once optimized, the process was then tested on synthetic wastewater and aqueous low-level waste. Experiments showed the reaction to be very quick and stable in the pH range tested, 2.5-11.5. The wastewater may need to be filtered using a 0.45-?m filter, though ferric sulfate has been shown to promote coagulation and settling, thereby eliminating the necessity for filtration. This investigation showed that this isotope dilution-precipitation process can remove Cs-37 levels below the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Derived Concentration Standard (DCS) of 3.0 × 10(-6) ?Ci/mL using a single dosage, potentially allowing the wastewater to be discharged directly to sanitary sewers. PMID:23116720

Rogers, Harold; Bowers, John; Gates-Anderson, Dianne

2012-12-01

206

Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant  

SciTech Connect

Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

Shah, A.R. [Motorola SCG, McDowell, MD (United States). Environmental, Safety, and Industrial Hygiene Dept.; Ploeser, J.H. [Phoenix Water Services Dept., AZ (United States). Water Conservation Office

1999-08-01

207

Wastewater treatment manual for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

The three-volume Wastewater Treatment Manual for GCC Power Plants presents a programmed methodology for the informed user to conceive and develop, size, and cost a wastewater treatment system for the gasification and gas cleanup areas of an integrated gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant. Based on the limited information likely to be available at the conceptual level of GCC project development (e.g., gasifier type and coal analysis), the manual first provides information on how to characterize gasification wastewaters from moving-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes. It then provides information on applicable wastewater discharge standards and effluent reuse criteria as a means of establishing the treatment system performance goals. Given these data, the user is guided through a series of worksheets and examples in the development of one or more conceptual-level process flowsheets for an appropriate wastewater treatment system. Detailed information is provided for 28 wastewater treatment processes that may have applicability in a variety of flowsheet configurations. Another series of worksheets allows the calculation of flow and material balances that permit the conceptual-level sizing of treatment equipment. Order-of-magnitude capital and operating costs are calculated from cost curves based on these sizing criteria. Worksheets also are provided for the calculation of levelized revenue requirements, which affords a relatively fast and easy means by which to compare the costs of alternative process flowsheets. Two annotated examples are provided for the Texaco and Shell gasiflcation processes as a means of fully conveying the manual's methodology. Each example illustrates the characterization of wastewater sources, the development of a treatment process flowsheet, sizing of the necessary equipment, and the development of cost estimates.

Rosain, R.M.; Davis, M.W.; York, R.J.; Craveiro de Sa, F.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

208

Wastewater treatment manual for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

The three-volume Wastewater Treatment Manual for GCC Power Plants presents a programmed methodology for the informed user to conceive and develop, size, and cost a wastewater treatment system for the gasification and gas cleanup areas of an integrated gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plant. Based on the limited information likely to be available at the conceptual level of GCC project development (e.g., gasifier type and coal analysis), the manual first provides information on how to characterize gasification wastewaters from moving-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes. It then provides information on applicable wastewater discharge standards and effluent reuse criteria as a means of establishing the treatment system performance goals. Given these data, the user is guided through a series of worksheets and examples in the development of one or more conceptual-level process flowsheets for an appropriate wastewater treatment system. Detailed information is provided for 28 wastewater treatment processes that may have applicability in a variety of flowsheet configurations. Another series of worksheets allows the calculation of flow and material balances that permit the conceptual-level sizing of treatment equipment. Order-of-magnitude capital and operating costs are calculated from cost curves based on these sizing criteria. Worksheets also are provided for the calculation of levelized revenue requirements, which affords a relatively fast and easy means by which to compare the costs of altemative process flowsheets. Two annotated examples are provided for the Texaco and Shell gasification processes as a means of fully conveying the manual's methodology. Each example illustrates the characterization of wastewater sources, the development of a treatment process flowsheet, sizing of the necessary equipment, and the development of cost estimates

Rosain, R.M.; Davis, M.W.; York, R.J.; Craveiro de Sa, F.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J. (CH2M Hill, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1992-12-01

209

Release of dye into McM Wastewater  

NSF Publications Database

... Fiscal Year (FY) Environmental Sampling and Analysis Plans for the Wastewater Discharge at McMurdo ... transport study would be conducted prior to water quality sampling to determine: 1) the horizontal ...

210

EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE TERTIARY WASTEWATER FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Conventional methods for treatment of municipal wastewaters frequently produced effluents that will not meet local discharge requirements. Granular media filters are being installed to provide teritary treatment for increased removals of suspended solids and BOD. This report prov...

211

Textile wastewater reuse as an alternative water source for dyeing and finishing processes: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile industry is one of the most important industries in China. Its biggest impact on the environment is related to primary water consumption and wastewater discharge. Reuse of wastewaters represents an economical and ecological challenge for the textile sector. In this work, a 600m3\\/day pilot plant with biological treatment systems and membrane technology of wastewater reclamation has been investigated.

Xujie Lu; Lin Liu; Rongrong Liu; Jihua Chen

2010-01-01

212

Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Wastewater: Constituents, Effects, and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reuse is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for conservation of limited resources of freshwater and as a mean of safeguarding the aquatic environment due to contaminants present in wastewater. Although secondary and tertiary treated wastewater is often discharged into surface waters, it cannot be reused without further treatment. One of the parameters of concern for human and environmental

H. K. Shon; S. Vigneswaran; S. A. Snyder

2006-01-01

213

Performance of a mixing entropy battery alternately flushed with wastewater effluent and  

E-print Network

Performance of a mixing entropy battery alternately flushed with wastewater effluent and seawater. Coastal wastewater treatment plants discharge a continuous stream of low salinity effluent to the ocean cell, the net energy recovery was 0.11 kW h per m3 of wastewater effluent. When twelve cells were

Cui, Yi

214

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania Nathaniel R. In Pennsylvania, oil and gas wastewater is sometimes treated at brine treatment facilities and discharged to local bioaccumulation in localized areas of shale gas wastewater disposal. INTRODUCTION The safe disposal of large

Jackson, Robert B.

215

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water-technology.net web site for the water industry contains links to many sites for detailed information on industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants as well as water supply and transmission. Also find information on current news releases, expos, conferences and much more.

2008-10-13

216

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of

J. M. Dalu; J. Ndamba

2003-01-01

217

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

2012-07-01

218

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

2010-07-01

219

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

2011-07-01

220

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

2013-07-01

221

40 CFR 421.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...this section. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...operated so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2012-07-01

222

40 CFR 421.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this section. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...operated so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2013-07-01

223

40 CFR 421.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this section. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...operated so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2010-07-01

224

40 CFR 421.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this section. (b) A process wastewater impoundment...operated so as to contain the precipitation from the 25-year...discharge that volume of process wastewater equivalent to the volume of precipitation that falls within...

2011-07-01

225

An overview of various technologies for the treatment of dairy wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy industries have shown tremendous growth in size and number inmost countries of the world. These industries discharge wastewater which is characterized by high chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, nutrients, and organic and inorganic contents. Such wastewaters, if discharged without proper treatment, severely pollute receiving water bodies. In this article, the various recent advancements in the treatment of dairy

Jai Prakash Kushwaha; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Indra Deo Mall

2011-01-01

226

>.........standard  

E-print Network

, develop software to implement them, test such techniques against the state of the art. #12;. ......... IETF standard protocols Collaborators / Customers Standards Groups: MPEG, SMPTE NIST Collaborators: ATP Other Collaborators: Academic

227

DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

1 DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT: A GUIDEBOOK FOR GEORGIA COMMUNITIES Katie Sheehan wastewater treatment technologies. www.njunsystems.com Version 1.0, April 2013 #12; 2 DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT: A GUIDEBOOK FOR GEORGIA COMMUNITIES PART ONE: BACKGROUND, ISSUES, AND PROGRAM

Rosemond, Amy Daum

228

Study of physico-chemical characteristics of wastewater in an urban agglomeration in Romania.  

PubMed

This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants. PMID:22919336

Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P

2012-01-01

229

Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.  

PubMed

The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. PMID:23270957

de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

2013-01-15

230

40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.  

...AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each owner or...

2014-07-01

231

32 CFR 724.901 - Objective of discharge review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objective of discharge review. 724.901 Section...Standards for Discharge Review § 724.901 Objective of discharge review. The objective of a discharge review is ot examine the...

2010-07-01

232

Implementation of China`s three synchronizations policy: Case studies of wastewater treatment measures at new and renovated factories  

SciTech Connect

The Three Synchronizations Policy requires that the design, construction, and operation of a new factory, or an existing factory that expands or changes production processes, be synchronized with the design, construction and operation of appropriate waste treatment facilities. Under this policy, when a new factory is designed, wastewater treatment facilities must be included as part of the overall factory design: when the factory is constructed, the wastewater treatment facilities must be constructed along with construction of the production facilities; and finally, when the factory begins to operate, the waste treatment facilities must begin operation as well. This research includes case studies of wastewater treatment measures at sixteen factories in the Pearl River Delta Region of China. Implementation of the Three Synchronizations Policy is examined in detail for two of the factories: Fengfu Weaving and Dyeing Plant and Zhongguan Printing and Dyeing Plant. The results of this research suggest that the Three Synchronizations Policy has been an effective means of forcing new and renovated factories to comply with wastewater discharge standards, mainly because the Three Synchronizations Policy gives environmental protection bureaus authority to regulate at each step of a new industrial facility`s development. In practice, this authority has been exercised through formalizing the {open_quotes}synchronizations{close_quotes} into a management system with specific regulatory requirements, each of which requires EPB approval. EPBs ran stall operation by withholding its approval of certification of a factory`s wastewater treatment facilities; EPBs also use fines and limited time treatment orders to enforce the Three Synchronizations Policy. The research results demonstrate that the Three Synchronizations Policy was more important than the Pollutant Discharge Fee Program in motivating existing factories to build wastewater treatment facilities.

Sinkule, B.J.

1994-03-01

233

Capping air emissions from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial and municipal wastewater plants alike are confronting new regulations governing air emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). The 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) gave the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) power to set national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and establish deadlines for compliance. Although the ACC reduced many pollutant emissions, 20 years later,

Van Durme

1993-01-01

234

Hungry microbes eat away wastewater sludge problem  

SciTech Connect

Accumulations of diluted resin solids and sludge in an equalization pond were reducing a White City, Ore., chemical plant`s wastewater treatment capacity by 90%. Dyno Polymers, a division of Norway-based Dyno Industries, manufacturers formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins for the wood products industry. High-solids and biosolids bulking in the plant`s aeration pond overloaded the clarifier, and an overabundance of solids in the excess-wastewater holding pond made pumping nearly impossible. The plant`s drains carry production wastewater, truck washout water and equipment rinsewater flows to a central sump. The wastewater is pumped to the facility`s biological treatment system, where it enters an equalization pond and flows to an aeration pond equipped with two 50-horsepower aerators. The water then flows to a clarifier, where solids are settled out and removed before the water is reused or discharged to a public sewer system.

Kratch, K.

1995-09-01

235

Decolorization of Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public demand for color-free waste discharge to receiving waters and tougher color standards have made decolorization of a variety of industrial wastes a top priority. Unfortunately, with the complicated color-causing compounds, the decolorization of these wastes is a difficult and challenging task. This article first describes the background information of dye molecules and dye waste characteristics. The methods for

Oliver J. Hao; Hyunook Kim; Pen-Chi Chiang

2000-01-01

236

Effects of Wastewater on Forested Wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

Doyle, Thomas W.

2002-01-01

237

Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

238

Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

Phillips, P. J.; Chalmers, A. T.; Gray, J. L.; Kolpin, D. W.; Foreman, W. T.; Wall, G. R.

2012-01-01

239

Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200?ng/L to 500?ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. PMID:23893650

Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

2013-11-01

240

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

241

Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.  

PubMed

Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ?PAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

2014-09-01

242

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

243

Strategies for implementing zero discharge in an industrial smelter : 1. Managing fluroide in groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portland Aluminium smelter produces approximately 75 ML of process wastewater each year. This is combined with storm water runoff from the site to give an annual production of 715 ML. In common with many other smelters, this wastewater stream is currently discharged to the ocean. However, although the quality of the water Portland Aluminium discharges currently meets all Australian

F. Stagnitti; S. Salzman; L. Thwaites; G. Allinson; M. Le Blanc; J. Hill; S. Doerr; G. de Rooij

2003-01-01

244

Oily wastewaters treatment using Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the compost fertilizer  

PubMed Central

Background Discharging the oily wastewater in the environment causes serious problems, because of the oil compounds and organic materials presence. Applying biological methods using the lipase enzyme producer microorganisms can be an appropriate choice for treatment of these wastewaters. The aim of this study is to treat those oil wastewaters having high concentration of oil by applying lipase enzyme producer bacteria. Materials and methods Oil concentration measurement was conducted using the standard method of gravimetric and the wastewater under study was synthetically made and contained olive, canola and sunflower oil. The strain used in this study was Pseudomonas strain isolated from compost fertilizer. The oil under study had concentration of 1.5 to 22 g/l. Results The oil removal amount in concentrations lower than 8.4 g/l was over 95?±?1.5%. Increase of the oil's concentration to 22 g/l decreases the amount of removal in retention time of 44 hours to 85?±?2.5%. The best yield of removing this strain in retention time of 44 hours and temperature of 30°C was achieved using Ammonium Nitrate as the nitrogen resource which yield was about 95 percent. Conclusion The findings of the research showed that Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from the compost fertilizer can degrade high concentration oils. PMID:24876932

2014-01-01

245

A review on characterization and bioremediation of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater: an Indian perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past few decades, pharmaceutical industries have registered a quantum jump contributing to high economic growth, but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Untreated or allegedly treated pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIWW) creates a need for time to time assessment and characterization of discharged wastewater as per the standards provided by the regulatory authorities. To control environmental pollution, pharmaceutical industries use different treatment plans to treat and reuse wastewater. The characterization of PIWW using advanced and coupled techniques has progressed to a much advanced level, but in view of new developments in drug manufacture for emerging diseases and the complexities associated with them, better sophisticated instrumentation and methods of treatment are warranted. The bioremediation process to treat PIWW has undergone more intense investigation in recent decade. This results in the complete mineralization of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater and no waste product is obtained. Moreover, high efficiency and low operation cost prove it to be an effective tool for the treatment of PIWW. The present review focuses on the characterization as well as bioremediation aspects of PIWW.

Rana, Rajender Singh; Singh, Prashant; Kandari, Vikash; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-08-01

246

Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales. PMID:23764477

Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

2013-09-30

247

Optimal Management and Design of a Wastewater Purification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal areas are continually exposed to land-based sources of pollution resulting from domestic and industrial activities\\u000a including oil spills, discharge of sewage and industrial effluents, among others. These contaminants arrive in the sea through\\u000a wastewater discharges from sewage farms where contaminant concentrations are reduced by means of biological or chemical processes.

Lino J. Alvarez-Vázquez; Eva Balsa-Canto; Aurea Martínez

248

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

MODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration., and Nielsen, M. K. (1999). Grey box modelling of first flush and incoming wastewater at a wastewater treatment

249

Artificial marsh treats industrial wastewater  

SciTech Connect

When a chemical plant in Alabama wished to expand operations, state requirements for wastewater discharged from their facility appeared to be impossible to be met. It was to have a BOD of only 4 milligrams/liter. This paper describes an artificial marshland, known as microbial rock-reed plant filters, used to treat these industrial wastewaters. An oxidation ditch and clarifiers reduce BOD from 3000 mg/l to 30 mg/l in five days. The water flows then to a settling pond covered with floating aquatic plants where it stays for three days. It then flows from opposite sides into a central channel in the middle of the artificial marsh where it spends 1-2 days trickling through the 3.4-acre marsh where the BOD is reduced to below the required 4 mg/l.

Not Available

1989-02-01

250

Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge

D. Moss; N. Williams; D. Hall; K. Hargis; M. Saladen; M. Sanders; S. Voit; P. Worland; S. Yarbro

1998-01-01

251

Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) for removal of carbon and nutrients from municipal wastewater treatment plants: a case study of Shanghai.  

PubMed

With Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) as the short-term process, the capacity of Bailonggang Wastewater Treatment Plant accounts for almost 25% of the total capacity of wastewater treatment in Shanghai, China. However, shortly after this plant was placed in operation in 2004, it was found that the effluent of CEPT couldn't meet the new national discharge criteria. Although the removal of phosphate is almost 80%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the effluent is frequently found to exceed the standards. The primary goal of this research is to investigate the possibility of optimizing the CEPT to make it meet the discharge criteria before it is upgraded to a secondary treatment. An oxidant is adopted to remove NH3-N, and a high performance polyaluminum chloride (HP-PACl) is synthesized to enhance the removal of COD. It is found that HP-PACl improves the removal of COD, and the oxidant enhances NH3-N removal effectively. However, to meet the requirement of a newly implemented stricter discharge standard, it is necessary to upgrade this CEPT to a secondary treatment. The results of this study provide scientific evidence for the upgrade of the Bailonggang Wastewater Treatment Plant. PMID:19809143

Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting; Keller, Arturo A; Xu, Ran

2009-01-01

252

Simplified Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is for wastewater treatment plant operators who find it difficult to follow the detailed discussions and procedures found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." It is intended to be used with "Standard Methods" available for reference. Included in this publication are chapters on laboratory procedures,…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

253

Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. PMID:18222028

Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

2009-01-01

254

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before this activity the students will have heard about groundwater and water resources through lecture to give them a background on where our drinking water comes from. The activity involves a tour of the local wastewater treatment plant where the students told about the treatment processes and shown the treatment facility. They are also introduced to the water quality testing done at the plans and they learn about the energy usage/management at the plant. As part of the activity they write up a paper on the processes in the treatment process from the time water enters the plant until it exits. The students are encouraged before hand to ask questions to ensure that they gather the needed information. This always means that each tour has a slightly different content based on these questions.

Pedersen, Bianca

255

40 CFR 423.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the...by multiplying the flow of the bottom ash transport water times the concentration...discharge of wastewater pollutants from fly ash transport water....

2013-07-01

256

40 CFR 423.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the...by multiplying the flow of the bottom ash transport water times the concentration...discharge of wastewater pollutants from fly ash transport water....

2011-07-01

257

40 CFR 423.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quantity of pollutants discharged in bottom ash transport water shall not exceed the...by multiplying the flow of the bottom ash transport water times the concentration...discharge of wastewater pollutants from fly ash transport water....

2012-07-01

258

Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.  

PubMed

This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. PMID:20399551

Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

2010-08-01

259

Bone marrow transplant - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

260

Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients  

PubMed Central

Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

Sauco, Sebastian; Gomez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

2013-01-01

261

Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

2011-01-01

262

40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards...gallons per minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall, in addition to the requirements...liters per second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater which was equipped and operated...

2010-07-01

263

40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards...gallons per minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall, in addition to the requirements...liters per second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater which was equipped and operated...

2012-07-01

264

40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards...gallons per minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall, in addition to the requirements...liters per second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater which was equipped and operated...

2013-07-01

265

40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards...gallons per minute (gpm)) of refinery wastewater shall, in addition to the requirements...liters per second (600 gpm) of refinery wastewater which was equipped and operated...

2011-07-01

266

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2011-07-01

267

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2010-07-01

268

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2013-07-01

269

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems...exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

2012-07-01

270

A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

Nhapi, Innocent

271

Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.  

PubMed

Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. PMID:24583525

Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

2014-05-01

272

Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

2004-01-01

273

Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1997-04-01

274

Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

Wpsu

2008-11-20

275

Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.  

PubMed

Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a need to better integrate water reuse into core water governance frameworks in order to effectively address the challenges and harness the potential of this vital resource for environmental health protection. The paper also presents a blueprint for future water governance and public policies for the protection of environmental health. PMID:22093903

Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

2012-04-01

276

Sarnia-Lambton Association: Wetland Treatment of Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes the functions and values of wetlands, and includes keywords and illustrations. Wetlands have received wastewater discharges from many different situations in the past, but only recently have they been recognized as potentially cost-efficient treatment systems. They can effectively remove or convert large quantities of pollutants from point sources (municipal and industrial wastewaters) and non-point sources (mine, agricultural and urban runoff).

2001-06-12

277

Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China. PMID:24650528

Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

2014-05-01

278

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

MODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM., and Poulsen, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant, N. K., and Nielsen, M. K. (1999). Grey box modelling of first flush and incoming wastewater

279

Catalytic ozonation-biological coupled processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing refractory chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds*  

PubMed Central

A treatability study of industrial wastewater containing chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs) by a catalytic ozonation process (COP) with a modified Mn/Co ceramic catalyst and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. A preliminary attempt to treat the diluted wastewater with a single SBR resulted in ineffective removal of the color, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Next, COP was applied as a pretreatment in order to obtain a bio-compatible wastewater for SBR treatment in a second step. The effectiveness of the COP pretreatment was assessed by evaluating wastewater biodegradability enhancement (the ratio of biology oxygen demand after 5 d (BOD5) to COD), as well as monitoring the evolution of TOC, carbon oxidation state (COS), average oxidation state (AOS), color, and major pollutant concentrations with reaction time. In the COP, the catalyst preserved its catalytic properties even after 70 reuse cycles, exhibiting good durability and stability. The performance of SBR to treat COP effluent was also examined. At an organic loading rate of 2.0 kg COD/(m3·d), with hydraulic retention time (HRT)=10 h and temperature (30±2) °C, the average removal efficiencies of NH3-N, COD, BOD5, TOC, and color in a coupled COP/SBR process were about 80%, 95.8%, 93.8%, 97.6% and 99.3%, respectively, with average effluent concentrations of 10 mg/L, 128 mg/L, 27.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L, and 20 multiples, respectively, which were all consistent with the national standards for secondary discharge of industrial wastewater into a public sewerage system (GB 8978-1996). The results indicated that the coupling of COP with a biological process was proved to be a technically and economically effective method for treating industrial wastewater containing recalcitrant CNACs. PMID:20205304

Li, Bing-zhi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

2010-01-01

280

Urban wastewater treatment by a nutrient film technique system with a valuable commercial plant species (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Trev.).  

PubMed

Urban wastewater causes rapid eutrophication of natural waters and requires treatment before discharge. This is expensive and produces huge quantities of sludge. In the European Community, it will no longer be lawful to dispose of this sludge as landfill after 2005 (European Directive 91/271/CEE of May 21, 1991). Wastewater treatment by the Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium plants in horizontal flow was investigated using the nutrient film technique (NFT), a widely used hydroponic system in the commercial greenhouse industry. After a 48 h plant treatment, the purification efficiency was 95%, 91%, and 99% with respect to suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the elimination of nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) varied between 40% and 80%. SS and thus indirectly BOD5 and COD were removed by filtration and adsorption; the solids trapped in the root systems were then decomposed and mineralized. The system with 25 plants purified 30 L of wastewater in 48 h. One-hundred people communities wastewater could be treated with a 6 m2 area of production. Pyrethrin contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence of plants grown on raw urban waters were not significantly different from those grown on a standard nutrient solution. PMID:12027000

Vaillant, Nathalie; Monnet, Fabien; Vernay, Philippe; Sallanon, Huguette; Coudret, Alain; Hitmi, Adnane

2002-05-01

281

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN BELARUS: PURIFICATION EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE WATER POLLUTION RISK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Official statistics were used for an investigation of wastewater disposal structure, for a study of characteristics of pollutants\\u000a in urban sewage and estimation of anthropogenic (pollutant) load on receiving waters. The capacities of town sewage plants\\u000a and efficiency of wastewater refinement are examined. It is shown that wastewater discharged without adequate treatment into\\u000a surface waters has affected water bodies that

OLGA KADATSKAYA

282

Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced with aerobic digestion for sludge that is intended for land application. PMID:24239827

Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

2014-02-01

283

Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers  

EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

284

Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every time you take a bath, wash your clothes, flush the toilet, or run water down the kitchen or bathroom sinks you are creating wastewater. The average household generates between 60-75 gallons of wastewater each day. So where does that wastewater go? By working through this instructional unit, you will be able to better answer this question. Please read through the information provided below to learn more about wastewater and how it is treated. After you have completed the unit, you will need to complete the Wastewater Treatment worksheet that will be handed out to you in class by Professor Taylor. If you live in a small rural community you are most likely to have a septic tank system to treat your wastewater. This type of system treats your wastewater on your own property near your home. To learn more about septic tank sytems see the following link provided. Sewer and Septic Tanks If ...

Taylor, Professor D.

2005-11-15

285

Photochemical oxidation of iodized X-ray contrast media (XRC) in hospital wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodized X-ray contrast media (XRC) for medical applications are responsible for the high concentration of AOX (halogenated organic compounds adsorbable on activated carbon) in hospital wastewater exceeding the legal German discharge limit. The refractory properties of these substances lead to an accumulation in the natural waterbody. The elimination of contrast media from hospital wastewater by photochemical oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

M. Sprehe; S.-U. Geißen; A. Vogelpohl

286

Isolation and characterization of synthetic detergent- degraders from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradability of the principal component of synthetic detergent products known as linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) has been contentious, hence the need to evaluate its primary biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in wastewater ecosystem. The native microbial consortium of a wastewater ecosystem found to utilize detergent components were characterized using standard and conventional methods. The organisms identified were Enterococcus majodoratus, Klebsiella

Olusola Abayomi Ojo; Benjamin A. Oso

2008-01-01

287

Hip fracture - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

288

Assessing the potentials of Lemna minor in the treatment of domestic wastewater at pilot scale.  

PubMed

Water crisis is one of the most serious problems faced by the world today. Phytoremediation is one of the serious efforts towards sustainability. Macrophyte-based wastewater treatment systems have several potential advantages compared with conventional treatment systems. Duckweeds (Lemna spp., Spirodela spp., Wolffia spp.) are small, green freshwater, free-floating aquatic plants. The primary objective of this work was to analyze the role of duckweeds in organic waste and nutrient removal from domestic wastewater being generated from hostels of Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi (India). Interesting results were obtained in which the BOD value reduced by 94.45% and the level of orthophosphate at the end of the work was found to be reduced by 79.39%. The duckweeds flourished well during the experimental period in the pH range of 7 to 8; it can be said that, other factors remaining favorable, the optimum pH for duckweed growth ranges from 7 to 8. Therefore, it can be concluded that this treatment can be successfully carried out on a large scale. Also, it is a low-cost solution to wastewater treatment problems and could satisfy the discharge standards. PMID:21823047

Priya, Anima; Avishek, Kirti; Pathak, Gopal

2012-07-01

289

33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES ...solids standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until...discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in...

2011-07-01

290

33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.  

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES ...solids standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until...discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in...

2014-07-01

291

33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES ...solids standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until...discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in...

2013-07-01

292

33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES ...solids standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until...discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in...

2012-07-01

293

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2012-07-01

294

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2013-07-01

295

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2011-07-01

296

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2010-07-01

297

Non-storm water discharges technical report  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

Mathews, S.

1994-07-01

298

RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION  

E-print Network

#12;RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN VOLUME II Ont. June 1993 Amended April 1994 #12;GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION PREFACE Ltd., Calgary, Alberta. #12;GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Fraser

299

Water-quality assessment and wastewater-management alternatives for Dardenne Creek in St Charles County, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of water in the 15 mile downstream reach of Dardenne Creek in St. Charles County, Missouri, was assessed to determine if it met the Missouri water quality standards. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and total ammonia failed to meet water quality standards downstream from the Harvester-Dardenne and St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plants. The QUAL-II SEMCOG water quality model was calibrated and verified using two independent data sets from Dardenne Creek. Management alternatives using current, design capacity, and future expansion wastewater discharges from the St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plant were evaluated. Results of the computer simulation indicate that a nitrification-type advanced-treatment facility installed at the plant would produce a 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand of 10 mg/L. An effluent limit of 5.0 mg/L of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand would further improve the water quality of Dardenne Creek; however, an additional treatment process, such as sand filtration, would be needed to meet this criterion. (USGS)

Berkas, W. R.; Lodderhose, J. R.

1985-01-01

300

Ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters in Trancão River Basin (Portugal).  

PubMed

It is important to assess the toxicity of complex effluents, since chemical evaluation alone is insufficient to protect the environment. Direct Toxicity Assessment is valuable in the decision process regarding the final disposal of complex wastewaters as it measures the total effects of the discharge, because of its known and unknown chemicals, additionally having some degree of ecological relevance. In Portugal, ecotoxicity tests are not used on a regular basis to control wastewaters. So, an integrated ecotoxicological, physical, and chemical study of wastewaters from 17 industries, in the Trancão River Basin, was carried out viewing proposing a test battery to be used in wastewater evaluation. An approach which does not include an ecotoxicological characterization may not properly evaluate the potential risks of effluent discharges, especially when they are complex. From the study carried out the use of a battery of assays to apply in the monitoring of complex wastewaters was proposed, including Microtox test, Daphnia test, and an algal test. Moreover, the added value of the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters was demonstrated and could support the implementation of EU Directives (e.g. IPPC, WFD) within the Portuguese situation. PMID:18214883

Picado, Ana; Mendonça, Elsa; Silva, Luís; Paixão, Susana M; Brito, Fátima; Cunha, Maria Ana; Leitão, Sara; Moura, Isabel; Hernan, Robert

2008-08-01

301

40 CFR 423.17 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that the regulated pollutants are not detectable in the final discharge by the analytical methods in 40 CFR part 136. (e) There shall be no discharge of wastewater pollutants from fly ash transport...

2012-07-01

302

40 CFR 423.17 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that the regulated pollutants are not detectable in the final discharge by the analytical methods in 40 CFR part 136. (e) There shall be no discharge of wastewater pollutants from fly ash transport...

2013-07-01

303

40 CFR 423.17 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that the regulated pollutants are not detectable in the final discharge by the analytical methods in 40 CFR part 136. (e) There shall be no discharge of wastewater pollutants from fly ash transport...

2011-07-01

304

Hospital discharge documentation and risk of rehospitalisation.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Avoidable hospital readmission is a focus of quality improvement efforts. The effectiveness of individual elements of the standard discharge process in reducing rehospitalisation is unknown. METHODS The authors conducted a case-control study of 1039 patients experiencing rehospitalisation within 30 days of discharge and 981 non-rehospitalised patients matched on admission diagnosis, discharge disposition, and severity of illness. In separate models for each discharge process component, the authors measured the relationship between readmission and discharge summary completion, contents of discharge summary, completion of discharge instructions, contents of discharge instructions, presence of caregiver for discharge instruction, completion of medication reconciliation, and arrangement of ambulatory follow-up prior to discharge. RESULTS Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, including severity of illness and discharge disposition, the study failed to find an association between readmission and most components of the discharge process. There was no association between readmission and medication reconciliation, transmission of discharge summary to an outpatient physician, or documentation of any specific aspect of discharge instruction. Associations were found between readmission and discharge with followup arranged (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.21; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.37) and increasing number of medicines (adjusted OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04). CONCLUSIONS Documentation of discharge process components in the medical record may not reflect actual discharge process activities. Alternatively, mandated discharge processes are ineffective in preventing readmission. The observed absence of an association between discharge documentation and readmission indicates that discharge quality improvement initiatives should target metrics of discharge process quality beyond improving rates of documentation. PMID:21515695

Hansen, Luke O; Strater, Amy; Smith, Lisa; Lee, Jungwha; Press, Robert; Ward, Norman; Weigelt, John A; Boling, Peter; Williams, Mark V

2011-09-01

305

Application of toxicity tests into discharges of the pulp-paper industry in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of pulp-paper industry wastewater using traditional and enrichment toxicity tests and to emphasize the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations. Enrichment toxicity tests are novel applications and give an idea of whether there is potential toxicity or growth-limiting and -stimulating conditions. Different organisms were used such as

Delia Teresa Sponza

2003-01-01

306

Cost-Based Optimization of a Papermaking Wastewater Regeneration Recycling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater can be regenerated for recycling in an industrial process to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. Such an environment friendly approach will also lead to cost savings that accrue due to reduced freshwater usage and wastewater discharge. However, the resulting cost savings are offset to varying degrees by the costs incurred for the regeneration of wastewater for recycling. Therefore, systematic procedures should be used to determine the true economic benefits for any water-using system involving wastewater regeneration recycling. In this paper, a total cost accounting procedure is employed to construct a comprehensive cost model for a paper mill. The resulting cost model is optimized by means of mathematical programming to determine the optimal regeneration flowrate and regeneration efficiency that will yield the minimum total cost.

Huang, Long; Feng, Xiao; Chu, Khim H.

2010-11-01

307

Separation of Tritium from Wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

JEPPSON, D.W.

2000-01-25

308

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

309

Organic wastewater effects on benthic invertebrates in the Manawatu River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the 3 main wastewater discharges on the benthic fauna of the Manawatu River were studied between March 1979 and January 1980. At least 4 replicate Surber samples were taken from each of 6 sites, on 5 occasions during this period. Deleatidium sp. (Ephemeroptera), Hydora sp. (Coleoptera), and the Chironomidae were the most useful indicator organisms, according to

D. M. Suckling

1982-01-01

310

Effectiveness of Constructed Wetlands for Oil-Refined Wastewater Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-refined wastewater coming from the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro- Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants and therefore cannot be discharged directly unless a treatment of purification is conducted. Four herbaceous plants, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironi a art iculata wer e pla nted in si mulat ed construc ted wetlands made in

H. P. Xia; H. H. Ke; Z. P. Deng; P. Tang

311

FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF TEXTILE DYE WASTEWATER REUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an examination of technologies by which textile processing wastewaters could be recycled or reused, thereby reducing the amounts discharged. One of these technologies, dyebath reconstitution and reuse, was investigated in detail: it was found to be envi...

312

Wastewater polishing index: a tool for a rapid quality assessment of reclaimed wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new index, the Wastewater Polishing Index (WWPI), has been defined for the rapid assessment of the quality achieved by different polishing treatments for water discharged\\u000a into surface water bodies and for reuse purposes. The index is defined by a weighted average of six parameters (SS, BOD5 COD, ammonia, total phosphorus, and E. scherichia coli), each transformed onto a sub-index

Paola Verlicchi; Luigi Masotti; Alessio Galletti

2011-01-01

313

Modeling the performance of biodegradation of textile wastewater using polyurethane foam sponge cube as a supporting medium.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale fixed-biofilm reactor (FBR) was established to treat textile wastewater to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional treatment processes that involve activated sludge and coagulation units. A kinetic model was developed to describe the biodegradation of textile wastewater by FBR. Batch kinetic tests were performed to evaluate the biokinetic parameters that are used in the model. FBR column test was fed with a mean COD of 692 mg/L of textile wastewater from flow equalization unit. The influent flow rate was maintained at 48.4 L/h for FBR column test. Experimental data and model-predicted data for substrate effluent concentration (as COD), concentration of suspended biomass in effluent and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) produced in the effluent agree closely with each other. Microscopic observations demonstrated that the biofilm exhibited a uniform distribution on the surface of polyurethane foam sponge. Under a steady-state condition, the effluent COD from FBR was about 14.7 mg COD/L (0.0213 S(b0)), meeting the discharge standard (COD < 100 mg/L) that has been set by the government of Taiwan for textile wastewater effluent. The amount of biofilm and suspended biomass reached a maximal value in the steady state when the substrate flux reached a constant value and remained maximal. Approximately 33% of the substrate concentration (as COD) was converted to CO(2) during biodegradation in the FBR test. The experimental and modeling schemes proposed in this study could be employed to design a full-scale FBR to treat textile wastewater. PMID:21123909

Lin, Yen-Hui

2010-01-01

314

Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH  

SciTech Connect

A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). It is recommended that pH be used as the diversion criteria for wastewater from manhole 190 and the pump station to be sent to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Any wastewater with a pH less than 6.0 or greater than 10.0 should be sent to the metals tank. Based on the results of 29 weeks of sampling, it is expected that on the order of 36m{sup 3}/wk (9500 gal/wk) of wastewater will be diverted to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Wastewater from REDC and HFIR can be sent to the nonmetals tank, but it should be sampled periodically and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrophotometer to confirm that the metals concentration is not increasing. 1 ref., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.

1990-10-01

315

Is your wastewater toxic to the municipal treatment plant?  

SciTech Connect

For many reasons, it is beneficial to know whether or not wastewater generated from a manufacturing process is toxic or can inhibit the microorganisms in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. One simple way to test the wastewater is by using a laboratory respirometer, which can evaluate both toxicity and treatability. In some cases, respirometer use may save an industry thousands or even millions of dollars by proving that certain chemicals previously perceived to be detrimental are actually treatable in the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Because these chemicals will not cause any harm, the cost of a pretreatment plant is avoided. Of course, the reverse could be true when a municipality suspects wastewater discharged from an industry is causing an upset condition to its activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. Because toxicity and treatability are both functions of the respiration rate of microbial cells, a method that measures the respiration rate of microbial cells also can be used to measure toxicity. This article discusses several situations in which a respirometer was used to measure the toxicity and treatability of wastewater suspected to have a toxic effect on the municipal activated sludge plant.

Havash, J.; Oster, J. [Lockwood Green Technologies Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1998-03-01

316

Discharge borders wars  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the impact of a downstream state's standards on the application for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit by a downstream state as recently explained in a federal court of appeals decision. The litigation discussed included the EPA and the states of Oklahoma and Arkansas. Topics covered include a description of the situation that brought about the litigation, the initial ruling by the EPA and the federal court's reasoning for the final outcome.

Sweeney, N.J. (Smith, Currie and Hancock, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1991-05-01

317

TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

318

Methods for Estimating Annual Wastewater Nutrient Loads in the Southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes an approach for estimating annual total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads from point-source dischargers in the southeastern United States. Nutrient load estimates for 2002 were used in the calibration and application of a regional nutrient model, referred to as the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model. Loads from dischargers permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System were calculated using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System database and individual state databases. Site information from both state and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency databases, including latitude and longitude and monitored effluent data, was compiled into a project database. For sites with a complete effluent-monitoring record, effluent-flow and nutrient-concentration data were used to develop estimates of annual point-source nitrogen and phosphorus loads. When flow data were available but nutrient-concentration data were missing or incomplete, typical pollutant-concentration values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were used to estimate load. In developing typical pollutant-concentration values, the major factors assumed to influence wastewater nutrient-concentration variability were the size of the discharger (the amount of flow), the season during which discharge occurred, and the Standard Industrial Classification code of the discharger. One insight gained from this study is that in order to gain access to flow, concentration, and location data, close communication and collaboration are required with the agencies that collect and manage the data. In addition, the accuracy and usefulness of the load estimates depend on the willingness of the states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance and review for at least a subset of the load estimates that may be problematic.

McMahon, Gerard; Tervelt, Larinda; Donehoo, William

2007-01-01

319

Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater,  

E-print Network

Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater, Surface, Ground.W., Meyer, M.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2004, Presence and distri- bution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-02: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific

320

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Mmm of... - Standards for New and Existing PAI Sources  

...45 kPa Same as for existing sources. Wastewater a Existing: Process wastewater with ?10,000 ppmw Table 9 compounds at any...compounds at ?10 L/min, and maintenance wastewater with HAP load ?5.3 Mg per discharge...

2014-07-01

321

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment Bruce Logan Penn State University #12;Energy Costs? 5-7% of electricity used in USA is for water &wastewater #12;Global Energy & Health Issues 1 Billion people lack #12;Energy content of Wastewaters · Electricity "lost" to water and wastewater treatment= 0.6 quad

322

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment Bruce Logan Penn State University #12;Energy Costs? 5-7% of electricity used in USA is for water &wastewater #12;Global Energy & Health IssuesGlobal Energy & Health content of WastewatersEnergy content of Wastewaters ·· ElectricityElectricity ""lostlost"" to water

323

Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems  

E-print Network

Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Don Jones, Jacqui Bauer, Richard Wise, and Alan Dunn* ID-265 #12;Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 2 It is the policy of the Purdue University Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 3 Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Table of Contents

Holland, Jeffrey

324

Retrospective analyses of inputs of municipal wastewater effluent and coupled impacts on an urban lake.  

PubMed

A retrospective review and analysis are presented of the evolution of treatment, point of discharge considerations, and constituent loading from the Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (Metro), and the coupled water quality effects on the receiving urban lake (Onondaga Lake, New York) from the early 1970s to 2010. The analysis is based on long-term monitoring of the discharge, Onondaga Lake, and a nearby river system considered as a potential alternate to receive the effluent. The Metro discharge is extraordinarily large relative to the lake's hydrologic budget, representing approximately 25% of the total inflow, greater than for any other lake in the United States. The large loads of nitrogen and phosphorus received from the facility resulted in severe water quality effects in the lake during the early portion of record, including (1) violations of standards to protect against toxic effects of ammonia and nitrite, (2) violations of the water clarity standard for swimming safety, (3) exceedances of a limit for the summer average concentration of total phosphorus in the upper waters, and (4) lakewide violations of the oxygen standard during fall turnover. The effects of Metro were compounded by effects of discharges from soda ash/chlor-alkali and pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The sedimentary record of the lake indicates that even greater levels of cultural eutrophication prevailed before the monitoring commenced. Dramatic improvements in the water quality of the lake were achieved in recent years by implementing advanced treatment technologies. Exceedances of receiving water limits in the lake were eliminated, with the exception of the total phosphorus limit. A zebra mussel invasion compromised the oxygen resources and assimilative capacity of the nearby river for more than 15 years. This eliminated an option, previously supported by managers, of full diversion of the Metro effluent to the river. PMID:23409450

Effler, Steven W; O'Donnell, Susan M; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Matthews, David A; Auer, Martin T

2013-01-01

325

Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

Wolverton, B. C.

1986-01-01

326

Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

327

Biodegradation of sewage wastewater using autochthonous bacteria.  

PubMed

The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

2012-01-01

328

Groundwater contamination by microbiological and chemical substances released from hospital wastewater: Health risk assessment for drinking water consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by hospital wastewater is a major environmental and human health issue. Disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents are widely used in hospitals for medical purposes and research. After application, some of these substances combine with hospital effluents and, in industrialised countries, reach the municipal sewer network. In certain developing countries, hospitals usually discharge their wastewater into

Evens Emmanuel; Marie Gisèle Pierre; Yves Perrodin

2009-01-01

329

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

330

WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The CWA requires EPA to collect, evaluate, and disseminate technical information on various treatment technologies, management practices, and operating methods. Technical information has been/is/will be developed in such areas as wastewater treatment, wet ...

331

Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer  

SciTech Connect

Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

2009-03-15

332

Occurrence of surfactants in wastewater: hourly and seasonal variations in urban and industrial wastewaters from Seville (Southern Spain).  

PubMed

Surfactants are daily discharged to the environment from urban and industrial activities. The assessment of the risk derived from the presence of these compounds in the environment requires a deep knowledge about their sources and their distribution in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, in spite of several studies reporting their presence in WWTPs, only a small number is focused on their different sources. In this work, the distribution of anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates) and non-ionic (nonylphenol ethoxylates) surfactants in WWTPs and in urban and industrial wastewater collection systems has been investigated. Seasonal and daily variability was also assessed. Concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in influent and effluent wastewaters ranged from 1155 to 9200 ?g L(-1), and from below limit of detection to 770 ?g L(-1), respectively, whereas the concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates were significantly lower. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates were efficiently removed (>96%), while mean removal rates of nonylphenol ethoxylates were significantly lower (<20%). Studies carried out in different seasons revealed seasonal discharge patterns from both urban and industrial activities. The analysis of wastewater collection systems showed a major contribution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates from urban areas while, in the case of nonylphenol ethoxylates, their major contribution came from industrial activities. In all cases the discharge patterns of surfactants were related with the water consumption. PMID:24091121

Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luís; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

2014-01-15

333

Wastewater Reclamation/Wetlands  

E-print Network

, Towns, and Entities NTMWD Water Supply Sources History of NTMWD ? 1956 - First Delivery of Treated Water ? 1970s - Expanded to Wastewater Service ? 1980s - Expanded to Solid Waste Service WATER PLANNING Regional Water Planning..., Towns, and Entities NTMWD Water Supply Sources History of NTMWD ? 1956 - First Delivery of Treated Water ? 1970s - Expanded to Wastewater Service ? 1980s - Expanded to Solid Waste Service WATER PLANNING Regional Water Planning...

Hickey, D.

2011-01-01

334

MIUS wastewater technology evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

Poradek, J. C.

1976-01-01

335

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of the Mzamza population exposed to untreated wastewaters.  

PubMed

A cytogenetic biomonitoring study was performed on people from the Mzamza community near Settat, Morocco. These subjects live in and near the Bou Moussa valley where wastewaters from a great number of industries are discharged without any treatment. This wastewater is used as a source of drinking water for their cattle and irrigation of their land. The Mzamza population is therefore presumably exposed to continuous low doses of different kinds of pollutants. Our study demonstrated significant increases in micronucleated white blood cells indicating a considerable genetic risk in these subjects. PMID:17639334

Glouib, K; Hilali, A; Kettani, S El; Verschaeve, L

2007-08-01

336

Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

Dieu, B

2001-01-01

337

Studies on the extraction of phenol in wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel extraction procedure has been developed for treating phenolic wastewater. Alcohols, amines, and organic acids were applied as extractants in separation of phenol from the wastewater containing 6000 mg/l phenol and 5% salts discharged by chemical plants, >99% phenol was recovered by extracting with octanol. The interactions of phenol with alcohols, amines, and organic acids were studied by a theoretical calculation with GAUSSIAN 98. The extraction efficiency is strongly dependent on the intermolecular interactions between the phenol and extractants. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies, a pilot-scale LLES was set-up and worked well. PMID:12927734

Jiang, Hong; Fang, Ying; Fu, Yao; Guo, Qing-Xiang

2003-07-18

338

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

339

Water reuse: A successful almost zero discharge case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a procedure to optimize a real problem of freshwater and wastewater reuse allocation. The case study is an industrial polypropylene unit and the solution, achieved is an almost zero discharge case. The problem was decomposed into subsystems according the type of approach used to water minimization: process changes, regeneration reuse and regeneration recycling. For the regeneration approach,

R. M. B. Alves; R. Guardani; A. E. Bresciani; L. Nascimento; C. A. O. Nascimento

2006-01-01

340

Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

Not Available

1982-07-01

341

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

342

New treatment for uranium in wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The design of an advanced wastewater treatment facility at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, focuses on minimizing discharge of uranium and other priority pollutant metals. The treatment facility will use chemical pretreatment to remove most dissolved and suspended solids, radionuclides, and priority pollutant metals. Ion exchange will be used to ensure that the concentration of uranium discharged to the environment is less than 1.0 [mu]g/L. Designers have evaluated a potassium ferrate (iron VI) treatment procedure for uranium removal, focusing not only on the treatment's efficiency in removing uranium, but also on the volume of contaminated solids that are generated. When performance levels for removal of uranium, volume of contaminated solids generated, and overall costs of treatment and waste removal are considered, potassium ferrate technology compares favorably with conventional treatments. 2 tabs.

Potts, M.E. (Analytical Development Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)); Hampshire, L.H. (Westinghouse Environmental Management Co. of Ohio, Cincinnati (United States))

1993-01-01

343

FISH TISSUE QUALITY IN NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO RECEIVING POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless o...

344

The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step. PMID:22454607

Rytwo, Giora

2012-01-01

345

[Study on subsurface wastewater infiltration system covered by different turfgrass for domestic sewage treatment].  

PubMed

Domestic sewage was treated with subsurface wastewater infiltration system covered by two different turfgrass, namely, Festuca arundinacea Schres. and Zoysia japonica Steud.. The result shows that all the different systems have good removal rates to COD. The concentration of COD decreased to less than 48 mg x L(-1) from 97-357 mg x L(-1) which achieve the second class criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard, and there are no prominent difference among different systems. The concentration of NH4(+) -N decreased to less than 0.5 mg x L(-1) from 76.3-125.8 mg x L(-1) which achieve the IV criteria (< or = 0.5 mg x L(-1)) specified in Groundwater Quality Standard, the effluent concentration of NH4(+) -N in naked system are prominently higher than that in system covered by Festuca arundinacea Schres., and there are no prominent difference compared with system covered by Zoysia japonica Steud.. The concentration of TP in different systems decreased to less than 0.05 mg x L(-1) from 3.70-18.42 mg x L(-1) which achieve the II criteria (< or = 0.1 mg x L(-1)) specified in Surfacewater Quality Standard, and there are no prominent difference among different systems. The removal rates of TN and nitrate were all not good enough, the probability which achieve the III criteria (< or = 20 mg x L(-1)) specified in Groundwater Quality Standard are less than one third, and the effluent concentration of TN and nitrate in naked system are prominently higher than that in systems covered by Festuca arundinacea Schres. and Zoysia japonica Steud.. PMID:21404682

Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Cui, Jian-Yu; Lan, Yan; Zhao, Yang-Yang; Hu, Lin

2011-01-01

346

Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.  

PubMed

Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems. PMID:23376111

Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

2013-02-15

347

WASTEWATER IRRIGATION AT TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Municipal wastewater from the City of Tallahassee, Florida, which has received secondary treatment was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of wastewater renovation without pollution of groundwater or surface water through land application to forage crops by sprinkler irrigation...

348

Treatment of oilfield fracturing wastewater by a sequential combination of flocculation, Fenton oxidation and SBR process.  

PubMed

In this study, a combined process was developed that included flocculation, Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to treat oilfield fracturing wastewater (FW). Flocculation and Fenton oxidation were applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) organic load and to enhance biodegradability, respectively. For flocculation, the optimum conditions were: polymeric aluminium chloride dosage, 40 mg/L; polyacrylamide dosage, 4 mg/L; dilution ratio, 1:2 and stirring time, 30 min. For Fenton oxidation, a total reaction time of 60 min, a H2O2 dosage of 2 m mol/L, with a [H2O2]/[FeSO4] ratio of 2 were selected to achieve optimum oxidation. Under these optimum flocculation and Fenton oxidation conditions, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 76.6%. Following pretreatment with flocculation and Fenton oxidation, the FW was further remediated using a SBR. Results show that COD was reduced to 92 mg/L, and the overall water quality of the final effluent could meet the class I national wastewater discharge standard of petrochemical industry of China. PMID:25176493

Yang, Jian; Hong, Liang; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Lin, Li-Fei

2014-01-01

349

30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.  

...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up may occur shall be...

2014-07-01

350

30 CFR 57.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up may occur shall be...

2014-07-01

351

Turning calcium carbonate into a cost-effective wastewater-sorbing material by occluding waste dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Over the years, organic pollution in the environment has aroused people’s concern worldwide, especially persistent organic\\u000a pollutants (POPs). Particularly in developing countries, plenty of concentrated organic wastewaters treated noneffectively\\u000a are discharged into aquatic environments from chemical, textile, paper-making, and other industries to seriously threaten\\u000a the surface and drinking water. The conventional wastewater treatment techniques are often helpless

Dan-Hua Zhao; Hong-Wen Gao

2010-01-01

352

Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal.The wetland was 6×3×0.4m. Water discharge was 1000ld?1

H. R. Hadad; M. A. Maine; C. A. Bonetto

2006-01-01

353

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations.  

PubMed

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

Oliveira-Martins, Cynthia R; Grisolia, Cesar K

2009-10-01

354

Toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from gasoline stations  

PubMed Central

The toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater from eight gasoline stations in Brasília, Brazil's capital city, was studied by assessing chromosomal aberrations, chromosomal malsegregation and the mitotic index in Alliumcepa root cells, and the occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). The content of gasoline station effluents was also analyzed based on several physico-chemical parameters. None of the wastewater samples was genotoxic to A. cepa root cells, although cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially at the highest concentrations. Likewise, no micronuclei were observed in O. niloticus peripheral erythrocytes, even after exposure to high concentrations, but there was an increase in the number of nuclear abnormalities and fish mortality. These results show that although the effluent from gasoline stations is processed by an oil/water separation system before being discharged into the main sewage system, the wastewater still contains toxic compounds. PMID:21637464

2009-01-01

355

Economy of precipitating agent application in municipal wastewater treatment facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purification by precipitation in this study is not considered primarily as a means of phosphate removal but as a method for reduction of suspended solids BOD and COD. A dynamic calculation procedure is used to allow for exact determination of time dependent variation of costs. The results show that costs of wastewater treatment by precipitation may equal those of conventional primary clarification and secondary biological treatment, especially with low-cost iron-II-salts in simultaneous precipitation and in larger plants ( 20,000 PF). Cost advantages may be accrued in smaller plants by using the more expensive trivalent salts in pre-precipitation as compared to conventional low-load biological treatment. This is due mainly to better effluent quality and, consequently, lower wastewater fees (Wastewater Discharge Act). If the precipitant is dosed temporarily only during periods of highest pollution the savings can be about 5 to 10%.

Neis, U.; Geppert, B.; Hahn, H. H.; Gleisberg, D.

1983-01-01

356

RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION  

E-print Network

#12;I RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN VOLUME I CONSULTANTS LTD. Richmond, B.C. June 1993 #12;DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION 1 PREFACE V7M 3H7 ,1 , #12;DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR WASTEWATER C&MACTERIZATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Fraser

357

Doctoral Defense "Sustainable Wastewater Management  

E-print Network

Doctoral Defense "Sustainable Wastewater Management: Modeling and Decision Strategies for Unused Medications and Wastewater Solids" Sherri Cook Date: May 22, 2014 Time: 11:00 AM Location: 2355 GGB Chair to help decision-makers evaluate new practices for sustainable wastewater management. To this end

Kamat, Vineet R.

358

WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS  

E-print Network

93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS Domestic wastewater treatment by infiltration-percolation is a process that becomming common in France, a greater depth for desinfection purposes. KEYWORDS Wastewater treatment, Infiltration-percolation. Sand

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Performance of an intensive pond system treating municipal wastewater in a cold region.  

PubMed

A full-scale intensive pond system (IPS) with shorter HRT was designed, constructed and operated in Jining, Inner-Mongolia for the treatment of municipal wastewater, which is a mixed domestic and industrial wastewater characterized by quite high SS and lower BOD5/COD ratio values or lower biodegradability. Therefore, the pond system was designed as an integrated intensive pond system (IIPS) consisting of settling/anaerobic pond (SAP), intensified anaerobic pond (IAP), facultative pond (FP), and polishing ponds (PPs). In order to improve the performance of the IPS, some intensified measures were made, including inlet and outlet even-distribution systems of each unit pond, package of biofilm carrier in IAP for the increase and even distribution of biomass; overflow waterfalls on the dikes between unit ponds for the increase of DO in pond water, gravel filtration dike (or dam) for removing suspended solids including algae, which have improved the performance of the IPS remarkably in terms of removal of main pollutants, such as SS, COD, BOD5, TN, NH3-N, TP and total bacteria. The final effluent from the IPS in warm seasons from May to October were SS 7.2-10.8 mg/L, BOD5 8.5-19.6 mg/L, COD 44.1 - 76.5 mg/L, and NH3-N 1.5-10.2 mg/L, which well meet Chinese national discharge standard (2nd class) of secondary municipal wastewater treatment plants, i.e. BOD5 and SS 30 mg/L respectively, COD 100 mg/L, and NH3-N 25 mg/L. PMID:16114663

Wang, B; Qi, P; Wang, L; Lu, W; Liu, S; Zhao, F

2005-01-01

360

Wastewater salinity assessment using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a fast and inexpensive non-destructive technique for the prediction of concentrations of salts in wastewater. Conventional chemical methods are usually used, which are very accurate, take more time and require special techniques for sampling, storing and pretreatment of wastewater. In this work we studied the spectral characteristics of water and the effect of salts on the perturbations in the water absorption bands. The generation of multiple regression models with principal components was carried out on standard solutions with composition of salts similar to that of wastewater samples taken along the drainage channel network of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The spectral signatures were obtained in situ and in the laboratory using a portable high-resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec 3). The prediction model generated showed high precision in the estimation of salinity in wastewater, a coefficient of determination of 89.6% and a low root mean square error of 0.12‰. Other compounds, which are not discussed here, cause distortion of the absorption bands of water at wavelengths less than 900 nm or near the visible region, while our results showed distortions in the water spectrum at higher wavelengths (>1,000 nm). PMID:23985519

Ontiveros, Ronald; Diakite, Lamine; Edna Alvarez, M; Coras, Pablo

2013-01-01

361

Uterine artery embolization - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Uterine fibroid embolization - discharge; UFE - discharge; UAE - discharge ... You had uterine artery embolization (UAE). UAE is a procedure to treat fibroids using radiology instead of surgery. During the procedure, the blood supply of the fibroids ...

362

Lasik eye surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis - discharge; Laser vision correction - discharge; LASIK - discharge ... overnight). Right after the surgery, you may have burning, itching, or a feeling that something is in ...

363

Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information; Fideicomiso para la ampliacion de infraestructura y eficientizacion del agua potable, drenaje sanitario y saneamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de saltillo, coahuila  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the second of two volumes. It contains the appendices and is divided into the following sections: (1) Appendix A - Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Regulations; (2) Appendix B - Flow Monitoring Program Results; (3) Appendix C - Partial Results for the First Monitoring Period; (4) Appendix D - Characterization Program; (5) Appendix E - Characterization Program Results; (6) Appendix F - Preliminary Treatment Unit Design and Cost Estimation; (7) Appendix G - List of Threatened and Endangered Species; (8) Appendix H - Cost Estimation for the Wastewater Treatment Plant; (9) Appendix I - Hydraulic and Cost Calculations for Interceptors; (10) Appendix J - Financial Feasibility Worksheets.

NONE

1996-03-01

364

Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

2007-07-01

365

40 CFR 60.692-4 - Standards: Aggregate facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-4 Standards: Aggregate facility. A new, modified, or reconstructed aggregate facility...

2011-07-01

366

ACL reconstruction - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... You had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament ... and placed a new ligament through these holes. The new ligament ...

367

TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require a considerable length of time to complete, and do not discriminate between ...

368

Abundance and Population Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria That Inhabit Canal Sediments Receiving Effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants†  

PubMed Central

A polyphasic, culture-independent study was conducted to investigate the abundance and population structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in canal sediments receiving wastewater discharge. The abundance of AOB ranged from 0.2 to 1.9% and 1.6 to 5.7% of the total bacterial fraction by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Clone analysis and restriction endonuclease analysis revealed that the AOB communities influenced by the wastewater discharge were dominated by Nitrosomonas, were similar to each other, and were less diverse than the communities outside of the immediate discharge zone. PMID:17021242

Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Maki, Hideaki; Kawabata, Sumiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo; Ando, Haruo; Kawai, Toshio; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Kohata, Kunio; Watanabe, Masataka

2006-01-01

369

Distribution of injected wastewater in the saline-lava aquifer, Wailuku-Kahului wastewater treatment facility, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field studies and digital modeling of a lava rock aquifer system near Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, describe the distribution of planned injected wastewater from a secondary treatment facility. The aquifer contains water that is almost as saline as seawater. The saline water is below a seaward-discharging freshwater lens, and separated from it by a transition zone of varying salinity. Injection of wastewater at an average rate of 6.2 cubic feet per second is planned through wells open only to the aquifer deep within the saline water zone. The lava rock aquifer is overlain by a sequence of residual soil, clay, coral reef deposits, and marine sand that form a low-permeability caprock which semiconfines the lava rock aquifer. Under conditions measured and assumed without significant change. After reaching a new steady state, the wastewater will discharge into and through the caprock sequence within an area measuring approximately 1,000 feet inland, 1,000 feet laterally on either side of the injection site, and about 2,000 feet seaward. Little, if any, of the injected wastewater may be expected to reach the upper part of the caprock flow system landward of the treatment plant facility. (Woodard-USGS)

Burnham, Willis L.; Larson, S. P.; Cooper, Hilton Hammond

1977-01-01

370

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas...

2010-01-01

371

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas...

2012-01-01

372

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas...

2013-01-01

373

14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge...there must be appropriate bonding means in the design of each balloon using flammable gas as a lifting means to ensure that...

2011-01-01

374

Separation of nitrocellulose fines from wastewater with polymers  

SciTech Connect

Nitrocellulose (NC) fines are discharged to wastewater streams during manufacturing. Laboratory-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the turbidity and total suspended solids reduction by coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, to determine the settling characteristics of flocculated NC fines, and to evaluate thickening and dewatering characteristics of settled flocculated NC fine sludge. Cationic polymers were very effective in treating the negatively charged NC-manufacturing wastewater. Under an optimum flocculation condition, the supernatant turbidity of below 1 mg/L was obtained. High turbidity removal was achieved at a wide dosage range of 0.2 to 1.0 mg/L. Optimum flocculation was found to occur at low doses of the polymers tested and the polymer with a higher charge density performed better. High molecular weight polymers produced large flocs which had a high floc settling rate. Therefore, a high charge density and molecular weight polymers are preferred to separate NC fines from wastewater streams. Turbidity removal was improved with increasing Gt values and tapered flocculation. High velocity gradient facilitated adequate dispersion of a polymer. On the other hand, long rapid mixing would cause some floc breakup. Significant improvement of dewatering characteristics of NC-manufacturing wastewater sludge was found to be facilitated by the residual effects of the polymers having undergone flocculation of the wastewater. It appears that further chemical conditioning of the sludge is not necessary.

Park, J.K.; Shen, X.; Kim, B.J.; Kim, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-12-31

375

Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textile dyeing processes consume large amount of water, steam and discharge filthy and colored wastewater. A pilot scale e-beam plant with an electron accelerator of 1 MeV, 40 kW had constructed at Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) in 1997 for treating 1,000 m3 per day. Continuous operation of this plant showed the preliminary e-beam treatment reduced bio-treatment time and resulted in more significant decreasing TOC, CODCr, and BOD5. Convinced of the economics and efficiency of the process, a commercial plant with 1 MeV, 400 kW electron accelerator has constructed in 2005. This plant improves the removal efficiency of wastewater with decreasing the retention time in bio-treatment at around 1 kGy. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility in DDIC and the treatment capacity is 10,000 m3 of wastewater per day. The total construction cost for this plant was USD 4 M and the operation cost has been obtained was not more than USD 1 M per year and about USD 0.3 per each m3 of wastewater.

Han, Bumsoo; Kyu Kim, Jin; Kim, Yuri; Seung Choi, Jang; Young Jeong, Kwang

2012-09-01

376

A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

377

Advanced compact wastewater treatment based on coagulation and moving bed biofilm processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced compact wastewater treatment processes are being looked for by cities all over the world as effluent standards are becoming more stringent and land available for treatment plants more scarce. In this paper it is demonstrated that a very substantial portion of the pollutants in municipal wastewater appears as particulate and colloidal matter. Pre-coagulation, therefore, gives very efficient pre- treatment

H. Ødegaard

2000-01-01

378

Use of aquatic macrophytes in treating electronics manufacturing wastewater in Guadalajara, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an industrial wastewater treatment project performed by Kleinfelder Mexico for an electronics manufacturer located in Guadalajara, Mexico. The industrial wastewater had a moderately high concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), and grease and oil. Metals concentration was low, with only zinc exceeding regulatory standards. The use of aquatic macrophytes (namely Eichhornia crassipes) was considered along with conventional wastewater treatment options. An aquatic macrophyte wastewater treatment system was found to have numerous advantages over a conventional extended aeration package plant. These advantages include less required capital, an appreciation of investment, and lower operations and maintenance costs.

Leslie, C.I. [Kleinfelder Mexico, Guadalajara (Mexico); Jackson, J.D.

1996-12-31

379

Ecotoxicological characterization of tannery wastewater in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Tanning industries are one of the main economic activities in Bangladesh. It has been well documented that wastewater discharged from tanneries without appropriate treatment results in detrimental effects on the ecosystem. No ecotoxicity evaluation of any aquatic environment in Bangladesh has been conducted so far. In this study a battery of toxicity bioassays and chemical analysis were carried out from water samples obtained from three sampling points: upstream from discharging site on River Buriganga (S1), raw wastewater effluent (S2), and downstream the discharging sluice gate (S3), in the Hazaribagh tannery area of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. While S1 and S3 water samples did not show significant toxicity in the bioassays tested, S2 exhibited high acute toxicity to the bacterium Vibrio fischeri (15-min Microtox test, EC50 = 9.8%), the higher plant Lactuca sativa (5-day root elongation inhibition test, EC50 = 14.2%), and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (24-hour mobility test, EC50 = 31.5%). The results suggested that the raw wastewater effluent had detrimental effects on broad spectrum of organisms in the aquatic ecosystem and bacterium was the most sensitive. The chemical analysis revealed that sample S2 contained an extremely high concentration of chromium (47 g l(-1)). Additionally microbiological analysis indicated that the sampling area is impacted by fecal pollution, increasing the environmental health risk for its inhabitants. PMID:21186722

Arias-Barreiro, C R; Nishizaki, H; Okubo, K; Aoyama, I; Mori, I C

2010-07-01

380

Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

Haas, C.N. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago); McCreary, J.J.

1982-06-01

381

WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

382

Occurrence and suitability of sucralose as an indicator compound of wastewater loading to surface waters in urbanized regions.  

PubMed

Urban watersheds are susceptible to numerous pollutant sources and the identification of source-specific indicators can provide a beneficial tool in the identification and control of input loads, often times needed for a water body to achieve designated beneficial uses. Differentiation of wastewater flows from other urban wet weather flows is needed in order to more adequately address such environmental concerns as water body nutrient impairment and potable source water contamination. Anthropogenic compounds previously suggested as potential wastewater indicators include caffeine, carbamazepine, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, and TCEP. This paper compares the suitability of a variety of anthropogenic compounds to sucralose, an artificial sweetener, as wastewater indicators by examining occurrence data for 85 trace organic compounds in samples of wastewater effluents, source waters with known wastewater point source inputs, and sources without known wastewater point source inputs. The findings statistically demonstrate the superior performance of sucralose as a potential indicator of domestic wastewater input in the U.S. While several compounds were detected in all of the wastewater effluent samples, only sucralose was consistently detected in the source waters with known wastewater discharges, absent in the sources without wastewater influence, and consistently present in septic samples. All of the other compounds were prone to either false negatives or false positives in the environment. PMID:21665241

Oppenheimer, Joan; Eaton, Andrew; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Haghani, Ali W; Jacangelo, Joseph G

2011-07-01

383

Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment: a focus on toxicity-related impacts.  

PubMed

Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination. PMID:19036408

Muñoz, Ivan; Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2009-02-01

384

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

mike lewis

2011-02-01

385

Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. PMID:20623030

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.O.; Obi, Larry C.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2010-01-01

386

Glutaraldehyde in hospital wastewater.  

PubMed

Glutaraldehyde (GA) solutions are widely used in hospitals to disinfect reusable fiber-optic endoscopes. These solutions are dumped after use in the aquatic environment without any particular safety precautions. Taking into account the quantity of GA consumed daily and the released water volume, the predicted hospital wastewater concentration was estimated at 0.50 mg/L. To measure the real GA concentration present in hospital wastewater, we developed an analytical technique that is simple, sensitive, and reliable. This method consists of a water sample concentration and purification by solid phase extraction and then a spectrophotometric determination. This analytical method was used for a 1-week surveillance program at Rouen University Hospital (2,600 beds). The wastewater tested showed the presence of a concentrated peak approximately eight times higher than the predicted wastewater concentration. The environmental impact of GA release into the aquatic environment was then studied. A predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) < 1 microg/L was calculated. In most situations the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was found to be <0.5 microg/L taking into account the hospital wastewater dilution in its way to the sewage treatment plant and GA biodegradation. The PEC/PNEC ratio is then < 1, showing that this release are not expected to present a significant risk to the aquatic environment. However in situations of insufficient dilution or of major release, the PEC/PNEC ratio become > 1, and an environmental risk should be expected. An internal prevention program of the various hospital departments to assure GA rational use, and a release spreading would give an additional safety margin to consider GA as safe in terms of environmental risk. PMID:11815804

Jolibois, B; Guerbet, M; Vassal, S

2002-02-01

387

Introduction to Wastewater Bruce J. Lesikar  

E-print Network

Introduction to Wastewater Treatment Bruce J. Lesikar Professor Texas AgriLife Extension Service Overview What is wastewater? Why are we concerned about wastewater? The big picture. Goals for wastewater treatment are evolving How do we implement our infrastructure? Wastewater Treatment Processes ­ The end

388

Antibiotic resistance from wastewater oxidation ponds.  

PubMed

In an extensive, multiyear study of antibiotic resistance from wastewater oxidation ponds, five mobile home park wastewater oxidation ponds in Clarke and Oconee counties were shown to be discharging high numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the waterways of North Georgia. This effluent contributed to higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliform levels in creeks downstream from the ponds. A survey of residents revealed that many people did not complete their antibiotic prescriptions, and the majority flushed leftover antibiotic medications down the toilet. In the pond discharges, resistance was found to eighteen antibiotics: amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, apramycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, kanamycin, naladixic acid, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The discharged bacteria contained both integrons and plasmids, the latter being transferable to a laboratory strain of Escherichia coil (E. coli). A turtle was found living at a pond discharge site with multiply-antibiotic-resistant bacteria in its feces. Last year, RNA fingerprinting conclusively documented the survival of three multiply-resistant important pathogenic bacteria. Ceftriaxone-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aerogenosa and a ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli were traced through oxidation pond stages and into the discharge, thus documenting that the pathogens survived the treatment process. In addition, a potential pathogen, a serotype group D Salmonella spp., was found in the discharge. In this study, tetracycline-resistance genes C and G were detected in the first and second stages of the oxidation pond and the discharge went directly into the environment. These genes are generally found in intestinal bacteria, so it can be inferred that they are from a human source. Antimicrobial residue from the beta-lactam family of antibiotics was found in all oxidation pond stages and in the creek above the pond. Tetracycline residue was found in the first and second stages of the pond. In addition to the antibiotics, genes coding for antibiotic resistance and the antibiotics themselves were documented to survive oxidation pond treatment. Tetracycline-resistant genes were identified in the oxidation pond stages and in the discharge going into the environment. A model was also developed to study oxidation pond function in the laboratory. A biofilm was created using a highly antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium 3/97, and pond water was added. The biofilm was processed via a rotating disk bioreactor specifically designed to study biofilms in nature, but with conditions that were more favorable to bacterial inhibition than those in nature. Cultures revealed that, under these optimal conditions, S. typhimurium 3/97 was still present in this in vitro system. Thus, the competitive inhibition process that helps to remove bacteria in oxidation ponds did not effectively remove an important bacterium, S. typhimurium 3/97, in this mock oxidation pond. The bioreactor model developed in this study can be used to further investigate discharges from oxidation ponds. From this data, it is apparent that the problem is two-fold. A cost-effective technique must be developed that inactivates antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oxidation pond discharges and also removes the antibiotics. A public awareness campaign was initiated by the author to encourage proper use and disposal of antibiotics, as flushing them is a common practice in the United States. PMID:16381146

Mispagel, Heather; Gray, Jeffrey T

2005-01-01

389

Zero-discharge of nutrients and water in a willow dominated constructed wetland.  

PubMed

A novel constructed wetland system has been developed to treat sewage, evaporate water and recycle nutrients from single households at sites where effluent standards are stringent and soil infiltration is not possible. Main attributes of the willow wastewater cleaning facilities are that the systems have zero discharge, the willows evapotranspire the water, and nutrients can be recycled via the willow biomass produced in the system. The willow wastewater cleaning facilities generally consist of c. 1.5 m deep high-density polyethylene-lined basins filled with soil and planted with clones of willow (Salix viminalis L.). The surface area of the systems depends on the amount and quality of the sewage to be treated and the local annual rainfall. For a single household the area needed typically is between 200-300 m2. Settled sewage is dispersed underground into the bed under pressure. When correctly dimensioned, the willow will--on an annual basis--evapotranspire all water from the sewage and rain falling onto the system, and take up all nutrients and heavy metals from the sewage. The stems of the willows are harvested on a regular basis to remove nutrients and heavy metals and to stimulate the growth of the willows. Initial experiences from full-scale systems in Denmark show promising results. PMID:11804127

Gregersen, P; Brix, H

2001-01-01

390

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2013-04-01

391

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2012-04-01

392

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2010-04-01

393

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2014-04-01

394

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2011-04-01

395

Inputs of total and labile trace metals from wastewater treatment plants effluents to the Seine River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seine river basin has long been impacted by metal inputs from the Paris area, but the water quality has been gradually improving for the last 20 years. Among all metal pollution sources (surface runoff, industries), urban wastewater discharge has been shown to significantly contribute, during low-flow periods, to metal fluxes of the River Seine. This paper assesses the current wastewater contribution to metal inputs in the Seine river basin, based on sampling of nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Seven metals were targeted (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb) during dry weather periods. Since total and dissolved concentrations alone are not relevant enough for an ecological risk assessment, labile metals (free + weekly complexed) were also measured by means of DGT (diffusive gradient in thin film technique). Results show that WWTPs greatly reduce total metal concentrations but reduce labile metal concentrations only slightly. Estimations made for direct total metal inputs in the River Seine via treated effluent discharge confirm the decrease observed for the 1994-1995 period. Labile metals released by WWTP were also considered by comparing fluxes in the effluent discharge of two different WWTPs to those flowing in the receiving river. Fluxes discharged by the largest plant were similar to those measured in the river during low-flow periods whereas they were negligible for the smaller one. Nevertheless, labile metal concentrations in both discharges were similar and the wastewater discharge’s contribution to labile fluxes in receiving waters seems to depend mostly on the relative significance of the discharge flow compared to the receiving water flow.

Buzier, Rémy; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Keirsbulck, Marion; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

396

Process for biological wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

For the biological purification of wastewater in a reactor in the presence of open-pore and compressible carrier material for biomass, the carrier material, prior to its use in the reactor, is loaded with bacteria, finely divided, inorganic and/or organic compounds, selected for wastewater purification, and is then either stored or used in the process, the loaded carrier being especially useful for decreasing the start-up time of a wastewater treatment plant.

Frydman, A.; Reimann, H.

1984-09-04

397

[Application of wastewater land treatment technique to the construction of ecological engineering in sand land].  

PubMed

In this paper studies on the feasibility of harmlessness and resource of wastewater, which was discharged from a thermal power plant, by using slow rate filtration of land treatment technique for the fast recovery of vegetation in the Kubuqi sand land were carried out. The selected arbor, shrub and herbage in the land treatment system were poplar (Populus alba Var. Pyramidalis bunge), seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and sweet clover (Melilotus suaveolens) respectively. Three levels of wastewater hydraulic loading were designed in the field pilot experiment. They were high plot with 3000 mm/a irrigation (H), medium plot with 1500 mm/a irrigation (M) and low plot (L) with small volume of irrigation only used in the period of transplant seedlings. The performance indicate that the purification function of power plant wastewater by pre-treatment through combination of precipitation pool with storage ponds is effective and therefore the effluent after pretreatment can be used to irrigation vegetation. The experiment results show that the volume of tree crown for poplar in H plot and M plot was up to 1.07 and 2.21 times comparing with L plot respectively. The annual yield (dry weight) of sweet clover in H plot and M plot was up to 2.33 and 3.0 times comparing with L plot respectively. The height of seabuckthorn in H zone and M plot was up to 1.08 and 1.32 times comparing with L plot respectively. There is direct proportion between growth status of vegetation and hydraulic loading of irrigation. The contents of heavy metals for sweet clover (Cd 0.021 mg/kg, Pb<0.001 mg/kg, Cr <0.01 mg/kg, As 0.043 mg/kg) are much lower than the food standards of grain and vegetables, therefore the sweet clover for raising livestock is safe. Wastewater in this area is valuable source. Its reasonable utilization can contribute important benefits in economy and ecology in the ecological construction and developing effective agriculture and animal husbandry. PMID:16124473

Li, Pei-jun; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Sun, Tie-heng; Tai, Pei-dong; Chang, Shi-jun; Xiong, Xian-zhe; Li, Ying-mei

2005-05-01

398

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater, WWTPs effluents and in the recipient waters of Beijing, China.  

PubMed

In this study, surface water samples from the Wenyu River and the North Canal, effluent from major wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing, and wastewater from open sewers that discharge directly into the river system were collected and analyzed for 16 priority USEPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentrations of these 16 PAHs ranged from 193 to 1790 ng/L in river surface waters, 245 to 404 ng/L in WWTP effluents, and 431 to 2860 ng/L in the wastewater from the small sewers. The WWTP effluent was the main contributor of dissolved PAHs to the river, while wastewater from the small sewers contributed both dissolved and suspended particulate matter-associated PAH to the river as indicated by the high dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate matter contents in the wastewater. Although the flow from each open sewer was small, a PAH discharge as high as 44 kg/year could occur into the river from these types of sewers. This amount was equivalent to about 22 % of the PAH loads discharged into the North Canal downstream from Beijing, whereas the remainder was mainly released by the major WWTPs in Beijing. PMID:23292225

Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Qu, Jiuhui

2013-06-01

399

Stereoisomeric profiling of pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and iopromide in wastewater and river water, China.  

PubMed

Stereoisomeric compositions can provide insights into sources, fate, and ecological risks of contaminants in the environment. In this study, stereoisomeric profiles of ibuprofen and iopromide were investigated in wastewater and receiving surface water of the Pearl River Delta, south China. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) of ibuprofen was 0.108-0.188 and 0.480, whereas the isomer ratio (IR) of iopromide was 1.426-1.673 and 1.737-1.898 in the influent and final effluent, respectively, suggesting stereoselective degradation occurred for both pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment. Ibuprofen showed enantioselective degradation in the anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions, whereas iopromide displayed isomer-selective degradation only under the aerobic condition. In the river waters, the EF of ibuprofen was 0.130-0.327 and the IR of iopromide was 1.500-2.531. The results suggested that pharmaceuticals in the mainstream Pearl River were mainly from discharge of treated wastewater, whereas in the tributary rivers and urban canals, direct discharge of untreated wastewater represented a significant contribution. The IR of iopromide can be an applicable and efficient tracer for wastewater discharge in the environment. PMID:23801342

Wang, Zhifang; Huang, Qiuxin; Yu, Yiyi; Wang, Chunwei; Ou, Weihui; Peng, Xianzhi

2013-10-01

400

A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers.  

PubMed

Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat. PMID:24216228

Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

2014-01-01

401

Wastewater reuse with groundwater safeguard.  

PubMed

In Morocco, reuse of raw wastewater for irrigation is practised around the big cities without taking into account the sanitary and environmental concerns. All national institutions involved in wastewater problems are convinced of the need for wastewater treatment with extensive systems before it can be applied for agricultural reuse. Our experimental work on wastewater treatment using lagooning, macrophytic plants, reed beds, infiltration percolation or over-land flow showed that of all these extensive systems lead to an effluent classified into category B according to WHO guidelines. However, the amount of nitrogen largely exceeded the crops' requirements and could cause serious problems for groundwater. Using the DRASTIC method, a vulnerability map was established for groundwater in the plain surrounding the city of Marrakech. The estimates of nitrogen amounts from wastewater that can reach groundwater after crop uptakes showed that only the low vulnerability zone could be safely irrigated with the treated wastewater. The second zone of moderate vulnerability covering 50% of the area in the plain could receive the treated wastewater, but a careful program of irrigation is required to avoid nitrate contamination of groundwater. The third zone at a high vulnerability level should be protected, without any further irrigation using wastewater, even after extensive treatment. This new approach integrating the results of the preliminary vulnerability study of groundwater zones could constitute a helpful tool to improve management of regional projects of wastewater reclamation and reuse. PMID:10842817

Ouazzani, N; Lyakhloufi, S; Errouane, S; Boussaid, A

2000-01-01

402

An investigation of the reaction kinetics of photocatalytic wastewater treatment using suspended titanium dioxide catalyst  

E-print Network

The goal of wastewater treatment is to remove compounds that may be harmful to the natural ecosystem or to humans. Although traditional treatment is fairly effective in meeting water quality standards, current technologies ...

Hotz, William Joseph, Jr

2014-01-01

403

Model Test of Proposed Loading Rates for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

State regulatory agencies set standards for onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS), commonly known as septic systems, based on expected hydraulic performance and nitrogen (N) treatment in soils of differing texture. In a previous study, hydraulic loading rates were proposed fo...

404

Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

1998-07-01

405

Viability of increasing the tariff of freshwater for irrigation as a tool to stimulate wastewater reuse in the MENA region.  

PubMed

Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common tool to make reuse attractive. However, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is ineffectual due to farmers' access to freshwater for irrigation at low tariff. Therefore, increasing the prices of freshwater in such a way that does not jeopardize feasibility of agriculture would promote irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even at increased prices. On one hand, it increases the gap between the price of freshwater and that of reclaimed wastewater, making the later more attractive. On the other hand, it would be used as a financial resource for funding the investment costs of the infrastructure needed for conveyance and distribution of reclaimed wastewater. This paper studies the viability of increasing the prices of freshwater and reclaimed wastewater. The results show that irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even for restricted irrigation can be as profitable as, and sometimes better than, freshwater irrigation. Some of the permitted crops such as fruit trees can be more profitable than vegetables. Thus, it appears that the level of knowledge farmers and others on the benefits of reclaimed wastewater is still limited. PMID:18496015

Abu-Madi, M; Al-Sa'ed, R; Braadbaart, O; Alaerts, G

2008-01-01

406

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

407

CROSSFLOW ULTRAFILTRATION OF OILY WASTEWATER FROM VEGETABLE OIL INDUSTRY USING INORGANIC MEMBRANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetal oil industry produces large volumes of aqueous effluents in many of the operations involved in oil solvent extraction and crude oil refining processes. Therefore, these generated waste-waters should not be discharged without a suitable treatment in order to prevent negative impacts in the environment and allow the recovery of high added value products. At present, membrane separation processes

G. Z. Baralla; M. A. Matte

408

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

409

Wastewater treatment for reuse and its contribution to water supplies. Final report April 1975September 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA\\/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking water intakes, and for potential domestic reuse purposes. Treatment reliability was demonstrated and performance results showed the absence

H. P. Warner; J. N. English

1978-01-01

410

Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: Implications for water governance and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions

Munir A. Hanjra; John Blackwell; Gemma Carr; Fenghua Zhang; Tamara M. Jackson

411

WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, JAMAICA BAY, NEW YORK. VOLUME I. SUMMARY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Jamaica Bay ecosystem and wastewater discharges to the bay were characterized during a comprehensive 3-year study. The primary objective of the project was the development of management criteria and procedures for the bay ecosystem, with major emphasis on combined sewer overf...

412

Greywater treatment as an option for effective wastewater management in small communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of four different investigations where greywater is treated with low technology as achieved a constructed wetland and a gravel and sand filter as well as with a high-tech option: the membrane bioreactor. The applications are perfectly suited to be operated in remote areas or small communities with tourist depending variation of discharged wastewater flows. The

René Scheumann; Fabio Masi; Bouchaib El Hamouri; Matthias Kraume

2009-01-01

413

The treatment of brewery wastewater for reuse: State of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beer brewing process often generates large amounts of wastewater effluent and solid wastes that must be disposed off or treated in the least costly and safest way so as to meet the strict discharge regulations that are set by government entities to protect life (both human and animal) and the environment. It is widely estimated that for every one

Geoffrey S. Simate; John Cluett; Sunny E. Iyuke; Evans T. Musapatika; Sehliselo Ndlovu; Lubinda F. Walubita; Allex E. Alvarez

2011-01-01

414

Ecological Effectiveness of Vetiver Constructed Wetlands in Treating Oil-Refined Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater produced from the oil refinery of the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro-Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants, therefore it cannot be discharged directly into river or sea unless being treated first. Four plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironia articutala we re planted in large containers as a ver tical flow wetland

Hanping Xia; Honghua Ke; Zhaoping Deng; Peng Tan; Shizhong Liu

415

Water quality in the shingle creek basin, Florida, before and after wastewater diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shingle Creek is a major inflow to Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. Water quality and the trophic status of Lake Tohopekaliga are affected strongly by the water quality of Shingle Creek. This report documents 10 yr of water quality data in Shingle Creek at the lake outfall; for a pre- (October 1981-December 1986) and a post-wastewater discharge (January 1987-September 1991) removal period.

1994-01-01

416

TREATED WASTEWATER AS A SOURCE OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO NEAR-COASTAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore wa...

417

Controlled natural purification system for advanced wastewater treatment and protein conversion and recovery  

SciTech Connect

The invention is an improved controlled natural purification system for an advanced wastewater treatment and protein conversion and recovery. The system provides for treating municipal wastewater and associated organic industrial discharges anaerobically and aerobically. The system consists of such treatments in a tank complex where the waste organics are reduced to inorganic forms available for microalgae culture in tanks uniquely designed for rapid growth. The system includes a recovery mechanism to recover the algae for food purposes. Utilizing organic wastewater as the renewable resource, the system has the potential to develop from a wastewater treatment process that removes excess nutrients, producing reusable water and a commercially valuable algal by-product, to large scale algae farming cost-effectively producing millions of tons per year of sterile, stable, high protein algal foodstuff.

Thompson, W.J.

1981-05-12

418

Spleen removal - child - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Splenectomy - child - discharge; Spleen removal - child - discharge ... Your child's spleen was removed after your child was given general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). If your child had open ...

419

Foot amputation - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

420

Tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal evaluation for 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses and analyzes information and issues regarding tritium and tritium management. It was prepared in response to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-05A for the evaluation of tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal. The key elements of the report are summarized as follows: Discharge of tritiated water is regulated worldwide. Differences exist in discharge limits and in regulatory philosophy from country to country and from state to state in the United States. Tritium from manmade sources is emitted into the atmosphere and discharged into the ground or directly to the oceans and to waterways that empty into the oceans. In 1989, reported worldwide emissions of tritium from nuclear power generating plants totaled almost 1,000,000 Curies (Ci).

Not Available

1994-08-01

421

Toxic effects of wastewater from various phases of monosodium glutamate production on seed germination and root elongation of crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make a comprehensive assessment on monosodium glutamate (MSG) wastewater pollution, a pollution exposure experiment was\\u000a carried out on the seed germination and root elongation of wheat, Chinese cabbage and tomato by using the wastewater discharged\\u000a from different processing phases of MSG production. The results showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships\\u000a between the inhibitory rates of wheat seed

Rui Liu; Qixing Zhou; Lanying Zhang; Hao Guo

2007-01-01

422

Statistical considerations in estimating organism concentrations in ballast water discharges  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling probabilities may affect the practical use of different ballast water performance standards which establish the acceptable concentration of organisms in ballast discharges. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has initiated a ballast water standard of ...

423

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

424

Computing discharge using the index velocity method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression techniques in which the mean cross-sectional velocity for the standard section is related to the measured index velocity. Most ratings are simple-linear regressions, but more complex ratings may be necessary in some cases. Once the rating is established, validation measurements should be made periodically. Over time, validation measurements may provide additional definition to the rating or result in the creation of a new rating. The computation of discharge is the last step in the index velocity method, and in some ways it is the most straight-forward step. This step differs little from the steps used to compute discharge records for stage-discharge gaging stations. The ratings are entered into database software used for records computation, and continuous records of discharge are computed.

Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

2012-01-01

425

Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

2013-06-01

426

N-nitrosodimethylamine: a disinfectant byproduct and its occurrence in wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper will provide wastewater treatment utility professionals with a comprehensive synthesis of information pertinent to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) so that plant operators can make informed and cost-effective decisions regarding appropriate management techniques. A suspect disinfection byproduct, NDMA is a potential carcinogen and is presently under scrutiny from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency because it poses a threat to groundwaters from reclaimed wastewaters. Recognizing that the current state of knowledge pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of NDMA from wastewater treatment is in its infancy, the information presented in this paper is timely and will help utility professionals develop confidence toward controlling NDMA during wastewater treatment. Given the increased probability of the formation of NDMA using current wastewater treatment technologies and also in the complex matrices of the wastewaters subjected to UV treatment, the investigation of occurrence pathways and means of suppression of NDMA formation before and after treatment needs to be investigated. This paper also summarizes strategies to minimize exposure such as modifying treatment or instituting waste and agricultural management practices that minimize inorganic and organic nitrogen discharges to wastewaters. PMID:15508422

Siddiqui, Mohamed; Atasi, Khalil Z

2004-01-01

427

Gastric bypass surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass- Roux-en-Y - discharge ... Leslie D, Kellogg TA, Ikramuddin S. Bariatric surgery primer for the ... Med Clin North Am . 2007;91:353-381. Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, ...

428

Process for biological wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the biological purification of wastewater in a reactor in the presence of open-pore and compressible carrier material for biomass, the carrier material, prior to its use in the reactor, is loaded with bacteria, finely divided, inorganic and\\/or organic compounds, selected for wastewater purification, and is then either stored or used in the process, the loaded carrier being especially useful

A. Frydman; H. Reimann

1984-01-01

429

Water/Wastewater Process Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has information about water treatment and wastewater treatment as well as additional topics such as, cogeneration, fuel cells and energy efficiency in water treatment. Sponsored by the California Energy Commission, this site is an excellent introduction to the topic of wastewater treatment.

2007-02-10

430

Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development, design and applications of electrochemical technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Particular focus was given to electrodeposition, electrocoagulation (EC), electroflotation (EF) and electrooxidation. Over 300 related publications were reviewed with 221 cited or analyzed. Electrodeposition is effective in recover heavy metals from wastewater streams. It is considered as an established technology with possible further development

Guohua Chen

2004-01-01

431

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

432

Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

1992-01-01

433

Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

434

Printing ink and paper recycling sources of TMDD in wastewater and rivers.  

PubMed

2,4,7,9-Tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) is a non-ionic surfactant which is preferentially used as defoamer in paints and printing ink and for the treatment of surfaces. Effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as the domination point sources for TMDD in rivers since the removal rate of the compound in the WWTPs is in general less than 70%. However, the dominating entry pathways of TMDD into the sewage were unknown so far. In this study effluents from both, municipal WWTPs with and without treatment of indirect industrial dischargers and from industrial WWTPs with direct discharge of wastewater into receiving rivers were analyzed for the first time to identify the proportions of TMDD coming from domestic wastewater and from various industrial sources. Moreover, rivers were samples before and after the influent of sewage water from WWTPs. The TMDD concentrations in the water samples were measured using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). High TMDD concentrations were found in rivers (up to 63.5 ?g/L), and in effluents of WWTPs (up to 310 ?g/L) affected by wastewater from paper recycling industry and factories producing paint and printing ink. Concentrations of TMDD revealed to be far higher in wastewater from factories processing recycled paper (up to 113 ?g/L) compared to wastewater from factories not processing recycled paper (0.066 ?g/L). The results indicate that the use of recycling paper in the paper production process is the dominating reason for increased TMDD concentrations in wastewaters and receiving rivers due to the wash out of TMDD from the paper impregnated with printing ink. Very high TMDD concentrations (up to 3300 ?g/L) were also detected in wastewater from a printing ink factory and a paint factory. PMID:24061058

Guedez, Arlen A; Püttmann, Wilhelm

2014-01-15

435

Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters generated during petroleum refining, coal coking, and coal gasification contain a variety of organic compounds which pollute the environment and may be toxic to aquatic life if discharged into natural waters. Recent research has demonstrated the ability of the anaerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) reactor to successfully treat coal gasification wastewater. In this system pollutants can be classified as anaerobically biodegradable, adsorbable on GAC, and inhibitory to a portion or all the anaerobic culture. Objectives of this research were: to investigate the effect of the GAC mean residence time on the performance of the anaerobic GAC reactor; to evaluate the influence of the organic loading rate and the hydraulic retention time on process performance; and to develop a steady-state model of the process. A synthetic wastewater containing 5 g/l acetic acid, 3 g/l phenol, and 1.8--0.9 g/l ortho-cresol was fed to two reactors operating at unexpanded-empty-bed hydraulic retention times of 1.0 and 0.5 days. The total daily mass of o-cresol fed to the two systems was identical. In addition, a third reactor was operated at an unexpanded-empty-bed hydraulic retention time of 1.0 day and treated a wastewater containing only 5 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l phenol. Steady-state data were collected after at least 3 turnovers of the GAC mean residence time. 118 refs., 70 figs., 14 tabs.

Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Traegner, U.K.; Vidic, R.

1989-12-01

436

Comparative assessment of municipal wastewater disposal methods in southeast Florida.  

PubMed

A comparative assessment of the risks of three effluent disposal alternatives currently available to wastewater utilities in Southeast Florida is presented in this paper. The alternatives are: deep well injection and ocean outfalls following secondary treatment, and surface water (canal) discharges following secondary wastewater treatment, filtration and nutrient removal. Water quality data, relative to disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent were gathered, along with water quality data on the receiving waters, from utilities. Comparisons and conclusions regarding potential health concerns associated with the three disposal alternatives are presented. The results indicated that health risks associated with deep wells were generally lower than those of the other two alternatives. The proximity of injection wells to aquifer storage and recovery wells was a determining factor relative to injection well risk. Urban ecological risks were also indicated to be lower, though impacts of urban water use/reuse to the Everglades were not studied. Additional data collection and analysis were recommended to understand the effects of wastewater management on the cycling of water, nutrients and other constituents on southeast Florida. In particular, it was recommended that monitoring of effluents for nitrosamines and pharmaceutically active substances be implemented on a broad scale. PMID:16274082

Bloetscher, Frederick; Englehardt, James D; Chin, David A; Rose, Joan B; Tchobanoglous, George; Amy, Vincent P; Gokgoz, Sinem

2005-01-01

437

Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

2006-01-01

438

Monsanto analytical testing program for NPDES discharge self-monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsanto Analytical Testing (MAT) program was devised and implemented in order to provide analytical standards to Monsanto manufacturing plants involved in the self-monitoring of plant discharges as required by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions. Standards are prepared and supplied at concentration levels normally observed at each individual plant. These levels were established by canvassing all Monsanto

T. J. Hoogheem; L. A. Woods

1985-01-01

439

40 CFR 421.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Electrolytic Copper Refining...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary electrolytic copper...

2012-07-01

440

40 CFR 421.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Aluminum Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary aluminum process...

2013-07-01

441

40 CFR 421.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Lead Subcategory § 421...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary lead process...

2012-07-01

442

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary antimony process...

2011-07-01

443

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting...

2011-07-01

444

40 CFR 421.306 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Titanium...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary and secondary...

2013-07-01

445

40 CFR 421.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Aluminum Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary aluminum process...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting...

2013-07-01

447

40 CFR 421.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Lead Subcategory § 421...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary lead process...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 421.75 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Lead Subcategory § 421...standards for existing sources. Except as provided...standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary lead process...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 421.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary and secondary...

2012-07-01

450

40 CFR 421.75 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Lead Subcategory § 421...standards for existing sources. Except as provided...standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary lead process...

2012-07-01

451

40 CFR 421.185 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium...standards for existing sources. Except as provided...standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary and secondary...

2012-07-01

452

40 CFR 421.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Aluminum Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary aluminum process...

2012-07-01

453

40 CFR 421.185 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium...standards for existing sources. Except as provided...standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary and secondary...

2013-07-01

454

40 CFR 421.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Electrolytic Copper Refining...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary electrolytic copper...

2013-07-01

455

40 CFR 421.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary nickel and cobalt...

2013-07-01

456

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting...

2010-07-01

457

40 CFR 421.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Nickel and Cobalt Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary nickel and cobalt...

2012-07-01

458

40 CFR 421.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary and secondary...

2013-07-01

459

40 CFR 421.306 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Titanium...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary and secondary...

2012-07-01

460

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary antimony process...

2010-07-01

461

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary antimony process...

2012-07-01

462

40 CFR 421.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Aluminum Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary aluminum process...

2011-07-01

463

40 CFR 421.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary antimony process...

2013-07-01

464

40 CFR 421.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory...Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided...pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary copper smelting...

2012-07-01

465

40 CFR 420.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant or pollutant property New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day...

2011-07-01

466

40 CFR 420.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant or pollutant property New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day...

2010-07-01

467

40 CFR 420.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant or pollutant property New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day...

2012-07-01

468

40 CFR 420.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wastewater pollutants from any new source subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant or pollutant property New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day...

2013-07-01

469

Use of submerged anaerobic–anoxic–oxic membrane bioreactor to treat highly toxic coke wastewater with complete sludge retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coke wastewater is an extremely toxic industrial effluent that requires treatment before discharge. A bench-scale, anaerobic–anoxic–oxic membrane bioreactor (A1\\/A2\\/O-MBR) system was utilized to treat real coke wastewater with complete sludge retention. In a 160-d test, the A1\\/A2\\/O-MBR system stably removed 87.9±1.6% of chemical oxygen demand, 99.4±0.3% of turbidity, and 99.7±3.5% of NH4+-N from coke wastewater. The membrane rejected almost all

Wen-Tao Zhao; Xia Huang; Duu-Jong Lee; Xiao-Hui Wang; Yue-Xiao Shen

2009-01-01

470

Bacteriological and physico-chemical assessment of wastewater in different region of Tunisia: impact on human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In many parts of the world, health problems and diseases have often been caused by discharging untreated or inadequately treated\\u000a wastewater. In this study, we aimed to control physico-chemical parameters in wastewater samples. Also, microbiological analyses\\u000a were done to reveal Salmonella strains and each Escherichia coli (E.coli) pathotype.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  Sixty wastewater samples were collected from fifteen different regions of Tunisia. All

Imen Ben Salem; Imen Ouardani; Mouna Hassine; Mahjoub Aouni

2011-01-01

471

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOEpatents

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1990-01-01