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1

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2013-07-01

2

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2010-07-01

3

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wastewater or residual is discharged to an underground injection well for which the owner or operator has been issued a...the wastewater enters the underground portion of the injection well. (14) Residuals. For each residual...

2011-07-01

4

Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

Marella, R.L.

1994-01-01

5

Victoria`s wastewater discharges: Effects on the marine environment  

SciTech Connect

The Capital Regional District discharges screened wastewater through two long deep outfalls into Juan de Fuca Strait, a water body bordered by both Canada and the US. Concerns have been expressed about the effects of this discharge on water quality in US waters. The wastewater is released into an oceanic environment characterized by strong turbulent tidal flows. Monitoring of the receiving waters has indicated that conventional water quality parameters have not been affected by the discharges. Fecal coliform levels above the outfalls are periodically elevated but remain well below the swimming standard. Shoreline studies of fecal coliform levels have shown that the deep outfalls have not measurably affected water quality at beaches. Recently, monitoring efforts have concentrated on effects to the seafloor environment. One of the outfalls (Macaulay Point) discharges to a depositional environment. At Macaulay Point chemical levels of concern were confined to within 100--400 m of the outfall with the exception of high PAH levels associated with the shipwreck of a collier. Similarly, sediment toxicity was detected at stations up to 400 m from the diffusers. This toxicity was limited to effects on growth and development. Survival was not affected. The benthic infaunal community exhibited a typical response to organic enrichment. Within 100 m of the outfall abundance was increased and richness depressed. The other outfall (Clover Point) discharges to an area of cobble substrate. Consequently, sediment analysis was not practical. Instead, tissue chemistry of resident mussels was examined. No consistent pattern with distance from the outfall was evident. Some tissue chemicals increased with distance from the diffuser while others decreased. Overall the impact of the outfalls on the seafloor was found to be minimal and restricted in extent.

Taylor, L.A.; Miller, R.A.; Pym, R.V. [Capital Regional District, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

6

[Assessment on the COD discharge status of municipal wastewater treatment plant in a city of China].  

PubMed

Based on the statistical theory, the paper collected routine monitoring data for 3 years of 11 municipal wastewater treatment plants with secondary treatment or enhanced secondary treatment in a northern city in China, and analysis of the discharge concentration distribution of COD showed a Delta-lognormal distribution. On this basis, referring to the formulation methods of water pollutant discharge limits used in the USA, the paper studied and assessed the discharge status of COD of the municipal wastewater treatment plants in the city, including the daily maximum and the monthly average discharge status, and came to the conclusion that the daily maximum discharge status met the first grade A class discharge standard (50 mg · L(-1)) required by the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002). Meanwhile, the assessment conclusion was obtained for the monthly average discharge status, and the conclusions were discussed. The assessment method and the conclusions in this paper might provide reference for formulation and revision of water discharge standards. PMID:25693413

Zhou, Yu-Hua; Lu, Yan-Na; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Jing; Lei, Jing; Shen, Chen; Wu, Xue-Fang

2014-10-01

7

Field measurements and monitoring of wastewater discharge in sea water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of the field measurements and monitoring of wastewater discharge in sea water at Bari East (Italy). A wastewater sea outfall system is an integral and fundamental part of each wastewater treatment with ultimate sink in the sea water. The design of a water treatment plant and wastewater outfall must take into account the use of the environmental water, the values of physicochemical parameters to be respected in order to safeguard the use itself and the quality of the environmental water where wastewater is issued. In the present study measurements of sea current velocity components were carried out with a VM-ADP (Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler). Salinity, wind directions and velocities were assessed with, for one survey, the total faecal coliforms and other biochemical parameters. It was emphasized that the measurements necessary for monitoring cannot be concentrated in the wastewater outfall pipe zone only, but should be extended to a neighbouring area of the outfall pipe, with an extension depending on the wastewater discharge, the polluting charge and the magnitude of the sea currents and the winds typical of the zone of interest. The analyses presented in this paper confirm that the sea zones close to the wastewater outfall pipe are particularly sensitive and vulnerable. Such results must be considered in the planning of a wastewater outfall pipe.

Mossa, Michele

2006-07-01

8

Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

2014-07-01

9

The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships.  

PubMed

In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both black water and gray water discharges sometimes exceeded state water quality standards for toxicants. The state convened a Science Advisory Panel (the Panel) to evaluate impacts associated with cruise ship wastewater discharges. The effluent data received wide media coverage and increased public concerns. Consequently, legislative decisions were made at the State and Federal level, and regulations were imposed before the Panel completed its evaluation. The Panel demonstrated that following the rapid dilution from moving cruise ships, the effluent data from the Summer of 2000 would not have exceeded water quality standards, and environmental effects were not expected. PMID:16406006

Loehr, Lincoln C; Beegle-Krause, C-J; George, Kenwyn; McGee, Charles D; Mearns, Alan J; Atkinson, Marlin J

2006-06-01

10

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges  

E-print Network

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges in the implications of seasonal disinfection practices of wastewater effluents for meeting water quality goals from municipal wastewater outfalls along the river, as well as upstream and downstream of each outfall

Mitch, William A.

11

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge on stream quality in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contaminants from point and other urban sources affect stream quality in Indian Creek, which is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities discharge to Indian Creek. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, during June 2004 through June 2013 were used to evaluate stream quality in Indian Creek. This fact sheet summarizes the effects of wastewater effluent discharge on physical, chemical, and biological conditions in Indian Creek downstream from the Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.

2014-01-01

12

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2013-07-01

13

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2010-07-01

14

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2012-07-01

15

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2011-07-01

16

40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? 63.11498 Section 63...standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems? (a) You must comply...Table 6, Item 1 to this subpart for all wastewater streams from a CMPU subject to...

2014-07-01

17

Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.  

PubMed

Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and the Corporation are all worse off when treatment levels are pushed beyond what is economic and sustainable. PMID:23183146

Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

2013-01-15

18

WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of waste-water and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described...

19

Comparison of spectrolyser device measurements with standard analysis of wastewater samples in Novi Sad, Serbia.  

PubMed

On-line monitoring was performed using spectrolyser equipment, coupled with laboratory analysis for samples collected from wastewater discharge in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, during first 24 h of three and 48 h of six monitoring campaigns from December of 2012 to April of 2013. Significant correlation with R(2) > 0.9 was observed between laboratory analysis and spectrolyser measurements for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations. COD/BOD5 ratio in combined industrial and municipal wastewater ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 indicating the presence of biodegradable organic matter which could be easily removed using aeration treatment process. Micro/trace element and/or heavy metals in wastewater samples were within the limits as per the standard prescribed for wastewater, and should not pose any serious hazard risk. However BOD, COD, ammonia and total phosphorus concentrations were measured above the limit value according to Serbian and EU legislation and should be reduced before discharging wastewater directly into the Danube River. PMID:24990395

Mihajlovi?, I; Pap, S; Srema?ki, M; Brbori?, M; Babunski, D; Dogo, M

2014-09-01

20

The removal of Direct Orange 39 by pulsed corona discharge from model wastewater.  

PubMed

Untreated wastewater from the dye industry and dyehouses cannot be directly discharged into the environment due to the high content of organic matter and intensive colouration, even with low concentrations of dye. In this paper, the application of a high voltage pulsed electrical discharge in the aqueous phase has been assessed for the dye degradation. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor using model wastewater of the commercial water-soluble monoazo dye C.I. Direct Orange 39 (DO39). The effects of zeolite and ferrous sulphate in combination with the corona discharge were examined. Experiments were conducted for a range of process parameters including pH, conductivity, type and amount of zeolite, and ferrous sulphate concentration. A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of DO39 degradation in the corona reactor was developed. Aqueous phase pulsed streamer corona discharge as a method for coloured wastewater treatment showed very high effectiveness in the case of iron salt addition (Fenton's reaction). Low pH enhanced dye removal by corona in the absence of zeolite, thus implying that the acid properties of zeolites are important in dye degradation. Ecological parameters such as COD, TC, IC, TOC and IC50 measured before and after corona treatment showed that the treated wastewater can be discharged into the environment or reused as process water. PMID:15346860

Vujevic, D; Koprivanac, N; Bozic, A Loncaric; Locke, B R

2004-07-01

21

Effect of Wastewater Discharge on Root Anatomy and Radial Oxygen Loss (ROL) Patterns of Three Mangrove Species in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wastewater discharge on radial oxygen loss (ROL) and root anatomy varied among mangrove species. ROL of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) increased from 22.44 ng cm min in the control (just fresh water) to 31.09 ng cm min when received normal wastewater (NW) and to 44.22 ng cm min when treated with strong wastewater (10NW). However, discharge of both

N. Pi; N. F. Y. Tam; M. H. Wong

2010-01-01

22

Assessment of effluent contaminants from three facilities discharging Marcellus Shale wastewater to surface waters in Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Unconventional natural gas development in Pennsylvania has created a new wastewater stream. In an effort to stop the discharge of Marcellus Shale unconventional natural gas development wastewaters into surface waters, on May 19, 2011 the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) requested drilling companies stop disposing their wastewater through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This research includes a chemical analysis of effluents discharged from three WWTPs before and after the aforementioned request. The WWTPs sampled included two municipal, publicly owned treatment works and a commercially operated industrial wastewater treatment plant. Analyte concentrations were quanitified and then compared to water quality criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MCLs and "human health criteria." Certain analytes including barium, strontium, bromides, chlorides, total dissolved solids, and benzene were measured in the effluent at concentrations above criteria. Analyte concentrations measured in effluent samples before and after the PADEP's request were compared for each facility. Analyte concentrations in the effluents decreased in the majority of samples after the PADEP's request (p < .05). This research provides preliminary evidence that these and similar WWTPs may not be able to provide sufficient treatment for this wastewater stream, and more thorough monitoring is recommended. PMID:23458378

Ferrar, Kyle J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Christen, Charles L; Mulcahy, Ned; Malone, Samantha L; Sharma, Ravi K

2013-04-01

23

Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. PMID:23886540

Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

2013-10-01

24

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2014-07-01

25

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2011-07-01

26

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2010-07-01

28

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH...Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020...following table that applies to your wastewater streams. For each . . . You...

2012-07-01

29

A COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES FOR DISCHARGING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a study to meet the following congressional directive: 8Within available funds, the conferees direct EPA to conduct a relative risk assessment of deep well injection, ocean disposal, surface discharge, and aquifer recharge of treated effluent in South Florida,...

30

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

31

WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 2. SIX MILL ENGINEERING REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of wastewater and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described ...

32

Treated domestic wastewater traditionally has been discharged offshore in coastal areas via ocean outfalls. In response to environmental concerns associated with ocean outfalls, deep  

E-print Network

1 Abstract Treated domestic wastewater traditionally has been discharged offshore in coastal areas injection of treated wastewater into non-potable aquifers has become increasingly used as an alternative. These deep aquifers tend to be saline, and the discharge of fresh wastewater into them raises concerns

Sukop, Mike

33

Detection of a buoyant coastal wastewater discharge using airborne hyperspectral and infrared imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal wastewater discharged into the ocean through a submerged pipe, or outfall, can rise buoyantly to the sea surface, resulting in a near-field mixing zone and, in the presence of an ambient ocean current, an extended surface plume. In this paper, data from a CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) and an airborne infrared (IR) camera are shown to detect a municipal wastewater discharge off the southeast coast of Florida, U.S.A., through its elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter plus detrital material (CDOM) and cooler sea surface temperatures. CDOM levels within a ~15-m-diameter surface 'boil' are found to be about twice those in the ambient shelf water, and surface temperatures near the boil are lower by ~0.4°C, comparable to the vertical temperature difference across the ambient water column. The CASI and IR imagery show a nearly identically shaped buoyant plume, consistent with a fully surfacing discharge, but the IR data more accurately delineate the area of most rapid dilution as compared with previous in-situ measurements. The imagery also allows identification of ambient oceanographic processes that affect dispersion and transport in the far field. This includes an alongshore front, which limits offshore dispersion of the discharge, and shoreward-propagating nonlinear internal waves, which may be responsible for an enhanced onshore transport of the discharge.

Marmorino, George O.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Miller, W. D.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

34

Degradation of selected organophosphate pesticides in wastewater by dielectric barrier discharge plasma.  

PubMed

In this paper, degradation of selected organophosphate pesticides (dichlorvos and dimethoate) in wastewater by dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) was studied. DBD parameters, i.e. discharge powers and air-gap distances, differently affect their degradation efficiency. The results show that better degradation efficiency is obtained with a higher discharge power and a shorter air-gap distance. The effect of radical intervention degradation was also investigated by adding radical scavenger (tert-butyl alcohol) to the pesticide solution during the experiments. The result shows that the degradation efficiency is restrained in the presence of radical scavenger. It clearly demonstrates that hydroxyl radicals are most likely the main driver for degradation process. Moreover, the kinetics indicate that the disappearance rate of pesticides follows the first-order rate law when the initial concentration of the solution is low, but shifts to zero-order at a higher initial concentration. PMID:23835613

Hu, Yingmei; Bai, Yanhong; Yu, Hu; Zhang, Chunhong; Chen, Jierong

2013-09-01

35

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2014-07-01

36

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-07-01

37

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

38

33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-07-01

39

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2014-07-01

40

33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2012-07-01

41

Recovery of astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, studies were carried out to extract astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin and to reveal the scavenging effect of the obtained pigment on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Different ratios of dichloromethane/methanol (V/V) were used to extract astaxanthin. When the ratio of dichloromethane/methanol was 2:8 and the ratio between the mixed organic solvent (dichloromethane/methanol, 2:8, V/V) and wastewater was 1:1, the highest yield of pigment was obtained (8.4 mg/50 mL). The concentration of free astaxanthin in the obtained pigment analyzed by HPLC was 30.02%. The obtained pigment possessed strong scavenging ability on DPPH radical and IC50 was 0.84mg/ml.

Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Shengfeng; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

2012-06-01

42

FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

Crockett, A.B.

1994-04-01

43

Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.  

PubMed

Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O?) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O? which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na?B?O? as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200 min when the discharge power was 170 W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na?B?O? because B?O?(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O?. The main reason was that O? can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

2014-08-01

44

Degradation of Aniline Wastewater Using Dielectric Barrier Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aniline is a toxic water pollutant detected in drinking water and surface water, and this chemical is harmful to both human and aquatic life. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was designed in this study to investigate the treatment of aniline in aqueous solution. Discharge characteristics were assessed by measuring voltage and current waveforms, capturing light emission images, and obtaining optical emission spectra. The effects of several parameters were analyzed, including treatment distance, discharge power, DBD treatment time, initial pH of aniline solutions, and addition of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the treatment. Aniline degradation increased with increasing discharge power. Under the same conditions, higher degradation was obtained at a treatment distance of 0 mm than at other treatment distances. At a discharge power of 21.5 W, 84.32% of aniline was removed after 10 min of DBD treatment. Initial pH significantly influenced aniline degradation. Adding a certain dosage of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater can accelerate the degradation rate of aniline. Possible degradation pathways of aniline by DBD plasmas were proposed based on the analytical data of GC/MS and TOC. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. BK20131412), the Environmental Protection Scientific Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. 201004)

WU, Haixia; FANG, Zhi; XU, Yanhua

2015-03-01

45

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553  

EPA Science Inventory

The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

46

Upgrading fertilizer production wastewater effluent quality for ammonium discharges through ion exchange with clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

It had previously been shown that ammonium selective natural zeolite clinoptilolite may be used successfully as an ion exchanger for ammonium removal and nitrogen control from domestic wastewater. The process had been reported to be acceptable either by itself alone or as an upgrade. In this work, the possibility of using clinoptilolite for ammonium removal from fertilizer production wastewater was investigated. The fertilizer plant under consideration was rather a non-typical one with a lower ammonium strength than what is normally expected, and a variable effluent concentration. Batch experiments were performed to assess the capacity of clinoptilolite towards ammonium removal from an industrial wastewater at two different pHs. Flow experiments for the characterization of system behavior under continuous feeding conditions at different contact times were conducted for breakthrough analysis. Both real and simulated fertilizer wastewater samples were investigated and the results have shown that the real one may successfully be represented by the simulated one. Experimental results have shown that surface capacities exceeding 14 mg ammonium g(-1) clinoptilolite could be attained, complete removal of ammonium may be achieved with empty bed contact times of 10 min or higher and ion exchange with clinoptilolite could be used successfully to comply with the effluent standards given for the fertilizer plant. PMID:18702292

Beler-Baykal, B; Allar, A D

2008-06-01

47

Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

1996-01-01

48

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-?m size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose–responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios.

Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

2013-01-01

49

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.  

PubMed

As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems, although it may underestimate invasions by asexual and parthenogenic species. Further research is needed to better define propagule dose-responses, densities at which Allee effects occur, approaches to predicting the likelihood of invasion from multi-species introductions, and generation of formal comparisons of approaches using standardized scenarios. PMID:23634582

Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

2013-03-01

50

40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.64 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2010-07-01

51

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

52

BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. he objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded "wastewater" samples u...

53

Assessment of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) health indicators in relation to domestic wastewater discharges in suburbs of Houston, USA.  

PubMed

Personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can impact aquatic organisms. Health indicators were compared for mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) collected above and below WWTP discharges from five streams in suburban areas of the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA. Specimens were evaluated for reproductive, morphological, and histological indicators. Several indicators revealed significant spatial and temporal variation; however, possibly because of their mobility, fish collected upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plants did not reveal consistent trends based on the endpoints examined. CEC concentrations in water samples from stream reaches below WWTP discharges were quantified for the first time in the Houston Metropolitan area. The 18 CECs detected in stream water had concentrations lower than values currently reported to impact fish. Future research should examine caged fish at each site and fish collected over longer stream reaches that receive successive discharges from WWTP and stronger CEC gradients. PMID:24615506

Watkins, Crystal D; Winemiller, Kirk O; Mora, Miguel A; Du, Bowen; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W; Phalen, David

2014-07-01

54

Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green Pond, and Bournes River. Approximately 76 percent of the total nitrate-N mass in the plume will discharge to these receptors within 100 years of 2007; 90 and 94 percent will discharge within 200 and 500 years, respectively. Nitrate loads will peak within about 50 years at all of the major receptors. The highest peak loads will occur at the Coonamessett River (450 kg per year (kg/yr) nitrate-N) and the Backus River (350 kg/yr nitrate-N). Because of adsorption, travel times are longer for ammonium than for nitrate; approximately 5 percent of the total ammonium-N mass in the plume will discharge to receptors within 100 years; 46 and 81 percent will discharge within 200 and 500 years, respectively. The simulations indicate that the Coonamessett River will receive the largest cumulative nitrogen mass and the highest rate of discharge (load). Ongoing discharge to Ashumet Pond is relatively minor because most of the wastewater plume mass has already migrated downgradient from the pond. To evaluate the contribution of the nitrogen loads from the treated-wastewater plume to total nitrogen loads to the discharge areas, the simulated treated-wastewater plume loads were compared to steady-state nonpoint-source loads calculated by the Massachusetts Estuaries Project for 2005. Simulation results indicate that the total nitrogen loads from the treated-wastewater plume are much lower than corresponding steady-state nonpoint-source loads from the watersheds; peak plume loads are equal to 11 percent or less of the nonpoint-source loads.

Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

2013-01-01

55

Perfluoroalkyl acids in selected wastewater treatment plants and their discharge load within the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya.  

PubMed

A major ecological challenge facing Lake Victoria basin is the influx of chemical contaminants from domestic, hospital, and industrial effluents. Determined levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in wastewater and sludge from selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Kenya are presented and their daily discharge loads calculated for the first time within the Lake Victoria basin. Samples were extracted and separated using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS or LC-MS/MS methodology. All sewage sludge and wastewater samples obtained from the WWTPs contained detectable levels of PFAAs in picogram per gram dry weight (d.w.) and in nanogram per liter, respectively. There was variability in distribution of PFAAs in domestic, hospital, and industrial waste with domestic WWPTs observed to contain higher levels. Almost all PFAA homologues of chain length C-6 and above were detected in samples analyzed, with long-chain PFAAs (C-8 and above chain length) being dominant. The discharge from hospital contributes significantly to the amounts of PFAAs released to the municipal water systems and the lake catchment. Using the average output of wastewater from the five WWTPs, a mass load of 1013 mg day(-1) PFAAs per day discharged has been calculated, with the highest discharge obtained at Kisumu City (656 mg day(-1)). The concentration range of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in wastewater was 1.3-28 and 0.9-9.8 ng L(-1) and in sludge samples were 117-673 and 98-683 pg g(-1), respectively. PMID:25861900

Chirikona, Florah; Filipovic, Marko; Ooko, Seline; Orata, Francis

2015-05-01

56

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

57

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

Ansley, Shannon L.

2002-02-20

58

Nickel biosorption by discharged biomass from wastewater treatment bioreactor: size plays a key role.  

PubMed

Biomass size significantly affects the characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances, which in turn influences the biosorption mechanisms. In this work, nickel biosorption mechanisms and the capacity of excess aerobic granules (AGs) of >850 ?m, 500-850 ?m, 212-500 ?m, and bioflocs <212 ?m, discharged during wastewater treatment operation, were investigated by elemental composition and spectroscopic analysis. Ni(2+) biosorption capacity decreased apparently from 1.28-1.53 to 0.93 mEq/g with the increase of biomass size from 0-850 to >850 ?m due to their different biosorption mechanisms. Chemical binding between nickel and protein was dominant for biomass less than 850 ?m, whereas nickel adsorption was mainly physical when biogranule size was greater than 850 ?m, because the nickel had no opportunity to interact with protein located in the core of the biogranule. Only low levels of ion exchange (<15.22 %) and precipitation (negligible) were observed for all kinds of biomass. Thus, biomass greater and less than 850 ?m presented quite different biosorption mechanisms. PMID:25343974

Zhou, Dandan; Yang, Yang; Li, Yunbao; Xu, Zhengxue; Dong, Shanshan

2015-03-01

59

Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

2011-01-01

60

Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho  

PubMed Central

China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was ?2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, ?1.39%, and ?16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was ?4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, ?2.88%, and ?17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. PMID:22829800

Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

2012-01-01

61

Reducing effluent discharge and recovering bioenergy in an osmotic microbial fuel cell treating domestic wastewater  

E-print Network

August 2012 Available online 19 September 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Forward osmosis Wastewater osmosis into an MFC for simultaneous wastewater treatment, bioenergy recovery, and water extraction a major concern. Forward osmosis (FO), as a low-energy and low-fouling technology [6­8], is of special

62

Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek.

Aichele, Stephen Scranton; Ellis, James M.

2000-01-01

63

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...designed to accommodate such Discharges; (3) Solid or viscous...BOD, etc.) released in a Discharge at a flow rate and/or pollutant...result in the presence of toxic gases, vapors, or fumes within...hauled pollutants, except at discharge points designated by the...

2014-07-01

64

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...designed to accommodate such Discharges; (3) Solid or viscous...BOD, etc.) released in a Discharge at a flow rate and/or pollutant...result in the presence of toxic gases, vapors, or fumes within...hauled pollutants, except at discharge points designated by the...

2011-07-01

65

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed to accommodate such Discharges; (3) Solid or viscous...BOD, etc.) released in a Discharge at a flow rate and/or pollutant...result in the presence of toxic gases, vapors, or fumes within...hauled pollutants, except at discharge points designated by the...

2013-07-01

66

40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...designed to accommodate such Discharges; (3) Solid or viscous...BOD, etc.) released in a Discharge at a flow rate and/or pollutant...result in the presence of toxic gases, vapors, or fumes within...hauled pollutants, except at discharge points designated by the...

2012-07-01

67

Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

Frenzel, S.A.

1990-01-01

68

Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

69

Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay  

E-print Network

In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

Schroer, Lee Allen

2014-05-07

70

Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and climatic conditions of the Atlantic coast of northern Portugal result in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater into the ocean c. 3 km directly offshore (at ~16 m water depth) from S. Jacinto, 5 km to the north of the inlet to the estuarine coastal lagoon system of the Ria

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; T. S. Hopkins; J. M. Anderson

2002-01-01

71

Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and climatic conditions of the Atlantic coast of northern Portugal result in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater into the ocean c. 3 km directly offshore (at ˜16 m water depth) from S. Jacinto, 5 km to the north of the inlet to the estuarine coastal lagoon system of the Ria

J. Figueiredo da Silva; R. W. Duck; T. S. Hopkins; J. M. Anderson

2002-01-01

72

Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

73

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (i) There exists an error of fact, law, procedure, or discretion associated...review; (K) Convictions by court-martial; (L) Records of nonjudicial punishment...relating to a discharge instead of court-martial. (ii) Capability to serve, as...

2012-07-01

74

32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) There exists an error of fact, law, procedure, or discretion associated...review; (K) Convictions by court-martial; (L) Records of nonjudicial punishment...relating to a discharge instead of court-martial. (ii) Capability to serve, as...

2010-07-01

75

Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction-coefficient values as input, were used to simulate total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen for water-quality conditions that result from three hypothetical boundary conditions. The model was applied to various combinations of three hypothetical waste loads when the headwater stream flow was either 50 or 75 cubic feet per second, when Fargo's wastewater-treatment plant outflow was either 15 or 37.8 cubic feet per second, and when total ammonia as nitrogen concentration of the outflow was either 5, 9, or 15 milligrams per liter. For each hypothetical waste load, at least one water-quality standard for either total ammonia as nitrogen, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, or dissolved oxygen was contravened, and, for one scenario, all three standards were contravened.

Wesolowski, E.A.

1994-01-01

76

Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

Odeh, M.

2003-01-01

77

32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...evidence developed by or as a direct result of complusory urinalysis testing was introduced in the discharge proceedings. Applicants...drug abuse or use or possession of drugs based upon compelled urinalysis that was specified in the commander's report and upon...

2012-07-01

78

32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...evidence developed by or as a direct result of complusory urinalysis testing was introduced in the discharge proceedings. Applicants...drug abuse or use or possession of drugs based upon compelled urinalysis that was specified in the commander's report and upon...

2013-07-01

79

32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...evidence developed by or as a direct result of complusory urinalysis testing was introduced in the discharge proceedings. Applicants...drug abuse or use or possession of drugs based upon compelled urinalysis that was specified in the commander's report and upon...

2011-07-01

80

32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...evidence developed by or as a direct result of complusory urinalysis testing was introduced in the discharge proceedings. Applicants...drug abuse or use or possession of drugs based upon compelled urinalysis that was specified in the commander's report and upon...

2014-07-01

81

Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

2005-01-01

82

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

83

Elevated ammonium concentrations from wastewater discharge depress primary productivity in the Sacramento River and the Northern San Francisco Estuary.  

PubMed

Primary production in the Northern San Francisco Estuary (SFE) has been declining despite heavy loading of anthropogenic nutrients. The inorganic nitrogen (N) loading comes primarily from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharge as ammonium (NH(4)). This study investigated the consequences for river and estuarine phytoplankton of the daily discharge of 15 metric tons NH(4)-N into the Sacramento River that feeds the SFE. Consistent patterns of nutrients and phytoplankton responses were observed during two 150-km transects made in spring 2009. Phytoplankton N productivity shifted from NO(3) use upstream of the WTP to productivity based entirely upon NH(4) downstream. Phytoplankton NH(4) uptake declined downstream of the WTP as NH(4) concentrations increased, suggesting NH(4) inhibition. The reduced total N uptake downstream of the WTP was accompanied by a 60% decline in primary production. These findings indicate that increased anthropogenic NH(4) may decrease estuarine primary production and increase export of NH(4) to the coastal ocean. PMID:22236959

Parker, Alexander E; Dugdale, Richard C; Wilkerson, Frances P

2012-03-01

84

Determination and occurrence of phthalates, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, PBDEs, PCBs and PAHs in an industrial sewage grid discharging to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.  

PubMed

Industrial and urban discharges release organic contaminants which might affect the quality of receiving waters if not properly eliminated in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). This study is aimed to evaluate the source, transport and fate of contaminants of industrial origin in a sewage grid discharging to a WWTP and finally to the sea. The sampling network covered an industrial and urban area and wastewaters, influents and effluents of a WWTP were analyzed using a newly developed multiresidual method to capture a wide range contaminants (phthalates, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, PBDEs, PCBs and PAHs). Alkylphenols and phthalates followed by PAHs were the main compounds detected at levels between 0.01 to 698 microg l(-1) in the sewage pipelines. At the WWTP influent they were detected at concentrations up to 345 microg l(-1). The contaminant load was eliminated in a 64-92% during the primary and secondary treatment of the plant. However, alkylphenols, phthalates bisphenol A and traces of PAHs were discharged with the effluent, producing a total net input of 825 g d(-1) to the sea. The study of wastewaters herein proposed can be used to better predict the loads into WWTP to improve treatment conditions according to specific sewage inputs and to assess the risks associated with the continuous discharge of contaminants to receiving plants. PMID:19362327

Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Bonet, Jordi; Velasco, Gemma; Lacorte, Silvia

2009-06-15

85

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry, II; Reusser, Deborah A.

2013-01-01

86

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was achieved at the Middle Basin WWTF. At the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment in 2009, effluent discharges also had total phosphorus concentrations below 1.5 mg/L. After the addition of biological nutrient removal, annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Middle Basin WWTF decreased by 42 and 54 percent, respectively, even though effluent volume increased by 11 percent. Annual total phosphorus loads from the Tomahawk Creek WWTF after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment decreased by 54 percent despite a 33-percent increase in effluent volume. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the WWTFs contributed between 30 and nearly 100 percent to annual nutrient loads in Indian Creek depending on streamflow conditions. In-stream total nitrogen primarily came from wastewater effluent except during years with the highest streamflows. Most of the in-stream total phosphorus typically came from effluent during dry years and from other urban sources during wet years. During 2010 through 2013, annual mean discharge from the Middle Basin WWTF was about 75 percent of permitted design capacity. Annual nutrient loads likely will increase when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity; however, estimated maximum annual nutrient loads from the Middle Basin WWTF were 27 to 38 percent lower than before capacity upgrades and the addition of biological nutrient removal to treatment processes. Thus, the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin wastewater treatment process should reduce overall nutrient loads from the facility even when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water quality of Indian Creek were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time) when wastewater effluent represented about 24 percent or more of total streamflow. Wastewater effluent had the most substantial effect on nutrient concentrations in Indian Creek. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

2014-01-01

87

40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2010-07-01

88

40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2014-07-01

89

40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2012-07-01

90

40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

91

40 CFR 461.63 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.63 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2011-07-01

92

40 CFR 420.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.54 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2010-07-01

93

40 CFR 420.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.54 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2012-07-01

94

40 CFR 420.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.54 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2011-07-01

95

40 CFR 420.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.54 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 420.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.54 New source performance standards (NSPS). The discharge of wastewater...

2014-07-01

97

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2010-07-01

98

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2011-07-01

99

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2013-07-01

100

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2014-07-01

101

40 CFR 461.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lithium Subcategory § 461.53 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) The discharge of wastewater pollutants...

2012-07-01

102

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

2014-10-01

103

The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400?ng/L and 2400?ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. PMID:24399464

Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jörg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

2014-02-01

104

Will stringent total nitrogen wastewater treatment plant discharge regulations achieve stream water quality goals?  

PubMed

The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) proposed the in-stream numeric nutrient criteria as 2 mg TN per L and 0.16 mg TP per L for warm surface waters and 0.40 mg TN per L and 0.11 mg TP per L for cold surface waters. Consequently the department presented the nutrient limits for the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as annual averages of 0.7 mg TP per L and 5.7 mg TIN per L and quarterly averages of 1.0 mg TP per L and 9.0 mg TIN per L. Implementing stringent nutrient reduction at point sources is unlikely to result in improvements to the environment without non-point source controls. In this study, total nitrogen (TN) load inputs from known point source, WWTPs, and other non-point sources at six sub-basins of the Cache La Poudre (CLP) River Basin were estimated and compared under various hydrologic conditions. Significant loading exceedance from the proposed limits was observed during lower flow conditions and other sources dominated during events when the exceedance was observed except for one point. The point receives direct TN inputs from a WWTP which has the highest TN concentration in its effluent among all WWTPs in the study area; however, TN loads entered the point from other sources were significant during higher flow conditions. TN loads in the CLP River were simulated to determine whether the loads meet the proposed in-stream limits in a case in which all WWTPs comply with the proposed regulations for WWTPs. From this study, it was observed that reducing TN concentrations only at WWTPs merely impacts total TN loads in the river. PMID:23032438

Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H

2012-11-01

105

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

Schwing, Carl M.

106

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

Schwing, Carl M.

107

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

108

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

Perley, Gordon F.

109

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Schwing, Carl M.

110

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

111

Discharge communication from inpatient care: an audit of written medical discharge summary procedure against the new National Health Service Standard for clinical handover.  

PubMed

Objective To audit written medical discharge summary procedure and practice against Standard Six (clinical handover) of the Australian National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards at a major regional Victorian health service. Methods Department heads were invited to complete a questionnaire about departmental discharge summary practices. Results Twenty-seven (82%) department heads completed the questionnaire. Seven (26%) departments had a documented discharge summary procedure. Fourteen (52%) departments monitored discharge summary completion and 13 (48%) departments monitored the timeliness of completion. Seven (26%) departments informed the patient of the content of the discharge summary and six (22%) departments provided the patient with a copy. Seven (26%) departments provided training for staff members on how to complete discharge summaries. Completing discharge summaries was usually delegated to the medical intern. Conclusions The introduction of the National Service Standards prompted an organisation-wide audit of discharge summary practices against the external criterion. There was substantial variation in the organisation's practices. The Standards and the current audit results highlight an opportunity for the organisation to enhance and standardise discharge summary practices and improve communication with general practice. What is known about the topic? The Australian National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards (Standard 6) require health service organisations to implement documented systems that support structured and effective clinical handover. Discharge summaries are an important and often the only form of communication during a patient's transition from hospital to the community. Incomplete, inaccurate and unavailable discharge summaries are common and expose patients to greater health risks. Junior staff members find completing discharge summaries difficult and fail to receive appropriate education or support. There is little published evidence regarding the discharge summary practices of inpatient health services. What does this paper add? The paper demonstrates that there is substantial variation in practice regarding discharge summaries in a large regional health service. Departments have different processes and vary in the degree of attention and quality assurance provided to discharge summaries. Variable organisation procedures make completing discharge summaries more difficult for junior doctors, who regularly move between departments. Variable practice is likely to increase the risk of absent, untimely, incomplete or incorrect communication between acute and community services, thereby reducing the quality of patient care. It is likely that similar findings would be found in other hospitals. What are the implications for practitioners? To be accredited under the National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards, health organisations must ensure that adequate processes are in place for safe and effective clinical handover. Organisations should reduce the practice variability by standardising processes, monitoring compliance with processes, and training and supporting junior doctors. PMID:25494034

Reid, Daniel Brooks; Parsons, Shaun R; Gill, Stephen D; Hughes, Andrew J

2014-12-11

112

The impact of treated sewage wastewater discharges on the phosphorus levels and hydrology of two second order rivers flowing into the Thames.  

PubMed

Rivers Bourne and Hogsmill, urban tributaries of the Thames, were sampled up and downstream of sewage treatment works (STWs) wastewaters outflows. River water was analysed for total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and, in conjunction with river flow data, this study aimed to assess the impact of treated wastewaters on P concentrations in rivers where wastewater volumes frequently exceed those of the underlying river and to consider whether these rivers are likely to achieve "good ecological status" under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). P concentrations downstream of the STW discharge points were generally an order of magnitude greater than upstream, the flow weighted mean concentration in the River Bourne increased from 0.078 mg SRP l(-1) to 0.45 mg SRP l(-1) downstream of the input source. In the Hogsmill, the flow weighted mean concentration rose from 0.19 mg SRP l(-1) to 1.78 mg SRP l(-1) downstream of the input source prior to the introduction of P removal at the STW. Once P removal commenced, flow weighted mean concentrations downstream of the STW reduced to 0.56 mg SRP l(-1). Headwaters in the River Bourne, upstream of the STW outflow showed evidence of irregular, minor, diffuse inputs but overall mean figures indicate that the proposed UK Technical Advisory Group (UK TAG) for the WFD limit of 0.12 mg SRP l(-1) would be met. Headwaters in the Hogsmill are subject to small, continuous discharges of sewage effluent, sufficient to raise SRP levels above the UK TAG limit. Downstream, neither river meets the UKTAG recommendations in terms of P, despite the use of P-stripping processes at both STWs, an indication that current discharge consents for P concentrations in wastewaters are too high. PMID:20523930

Millier, Helen K G R; Hooda, Peter S; Downward, Stuart R

2010-06-01

113

The behaviour and fate of Nitrate and Phosphate present in treated wastewater when discharged to the Chalk aquifer of SE England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chalk aquifer of South East England is a major groundwater resource and regionally supplies up to 70% of all water abstracted for potable purposes. The two main pressures on groundwater resources are considered to be climate change and population growth. As the demand for water increases, so does the volume of wastewater that has to be treated to acceptable levels before being discharged back into the environment. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is form of groundwater resource management whereby water is pumped or injected into the ground and allowed to percolate through to the saturated zone before being abstracted at a later date. By injecting water into the ground during periods of high precipitation (i.e. winter months) an increased volume of water is made available for later abstraction (i.e. during summer months) helping water resource planners better manage the supply demand balance. In the case of using treated wastewater as a source for artificial recharge, there is little published research on the behaviour and fate of the main contaminants of concern that are found in treated wastewater when they are discharged to the principal aquifer (the Chalk) of SE England. Nitrate and Phosphate are listed (amongst others) as the main contaminants of concern that are present in treated wastewater and discharged to the Chalk aquifer when this practice occurs. The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of treated wastewater for artificial recharge has been extensively studied in both the field and laboratory to better assess how sustainable this practice is in terms of risk of pollution to the groundwater body. The results of the laboratory programme include breakthrough curves for Nitrate and Phosphate in the Chalk matrix under unsaturated and saturated conditions. Whilst Nitrate is shown not to be sorbed in the Chalk matrix, a proportion of the Phosphate is shown to be retained. The proportion of Phosphate that is retained is less than the total retention capacity of the Chalk matrix and the mechanisms that control this are reported. The laboratory and field data will be compared and geochemical models used to upscale to catchment level. This will allow for a better assessment of the risk of pollution occurring at the groundwater body and how sustainable the use of treated wastewater is as a source for ASR in Chalk catchments to be made.

Phillips, Richard; Smith, Martin; Pope, David

2013-04-01

114

Assessing potential risks of wastewater discharges to benthic biota: An integrated approach to biomarker responses in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

Marine clams Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed under laboratory conditions to sediments sampled at five sites affected by wastewater effluents at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain). Contamination and early biological stress were determined. Metabolism and antioxidant system differed according to seasons. Health status diminished in summer. Metabolism of detoxification, and oxidative effect were related to concentration of metals, PAH, secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) and antibiotics in winter. Antioxidant system and DNA damage were linked to metals and pharmaceutical products. Phase I and antioxidant system were associated to PAH and SAS in summer. Oxidative stress and effects were related to pharmaceuticals. Phase II was linked to metals and pharmaceuticals. Seasonality of sediment contamination by organic compounds and biological responses was determined. Clams were useful bioindicators, since the set of biomarkers applied was validated as potential tools for sediment quality assessment of wastewater discharges areas. PMID:25641574

Maranho, L A; DelValls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

2015-03-15

115

Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 ?g L? 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 ?g L? 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L? 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 ?g L? 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 ?g L? 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 ?g L? 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

2014-01-01

116

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

Mason, George J.

117

Wastewater Recycle- A Sustainable Approach Towards Desalination  

E-print Network

? Water scarcity and stringent effluent discharge regulations driving industry towards wastewater recycle. ? Advanced, reliable and energy efficient wastewater treatment and recycle technologies are available to achieve wastewater recycle. ? Energy... and optimizes energy usage in case of ZLD. ? Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in combination with HEROTM can be an economical recycle treatment scheme for refinery and petrochemical wastewater applications. ? Zero Liquid discharge (ZLD) systems, though...

Mittal, A.

2013-01-01

118

Systems Conveyance and Operations Program (SCOP) for determination of an alternative wastewater effluent discharge site in lake mead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Las Vegas, City of Henderson, and Clark County Sanitation District own and operate wastewater treatment facilities that pass treated effluent to Lake Mead via the Las Vegas Wash. Concern is growing as studies indicate the effluent \\

D. Karafa; I. Rackley; M. A. Metcalf

2003-01-01

119

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

Barry, J.P. [J. P. Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

120

Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate ranged from 5.1 to 6.1 mg/L and were 4 to 7 times larger than concentrations at the nearest upstream site on Monument Creek, site 07103970 (MoCr_Woodmen). The source of these larger dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations has not been identified, but the fact that all measurements had elevated dissolved nitrite plus nitrate concentrations indicates a relatively constant source. Most stormflow concentrations of dissolved trace elements were smaller than concentrations from base-flow or normal-flow samples. However, median concentrations of total arsenic, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc generally were much larger during periods of stormflow than during base flow or normal flow. Concentrations of dissolved and total copper, total manganese, total nickel, dissolved and total selenium, and dissolved and total zinc ranged from 3 to 27 times larger at site 07103707 (FoCr_8th) than site 07103700 (FoCr_Manitou) during base flow, indicating a large source of trace elements between these two sites. Both of these sites are located on Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek. The likely source area is Gold Hill Mesa, a former tailings pile for a gold refinery located just upstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, and upstream from site 07103707 (FoCr_8th). Farther downstream in Fountain Creek, stormflow samples for total copper, manganese, lead, nickel, and zinc were larger at the downstream site near the city of Security, site 07105800 (FoCr_Security), than at the upstream site near Janitell Road, site 07105530 (FoCr_Janitell), compared with other main-stem sites and indicated a relatively large source of these metals between the two sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace-element loads substantially increased during stormflow. Suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields associated with stormflow were significantly larger than those associated with normal flow. The Apr

Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

2007-01-01

121

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

2010-01-01

122

Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 2: Influence of tree species and water characteristics on wastewater discharges  

SciTech Connect

The concentration patterns of a number of compounds in the inlet water and wastewater from sprinkling of timber from Scotch pine and Norway spruce have been studied. The timber was separated with respect to species and sprinkled with water from a eutrophic or an oligotrophic receiving water for 18 weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), distillable phenols, resin acids, bacterial phospholipid fatty acids, organic and inorganic phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur, and a number of metal ions were monitored in the inlet water and wastewater. The toxicity of the wastewater was estimated during the first 2 weeks using a Microtox{reg_sign} test and appeared to decline in parallel with DOC. Most compounds showed both an environmental net load and an absorption by the timber, the loads being smaller and the absorption larger when using eutrophic water. At both sites the loads were generally largest during the first 2 weeks and larger in magnitude at the oligotrophic site and in the spruce wastewater. The initial growth of the bacterial biomass in the pile system was slower at the oligotrophic site, and the results indicated that a rapid growth of the bacterial biomass reduces the initial environmental loads and that this process is associated with the nutrient status of the receiving water.

Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-09-01

123

Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

Payne, W.L.

2003-09-15

124

Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network.  

PubMed

In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients, reach the wastewater. This form of elimination may generate risks for aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to present: (i) the steps of an ecological risk assessment and management framework related to hospital effluents evacuating into wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without preliminary treatment; and (ii) the results of its application on wastewater from an infectious and tropical diseases department of a hospital of a large city in southeastern France. The characterization of effects has been made under two assumptions, which were related to: (a) the effects of hospital wastewater on biological treatment process of WWTP, particularly on the community of organisms in charge of the biological decomposition of the organic matter; (b) the effects on aquatic organisms. COD and BOD5 have been measured for studying global organic pollution. Assessment of halogenated organic compounds was made using halogenated organic compounds absorbable on activated carbon (AOX) concentrations. Heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc) were measured. Low most probable number (MPP) for faecal coliforms has been considered as an indirect detection of antibiotics and disinfectants presence. For toxicity assessment, bioluminescence assay using Vibrio fischeri photobacteria, 72-h EC50 algae growth Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 24-h EC50 on Daphnia magna were used. The scenario allows to a semi-quantitative risk characterization. It needs to be improved on some aspects, particularly those linked to: long term toxicity assessment on target organisms (bioaccumulation of pollutants, genotoxicity, etc.); ecotoxicological interactions between pharmaceuticals, disinfectants used both in diagnostics and in cleaning of surfaces, and detergents used in cleaning of surfaces; the interactions into the sewage network, between the hospital effluents and the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:15621348

Emmanuel, E; Perrodin, Y; Keck, G; Blanchard, J-M; Vermande, P

2005-01-14

125

ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTEWATERS ON REDEAR SUNFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Static bioassays of 24 hours' duration were performed on samples of wastewaters provided by 22 domestic petroleum refiners. These wastewaters represent three types of water discharges prevalent to this industry: process wastewaters prior to dilution with other streams; API separa...

126

Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.  

PubMed

In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production. PMID:24759540

Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

2014-01-01

127

The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments.  

PubMed

We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r(2)=0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production "saturated". The ?(15)N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast. PMID:23838414

Burd, B; Macdonald, T; Bertold, S

2013-09-15

128

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

Barry, J.P. [J.P. Barry Consulting, Monterey, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

129

Wastewater effluent characteristics from Moroccan textile industry.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to carry out a complete characterization of textile wastewater, resulting from a textile unit located in the Marrakesh region. A physico-chemical characterization has been performed, focused on organic and toxicological aspects. The cladoceran Daphnia magna was used as the sensor organism and lethal concentration as a criterion to measure the toxicity of textile wastewater. The physico-chemical and toxicological status of a local textile effluent showed considerable values limitation, when compared to the European Union standard limit and Moroccan guide level and other studies. In view of those characteristics, the wastewater effluent from the textile industry should be considered to be treated before discharge to the environment. PMID:23787319

Mountassir, Y; Benyaich, A; Rezrazi, M; Berçot, P; Gebrati, L

2013-01-01

130

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

Petrasek, Al, Jr.

131

Spatial and temporal extension of eutrophication associated with shrimp farm wastewater discharges in the New Caledonia lagoon.  

PubMed

Shrimp farming in New Caledonia typically uses a flow-through system with water exchange rates as a tool to maintain optimum hydrological and biological parameters for the crop. Moreover, the effluent shows hydrobiological characteristics (minerals, phytoplankton biomass and organic matter) significantly higher than that of the receiving environment. Separate surveys were carried out in a bay (CH Bay) with a medium-size intensive farm (30 ha) (PO) and in a mangrove-lined creek (TE Creek) near a larger semi-intensive farm (133 ha) (SO). Net loads of nitrogen exported from the semi-intensive farm and the intensive farm amounted to 0.68 and 1.36 kg ha(-1)day(-1), respectively. At CH Bay, discharge effects were spatially limited and clearly restricted to periods of effluent release. The high residence time at site TE favoured the installation of a feedback system in which organic matter was not exported. Mineralization of organic matter led to the release of nutrients, which in turn, caused in an increased eutrophication of this ecosystem. The study of the pico- and nanophytoplankton assemblages showed (i) a shift in composition from picophytoplankton to nanophytoplankton from offshore towards the coast and (ii) a shift within the picophytoplankton with the disappearance of Prochlorococcus and the increase of picoeucaryotes towards the shoreline. These community changes may partially be related to a nitrogen enrichment of the environment by shrimp farm discharges. Thus, in view of the recent addition of the New Caledonian lagoon to the UNESCO World Heritage list, the data presented here could be a first approach to quantify farm discharges and evaluate their impact on the lagoon. PMID:20667556

Thomas, Yoann; Courties, Claude; El Helwe, Yasmin; Herbland, Alain; Lemonnier, Hugues

2010-01-01

132

Procedure to screen illicit discharge of toxic substances in septic sludge received at a wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

This paper presents an integrative approach, using toxicological and chemical analyses, to screen toxic and illegal substances that could be added to the septic sludge transported by a tanker truck to the wastewater treatment plant of the Montreal Urban Community (MUC). Microtox, lettuce root elongation, and a bacterial respiration test were used to establish the toxicity range of a normal sludge and the determination of threshold limit criteria. Septic sludge samples were spiked with different types and amounts of contaminants (copper, zinc, phenol, industrial sludge). Conservative criteria were applied to detect abnormal toxicity with great reliability while avoiding false positives (i.e., detecting abnormal toxicity in nonspiked sludge). Taken individually, toxicity tests using Microtox were revealed to be the least discriminating toxicological method (efficiency of 45% when the ratio of the IC50 values is considered), whereas lettuce root elongation was relatively the most efficient (80% of spiked samples). As a whole, the battery of toxicity tests detected at least 93% of the spiked sludge samples. This procedure is also very efficient, i.e., easy to apply, cost effective, and rapid. In certain cases, an abnormal toxicity level can be determined within a few hours, whereas a septic sludge can be classified as normal within 5 days. PMID:9515073

Robidoux, P Y; Lopez-Gastey, J; Choucri, A; Sunahara, G I

1998-01-01

133

Pretreatment of industrial discharges to publicly owned treatment works (POTW)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion covers a brief survey of federal regulations establishing standards for the pretreatment of pollutants discharged into POTW's; the experience of the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) in dealing with the pretreatment of heavy metals in industrial and commercial discharges; a study and analysis by Seattle Metro of organic priority pollutants in wastewater including identification sources; and POTW treatment control technology for organic priority pollutants in Seattle Metro.

Ongerth, J.E.; Dewalle, F.B.

1980-08-01

134

Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.  

PubMed

This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 ?g L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 ?g L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater. PMID:24185070

Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

2013-01-01

135

Influences of wastewater discharges on the water quality of Mamas?n dam watershed in Aksaray, Central Anatolian part of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. Municipal governments in Aksaray City play a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection problems. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land, and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. A large part of Aksaray City uses Mamas?n dam water as its primary source for drinking water. Several point sources of contamination may result from direct wastewater discharges from Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamas?n dam watershed. Relevant studies were carried out for monitoring the eutrophication process, which usually occurs in the static water mass of the Mamas?n dam lake. This process may be caused by the continual increase in nutrients and decrease of O2 levels, causing anaerobic conditions. Stimulated algae growth in these water bodies consequently reduces water quality. Hydrochemical parameters were evaluated to estimate the types of pollution sources, the level of pollution, and its environmental impacts on the Mamas?n dam drinking water reservoir.

Elhatip, Hatim; Güllü, Özlem

2005-10-01

136

Occurrence of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and their resistance genes in an urban river impacted by municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms in an urban river poses great threats to both human health and the environment. To investigate the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria in an urban river, water samples were collected from the Chanhe River in Xi'an, China. After membrane filtration of water samples, the tetracycline resistance rate of fecal coliforms and their resistance genes were detected by plating and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We found that fecal coliforms were generally resistant to tetracycline and saw average resistance rates of 44.7%. The genes tetA and tetB were widely detected, and their positive rate was 60%-100% and 40%-90%, respectively. We found few strains containing tetC, tetK, tetQ and tetX, and we did not identify any strains containing tetG, tetM or tetO. The prevalence of tetA and tetB over other genes indicated that the main mechanism for resistance to tetracycline is by changes to the efflux pump. Our analysis of the types and proportion of tetracycline resistance genes in the Chanhe River at locations upstream and downstream of the urban center suggests that the increased number of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and spatial variation of tetracycline resistance genes diversity were related to municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge. PMID:25901852

Zhang, Chong-Miao; Du, Cong; Xu, Huan; Miao, Yan-Hui; Cheng, Yan-Yan; Tang, Hao; Zhou, Jin-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Chang

2015-06-01

137

Rates of Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Vicinity of a Coal-Coking Wastewater Discharge  

PubMed Central

To facilitate predictions of the transport and fate of contaminants at future coal conversion facilities, rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected in the vicinity of a coal-coking treated wastewater discharge from November 1977 through August 1979. Six radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were incubated with sediment and water samples; 14CO2, cell-bound 14C, and polar transformation products were isolated and quantified. Whereas 14CO2 and bound 14C were major transformation products in sediment assays, soluble polar 14C dominated transformation in water samples. Mean rate constants (measured at 20°C) in sediments collected downstream from the effluent outfall were 7.8 × 10?2 h?1 (naphthalene), 1.6 × 10?2 h?1 (anthracene), and 3.3 × 10?3 h?1 [benz(a)anthracene], which corresponded to turnover times of 13, 62, and 300 h, respectively. No unequivocal evidence for transformation of benzo(a)pyrene or dibenz(a,h)anthracene was obtained. Only naphthalene and anthracene transformations were observed in water samples; rate constants were consistently 5- and 20-fold lower, respectively, than in the corresponding sediment samples. The measured rate constants for anthracene transformation in July 1978 sediment samples were not related to total heterotroph numbers. In late July 1978, the effluent was diverted from the primary study area; however, no differences were observed either in transformation rate constants or in the downstream/upstream sediment rate constant ratio. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continuous inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons result in an increased ability within a microbial community to utilize certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because transformation rates remained elevated for more than 1 year after removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source, microbial communities may shift only slowly in response to changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. PMID:16345686

Herbes, Stephen E.

1981-01-01

138

HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN PADDY-SOILS NEAR HO CHI MINH CITY CAUSED BY WASTEWATER DISCHARGE AND THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM ON RICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of Ho Chi Minh City's industrial factories were founded 25 years ago. Their equipment and machinery is now outdated and there are no wastewater treatment systems. Wastewater flows directly into rice fields and pollutes water resources and the soil environment affecting agro production. This paper presents the results of a research project on 6 heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn,

Nguyen Ngoc Quynh

139

Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

140

Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment for the treatment of industrial (except mining) effluent streams. Consideration is given to the removal, reclamation, and recycling of various trace metals, heavy-metals, hydrocarbons, and oily wastewaters to meet regulatory agency discharge or inplant reuse standards. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

141

Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

142

Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

NONE

1995-08-03

143

Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1975-01-01

144

Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

1976-01-01

145

Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards  

EPA Science Inventory

Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

146

Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

Alvarez, D.A.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

2005-01-01

147

Distillery wastewater: bioremediation approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alcohol distilleries are growing extensively worldwide due to widespread industrial applications of alcohol such as in chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, beverages, food and perfumery industry, etc. The industrial production of ethanol by fermentation results in the discharge of large quantities of high-strength liquid wastes. Distillery wastewater is one of the most polluted waste products to dispose because of the low

Yogita Kharayat

2012-01-01

148

Most modern wastewater treatment systems rely on microbial processes to remove contaminants. This makes wastewater  

E-print Network

Most modern wastewater treatment systems rely on microbial processes to remove contaminants. This makes wastewater treatment one of the largest biotechnology industries in the world. In New Zealand alone, about 1.5 billion litres of treated domestic wastewater is discharged each day

Auckland, University of

149

Zero-discharge of nutrients and water in a willow dominated constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel constructed wetland system has been developed to treat sewage, evaporate water and recycle nutrients from single households at sites where effluent standards are stringent and soil infiltration is not possible. Main attributes of the willow wastewater cleaning facilities are that the systems have zero discharge, the willows evapotranspire the water, and nutrients can be recycled via the willow

P. Gregersen; H. Brix

150

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414... Direct Discharge Point Sources That Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414...for direct discharge point sources that use end-of-pipe biological treatment....

2010-07-01

151

An Evaluation of Metal Removal During Wastewater Treatment: The Potential to Achieve More Stringent Final Effluent Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals are of particular importance in relation to water quality, and concern regarding the impact of these contaminants on biodiversity is being encapsulated within the latest water-related legislation such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe and criteria revisions to the Clean Water Act in the United States. This review undertakes an evaluation of the potential of 2-stage wastewater treatment

D. Ziolko; O. V. Martin; M. D. Scrimshaw; J. N. Lester

2011-01-01

152

5.1. Reproduction of standard deviations and autocorrelation Extreme river discharges in the Meuse basin are mostly caused by prolonged heavy  

E-print Network

5. RBsulrs 5.1. Reproduction of standard deviations and autocorrelation Extreme river discharges in the Meuse basin are mostly caused by prolonged heavy rainfall in winter. The reproduction of the standard, the quality of reproduction of sr,a is much better than in the straightforward 6-h simulations. For the same

Stoffelen, Ad

153

Use of immunofluorescence technique for studying a Nitrobacter population from wastewater treatment plant following discharge in river sediments: First experimental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrobacter colonies, associated with particles in water treatment plant discharges, and their survival after discharge, were studied to assess their inoculation potential in rivers. Diversity and location of Nitrobacter colonies in floc particles (size range 0.45–500 ?m) were studied using immunofluoresence methods. The qualitative and quantitative composition of Nitrobacter colonies, expressed by five of its serotypes (AG, DE30, W, LL

C. Bonnet; B. Volat; R. Bardin; V. Degranges; B. Montuelle

1997-01-01

154

Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards  

PubMed Central

Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

2015-01-01

155

Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards.  

PubMed

Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

2015-01-01

156

Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

Ward, R. D.

1974-01-01

157

Control of odour emission in wastewater treatment plants by direct and undirected measurement of odour emission capacity.  

PubMed

Odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be the main causes of disturbance noticed by the exposed population and have relevant impacts on both tourism economy and land costs. Odour impact from WWTPs is generated by primary and secondary odour emissions. Primary odour emissions are related especially to the wastewater type and variability discharged into the sewer and directed to the WWTP, and to the wastewater collection and sewage system. Secondary odours are related to the treatment units of the plant. Several studies describe the key role of primary odour emissions and how they are strongly related to odour impacts of WWTPs. In this way, a opportune characterization of the emission capacity of primary odour could be an effective way to control odour emission in the WWTPs. In this study the odour emission capacity (OEC) of different domestic sewers was described and investigated; a correlation between the OEC and the main physical-chemical parameters of wastewater quality was also carried out. Results of this study identify the optimum conditions for sampling and measuring OEC in wastewaters and define its dependence by wastewater quality. These results can contribute to setting the standards for the maximum odourant content of wastewater that are discharged into the publicly owned sewage system. PMID:22907444

Zarra, T; Giuliani, S; Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

2012-01-01

158

Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L(-1)). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K. PMID:20434260

Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

2010-08-15

159

Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.  

PubMed

A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13) C and (1) H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25354334

Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

2014-10-29

160

Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment  

PubMed Central

The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry. PMID:24593865

2014-01-01

161

77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters...was approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and...

2012-09-10

162

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Mark Laposata

163

Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year. PMID:19273902

Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

2009-01-01

164

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment. 414...Direct Discharge Point Sources That Do Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414...direct discharge point sources that do not use end-of-pipe biological treatment....

2010-07-01

165

TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATIONS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A policy to develop water-quality-based permit limitations for toxic pollutants entering treatment plants is being developed because, even with efficient removal of conventional pollutants, significant amounts of toxic substances are being discharged through the Nation's wastewat...

166

The genetic toxicology of organic compounds in natural waters and wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

This review was drawn from the literature describing genotoxic organic compounds in natural water and wastewater, as well as from recent discussions with industrial scientists and environmental regulators. Testing of wastewaters for genotoxicity may become a routine requirement for some industrial wastewater discharge permits, not unlike the more common requirement for routine aquatic toxicity tests. The stimuli for this are concerns that aquatic organisms inhabiting waters impacted by wastewater discharges suffer an increased risk of genetic damage or cancer, and that humans utilizing these waters may suffer similar genetic or carcinogenic risks. Some evidence suggests that neoplasia in aquatic organisms is related to habitat contamination, yet field evaluations fail to substantiate adequately a cause-and-effect relationship. Because aquatic organisms respond like mammals to the same genotoxic compounds, the increased burden of genotoxic compounds to the environment may impact certain endemic species. Wastewater discharges may be one source of genotoxic organic compounds in those impacted areas. With respect to potential human health impacts, evidence is supportive of increased cancer risk to individuals drinking water from surface sources; however, this risk may or may not relate to whether the drinking water source received input of wastewater discharges or known carcinogens. Throughout the published literature reviewed herein, the Salmonella/Ames gene mutation test was widely used to assess genotoxic activity, although studies using indigenous plants and aquatic organisms as in vivo monitors of genotoxic activity exist. No 'standard' or frequently followed protocols for sample collection, sample processing, selection of tests or their conduct, or interpretation of data exist for most of the genotoxicity studies reviewed. 197 references.

Stahl, R.G. Jr. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Central Research and Development. Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine, Newark, DE (United States))

1991-08-01

167

Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continuing depletion of fresh water resources, focus has shifted more toward water recovery, reuse, and recycling, which require an extension of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Downstream external factors like stricter compliance requirements for wastewater discharge, rising treatment costs, and spatial constraints necessitate renewed investigation of alternative technologies. Coupled with biological treatment processes, membrane technology has gained considerable attention due

C. Visvanathan; R. Ben Aim; K. Parameshwaran

2000-01-01

168

Wastewater Irrigation: The State of Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ascompetition among industrial, agricultural, urban and environmental sectors for freshwater intensifies, wastewater is frequently being seen as a valuable resource rather than mere waste. Furthermore, wise reuse of this water alleviates environmental ,concerns attendant ,with its discharge ,to coastal ,environments ,and ,inland waterways. Globally, around 20 million ha of land are irrigated with wastewater, either neat or partially diluted.

Andrew J. Hamilton; Frank Stagnitti; Xianzhe Xiong; Simone L. Kreidl; Kurt K. Benke; Peta Maher

2007-01-01

169

ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2011-01-01

170

Neuropsychological screening as a standard of care during discharge from psychiatric hospitalization: the preliminary psychometrics of the CNS Screen.  

PubMed

Cost-prohibitive factors currently prevent a warranted integration of neuropsychological screenings into routine psychiatric evaluations, as a standard of care. To overcome this challenge, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a new computerized measure-the CNS Screen. One hundred and twenty six psychiatric inpatients completed the CNS Screen, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Rated (QIDS-SR??) on the day of hospital discharge. Statistical analysis established convergent validity with a moderate correlation between the self-administered CNS Screen and the clinician-administered MoCA (r=0.64). Discriminant validity was implicated by a non-significant correlation with the QIDS-SR??. Concurrent validity was supported by a moderate, negative correlation with patients' age (r=-0.62). In addition, consistent with previous findings, patients with psychotic disorders exhibited significantly poorer performance on the CNS Screen than patients with a mood disorder. Similarly, patients with a formal disability status scored significantly lower than other patients. The CNS Screen was well tolerated by all patients. With further development, this type of measure may provide a cost-effective approach to expanding neuropsychological screenings on inpatient psychiatric units. PMID:24503284

Levy, Boaz; Celen-Demirtas, Selda; Surguladze, Tinatin; Eranio, Sara; Ellison, James

2014-03-30

171

Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Algal Cultivation Using Wastewater Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater discharged from a steel- making plant with the aim of developing an economically feasible system to remove ammonia from wastewater and from Ñue gas simultaneously. Since CO 2 no phosphorus compounds existed in wastewater, external phosphate (15É3È 46É 0gm ~3) was added to the wastewater. After adaptation to 5% (v\\/v) the CO 2 ,

Sun Bok Lee; Jong Moon Park

1997-01-01

172

Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

2009-01-01

173

Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.  

PubMed

Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. PMID:19102584

Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

2009-05-01

174

[Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].  

PubMed

As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery. PMID:24946624

Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

2014-04-01

175

Electrocoagulation treatment of metal finishing wastewater.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation has been found to be a consistent and reliable industrial wastewater treatment process capable of removing heavy metals to levels well below pretreatment discharge standards. Results from the testing of a 113 L/min pilot scale electrocoagulation unit indicated that electrocoagulation was capable of decreasing the cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations from 0.14, 18.1, and 0.06 parts per million (ppm) to 0.029, 0.039, and 0.020 ppm respectively, at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. In the presence of a strong chelating substance, electrocoagulation performance was found to be effective in reducing both chromium and nickel concentrations to levels well below discharge limits. At a pH of 8.0, chromium and nickel influent concentrations of 0.328 and 0.062 ppm, respectively, were reduced to 0.005 and 0.04 ppm. The electrocoagulation removal efficiency for chromium remained high at over 98% and appeared to be unaffected by the presence of chelating substances. Utilizing aluminum as the sacrificial anode improved the removal efficiency of targeted heavy metals when the industrial wastewater was treated under acidic conditions. At a pH of 5.6, the influent concentrations of the regulated heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and nickel were reduced from 0.55, 49.7, and 13.7 ppm, respectively, to 0.013, 2.7, and 0.8 ppm at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. The results of these tests suggest that the formation of ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide through the electrocoagulation process may be an effective approach for treating metal finishing wastewaters. PMID:25112025

Odongo, Isabel E; McFarland, Michael J

2014-07-01

176

77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Discharged in U.S. Waters.'' Six technical...Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U...Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01...after the words ``waters beyond the'' remove...to pump out the ballast water taken on...

2012-06-08

177

Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. PMID:25300545

Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

2014-01-01

178

Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and Rialto Drain, followed by Prado Dam and Sunnyslope Creek. Each of these sites is suitable habitat for the Santa Ana sucker, especially Sunnyslope Creek and Rialto Drain where juveniles reside. Various OWCs and EDCs were detected at each Santa Ana River site, although one specific compound or group of compounds could not be singled out as a causative factor. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was strongly negatively correlated with testosterone in male mosquitofish. One group of potent environmental estrogens that likely contributed to endocrine and reproductive impairment are the natural and synthetic estrogen hormones, especially ethinyl estradiol; however, this compound was not targeted in these investigations. The multiple lines of evidence for impaired reproductive and endocrine function in western mosquitofish due to OWCs and EDCs from the Santa Ana River can be used to identify potential problems for the Santa Ana sucker inhabiting the same and nearby sites.

Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

2009-01-01

179

Wastewater Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

1978-01-01

180

Wastewater characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of plant influent, effluent, and internal process streams provides plant operations personnel with the information they need to properly control treatment processes. To obtain that information, the operator should determine the characteristics of the raw wastewater and stream by collecting and analyzing representative samples throughout the plant. This paper gives a basic understanding of wastewater characteristics and sampling necessary

Samorn Muttamara

1996-01-01

181

[Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed. PMID:21717746

Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

2011-04-01

182

Performance of COD removal from oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater using iron electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the feasibility of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement from oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater. The process variables, including applied voltage, electrolyte concentration and temperature, were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and temperature on electric energy consumption were evaluated. Under the optimum balance of variables, satisfactory COD removal efficiency and relatively low energy consumption were achieved. The optimum electrolyte concentration, applied voltage, and temperature were found to be 200 mg/L NaCl, 20 V, and 25 degrees C, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD concentration in oxide-CMP wastewater decreased by more than 90%, resulting a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg/L). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. COD removal rates obtained during the electrocoagulation process can be described using a pseudo-kinetic model. The present study results show that the kinetic data fit the pseudo first-order kinetic model well. Finally, the morphology and composition of the sludge produced were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectra (EDS). PMID:19847717

Wang, Chih-Ta; Chou, Wei-Lung

2009-10-01

183

Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process  

PubMed Central

Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2012-01-01

184

40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within...be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be monitored at the point of discharge...

2011-07-01

185

40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within...be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be monitored at the point of discharge...

2014-07-01

186

40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within...be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be monitored at the point of discharge...

2013-07-01

187

40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within...be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be monitored at the point of discharge...

2012-07-01

188

40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within...be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be monitored at the point of discharge...

2010-07-01

189

Full-scale blending treatment of fresh MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater in a wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 2 g/L and CaO 25 g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3 months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60 mg/L), BOD5 (<20 mg/L), ammonium (<8 mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5 mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters. PMID:25052339

Ye, Zhi-Long; Xie, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lanhua; Wang, Ziwen; Wu, Wenhua; Zhao, Fuyi; Xie, Xiaoming; Huang, Shiqing; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Shaohua

2014-11-01

190

Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

2007-01-01

191

Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.  

PubMed

It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated. PMID:19955626

Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

2009-01-01

192

Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the bay, in the Pacific Ocean, or on land. Also, wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse concepts seem to be growing in favor with the public and should become and important part of future wastewater-management plans. Because most wastewater-reclamation and water-reuse systems would involve the use of land (that is agricultural irrigation, ground-water recharge, recreational reservoirs) local and regional lang-use planners can ass much to wastewater-management planning by identifying local and subregional waterwater-reclamation and water-reuse possibilities within their jurisdictions and integrating them with future land-use plans. The timely participation of planner is essential because Federal and State planning and funding deadlines for a regional wastewater-management system become effective in July 1973 and 1974, respectively.

Hines, Walter G.

1973-01-01

193

Wastewater Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

1978-01-01

194

Wastewater Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes. Why Treat Wastewater? It's a matter ... fishing enthusiasts, and future generations. Wildlife Habitats Our rivers and ocean waters teem with life that depends ...

195

Reusing Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates how peat filtration beds at Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky purify and conserve wastewater and eliminate one cause of non-point-source water pollution.

KET

2011-01-11

196

Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2009-01-01

197

Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

2014-12-01

198

Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries  

SciTech Connect

The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

1981-02-01

199

Reliability analysis of a wastewater treatment plant using fault tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

The reliability of a wastewater treatment plant is a critical issue when the effluent is reused or discharged to water resources. Main factors affecting the performance of the wastewater treatment plant are the variation of the influent, inherent variability in the treatment processes, deficiencies in design, mechanical equipment, and operational failures. Thus, meeting the established reuse/discharge criteria requires assessment of plant reliability. Among many techniques developed in system reliability analysis, fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the popular and efficient methods. FTA is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed. In this study, the problem of reliability was studied on Tehran West Town wastewater treatment plant. This plant is a conventional activated sludge process, and the effluent is reused in landscape irrigation. The fault tree diagram was established with the violation of allowable effluent BOD as the top event in the diagram, and the deficiencies of the system were identified based on the developed model. Some basic events are operator's mistake, physical damage, and design problems. The analytical method is minimal cut sets (based on numerical probability) and Monte Carlo simulation. Basic event probabilities were calculated according to available data and experts' opinions. The results showed that human factors, especially human error had a great effect on top event occurrence. The mechanical, climate, and sewer system factors were in subsequent tier. Literature shows applying FTA has been seldom used in the past wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) risk analysis studies. Thus, the developed FTA model in this study considerably improves the insight into causal failure analysis of a WWTP. It provides an efficient tool for WWTP operators and decision makers to achieve the standard limits in wastewater reuse and discharge to the environment. PMID:25487461

Taheriyoun, Masoud; Moradinejad, Saber

2015-01-01

200

Use of commercial plant species in a hydroponic system to treat domestic wastewaters.  

PubMed

The objectives in this work were to investigate a conceptual layout for an inexpensive and simple system that would treat primary municipal wastewater to discharge standards. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted for this study and the wastewater was used to irrigate wooly digitalis (Digitalis lanata Ehrh.) and foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L.). These plants are medicinal and produce cardenolide compounds. Influent and effluent samples were collected once a month for six months and analyzed to determine the various parameters relating to water quality. The legal discharge levels for total suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reached for the two tested plants after 48 h of wastewater treatment; the removal was 82, 93, and 79%, respectively, for wooly digitalis and 92, 92, and 84%, respectively, for foxglove. Similar results were obtained during a 6-mo period although the sewage composition varied widely. The system tended to be unable to remove N and P to concentrations below regulated levels. Compared with the nutrient solution composition, the wastewater was more concentrated in Na+ and Cl- and less in N, K+, and Ca2+. These variations can lead to the decline of wooly digitalis plants. Foxglove developed a significant root system to increase mineral absorption wastewater being used as the unique nutritive source. After 10 wk all the wooly digitalis seedlings were dead. Despite this fact, however, the root system remained in place for a significant time (< 4 mo), thus continuing to filter wastewater and to be used as a bacterial support thus making it possible to have a security period to replace the dead plants. PMID:15074822

Vaillant, Nathalie; Monnet, Fabien; Sallanon, Huguette; Coudret, Alain; Hitmi, Adnane

2004-01-01

201

Managing commercial and light-industrial discharges to POTWs  

SciTech Connect

Discharging commercial and light-industrial wastewater to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) is risky business. Pretreating wastewater using traditional methods may leave a wastestream's originator vulnerable to fines, civil and criminal punishment, cleanup costs, and cease-and-desist orders. EPA has tightened regulations applying to discharges from POTWs, which, in turn, are looking to industrial and commercial discharge sources to determine responsibility for toxic contaminants. Although EPA in the past focused on large point sources of contamination, the Agency has shifted its emphasis to smaller and more diverse nonpoint sources. One result is that POTWs no longer act as buffers for light-industrial and commercial wastewater dischargers.

Fink, R.G. (RGF Environmental Group, West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

1993-02-01

202

Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - discharge

203

[Research on removal efficiency of Cd (II)-bearing wastewater by sulfate-reducing biological filter].  

PubMed

At the temperature of 18.0-22.3 degrees C, biological carriers were produce from pure SRB and zeolite by the embedding immobilized method, and a sulfate-reducing biological filter filled with filter carriers was built to treat cadmium-containing wastewater. Experimental research on removal efficiency of Cd2+, COD and SO4(2-) in wastewater by the biological filter was carried out after SRB domestication. Results show that cadmium can be removed satisfactorily from wastewater using SRB by the biological filter filled with sulfate-reducing bacteria. When the filtration rate was 0.4 m x h(-1) and the cadmium concentration in wastewater was not more than 15 mg x L(-1), the processing efficiency was the best. In the formal running period, the removal rates of Cd2+, COD and SO4(2-) by the biological filter were more than 99%, 75% and 50%. The effluent Cd2+ concentration was less than 0.1 mg x L(-1), which could meet the cadmium emission requirements in the wastewater quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers (CJ 343-2010). The removal of Cd2+, COD and SO4(2-) by biological filter mainly occurs in the top 60 cm of the filter bed during stable operation. When the filtration rate was less than 0.6 m x h(-1), Cd(2+) can be removed by the biological filter with high efficiency and stability. PMID:24946589

Wu, Xuan; Tan, Ke-Yan; Hu, Xi-Jia; Gu, Yun; Yang, Hong

2014-04-01

204

Reusing rinse wastewater at a semiconductor plant  

SciTech Connect

Two pilot rinse wastewater reuse projects were developed as part of a long-term water conservation program for a Motorola semiconductor manufacturing site in Phoenix, Ariz. The conceptual designs for the projects grew out of a detailed wastewater reuse study that characterized wastewater streams at their generation points. Both treatment techniques were specifically researched, bench-tested, and adapted to further water conservation efforts while ensuring 100 percent compliance with appropriate effluent regulations and industrial discharge permit conditions. Together, the pilot projects save the city of Phoenix approximately 45 mil gal (17 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water annually.

Shah, A.R. [Motorola SCG, McDowell, MD (United States). Environmental, Safety, and Industrial Hygiene Dept.; Ploeser, J.H. [Phoenix Water Services Dept., AZ (United States). Water Conservation Office

1999-08-01

205

Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy- discharge; Cyclotrons- discharge; Linear accelerator- discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge

206

Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

1997-07-01

207

ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

208

Performance of a mixing entropy battery alternately flushed with wastewater effluent and  

E-print Network

Performance of a mixing entropy battery alternately flushed with wastewater effluent and seawater. Coastal wastewater treatment plants discharge a continuous stream of low salinity effluent to the ocean cell, the net energy recovery was 0.11 kW h per m3 of wastewater effluent. When twelve cells were

Cui, Yi

209

Economics of Wastewater Treatment and Recycling: An Investigation of Conceptual Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of continuous droughts, the search for alternative water sources and increasing environmental restrictions on discharge of treated wastewater into natural water bodies, treated wastewater recycling offers a potential solution. In this paper the methods needed to assess the questions - to what extent treated wastewater can complement the existing water sources in different sectors and at what

Mekala Gayathri Devi; Brian Davidson; Anne-Maree Boland

2007-01-01

210

WASTEWATER IN RECEIVING WATERS AT WATER SUPPLY ABSTRACTION POINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to determine how much wastewater and wastewater-derived material from discharges is present in the surface water supplies of U.S. cities of over 25,000 population. The study identifies 1246 municipal water supply utilities using surface water from ...

211

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water-technology.net web site for the water industry contains links to many sites for detailed information on industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants as well as water supply and transmission. Also find information on current news releases, expos, conferences and much more.

212

Evaluation of rural wastewater treatment processes in a county of eastern China.  

PubMed

With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in China, wastewater treatment in rural areas has become an increasing national concern. The selection of appropriate treatment processes closely based on the actual local status is crucial for the prevention of water quality deterioration in rural areas of China. This study presents a full year survey on the performances of various rural wastewater treatment processes at a county level in eastern China including seven three-chamber septic tanks (ST), five micro-power biological facilities (MP), seven constructed wetlands (CW), three stabilization ponds (SP) and five centralized activated sludge treatment plants (AS). It was found that although ST could remove a notable portion of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)), it was ineffective in reducing nutrients and pathogens. Reliability and stability analyses showed that the centralized AS and decentralized CW processes outperformed the SP and MP processes. There were obvious discrepancies between the mean design concentrations, which ensure that 95% of the effluents meet the discharge standards, and the actual effluent concentrations determined for each process. The expected compliance with the tentatively adopted second-grade discharge standards (GB 18918-2002) was unsatisfactory for most of the water quality parameters examined, indicating an urgent need to design more practical discharge standards for decentralized treatment processes. Based on an overall assessment of reliability, stability and cost-effectiveness, the centralized AS was suitable for densely populated towns while the decentralized CW was suitable for sparsely populated villages. PMID:22378384

Dong, Hui-Yu; Qiang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Dong; Jin, Hui

2012-07-01

213

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of

J. M. Dalu; J. Ndamba

2003-01-01

214

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

2010-07-01

215

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

2011-07-01

216

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards...which is physically separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is not subject to the...

2014-07-01

217

DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

1 DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT: A GUIDEBOOK FOR GEORGIA COMMUNITIES Katie Sheehan wastewater treatment technologies. www.njunsystems.com Version 1.0, April 2013 #12; 2 DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT: A GUIDEBOOK FOR GEORGIA COMMUNITIES PART ONE: BACKGROUND, ISSUES, AND PROGRAM

Rosemond, Amy Daum

218

Study of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater in an Urban Agglomeration in Romania  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants. PMID:22919336

Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P.

2012-01-01

219

Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.  

PubMed

The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. PMID:23270957

de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

2013-01-15

220

40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each owner or...

2014-07-01

221

40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each owner or...

2011-07-01

222

Spine surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Intervertebral foramina - discharge; Spine surgery - foraminotomy - discharge; Lumbar decompression - discharge; Decompressive laminectomy - discharge; Spine surgery - laminectomy - discharge; ...

223

Radical prostatectomy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

224

Introduction to Wastewater Bruce J. Lesikar  

E-print Network

Wastewater Constituents Organic matter ­ Biochemical Oxygen Demand ­ indicator Solids ­ TSS FOG ­ Fats, Oil can contain disease causing Pathogens Bacteria Viruses Environmental Protection Treat contaminants contamination by a component of an on-site sewage facility; or a blatant discharge from an OSSF. Evolution

225

Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

2011-06-01

226

Implementation of China`s three synchronizations policy: Case studies of wastewater treatment measures at new and renovated factories  

SciTech Connect

The Three Synchronizations Policy requires that the design, construction, and operation of a new factory, or an existing factory that expands or changes production processes, be synchronized with the design, construction and operation of appropriate waste treatment facilities. Under this policy, when a new factory is designed, wastewater treatment facilities must be included as part of the overall factory design: when the factory is constructed, the wastewater treatment facilities must be constructed along with construction of the production facilities; and finally, when the factory begins to operate, the waste treatment facilities must begin operation as well. This research includes case studies of wastewater treatment measures at sixteen factories in the Pearl River Delta Region of China. Implementation of the Three Synchronizations Policy is examined in detail for two of the factories: Fengfu Weaving and Dyeing Plant and Zhongguan Printing and Dyeing Plant. The results of this research suggest that the Three Synchronizations Policy has been an effective means of forcing new and renovated factories to comply with wastewater discharge standards, mainly because the Three Synchronizations Policy gives environmental protection bureaus authority to regulate at each step of a new industrial facility`s development. In practice, this authority has been exercised through formalizing the {open_quotes}synchronizations{close_quotes} into a management system with specific regulatory requirements, each of which requires EPB approval. EPBs ran stall operation by withholding its approval of certification of a factory`s wastewater treatment facilities; EPBs also use fines and limited time treatment orders to enforce the Three Synchronizations Policy. The research results demonstrate that the Three Synchronizations Policy was more important than the Pollutant Discharge Fee Program in motivating existing factories to build wastewater treatment facilities.

Sinkule, B.J.

1994-03-01

227

Feasibility of using oil shale wastewater for waterfowl wetlands  

SciTech Connect

This ecological, engineering, and institutional research study evaluated the use of selected wastewaters from oil shale development to establish wetland habitats for waterfowl. It also evaluated the capability of the wetlands as an innovative wastewater treatment system. The first phase of this two-phase study included inventorying the physical and chemical properties of the potential wastewater sources, evaluating the wastewater capacity of wetlands, and determining the availability of each wastewater source. Critical waterfowl habitat requirements and effects of wastewater on wetlands were used, along with wastewater chemical characterizations, to establish minimum environmental standards for water quality and quantity. The second phase involved selecting candidate sites suitable for possible demonstration projects, including comparing the cost and effectiveness of wetland wastewater treatment with conventional treatment technologies.

Snyder, B.D.; Snyder, J.L.

1984-01-01

228

Decolorization of Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public demand for color-free waste discharge to receiving waters and tougher color standards have made decolorization of a variety of industrial wastes a top priority. Unfortunately, with the complicated color-causing compounds, the decolorization of these wastes is a difficult and challenging task. This article first describes the background information of dye molecules and dye waste characteristics. The methods for

Oliver J. Hao; Hyunook Kim; Pen-Chi Chiang

2000-01-01

229

Effects of Wastewater on Forested Wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

Doyle, Thomas W.

2002-01-01

230

Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ?8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removed<25% of DON and DOC without selectivity. PAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

2011-10-01

231

Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others. PMID:25901854

Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

2015-06-01

232

Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants  

PubMed Central

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

2012-01-01

233

Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

2012-01-01

234

Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).  

PubMed

Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state. PMID:20334971

He, Shengbing; Xue, Gang

2010-06-15

235

Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200?ng/L to 500?ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. PMID:23893650

Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

2013-11-01

236

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

237

Effects of volumetric load in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm treating industrial saline wastewater.  

PubMed

Mustard tuber wastewater is of high salinity ([Cl(-1)]?=?18?23?g?L(-1)), high organic content (chemical oxygen demand, COD?=?4000?±?100?L(-1)) and biodegradability (BOD5/COD???0.5). The anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) pre-treatment, an important step to meet national discharge standard, was applied to reduce much of the organics in mustard tuber wastewater. The experiment for the effect of the volumetric load on ASBBR treating mustard tuber wastewater was conducted at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and volumetric exchange ratios (?). The ASBBR operating at 50% biomass density, 30?°C, influent COD concentration of 4000?±?100?mg?L(-1) and pH value of 7.0?±?0.2, the effluent COD concentration increased from 0.22 to 4?kgCOD?m(-3)d(-1) when the volumetric load increased from 100 to 1520?mg?L(-1). The effluent COD concentration differed when adopted different HRT and ? under the same volumetric load. And given certain influent levels, a higher performance of ASBBR could be achieved at a lower value of HRT and ?. The optimal operational load could be determined by limiting the COD concentration under different discharge conditions, based on the results obtained in experiments. PMID:25220359

Chai, Hong-Xiang; Chen, Wei; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jian

2015-03-01

238

Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.  

PubMed

Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ?PAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

2014-09-01

239

Oily wastewaters treatment using Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the compost fertilizer  

PubMed Central

Background Discharging the oily wastewater in the environment causes serious problems, because of the oil compounds and organic materials presence. Applying biological methods using the lipase enzyme producer microorganisms can be an appropriate choice for treatment of these wastewaters. The aim of this study is to treat those oil wastewaters having high concentration of oil by applying lipase enzyme producer bacteria. Materials and methods Oil concentration measurement was conducted using the standard method of gravimetric and the wastewater under study was synthetically made and contained olive, canola and sunflower oil. The strain used in this study was Pseudomonas strain isolated from compost fertilizer. The oil under study had concentration of 1.5 to 22 g/l. Results The oil removal amount in concentrations lower than 8.4 g/l was over 95?±?1.5%. Increase of the oil's concentration to 22 g/l decreases the amount of removal in retention time of 44 hours to 85?±?2.5%. The best yield of removing this strain in retention time of 44 hours and temperature of 30°C was achieved using Ammonium Nitrate as the nitrogen resource which yield was about 95 percent. Conclusion The findings of the research showed that Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from the compost fertilizer can degrade high concentration oils. PMID:24876932

2014-01-01

240

Treatment of chemical mechanical polishing wastewater by electrocoagulation: system performances and sludge settling characteristics.  

PubMed

Treatment of copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor plant by electrocoagulation is investigated. The CMP wastewater was characterized by high suspended solids (SS) content, high turbidity (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration up to 500 mgl(-1) and copper concentration up to 100 mgl(-1). In the present study, electrocoagulation was employed to treat the CMP wastewater with an attempt to simultaneously lower its turbidity, copper and COD concentrations. The test results indicated that electrocoagulation with Al/Fe electrode pair was very efficient and able to achieve 99% copper ion and 96.5% turbidity removal in less than 30 min. The COD removal obtained in the treatment was better than 85%, with an effluent COD below 100 mgl(-1). The effluent wastewater was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. In addition, sludge settling velocities after electrocoagulation were measured and the data were employed to verify the empirical sludge settling velocity models. Finally, the sludge settling characteristic data were also utilized to establish the relation between the solids flux (G) and the initial solids concentration. PMID:14575735

Lai, Chen L; Lin, Sheng H

2004-01-01

241

Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales. PMID:23764477

Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

2013-09-30

242

A review on characterization and bioremediation of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater: an Indian perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past few decades, pharmaceutical industries have registered a quantum jump contributing to high economic growth, but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Untreated or allegedly treated pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIWW) creates a need for time to time assessment and characterization of discharged wastewater as per the standards provided by the regulatory authorities. To control environmental pollution, pharmaceutical industries use different treatment plans to treat and reuse wastewater. The characterization of PIWW using advanced and coupled techniques has progressed to a much advanced level, but in view of new developments in drug manufacture for emerging diseases and the complexities associated with them, better sophisticated instrumentation and methods of treatment are warranted. The bioremediation process to treat PIWW has undergone more intense investigation in recent decade. This results in the complete mineralization of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater and no waste product is obtained. Moreover, high efficiency and low operation cost prove it to be an effective tool for the treatment of PIWW. The present review focuses on the characterization as well as bioremediation aspects of PIWW.

Rana, Rajender Singh; Singh, Prashant; Kandari, Vikash; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-08-01

243

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

244

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David Frederick

2012-02-01

245

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

David B. Frederick

2011-02-01

246

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

247

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

MODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration., and Nielsen, M. K. (1999). Grey box modelling of first flush and incoming wastewater at a wastewater treatment

248

Shoulder replacement - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

249

Simplified Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is for wastewater treatment plant operators who find it difficult to follow the detailed discussions and procedures found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." It is intended to be used with "Standard Methods" available for reference. Included in this publication are chapters on laboratory procedures,…

Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

250

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well  

PubMed Central

This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input–output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20?000 m3 (with a range from 6700 to 33?000 m3) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300–3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900–23?000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0–370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800–71?000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59?000–270?000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

2013-01-01

251

Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.  

PubMed

This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59,000-270,000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

2014-02-01

252

96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100 %). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90 % of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45 %. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days. PMID:25339528

Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

2015-04-01

253

Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.  

PubMed

This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. PMID:20399551

Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

2010-08-01

254

Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients  

PubMed Central

Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

2013-01-01

255

Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

2011-01-01

256

Nipple discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Discharge from breasts; Milk secretions; Lactation - abnormal; Witch's milk; Galactorrhea; Inverted nipple; Nipple problems ... such as anise and fennel Widening of the milk ducts Sometimes, babies can have nipple discharge. Your ...

257

Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

2004-01-01

258

Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

2008-11-20

259

Conductance based sensing and analysis of soluble phosphates in wastewater.  

PubMed

The current standard method used for measuring soluble phosphate in environmental water samples is based on a colourimetric approach, developed in the early 1960s. In order to provide an alternative, label free sensing solution, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was designed to function as a phosphate receptor. A combination of functional monomer (N-allylthiourea), cross-linker and monomer/template ratios were optimised in order to maximise the binding capacity for phosphate. When produced in membrane format, the MIP's ability to produce a reversible change in conductance in the presence of phosphate was explored for fabrication of a sensor which was able to selectively detect the presence of phosphate compared to sulphate, nitrate and chloride. In wastewater samples the sensor had a limit of detection of 0.16 mg P/l, and a linear range between 0.66 and 8 mg P/l. This is below the minimum monitoring level (1 mg P/l) as required by current legislation for wastewater discharges, making the sensor as developed promising for direct quantification of phosphate in environmental monitoring applications. PMID:24051435

Warwick, Christopher; Guerreiro, Antonio; Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Wood, Elizabeth; Kitson, James; Robinson, James; Soares, Ana

2014-02-15

260

Sarnia-Lambton Association: Wetland Treatment of Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes the functions and values of wetlands, and includes keywords and illustrations. Wetlands have received wastewater discharges from many different situations in the past, but only recently have they been recognized as potentially cost-efficient treatment systems. They can effectively remove or convert large quantities of pollutants from point sources (municipal and industrial wastewaters) and non-point sources (mine, agricultural and urban runoff).

2001-06-12

261

Standardizing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, created by Statisical Literacy.com, contains a short article on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox with an example of how standardizing changes the results. It also contains links to other "real world" articles on Simpson'Â?Â?s Paradox, including a newspaper article illustrating that this topic is timely. The site features a few graphs to help better represent the concept. Overall, this is a brief but useful explanation of this concept.

262

40 CFR 413.04 - Standards for integrated facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions...Pretreatment Regulations. In cases where electroplating process wastewaters are combined...corresponding 30 day average standard for the electroplating wastewaters must be used....

2010-07-01

263

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

2011-07-01

264

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

2013-07-01

265

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

2012-07-01

266

40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual...shall be exempt from the provisions of this section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new...

2014-07-01

267

Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.  

PubMed

Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a need to better integrate water reuse into core water governance frameworks in order to effectively address the challenges and harness the potential of this vital resource for environmental health protection. The paper also presents a blueprint for future water governance and public policies for the protection of environmental health. PMID:22093903

Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

2012-04-01

268

Heart valve surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Aortic valve replacement - discharge; Aortic valvuloplasty - discharge; Aortic valve repair - discharge; Replacement - aortic valve - discharge; Repair - aortic valve - discharge; Ring annuloplasty - ...

269

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann  

E-print Network

MODELLING OF WASTEWATER SYSTEMS Henrik Bechmann Lyngby 1999 ATV Erhvervsforskerprojekt EF 623 IMM., and Poulsen, N. K. (1998). Control of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants using pollutant, N. K., and Nielsen, M. K. (1999). Grey box modelling of first flush and incoming wastewater

270

Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China. PMID:24650528

Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

2014-05-01

271

Catalytic ozonation-biological coupled processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing refractory chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds*  

PubMed Central

A treatability study of industrial wastewater containing chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs) by a catalytic ozonation process (COP) with a modified Mn/Co ceramic catalyst and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. A preliminary attempt to treat the diluted wastewater with a single SBR resulted in ineffective removal of the color, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Next, COP was applied as a pretreatment in order to obtain a bio-compatible wastewater for SBR treatment in a second step. The effectiveness of the COP pretreatment was assessed by evaluating wastewater biodegradability enhancement (the ratio of biology oxygen demand after 5 d (BOD5) to COD), as well as monitoring the evolution of TOC, carbon oxidation state (COS), average oxidation state (AOS), color, and major pollutant concentrations with reaction time. In the COP, the catalyst preserved its catalytic properties even after 70 reuse cycles, exhibiting good durability and stability. The performance of SBR to treat COP effluent was also examined. At an organic loading rate of 2.0 kg COD/(m3·d), with hydraulic retention time (HRT)=10 h and temperature (30±2) °C, the average removal efficiencies of NH3-N, COD, BOD5, TOC, and color in a coupled COP/SBR process were about 80%, 95.8%, 93.8%, 97.6% and 99.3%, respectively, with average effluent concentrations of 10 mg/L, 128 mg/L, 27.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L, and 20 multiples, respectively, which were all consistent with the national standards for secondary discharge of industrial wastewater into a public sewerage system (GB 8978-1996). The results indicated that the coupling of COP with a biological process was proved to be a technically and economically effective method for treating industrial wastewater containing recalcitrant CNACs. PMID:20205304

Li, Bing-zhi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

2010-01-01

272

Determination of the optimal and economical biofilter depth in an anaerobic hybrid reactor for treating livestock industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

A laboratory scale anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) being comprised of UASB and anaerobic biofilter was used to study the different biofilter depth with corresponding different critical HRT (1) and HRT (2) in treating livestock industrial wastewater, where the critical HRT (1) was defined as the HRT which resulted in the total COD in the effluent of the AHR exceeding in the influent at unsteady state, and the HRT (2) was defined as the HRT which resulted in the total COD in the effluent of the AHR exceeding the quality standard for discharging to sewer (in Hong Kong is Total COD < 1000 mg L1) at steady state. Two formulas expressing the relationship of different biofilter depth in the AHR and it's critical HRT (1) and HRT (2) in treating livestock industrial wastewater were obtained and used to design optimal and economical biofilter depth in a full scale AHR for treating livestock industrial wastewater on site. The performance of the full scale AHR indicated that using the experience formulas to design the optimal and economical biofilter depth in the full scale AHR for treating livestock industrial wastewater was successful. Experimental results also showed that the biofilter in the full scale AHR had not only physical filtration effect, but also had powerful biodegradation capability, furthermore, at unsteady state, the effect of biofilter on pollutant degrading in the full scale AHR was more great. PMID:15663312

Wang, L; Zhou, Q; Chua, H

2005-01-01

273

Case Studies from Turkey: Xenobiotic-containing Industries, Wastewater Treatment and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenobiotic compounds are widely used in several industries; hence they frequently appear in industrial wastewaters. It is\\u000a a well-known fact that even the discharge of conventionally treated wastewater may have adverse effects on the receiving water\\u000a environment. Turkey, a developing EU applicant country, has many industrial sectors producing large amounts of xenobiotic-containing\\u000a wastewaters. The problem is only enlarged by the

E. Pehlivanoglu-Mantas; G. Insel; O. Karahan; E. Ubay Cokgor; D. Orhon

2008-01-01

274

Efficient electricity production and simultaneously wastewater treatment via a high-performance photocatalytic fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great quantity of wastewater were discharged into water body, causing serious environmental pollution. Meanwhile, the organic compounds in wastewater are important sources of energy. In this work, a high-performance short TiO2 nanotube array (STNA) electrode was applied as photoanode material in a novel photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system for electricity production and simultaneously wastewater treatment. The results of current

Yanbiao Liu; Jinhua Li; Baoxue Zhou; Xuejin Li; Hongchong Chen; Quanpeng Chen; Zhongsheng Wang; Lei Li; Jiulin Wang; Weimin Cai

2011-01-01

275

Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every time you take a bath, wash your clothes, flush the toilet, or run water down the kitchen or bathroom sinks you are creating wastewater. The average household generates between 60-75 gallons of wastewater each day. So where does that wastewater go? By working through this instructional unit, you will be able to better answer this question. Please read through the information provided below to learn more about wastewater and how it is treated. After you have completed the unit, you will need to complete the Wastewater Treatment worksheet that will be handed out to you in class by Professor Taylor. If you live in a small rural community you are most likely to have a septic tank system to treat your wastewater. This type of system treats your wastewater on your own property near your home. To learn more about septic tank sytems see the following link provided. Sewer and Septic Tanks If ...

Professor Darin Taylor

2005-11-15

276

Estimation of E. coli Concentrations from Failing On-Site Wastewater Treatment Facilities (OWTS) Using GIS  

E-print Network

Failing Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (OWTSs) have been identified as a significant threat to water quality, discharging significant amounts of inadequately treated sewage effluents. When developing a Watershed Protection Plan (WPP), OWTS has...

Virani, Afreen Shiraz

2014-08-12

277

Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers  

EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

278

Analysis of constraints and potentials for wastewater management in the coastal city of Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Manado is the largest and most densely populated coastal city in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The city is facing problems of wastewater discharged from various sources. These problems are driven by high population pressure, increasing economic activity, and low household income, in combination with inadequate organizational structure of government institutions for addressing the wastewater problems as well as for law enforcement. There have been no community initiatives to prevent or mitigate wastewater problems. Therefore, a wastewater management plan is urgently needed to prevent and mitigate pollution caused by discharged wastewater. In this paper we analyze the current situation with respect to environmental state, sources and treatment of wastewater, socio-economic and institutional capacities as well as community awareness. Constraints and potentials are discussed to give recommendations for an integrated wastewater management plan for the city of Manado. PMID:17825473

Lasut, Markus T; Jensen, Kathe R; Shivakoti, Ganesh

2008-09-01

279

Determining design parameters for recovery of aquaculture wastewater using sand beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design information for the use of sand beds to remove suspended solids from wastewater discharged from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was developed. Wastewater from a commercial RAS tilapia farm with 2% total solids and 1.6% total suspended solids (TSS) was applied to sand columns to determine infiltration rates and phosphorus capture. Various hydraulic loading rates and drying periods between application

G. L Palacios; M. B Timmons

2001-01-01

280

Fate of glutaraldehyde in hospital wastewater and combined effects of glutaraldehyde and surfactants on aquatic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutaraldehyde (GA), an aliphatic dialdehyde disinfectant, and surfactants, one of the major components of detergents, are widely used in hospitals in order to eliminate pathogenic organisms causing nosocomial infectious diseases. After their use, disinfectants and surfactants reach the wastewater network together. The discharge of chemical compounds from hospital activities into wastewater is also a well-known problem, causing pollution of water

Evens Emmanuel; Khalil Hanna; Christine Bazin; Gérard Keck; Bernard Clément; Yves Perrodin

2005-01-01

281

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania Nathaniel R. In Pennsylvania, oil and gas wastewater is sometimes treated at brine treatment facilities and discharged to local waters, and stream sediments associated with a treatment facility site in western Pennsylvania

Jackson, Robert B.

282

Controlled natural purification system for advanced wastewater treatment and protein conversion and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is an improved controlled natural purification system for an advanced wastewater treatment and protein conversion and recovery. The system provides for treating municipal wastewater and associated organic industrial discharges anaerobically and aerobically. The system consists of such treatments in a tank complex where the waste organics are reduced to inorganic forms available for microalgae culture in tanks uniquely

Thompson

1981-01-01

283

Enantioselective determination of representative profens in wastewater by a single-step sample treatment and chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This manuscript describes, for the first time, the simultaneous enantioselective determination of ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen in wastewater based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method uses a single-step sample treatment based on microextraction with a supramolecular solvent made up of hexagonal inverted aggregates of decanoic acid, formed in situ in the wastewater sample through a spontaneous self-assembly process. Microextraction of profens was optimized and the analytical method validated. Isotopically labeled internal standards were used to compensate for both matrix interferences and recoveries. Apparent recoveries for the six enantiomers in influent and effluent wastewater samples were in the interval 97-103%. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were obtained (0.5-1.2ngL(-1)) as a result of the high concentration factors achieved in the microextraction process (i.e. actual concentration factors 469-736). No analyte derivatization or evaporation of extracts, as it is required with GC-MS, was necessary. Relative standard deviations for enantiomers in wastewater were always below 8%. The method was applied to the determination of the concentrations and enantiomeric fractions of the targeted analytes in influents and effluents from three wastewater treatment plants. All the values found for profen enantiomers were consistent with those previously reported and confirmed again the suitability of using the enantiomeric fraction of ibuprofen as an indicator of the discharge of untreated or poorly treated wastewaters. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it applicable to the assessment of the enantiomeric fate of profens in the environment. PMID:25618675

Caballo, C; Sicilia, M D; Rubio, S

2015-03-01

284

Zero discharge programs require careful planning  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations, increasing scarcity of fresh water supplies and rising costs of clean water production have contributed to greater water conservation throughout the country. Reduced or zero discharge programs have become much more commonplace at electric utilities, chemical process industries and manufacturing facilities. Water conservation can be a very complicated issue, with methods varying considerably from site to site. The issues that influence water reduction programs include: quality, quantity and cost of fresh water available to the plant; quality of water needed for various plant processes; ability to recycle wastewater streams to other plant processes; techniques for water treatment; capital, operations, maintenance and labor costs, and floor space and construction requirements for water treatment equipment, pilot testing of proposed treatment methods and environmental restrictions on the quantity and quality of any wastewater that may be discharged. This article describes several water discharge programs available to address the complex needs of each unique plant site.

Buecker, B.

1997-05-01

285

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2013-07-01

286

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2011-07-01

287

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2012-07-01

288

40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard...the residual emissions from all Group 1 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111... = Sum of emissions from all Group 2 wastewater streams, as defined in § 63.111...

2014-07-01

289

WASTEWATER AND RECLAIMED WATER IRRIGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigation with reclaimed water from municipal wastewater treatment plants and wastewater from municipal and agricultural sources is becoming more widespread and adopted. The design and operation of irrigation systems utilizing wastewater and reclaimed water has some very important differences from ...

290

Feasibility analysis of in-plant control for water minimization and wastewater reuse in a wool finishing textile mill.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the feasibility of water minimization and wastewater reuse for a wool finishing textile mill. The evaluation process is based upon a detailed analysis on water use, process profile and wastewater characterization, indicating a potential for 34% reduction in water consumption and for 23% of wastewater recovery for reuse. Wastewater reuse requires treatment and results in a remaining wastewater stream with stronger character and consequently more costly to treat. The feasibility includes technical considerations for appropriate treatment alternatives and related cost factors for water consumption, treatment for reuse and for discharge either to sewer or to receiving media. PMID:15242129

Erdogan, Argun O; Orhon, H Ferit; Dulkadiroglu, Hakan; Dogruel, Serdar; Eremektar, Gulen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos; Orhon, Derin

2004-01-01

291

Water-quality assessment and wastewater-management alternatives for Dardenne Creek in St Charles County, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of water in the 15 mile downstream reach of Dardenne Creek in St. Charles County, Missouri, was assessed to determine if it met the Missouri water quality standards. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and total ammonia failed to meet water quality standards downstream from the Harvester-Dardenne and St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plants. The QUAL-II SEMCOG water quality model was calibrated and verified using two independent data sets from Dardenne Creek. Management alternatives using current, design capacity, and future expansion wastewater discharges from the St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plant were evaluated. Results of the computer simulation indicate that a nitrification-type advanced-treatment facility installed at the plant would produce a 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand of 10 mg/L. An effluent limit of 5.0 mg/L of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand would further improve the water quality of Dardenne Creek; however, an additional treatment process, such as sand filtration, would be needed to meet this criterion. (USGS)

Berkas, W.R.; Lodderhose, J.R.

1985-01-01

292

Hip fracture - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

293

Residential Wastewater Treatment Systems  

MedlinePLUS

... Products and Interiors Chemical Consumer Products Dietary Supplements Food Safety and Quality Medical Devices Pharma Biotech Plastics Sustainability and Environment Water and Wastewater Services By Type Product Certification ...

294

Vaginal Discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that can cause changes ... vulva Intense itching Painful sexual intercourse Signs of bacterial vaginosis A white, gray or yellowish vaginal discharge A ...

295

Assessment of wastewater and recycled water quality: a comparison of lines of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and chemical analyses.  

PubMed

We investigated water quality at an advanced water reclamation plant and three conventional wastewater treatment plants using an "ecotoxicity toolbox" consisting of three complementary analyses (chemical analysis, in vitro bioanalysis and in situ biological monitoring), with a focus on endocrine disruption. The in vitro bioassays were chosen to provide an appropriately wide coverage of biological effects relevant to managed aquifer recharge and environmental discharge of treated wastewater, and included bioassays for bacterial toxicity (Microtox), genotoxicity (umuC), photosynthesis inhibition (Max-I-PAM) and endocrine effects (E-SCREEN and AR-CALUX). Chemical analysis of hormones and pesticides using LCMSMS was performed in parallel to correlate standard analytical methods with the in vitro assessment. For two plants with surface water discharge into open drains, further field work was carried out to examine in situ effects using mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) as a bioindicator species for possible endocrine effects. The results show considerable cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, estrogenicity and androgenicity in raw sewage, all of which were significantly reduced by conventional wastewater treatment. No biological response was detected to RO water, suggesting that reverse osmosis is a significant barrier to biologically active compounds. Chemical analysis and in situ monitoring revealed trends consistent with the in vitro results: chemical analysis confirmed the removal trends observed by the bioanalytical tools, and in situ sampling did not reveal any evidence of endocrine disruption specifically due to discharge of treated wastewater (although other sources may be present). Biomarkers of exposure (in vitro) and effect (in vivo or in situ) are complementary and together provide information with a high level of ecological relevance. This study illustrates the utility of combining multiple lines of evidence in the assessment of water quality. PMID:24210511

Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Gagnon, M Monique; Quayle, Pam; Trinh, Trang; Coleman, Heather; Rawson, Christopher; Chapman, Heather F; Blair, Palenque; Nice, Helen; Reitsema, Tarren

2014-03-01

296

Separation of Tritium from Wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

JEPPSON, D.W.

2000-01-25

297

Cost-Based Optimization of a Papermaking Wastewater Regeneration Recycling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater can be regenerated for recycling in an industrial process to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. Such an environment friendly approach will also lead to cost savings that accrue due to reduced freshwater usage and wastewater discharge. However, the resulting cost savings are offset to varying degrees by the costs incurred for the regeneration of wastewater for recycling. Therefore, systematic procedures should be used to determine the true economic benefits for any water-using system involving wastewater regeneration recycling. In this paper, a total cost accounting procedure is employed to construct a comprehensive cost model for a paper mill. The resulting cost model is optimized by means of mathematical programming to determine the optimal regeneration flowrate and regeneration efficiency that will yield the minimum total cost.

Huang, Long; Feng, Xiao; Chu, Khim H.

2010-11-01

298

EFFECTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SEAWATER DILUTION IN REDUCING LETHAL TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TO SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW AND PINK SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was conducted to determine the effects of treatment and seawater dilution of municipal wastewater on marine organisms. n experimental facility was built in southeast Florida that provided both unchlorinated and chlorinated effluent from three standard treatments: primar...

299

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR REUSE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An 18 month study using cost effective municipal wastewater treatment technology coupled with a computerized data handling system, was conducted at the EPA/Washington, D.C. Blue Plains Pilot Plant to obtain data on the safety of the effluent for discharge upstream of drinking wat...

300

Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Escherichia coli Bacteriophages and Their Application in Wastewater Treatment and Coliform's Phage Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Phage therapy or use of lytic bacteriophages for eliminating bacterial populations has been developed for several aspects of human affairs such as medicine, agriculture and food industries. Objectives: The high load of coliforms of treated wastewater effluents that are discharged into the rivers or agricultural lands is a serious concern of the Iran Department of Environment and the reduction of coliforms using phages to overcome this problem is an asset. This research aimed to isolate and identify specific lytic coliphages and investigate their effects on native and standard Escherichia coli strains as well as coliform populations in municipal wastewater. Materials and Methods: The wastewater sample was cultured on selective culture media to isolate a native coliform strain and characterized using molecular methods. River water was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45 ?m filter and its lytic coliphages were enriched and purified against a native E. coli as well as a standard E. coli strain. Municipal wastewater was treated with isolated lytic coliphages and most probable number (MPN) reduction was examined. Results: E. coli SBSWF27, which is a native strain of E. coli from Isfahan municipal wastewater treatment plant, was isolated and characterized. Also two novel bacteriophages related to Myoviridae and Podoviridae families of bacteriophages from Zayandehrood River (Isfahan, Iran) were isolated. These coliphages had lytic effects on E. coli PTCC1399 and E. coli SBSWF27 as coliform's index. The myovirus had a hexagonal head measuring 27.28 nm and a noncontractile tail measuring 204.5 × 13.63 nm. The podovirus had an oval head measuring 98 × 35 nm and a tail, 14 nm in diameter. The treatment of municipal sewage with the coliphage mixture resulted in a 22-fold decrease of the coliform's MPN from 2400 to 110 after two hours of incubation. Conclusions: This is the first report on isolation and identification of two novel lytic myovirus and podovirus from Zayandehrood River in Isfahan that had lytic effects on E. coli PTCC1399 and E. coli SBSWF27 strains as well as coliform's population of Isfahan municipal wastewater. We suggest that the use of these lytic coliphages for reduction of coliform's population in sewage could be considered as an effective and simple alternative for costly replacement of instruments and establishments of the old wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25834715

Beheshti Maal, Keivan; Soleimani Delfan, Abbas; Salmanizadeh, Sharareh

2015-01-01

301

Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater.  

PubMed

The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater. PMID:23009792

Won, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

2012-11-15

302

Human health implications of clinically relevant bacteria in wastewater habitats.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to reflect on the multiple roles of bacteria in wastewater habitats with particular emphasis on their harmful potential for human health. Indigenous bacteria promote a series of biochemical and metabolic transformations indispensable to achieve wastewater treatment. Some of these bacteria may be pathogenic or harbour antibiotic resistance or virulence genes harmful for human health. Several chemical contaminants (heavy metals, disinfectants and antibiotics) may select these bacteria or their genes. Worldwide studies show that treated wastewater contain antibiotic resistant bacteria or genes encoding virulence or antimicrobial resistance, evidencing that treatment processes may fail to remove efficiently these bio-pollutants. The contamination of the surrounding environment, such as rivers or lakes receiving such effluents, is also documented in several studies. The current state of the art suggests that only some of antibiotic resistance and virulence potential in wastewater is known. Moreover, wastewater habitats may favour the evolution and dissemination of new resistance and virulence genes and the emergence of new pathogens. For these reasons, additional research is needed in order to obtain a more detailed assessment of the long-term effects of wastewater discharges. In particular, it is important to measure the human and environmental health risks associated with wastewater reuse. PMID:23508533

Varela, Ana Rita; Manaia, Célia M

2013-06-01

303

Sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor for textile wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Textile wastewater is difficult to treat as it usually contains considerable amounts of different pollutants, which are often recalcitrant, toxic and inhibitory. Therefore, complex treatment schemes based on the sequence of various steps are usually required for an effective treatment. This explains why textile effluents are often treated in centralized plants and sometimes mixed with municipal wastewater. The adoption of new technologies for on-site treatment, instead, would be optimal, deeply reducing treatment costs. An innovative technology exhibiting several characteristics appropriate for the attainment of such a goal is sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR). To assess the suitability of this technology, two lab-scale reactors were operated, treating mixed municipal-textile wastewater and a pure textile effluent, respectively. Results have demonstrated that mixed wastewater can be successfully treated with very low hydraulic retention times (less than 10 hours). Furthermore, SBBGR shows to be an effective pre-treatment for textile wastewater for discharge into sewer systems. The economic evaluation of the process showed operative costs of 0.10 and 0.19 € per m(3) of mixed wastewater and textile wastewater, respectively. PMID:21558025

Lotito, Adriana Maria; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Fratino, Umberto; Mancini, Annalisa; Bergna, Giovanni

2011-12-15

304

Simulation of the wastewater temperature in sewers with TEMPEST.  

PubMed

TEMPEST is a new interactive simulation program for the estimation of the wastewater temperature in sewers. Intuitive graphical user interfaces assist the user in managing data, performing calculations and plotting results. The program calculates the dynamics and longitudinal spatial profiles of the wastewater temperature in sewer lines. Interactions between wastewater, sewer air and surrounding soil are modeled in TEMPEST by mass balance equations, rate expressions found in the literature and a new empirical model of the airflow in the sewer. TEMPEST was developed as a tool which can be applied in practice, i.e., it requires as few input data as possible. These data include the upstream wastewater discharge and temperature, geometric and hydraulic parameters of the sewer, material properties of the sewer pipe and surrounding soil, ambient conditions, and estimates of the capacity of openings for air exchange between sewer and environment. Based on a case study it is shown how TEMPEST can be applied to estimate the decrease of the downstream wastewater temperature caused by heat recovery from the sewer. Because the efficiency of nitrification strongly depends on the wastewater temperature, this application is of practical relevance for situations in which the sewer ends at a nitrifying wastewater treatment plant. PMID:18547935

Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

2008-01-01

305

Wastewater pretreatment at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

SciTech Connect

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida provides berthing services for US military ships and submarines including the storage and pretreatment of various types of onboard wastewater. CCAFS required an upgrade to the current pretreatment processes to adequately treat shipboard, bilge and missile tube wastewaters prior to discharge to a new base sewage treatment plant. A wastewater characterization showed that the nature of the onboard wastewaters is quite unique and highly variable. Due to the unusual characteristics of these wastewaters, treatability testing was performed on representative samples of these wastewater to simulate pH adjustment, gravity oil separation and dissolved air flotation (DAF). Based on the results of that readability tests and other design requirements, three pretreatment systems were designed, one for each type of wastewater. Due to the location and the high profile nature of the project, several special design issues were involved including special aesthetics requirements, environmental restrictions, special clear zones from munitions storage and multiple review agencies. The project was completed within the required schedule and budget constraints.

Garrett, D.W.; Zanoni, P.D.

1999-07-01

306

Does zinc in livestock wastewater reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mangrove soils?  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) affects nitrogen cycling but the effect of Zn in wastewater on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil has not been reported. This study compared N2O emissions from mangrove soil receiving livestock wastewater containing various Zn(2+) concentrations and evaluated how long the effects of Zn would last in these soil-wastewater microcosms. Significant increases in N2O flux were observed soon after the discharge of wastewater with a low Zn content. On the other hand, the flux was reduced significantly in the wastewater with high Zn levels but such inhibitory effect was not observed after tidal flushing. Continuous monitoring of the N2O fluxes also confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Zn was confined within a few hours and the fluxes recovered in 6-9 h after the wastewater was completely drained away. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of Zn on N2O fluxes occurred immediately after wastewater discharge and disappeared gradually. In the surface soil, nitrate levels increased with the addition of wastewater but there was no significant accumulation of NH4(+)-N, irrespective of the Zn content in the wastewater. The study also showed that nitrification potential and immediate N2O emissions were inhibited by high Zn levels in the soil, but the total oxidation of ammonium to nitrate was not affected. PMID:25171729

Chen, Guang C; Tam, Nora F Y; Ye, Yong

2014-11-15

307

TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

308

Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater,  

E-print Network

Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater, Surface, Ground.W., Meyer, M.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2004, Presence and distri- bution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-02: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific

309

Methods for Estimating Annual Wastewater Nutrient Loads in the Southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes an approach for estimating annual total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads from point-source dischargers in the southeastern United States. Nutrient load estimates for 2002 were used in the calibration and application of a regional nutrient model, referred to as the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model. Loads from dischargers permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System were calculated using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System database and individual state databases. Site information from both state and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency databases, including latitude and longitude and monitored effluent data, was compiled into a project database. For sites with a complete effluent-monitoring record, effluent-flow and nutrient-concentration data were used to develop estimates of annual point-source nitrogen and phosphorus loads. When flow data were available but nutrient-concentration data were missing or incomplete, typical pollutant-concentration values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were used to estimate load. In developing typical pollutant-concentration values, the major factors assumed to influence wastewater nutrient-concentration variability were the size of the discharger (the amount of flow), the season during which discharge occurred, and the Standard Industrial Classification code of the discharger. One insight gained from this study is that in order to gain access to flow, concentration, and location data, close communication and collaboration are required with the agencies that collect and manage the data. In addition, the accuracy and usefulness of the load estimates depend on the willingness of the states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance and review for at least a subset of the load estimates that may be problematic.

McMahon, Gerard; Tervelt, Larinda; Donehoo, William

2007-01-01

310

Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

Vachon, D.T. (Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario); Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

1982-06-01

311

75 FR 10477 - Draft Report to Congress: Study of Discharges Incidental to Normal Operation of Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Incidental to Normal Operation of Commercial Fishing Vessels and Other Non- Recreational Vessels...Incidental to Normal Operation of Commercial Fishing Vessels and Other Non- Recreational Vessels...wastewater discharged from commercial fishing vessels and non- recreational...

2010-03-08

312

Prostate resection - minimally invasive - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Laser prostatectomy - discharge; Transurethral needle ablation - discharge; TUNA - discharge; Transurethral incision - discharge; TUIP - discharge; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate - discharge; HoLep - ...

313

40 CFR 413.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coatings Subcategory...10,000 gal) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2010-07-01

314

40 CFR 413.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electroless...000 gal.) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2010-07-01

315

40 CFR 413.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Anodizing...10,000 gal) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following limitations...gal) or more per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2010-07-01

316

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2012-07-01

317

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2011-07-01

318

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

319

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2010-07-01

320

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

321

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2011-07-01

322

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2014-07-01

323

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2014-07-01

325

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

326

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

327

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

328

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2014-07-01

329

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

330

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2011-07-01

331

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2014-07-01

332

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2013-07-01

333

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

334

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2013-07-01

335

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

336

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2012-07-01

337

40 CFR 467.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.022...

2010-07-01

338

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

339

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

340

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2012-07-01

341

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2014-07-01

342

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

344

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

345

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

346

40 CFR 467.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

347

40 CFR 467.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2012-07-01

348

40 CFR 467.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2012-07-01

349

40 CFR 467.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing... The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

350

40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewaters introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum drawn with emulsions or soaps...

2013-07-01

351

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2011-07-01

352

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2011-07-01

353

40 CFR 467.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum forged Chromium 0.019...

2012-07-01

354

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2010-07-01

355

40 CFR 467.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with emulsions Chromium...

2011-07-01

356

40 CFR 467.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling...The mass of wastewater pollutants in aluminum forming process wastewater introduced...off-kg (lb/million off-lbs) of aluminum rolled with neat oils Chromium...

2013-07-01

357

Discharges and Sediments as Sources of Extracellular Alkaline Phosphatase in a Shallow Chinese Eutrophic Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were measured in municipal wastewater, and a shallow Chinese freshwater lake receiving it. Activities of Dissolved alkaline phosphatase (ADAP) in overlying and interstitial water were also analyzed monthly at three sites for several years. The lake was enriched with SRP and alkaline phosphatase by discharge of the wastewater, indicating

Zhou Yiyong; Li Jianqiu; Song Chunlei; Cao Xiuyun

2004-01-01

358

Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate, contrast media, corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and metabolites of several substances. For analysis of micropollutants, water samples were spiked with internal standards before solid-phase-extraction (SPE) and the analysis was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/MS-MS). Quantification limits were in the range of 1-28 ng/l for river water and 200-650 ng/l for untreated wastewater. Once the concentrations and loads of micropollutants in the infiltrating waters are known and compared to those in the spring water, one might distinguish and quantify the portions of water infiltrating from the different sources in the catchment area.

Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

2013-04-01

359

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment Bruce Logan Penn State University #12;Energy Costs? 5-7% of electricity used in USA is for water &wastewater #12;Global Energy & Health Issues 1 Billion people lack #12;Energy content of Wastewaters · Electricity "lost" to water and wastewater treatment= 0.6 quad

360

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment Bruce Logan Penn State University #12;Energy Costs? 5-7% of electricity used in USA is for water &wastewater #12;Global Energy & Health IssuesGlobal Energy & Health content of WastewatersEnergy content of Wastewaters ·· ElectricityElectricity ""lostlost"" to water

361

Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems  

E-print Network

Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Don Jones, Jacqui Bauer, Richard Wise, and Alan Dunn* ID-265 #12;Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 2 It is the policy of the Purdue University Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 3 Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Table of Contents

Holland, Jeffrey

362

Retrospective analyses of inputs of municipal wastewater effluent and coupled impacts on an urban lake.  

PubMed

A retrospective review and analysis are presented of the evolution of treatment, point of discharge considerations, and constituent loading from the Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (Metro), and the coupled water quality effects on the receiving urban lake (Onondaga Lake, New York) from the early 1970s to 2010. The analysis is based on long-term monitoring of the discharge, Onondaga Lake, and a nearby river system considered as a potential alternate to receive the effluent. The Metro discharge is extraordinarily large relative to the lake's hydrologic budget, representing approximately 25% of the total inflow, greater than for any other lake in the United States. The large loads of nitrogen and phosphorus received from the facility resulted in severe water quality effects in the lake during the early portion of record, including (1) violations of standards to protect against toxic effects of ammonia and nitrite, (2) violations of the water clarity standard for swimming safety, (3) exceedances of a limit for the summer average concentration of total phosphorus in the upper waters, and (4) lakewide violations of the oxygen standard during fall turnover. The effects of Metro were compounded by effects of discharges from soda ash/chlor-alkali and pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The sedimentary record of the lake indicates that even greater levels of cultural eutrophication prevailed before the monitoring commenced. Dramatic improvements in the water quality of the lake were achieved in recent years by implementing advanced treatment technologies. Exceedances of receiving water limits in the lake were eliminated, with the exception of the total phosphorus limit. A zebra mussel invasion compromised the oxygen resources and assimilative capacity of the nearby river for more than 15 years. This eliminated an option, previously supported by managers, of full diversion of the Metro effluent to the river. PMID:23409450

Effler, Steven W; O'Donnell, Susan M; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Matthews, David A; Auer, Martin T

2013-01-01

363

Put the breaks on wastewater emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Emulsions in wastewater pose a vexing problem for facilities attempting to recycle water and stay in compliance with permissible discharge limits. But the challenges are no less formidable for routine maintenance. The removal of emulsions, a major constituent of which are fats, oils and greases (FOGs), is necessary to prevent them from depositing on pipes and fouling filtration media. Some of the havoc caused by emulsions can be avoided if emulsions are broken and removed from wastewater streams. Successful emulsion breaking requires a basic understanding of emulsions, their chemical composition, and the technologies required to remove them from water. The paper discusses emulsion basics and emulsion breaking, including counteracting emulsions, testing procedures, physical separation methods, removal strategies, bentonite-based powders, and post-polishing.

Alther, G. [Biomin, Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1998-03-01

364

Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

Wolverton, B. C.

1986-01-01

365

Sustainable Water Conservation and Wastewater Reuse in a Palm Oil Mill: A Case Study in Southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palm oil industry is one of the major agro-industries in Southern Thailand. It requires a large amount of water for its operation and discharges consider- able quantities of wastewater. This creates a serious threat to the environment and sources of potable water. This study proposes recommendations for water conservation and reuse and improvement of wastewater treatment facilities to overcome

SHING TET LEONG; SAMORN MUTTAMARA; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

366

Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

None

1983-10-01

367

Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were <1 mg/L; suggesting that >99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (<1.05-m soil profile depth). In the vadose zone of advanced system, heterotrophic and autrotrophic denitrification reduced nitrate-N concentrations to <0.12 mg/L, compared with >20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg/L) indicating enhanced P attenuation in the vadose zone of all systems.

Toor, G.; De, M.

2013-05-01

368

Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

2006-01-01

369

Bioaugmentation treatment of municipal wastewater with heterotrophic-aerobic nitrogen removal bacteria in a pilot-scale SBR.  

PubMed

PCN bacteria capable of heterotrophic-aerobic nitrogen removal was successfully applied for bioaugmented treatment of municipal wastewater in a pilot-scale SBR. At an appropriate COD/N ratio of 8, the bioaugmentation system exhibited stable and excellent carbon and nutrients removal, the averaged effluent concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP were 20.6, 0.69, 14.1 and 0.40mg/L, respectively, which could meet the first class requirement of the National Municipal Wastewater Discharge Standards of China (COD<50mg/L, TN<15mg/L, TP<0.5mg/L). Clone library and real-time PCR analysis revealed that the introduced bacteria greatly improved the structure of original microbial community and facilitated their aerobic nutrients removal capacities. The proposed emerging technology was shown to be an alternative technology to establish new wastewater treatment systems and upgrade or retrofit conventional systems from secondary-level to tertiary-level. PMID:25710680

Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren; Ma, Tao; Liu, Tang; Zheng, Maosheng

2015-05-01

370

2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2012-02-01

371

2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

372

WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The CWA requires EPA to collect, evaluate, and disseminate technical information on various treatment technologies, management practices, and operating methods. Technical information has been/is/will be developed in such areas as wastewater treatment, wet ...

373

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AQUACULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The developmental status of the aquacultural alternative for treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the reduction or fate of pollutants in such areas as organics, solids, nutrients, heavy metals, residual hydrocarbons, and potentially ...

374

Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer  

SciTech Connect

Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

2009-03-15

375

Occurrence of surfactants in wastewater: hourly and seasonal variations in urban and industrial wastewaters from Seville (Southern Spain).  

PubMed

Surfactants are daily discharged to the environment from urban and industrial activities. The assessment of the risk derived from the presence of these compounds in the environment requires a deep knowledge about their sources and their distribution in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, in spite of several studies reporting their presence in WWTPs, only a small number is focused on their different sources. In this work, the distribution of anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates) and non-ionic (nonylphenol ethoxylates) surfactants in WWTPs and in urban and industrial wastewater collection systems has been investigated. Seasonal and daily variability was also assessed. Concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in influent and effluent wastewaters ranged from 1155 to 9200 ?g L(-1), and from below limit of detection to 770 ?g L(-1), respectively, whereas the concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates were significantly lower. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates were efficiently removed (>96%), while mean removal rates of nonylphenol ethoxylates were significantly lower (<20%). Studies carried out in different seasons revealed seasonal discharge patterns from both urban and industrial activities. The analysis of wastewater collection systems showed a major contribution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates from urban areas while, in the case of nonylphenol ethoxylates, their major contribution came from industrial activities. In all cases the discharge patterns of surfactants were related with the water consumption. PMID:24091121

Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luís; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

2014-01-15

376

Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

Dieu, B

2001-01-01

377

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-09-01

378

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

379

Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic). The occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds varied considerably among sampling sites, but at least one compound was detected at every location. The most organic wastewater compounds (19) were detected at the Neuse River above U.S. 70 at Smithfield, where two-thirds of the total number of samples were collected. The fewest organic wastewater compounds (1) were detected at the Eno River at Hillsborough. The detection of multiple organic wastewater compounds was common, with a median of 3.5 and as many as 12 compounds observed in individual samples. Some compounds, including acetaminophen, cotinine, tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and metolachlor, were detected at numerous sites and in numerous samples, indicating that they are widely distributed in the environment. Other organic wastewater compounds, including acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran, were detected in numerous samples but at only one location, indicating that sources of these compounds are more site specific. Results indicate that municipal wastewater may be a source of antibiotics and synthetic musks; however, the three sites in this study that are located downstream from wastewater discharges also receive runoff from agricultural, urban, and rural residential lands. Source identification was not an objective of this study. Concentrations of individual compounds generally were less than 0.5 microgram per liter. No concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards or health advisories, nor water-quality criteria established by the State of North Carolina; however, such criteria are available for only a few of the compounds that were studied. Compared with other surface waters that have been sampled across the United States, the Triangle Area water-supply sites had fewer detections of organic wastewater compounds; however, differences in study design and analytical methods used among studies must be considered when mak

Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

2007-01-01

380

Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. PMID:25607676

Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

2015-01-01

381

Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO/sub 3//sup -/ and as large as 2000 m/sup 3//d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/ by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m/sup 3/. A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m/sup 3/ and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation.

Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

1981-01-01

382

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...poses an imminent or potential danger to inspecting...floating roof is not resting on either the surface...a floating flexible membrane cover as specified in...impoundment, the floating membrane cover shall float on...floating roof is not resting on either the...

2014-07-01

383

40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...poses an imminent or potential danger to inspecting...floating roof is not resting on either the surface...a floating flexible membrane cover as specified in...impoundment, the floating membrane cover shall float on...floating roof is not resting on either the...

2012-07-01

384

Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

Not Available

1982-07-01

385

The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step. PMID:22454607

Rytwo, Giora

2012-01-01

386

Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

End ileostomy - colectomy or proctolectomy - discharge; Continent ileostomy - discharge; Ostomy - colectomy or proctolectomy - discharge; Restorative proctocolectomy - discharge; Ileal-anal resection - discharge; Ileal-anal pouch - discharge; J-pouch - discharge; S-pouch - ...

387

Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.  

PubMed

Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems. PMID:23376111

Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

2013-02-15

388

Treatment of oilfield fracturing wastewater by a sequential combination of flocculation, Fenton oxidation and SBR process.  

PubMed

In this study, a combined process was developed that included flocculation, Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to treat oilfield fracturing wastewater (FW). Flocculation and Fenton oxidation were applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) organic load and to enhance biodegradability, respectively. For flocculation, the optimum conditions were: polymeric aluminium chloride dosage, 40 mg/L; polyacrylamide dosage, 4 mg/L; dilution ratio, 1:2 and stirring time, 30 min. For Fenton oxidation, a total reaction time of 60 min, a H?O?dosage of 2 m mol/L, with a [H?O?]/[FeSO?] ratio of 2 were selected to achieve optimum oxidation. Under these optimum flocculation and Fenton oxidation conditions, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 76.6%. Following pretreatment with flocculation and Fenton oxidation, the FW was further remediated using a SBR. Results show that COD was reduced to 92 mg/L, and the overall water quality of the final effluent could meet the class I national wastewater discharge standard of petrochemical industry of China. PMID:25176493

Yang, Jian; Hong, Liang; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Lin, Li-Fei

2014-01-01

389

[Effect of pilot UASB-SFSBR-MAP process for the large scale swine wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

In this paper, a treatment process consisted of UASB, step-fed sequencing batch reactor (SFSBR) and magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation reactor (MAP) was built to treat the large scale swine wastewater, which aimed at overcoming drawbacks of conventional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process and SBR treatment process, such as the low denitrification efficiency, high operating costs and high nutrient losses and so on. Based on the treatment process, a pilot engineering was constructed. It was concluded from the experiment results that the removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+) -N and TP reached 95.1%, 92.7% and 88.8%, the recovery rate of NH4(+) -N and TP by MAP process reached 23.9% and 83.8%, the effluent quality was superior to the discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (GB 18596-2001), mass concentration of COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, TP and SS were not higher than 135, 116, 43, 7.3 and 50 mg x L(-1) respectively. The process developed was reliable, kept self-balance of carbon source and alkalinity, reached high nutrient recovery efficiency. And the operating cost was equal to that of the traditional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. So the treatment process could provide a high value of application and dissemination and be fit for the treatment pf the large scale swine wastewater in China. PMID:23745404

Wang, Liang; Chen, Chong-Jun; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang

2013-03-01

390

Evaluation of iron ochre from mine drainage treatment for removal of phosphorus from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of polluting discharges from abandoned coal mines in the UK currently produces ca 30,000ty?1 of hydrous iron oxides (“ochre”), for which there is no major end-use, but which has previously been shown to have potential for removing P from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The efficiency of ochre for P removal from wastewater was investigated in experiments at two sites

K. E. Dobbie; K. V. Heal; J. Aumônier; K. A. Smith; A. Johnston; P. L. Younger

2009-01-01

391

Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal.The wetland was 6×3×0.4m. Water discharge was 1000ld?1

H. R. Hadad; M. A. Maine; C. A. Bonetto

2006-01-01

392

Economy of precipitating agent application in municipal wastewater treatment facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purification by precipitation in this study is not considered primarily as a means of phosphate removal but as a method for reduction of suspended solids BOD and COD. A dynamic calculation procedure is used to allow for exact determination of time dependent variation of costs. The results show that costs of wastewater treatment by precipitation may equal those of conventional primary clarification and secondary biological treatment, especially with low-cost iron-II-salts in simultaneous precipitation and in larger plants ( 20,000 PF). Cost advantages may be accrued in smaller plants by using the more expensive trivalent salts in pre-precipitation as compared to conventional low-load biological treatment. This is due mainly to better effluent quality and, consequently, lower wastewater fees (Wastewater Discharge Act). If the precipitant is dosed temporarily only during periods of highest pollution the savings can be about 5 to 10%.

Neis, U.; Geppert, B.; Hahn, H. H.; Gleisberg, D.

1983-01-01

393

FISH TISSUE QUALITY IN NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO RECEIVING POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless o...

394

Stripping of organic compounds from wastewater as an auxiliary fuel of regenerative thermal oxidizer.  

PubMed

Organic solvents with different volatilities are widely used in various processes and generate air and water pollution problems. In the cleaning processes of electronics industries, most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are vented to air pollution control devices while most non-volatile organic solvents dissolve in the cleaning water and become the major sources of COD in wastewater. Discharging a high-COD wastewater stream to wastewater treatment facility often disturbs the treatment performance. A pretreatment of the high-COD wastewater is therefore highly desirable. This study used a packed-bed stripping tower in combination with a regenerative thermal oxidizer to remove the COD in the wastewater from a printed circuit board manufacturing process and to utilize the stripped organic compounds as the auxiliary fuel of the RTO. The experimental results showed that up to 45% of the COD could be removed and 66% of the RTO fuel could be saved by the combined treatment system. PMID:19195779

Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming

2009-08-15

395

Phytoextraction of selenium from refinery wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Selenium contamination in oil refinery wastewater is of growing concern for the petroleum industry in the Bay area of California. Oil refineries discharge 1500-5000 gallons of stripped sour water and biotreated effluent per minute, creating wetlands in the bay area with Se contamination in the water and consequently in the sediments. Bay area refineries currently have seven major ponds, comprising 100 acres of newly created Se contaminated wetlands. Although the EPA has established groundwater Se limits at 1 ppm, the point discharge limit for the California refineries is much lower, 50 ppb, due to the existing Se contamination problems created from agricultural runoff. The current technology for removing Se from these effluent streams, iron precipitation, is extremely expensive and creates tremendous volumes of sludge and is therefore, not environmentally friendly. Complicating the problem of extracting the Se is the unique matrix of the solution, which is often high in sulfates, and nitrates. Phytoextraction has been suggested as a possible solution to remediating these new Se contaminated wetlands. A study is ongoing at the INEL to examine the practicality and optimization of phytoremediation of Se within high sulfate and nitrate concentrations. Selenium uptake rate data for terrestrial, aquatic, and algal selenium accumulating species grown in actual and simulated refinery wastewater streams will be presented. Options for management and treatment of the Se elevated biomass will be reviewed. Implications of Se accumulation to the wetland ecology, and feasibility of controlling Se transport through the food chain through management practices and containment will be discussed.

Hamilton, M.A.; Thomson, S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

396

Wastewater Disposal Facility in Colorado  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Oilfield waste arrives by tanker truck at a wastewater disposal facility near Platteville, Colo. After removal of solids and oil, the wastewater is injected into a deep well for permanent storage underground. This disposal process has the potential to trigger earthquakes, but very few wastewater dis...

397

RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION  

E-print Network

#12;I RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN VOLUME I CONSULTANTS LTD. Richmond, B.C. June 1993 #12;DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION 1 PREFACE V7M 3H7 ,1 , #12;DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR WASTEWATER C&MACTERIZATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Fraser

398

Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan. PMID:16413595

Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

2006-06-01

399

Biological treatment of a seafood processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The seafood industry in Tampa is a multi-million dollar-per-year industry which heavily impacts the environment with large volumes of wastewater containing high concentrations of suspended solids and nitrogen. A 10 liter per day, bench-scale, wastewater treatment facility was designed, constructed, and operated for approximately eight (8) months to collect treat ability data on a seafood-processing wastewater. The bench-scale reactor consisted of a single-sludge, extended aeration, modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process for biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the wastewater. Influent and effluent data collected on the system included: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), pH, total phosphorus (TP), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, and temperature. All analyses were performed in accordance with Standard Methods (1992). Typical influent characteristics were: 900--4,000 mg/L COD, 45--110 mg/L TKN, 150--2,000 mg/L TSS, and 40--80 mg/L TP. Solids residence time (SRT) served as the primary control parameter with average STR's of 4.5, 6.4, 8.5, and 30.9 days observed during the study. The following biokinetic constants were determined from the data: a yield coefficient (Y) of 0.49 mg TSS/mg COD and an endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub e}) of 0.11 days{sup {minus}1}.

Mines, R.O. Jr.; Robertson, R.R. II

1998-07-01

400

Treatment of dairy wastewater by water hyacinth.  

PubMed

The present study addresses potential of water hyacinth for treating small-scale dairy wastewater to satisfy effluent standards for disposal into public sewers. The batch experiments were conducted on dairy wastewater using reactor with water hyacinth and without water hyacinth. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was varied from 507 mg/L to 4,672 mg/L and the maximum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) adopted was 8 days. The loss of water due to evapo-transpiration and evaporation was also measured. The water hyacinth system performed better when initial COD concentration was maintained less than 1,672 mg/L for six days HRT. The performance of water hyacinth system was more effective than reference by 30% to 45% for COD removal. However, water hyacinth had no significant impact in reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The evapo-transpiration loss was almost double than the evaporation loss. The first order reaction kinetics was applicable and reaction rate parameters were estimated for various organic strengths of wastewater. The reaction rate parameters for water hyacinth system were three times higher than a system without water hyacinth and also found to vary with initial COD values. Water hyacinth can be adopted to treat dairy wastewater from small-scale dairy effectively for disposal into public sewers. PMID:19237765

Munavalli, G R; Saler, P S

2009-01-01

401

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents in selected streams in northern Arkansas, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, collected data in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many constituents of emerging environmental concern, in selected streams in northern Arkansas. Samples were collected in March and April 2004 from 17 sites located upstream and downstream from wastewater- treatment plant effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkansas and at 1 stream site in a relatively undeveloped basin in north-central Arkansas. Additional samples were collected at three of the sites in August 2004. The targeted organic wastewater constituents and sample sites were selected because wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharge provides a potential point source of these constituents and analytical techniques have improved to accurately measure small amounts of these constituents in environmental samples. At least 1 of the 108 pharmaceutical or other organic wastewater constituents was detected at all sites in 2004, except at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas. The number of detections generally was greater at sites downstream from municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges (mean = 14) compared to sites not influenced by wastewatertreatment plants (mean = 3). Overall, 42 of the 108 constituents targeted in the collected water-quality samples were detected. The most frequently detected constituents included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene.

Galloway, Joel M.; Haggard, Brian E.; Meyers, Michael T.; Green, W. Reed

2005-01-01

402

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

403

Occurrence of polycyclic musks in wastewater and receiving water bodies and fate during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The occurrence of cashmerane (DPMI), celestolide, phantolide, traesolide (ATII), galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) in sewage and surface waters and their fate during wastewater treatment and anaerobic sludge digestion is investigated. AHTN and HHCB are the most important representatives and influent concentrations of 0.41-1.8 and 0.9-13 ?gL(-1) are observed. DPMI is detected in influent and effluent samples but in notably lower concentrations than AHTN and HHCB. Major sources of polycyclic musks are households, whereas industrial emitters seem to be of minor importance. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of selected industrial wastewaters (metal, textile and paper industry). Specific emissions of 0.36 ± 0.19 and 1.6 ± 1.0 mg cap(-1)d(-1) for AHTN and HHCB are calculated. Overall removal efficiencies between approx 50% and more than 95% are observed during biological wastewater treatment and removal with the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. Log K(D) values of 3.73-4.3 for AHTN, 3.87-4.34 for HHCB and 2.42-3.22 for DPMI are observed in secondary sludge. During sludge digestion no or only slight removal occurred. Mean polycyclic musk concentrations in digested sludge amounted to 1.9 ± 0.9 (AHTN), 14.2 ± 5.8 (HHCB), 0.8 ± 0.4 (ATII) and 0.2 ± 0.09 (DPMI) mgkg(-1) dry matter. In the receiving water systems a comparable distribution as during wastewater treatment is observed. AHTN, HHCB and DPMI are detected in surface waters (ND (not detected) - <0.04, ND - 0.32 and ND - 0.02 ?g L(-1)) as well as AHTN and HHCB in sediments (ND - 20, ND - 120 ?g kg(-1)). For HHCB an apparent K(OC) value of 4.1-4.4 is calculated for sediments. Major source for polycyclic musks in surface waters are discharges from wastewater treatment plants. For HHCB and DPMI 100% of the load observed in the sampled surface waters derive from discharges of treated wastewater. PMID:21144551

Clara, M; Gans, O; Windhofer, G; Krenn, U; Hartl, W; Braun, K; Scharf, S; Scheffknecht, C

2011-02-01

404

Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

2007-07-01

405

The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

Newell, Timothy

406

Wastewater control report for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Y-12 Plant (Part III-F, page 41) requires the preparation of a report to describe procedures and criteria used in operating on-site treatment systems to maintain compliance with the NPDES permit. This report has been prepared to fulfill this requirement. Five wastewater treatment systems are currently in operation at the Y-12 Plant; they are operated by personal in the Waste Management and Facilities Management Organizations.

NONE

1996-06-01

407

40 CFR 413.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electroplating of Precious Metals Subcategory § 413...liters (10,000 gal) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2010-07-01

408

40 CFR 413.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electroplating of Common Metals Subcategory § 413...10,000 gal.) per calendar day of electroplating process wastewater the following...

2010-07-01

409

Distribution of injected wastewater in the saline-lava aquifer, Wailuku-Kahului wastewater treatment facility, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field studies and digital modeling of a lava rock aquifer system near Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, describe the distribution of planned injected wastewater from a secondary treatment facility. The aquifer contains water that is almost as saline as seawater. The saline water is below a seaward-discharging freshwater lens, and separated from it by a transition zone of varying salinity. Injection of wastewater at an average rate of 6.2 cubic feet per second is planned through wells open only to the aquifer deep within the saline water zone. The lava rock aquifer is overlain by a sequence of residual soil, clay, coral reef deposits, and marine sand that form a low-permeability caprock which semiconfines the lava rock aquifer. Under conditions measured and assumed without significant change. After reaching a new steady state, the wastewater will discharge into and through the caprock sequence within an area measuring approximately 1,000 feet inland, 1,000 feet laterally on either side of the injection site, and about 2,000 feet seaward. Little, if any, of the injected wastewater may be expected to reach the upper part of the caprock flow system landward of the treatment plant facility. (Woodard-USGS)

Burnham, Willis L.; Larson, S.P.; Cooper, Hilton Hammond

1977-01-01

410

Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more effective at improving HRQOL or patient satisfaction. Compared with usual care, there was low quality evidence that the discharge planning plus postdischarge support is more effective at reducing readmissions but not more effective at reducing hospital LOS or mortality. There was very low quality evidence that it is more effective at improving HRQOL or patient satisfaction. Plain Language Summary Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in their health status and multiple transitions between care settings and care providers (e.g., hospital to home). Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. A review of the effects of different discharge plans was conducted. After searching for relevant studies, 11 studies were found that compared discharge planning with routine discharge care. This review indicates that: Individualized discharge planning reduces initial hospital length of stay and subsequent readmission to hospital but does not reduce mortality. The effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) or patient satisfaction is uncertain. Discharge planning plus postdischarge support reduces readmissions but does not reduce the initial hospital length of stay or mortality after discharge. The effect on HRQOL or patient satisfaction is uncertain. PMID:24167538

McMartin, K

2013-01-01

411

Robust optimization approach to regional wastewater system planning.  

PubMed

Wastewater systems are subject to several sources of uncertainty. Different scenarios can occur in the future, depending on the behavior of a variety of demographic, economic, environmental, and technological variables. Robust optimization approaches are aimed at finding solutions that will perform well under any likely scenario. The planning decisions to be made about wastewater system planning involve two main issues: the setup and operation costs of sewer networks, treatment plants, and possible pump stations; and the water quality parameters to be met in the water body where the (treated) wastewater is discharged. The source of uncertainty considered in this article is the flow of the river that receives the wastewater generated in a given region. Three robust optimization models for regional wastewater system planning are proposed. The models are solved using a simulated annealing algorithm enhanced with a local improvement procedure. Their application is illustrated through a case study representing a real-world situation, with the results being compared and commented upon. PMID:22705810

Zeferino, João A; Cunha, Maria C; Antunes, António P

2012-10-30

412

Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textile dyeing processes consume large amount of water, steam and discharge filthy and colored wastewater. A pilot scale e-beam plant with an electron accelerator of 1 MeV, 40 kW had constructed at Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) in 1997 for treating 1,000 m3 per day. Continuous operation of this plant showed the preliminary e-beam treatment reduced bio-treatment time and resulted in more significant decreasing TOC, CODCr, and BOD5. Convinced of the economics and efficiency of the process, a commercial plant with 1 MeV, 400 kW electron accelerator has constructed in 2005. This plant improves the removal efficiency of wastewater with decreasing the retention time in bio-treatment at around 1 kGy. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility in DDIC and the treatment capacity is 10,000 m3 of wastewater per day. The total construction cost for this plant was USD 4 M and the operation cost has been obtained was not more than USD 1 M per year and about USD 0.3 per each m3 of wastewater.

Han, Bumsoo; Kyu Kim, Jin; Kim, Yuri; Seung Choi, Jang; Young Jeong, Kwang

2012-09-01

413

Separation of nitrocellulose fines from wastewater with polymers  

SciTech Connect

Nitrocellulose (NC) fines are discharged to wastewater streams during manufacturing. Laboratory-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the turbidity and total suspended solids reduction by coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, to determine the settling characteristics of flocculated NC fines, and to evaluate thickening and dewatering characteristics of settled flocculated NC fine sludge. Cationic polymers were very effective in treating the negatively charged NC-manufacturing wastewater. Under an optimum flocculation condition, the supernatant turbidity of below 1 mg/L was obtained. High turbidity removal was achieved at a wide dosage range of 0.2 to 1.0 mg/L. Optimum flocculation was found to occur at low doses of the polymers tested and the polymer with a higher charge density performed better. High molecular weight polymers produced large flocs which had a high floc settling rate. Therefore, a high charge density and molecular weight polymers are preferred to separate NC fines from wastewater streams. Turbidity removal was improved with increasing Gt values and tapered flocculation. High velocity gradient facilitated adequate dispersion of a polymer. On the other hand, long rapid mixing would cause some floc breakup. Significant improvement of dewatering characteristics of NC-manufacturing wastewater sludge was found to be facilitated by the residual effects of the polymers having undergone flocculation of the wastewater. It appears that further chemical conditioning of the sludge is not necessary.

Park, J.K.; Shen, X.; Kim, B.J.; Kim, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-12-31

414

Monitoring the Physicochemical and Chemical Treatment of Textile Wastewater using GC\\/MS, LC\\/MS and ?MS\\/MS Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional biological wastewater treatment processes often fail in the elimination of finishing agents contained in textile wastewater such as dyes, surfactants, and softeners. Therefore, discharges from the textile industry are known as a major source of water pollution reaching groundwater and even drinking water treatment. Physicochemical treatment and advanced treatment processes (AOP) were applied to eliminate the pollutants prior to

S. E. Weschenfelder; H. J. José; W. Gebhardt; H. Fr. Schröder

2007-01-01

415

The role of membrane processes in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reuse presents a promising solution to the growing pressure on water resources. However, wastewater reuse implementation faces obstacles that include insufficient public acceptance, technical, economic and hygienic risks and further uncertainties caused by a lack of awareness, accepted standards, uniform guidelines and legislation. So far, there are no supra-national regulations on water reuse in Europe and further development is

T. Wintgens; T. Melin; A. Schäfer; S. Khan; M. Muston; D. Bixio; C. Thoeye

2005-01-01

416

Wastewater polishing by a channelized macrophyte-dominated wetland and anaerobic digestion of the harvested phytomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Constructed wetlands (CW) offer a mechanism to meet regulatory standards for wastewater treatment while minimizing energy inputs. To optimize CW wastewater polishing activities and investigate integration of CW with energy production from anaerobic digestion we constructed a pair of three-tier ch...

417

Review of the literature of 1966 on wastewater and water pollution control. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1966 literature on wastewater and water pollution control for a number of industrial plants is reviewed. This article is divided into discussions for each industrial application covered. One such discussion is on petroleum processing waste. This reveals that Standard Oil Co. of Ohio has begun a $1 million program to modernize wastewater treating facilities at its Toledo, Ohio, refinery.

C. M. Weiss; R. S. Engelbrecht

1967-01-01

418

The pT-method as a Hazard Assessment Scheme for wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pT-method is an evaluation strategy for investigating the toxic effects of wastewaters. With this Hazard Assessment Scheme (HAS), wastewater is tested with standardized bioassays, using dilution series in geometric sequence with a dilution factor of two. Its toxic status is then equated with the first dilution stage at which the effluent is no longer toxic. The numerical designation of

Falk Krebs

419

A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

420

Anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reviews the present understanding of bacterial populations involved in anaerobic degradation of organic material into methane and CO2 (biogas); furthermore some recent process developments for anaerobic wastewater treatment are described. It could be demonstrated that at least three groups of bacteria are involved in methanogenesis. Hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria first decompose the organic material into various organic acids,

H. Sahm

421

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of...

2012-07-01

422

40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of...

2013-07-01

423

40 CFR 60.692-4 - Standards: Aggregate facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-4 Standards: Aggregate facility. A new, modified, or reconstructed aggregate...

2011-07-01

424

2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

mike lewis

2011-02-01

425

2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

426

Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. PMID:20623030

Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.O.; Obi, Larry C.; Okoh, Anthony I.

2010-01-01

427

Experimental and modeling study of pure terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater transport in the vadose zone.  

PubMed

PTA wastewater discharged from a factory was selected as the research object in this project and CODcr was selected as the characteristic pollution factor. Static adsorption and soil column leaching experiments of silty clay and clayey soil were carried out to study the adsorption, bio-degradation and dispersion coefficient of CODcr in PTA wastewater. Hydrus-1D was used to build the convection-diffusion model to demonstrate the migration of PTA wastewater in the vadose zone. The results indicate that silty clay and clayey soil in the vadose zone can adsorb, degrade and impede the contaminants in PTA wastewater; however, the coefficient of adsorption and degradation were very low, they were down to 0.0002 L g(-1), 0.0003 L g(-1) and 0.0097 d(-1), 0.0077 d(-1) for silty clay and clayey soil, respectively. Under the virtual condition that, wastewater in the sewage pool is 5 m deep, CODcr concentration is 4000 mg L(-1), vadose zone is 21 m, PTA wastewater will reach the phreatic surface after 20.87 years. When wastewater in the sewage pool is 7 m with other conditions unchanged, after 17.18 years PTA wastewater will reach groundwater. The results show that there is a higher pollution risk for groundwater if we do not take any anti-seepage measures. PMID:25524255

Wang, Cuiling; Liu, Changli; Pei, Lixin; Pang, Yajie; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Hongbing

2015-02-11

428

Review of the treatment of seafood processing wastewaters and recovery of proteins therein by membrane separation processes — prospects of the ultrafiltration of wastewaters from the fish meal industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewaters generated in fish meal production (average flow rates of 1100 m3\\/h for a plant capacity of 100 ton fish\\/h) contain a high organic load, and therefore they should not be discharged directly into the sea without effective treatment in order to prevent a negative impact on the environment. On the other hand, these effluents contain a large amount

Maria Diná Afonso; Rodrigo Bórquez

2002-01-01

429

Concentration of Norovirus during Wastewater Treatment and Its Impact on Oyster Contamination  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of Escherichia coli, F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNA bacteriophage), and norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI) and norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) in wastewater were monitored weekly over a 1-year period at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) providing secondary wastewater treatment. A total of 49 samples of influent wastewater and wastewater that had been treated by primary and secondary wastewater treatment processes (primary and secondary treated wastewater) were analyzed. Using a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), the mean NoV GI and NoV GII concentrations detected in effluent wastewater were 2.53 and 2.63 log10 virus genome copies 100 ml?1, respectively. The mean NoV concentrations in wastewater during the winter period (January to March) (n = 12) were 0.82 (NoV GI) and 1.41 (NoV GII) log units greater than the mean concentrations for the rest of the year (n = 37). The mean reductions of NoV GI and GII during treatment were 0.80 and 0.92 log units, respectively, with no significant difference detected in the extent of NoV reductions due to season. No seasonal trend was detected in the concentrations of E. coli or FRNA bacteriophage in wastewater influent and showed mean reductions of 1.49 and 2.13 log units, respectively. Mean concentrations of 3.56 and 3.72 log10 virus genome copies 100 ml?1 for NoV GI and GII, respectively, were detected in oysters sampled adjacent to the WWTP discharge. A strong seasonal trend was observed, and the concentrations of NoV GI and GII detected in oysters were correlated with concentrations detected in the wastewater effluent. No seasonal difference was detected in concentrations of E. coli or FRNA bacteriophage detected in oysters. PMID:22367079

Flannery, John; Keaveney, Sinéad; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; O'Flaherty, Vincent

2012-01-01

430

Scalding: Effects of Additives on Carcass Microbiology and Wastewater Discharge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scalding poultry before removing feathers has been practiced for thousands of years, but spoilage and pathogenic bacteria were discovered relatively recently by comparison. The microbiological consequences of scalding and other practices used in converting live birds to food was unknown, although i...

431

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

432

Ankle replacement - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Ankle arthroplasty - total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... put in an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medication ...

433

Concussion - adults - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... Getting better from a concussion takes days to weeks or even months. ... have trouble concentrating, or be unable to remember things. ...

434

Ulcerative colitis - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have ulcerative colitis, swelling of the inner lining of your colon ...

435

Lasik eye surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis - discharge; Laser vision correction - discharge; LASIK - discharge ... Yanoff M, Cameron D. Diseases of the visual system. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

436

Prostate brachytherapy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

437

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2014-04-01

438

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2012-04-01

439

18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304...ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

2013-04-01

440

40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...When the HON process wastewater monitoring and inspection...operation of the treatment process or control...receives a Group 1 wastewater stream, or a residual...removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, for treatment pursuant to...

2013-07-01

441

40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...When the HON process wastewater monitoring and inspection...operation of the treatment process or control...receives a Group 1 wastewater stream, or a residual...removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, for treatment pursuant to...

2010-07-01

442

40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...When the HON process wastewater monitoring and inspection...operation of the treatment process or control...receives a Group 1 wastewater stream, or a residual...removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, for treatment pursuant to...

2011-07-01

443

40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...When the HON process wastewater monitoring and inspection...operation of the treatment process or control...receives a Group 1 wastewater stream, or a residual...removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, for treatment pursuant to...

2014-07-01

444

40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...When the HON process wastewater monitoring and inspection...operation of the treatment process or control...receives a Group 1 wastewater stream, or a residual...removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, for treatment pursuant to...

2012-07-01

445

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...

446

WATER AND WASTEWATER  

E-print Network

The objective of this program is to increase the knowledge of food scientists, food processors, engineers, scientists, waste management specialists and other practitioners in the concepts and principles needed to properly control water use and product waste in food processing facilities. The materials are designed for individuals concerned with management of food plants, with pretreatment of food processing wastewaters, with treatment of food processing wastewaters and with the utilization or disposal of food plant residuals. The modules in this program incorporate knowledge from food science and technology, food processing, sanitary and environmental engineering, agronomy, soil science, agricultural engineering, economics and law. The program consists of some 15 modules. Introductory material is presented in the Core Manual to introduce the program. Technical specifics are provided in 7 technical spinoffs. The appli-cation of water and waste management in specific food plants is related in 7 commodity

I Spinoffs I

447

Inputs of total and labile trace metals from wastewater treatment plants effluents to the Seine River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seine river basin has long been impacted by metal inputs from the Paris area, but the water quality has been gradually improving for the last 20 years. Among all metal pollution sources (surface runoff, industries), urban wastewater discharge has been shown to significantly contribute, during low-flow periods, to metal fluxes of the River Seine. This paper assesses the current wastewater contribution to metal inputs in the Seine river basin, based on sampling of nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Seven metals were targeted (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb) during dry weather periods. Since total and dissolved concentrations alone are not relevant enough for an ecological risk assessment, labile metals (free + weekly complexed) were also measured by means of DGT (diffusive gradient in thin film technique). Results show that WWTPs greatly reduce total metal concentrations but reduce labile metal concentrations only slightly. Estimations made for direct total metal inputs in the River Seine via treated effluent discharge confirm the decrease observed for the 1994-1995 period. Labile metals released by WWTP were also considered by comparing fluxes in the effluent discharge of two different WWTPs to those flowing in the receiving river. Fluxes discharged by the largest plant were similar to those measured in the river during low-flow periods whereas they were negligible for the smaller one. Nevertheless, labile metal concentrations in both discharges were similar and the wastewater discharge’s contribution to labile fluxes in receiving waters seems to depend mostly on the relative significance of the discharge flow compared to the receiving water flow.

Buzier, Rémy; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Keirsbulck, Marion; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

448

Wastewater Reclamation/Wetlands  

E-print Network

, Towns, and Entities NTMWD Water Supply Sources History of NTMWD ? 1956 - First Delivery of Treated Water ? 1970s - Expanded to Wastewater Service ? 1980s - Expanded to Solid Waste Service WATER PLANNING Regional Water Planning... in country) ? Provides polishing treatment of diverted East Fork Water ? Improves water quality ? Maximizing supplies during drought and while Texoma supplies off-line due to invasive species Project Site Characteristics East Fork of Trinity...

Hickey, D.

2011-01-01

449

A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers.  

PubMed

Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat. PMID:24216228

Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

2014-01-01

450

Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

1998-07-01

451

An investigation of the reaction kinetics of photocatalytic wastewater treatment using suspended titanium dioxide catalyst  

E-print Network

The goal of wastewater treatment is to remove compounds that may be harmful to the natural ecosystem or to humans. Although traditional treatment is fairly effective in meeting water quality standards, current technologies ...

Hotz, William Joseph, Jr

2014-01-01

452

Model Test of Proposed Loading Rates for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

State regulatory agencies set standards for onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS), commonly known as septic systems, based on expected hydraulic performance and nitrogen (N) treatment in soils of differing texture. In a previous study, hydraulic loading rates were proposed fo...

453

Planning for NPDES Permit compliance to meet changing stream standards at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In New Mexico, the application of water quality based effluent limitations in NPDES Permit has recently begun, as the pre-1987 technology-based permits are expiring and permittees are attempting to renew their permits. Water quality standards and water quality-related effluent limitations can require levels of treatment considerable higher than those required by technology-related effluent limitations. The Clean Water Act does not set specific minimums for state standards, instead the regulations require that such standards specify and protect appropriate water uses (e.g, water suppley fisheries, wildlife, irrigation and recreation) and set specific numerical criteria where possible to attain these ends. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has begun an aggressive program to meet the more stringent effluents limitations of the future. The Laboratory`s current NPDES Permit allows discharge of effluent from approximately 130 separate outfalls into ephemeral streams. Similar quality outfalls are grouped into eight categories with each category having set effluent limits. LANL`s near-future compliance strategy includes outfall elimination through the consolidation of outfalls of the same category, and the elimination of non-essential discharges. Also, LANL is planning the development of managed wetlands as a means to improve the local riparian habitat, and to contain effluent discharges within the Laboratory boundary. The longer-term strategy calls for reducing effluent discharges to zero. Zero discharge will be achieved through land application/irrigation and conservation through effluent re-use with evaporation of non-reusable discharges. One reuse program is currently underway, where sanitary wastewater effluent is recycled and used in a number of cooling water applications. Other reuse options may include recycling once-through cooling water through a number of process.

McInnis, J.; Rae, S.

1994-03-01

454

75 FR 54873 - Notice of Availability of Final NPDES General Permits MAG910000 and NHG910000 for Discharges From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...limitations, standards, prohibitions, and management practices for remediation facilities discharging treated contaminated groundwater. Owners and/or operators of facilities with remediation discharges, including those currently authorized to...

2010-09-09

455

Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

Fowler, K. E. M.

456

Microalgae: Cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.  

PubMed

Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater. PMID:25837561

Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

2015-05-12

457

TREATED WASTEWATER AS A SOURCE OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO NEAR-COASTAL AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore wa...

458

Ecological Effectiveness of Vetiver Constructed Wetlands in Treating Oil-Refined Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater produced from the oil refinery of the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro-Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants, therefore it cannot be discharged directly into river or sea unless being treated first. Four plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironia articutala we re planted in large containers as a ver tical flow wetland

Hanping Xia; Honghua Ke; Zhaoping Deng; Peng Tan; Shizhong Liu

459

Monitoring Toxicity in Four Wastewaters in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, as part of the Bay of Quinte Remedial Action Plan program, the toxicity of four wastewater discharges (two from municipal STPs, one from a chemical company, and one from a pulp and paper company) was monitored in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Sequential dilutions of the test effluents were utilized in algal assays to estimate effluent toxicity

S. Luek Wong; John F. Wainwright; Lynda Nakamoto

1995-01-01

460

In-situ wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation at a sugar beet processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater monitoring data collected at the Western Sugar Company sugar beet processing plant, in Billings, Montana identified groundwater mounding and groundwater nitrogen concentration increases associated with lime slurry discharge to an on-site storage pile. The nitrogen impacts (primarily ammonia) likely originated through decomposition of organic matter in the slurry. Initially, Western Sugar considered constructing an expensive anaerobic and nitrification-denitrification wastewater

J. L. Olson; P. R. Fuller-Pratt; R. A. Mielke

1996-01-01

461

Reutilization of wastewater in a rubber-based processing factory: a case study in Southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

After Malaysia, Thailand is the world second largest exporter of natural rubber. However, the processing of natural rubber prior to manufacture into rubber products requires excessive use of groundwater for its operation and discharges considerable quantities of wastewater. Overexploitation of groundwater from aquifer creates a serious threat to the source of potable water supply. Therefore, there is much need to

Shing Tet Leong; S Muttamara; Preechai Laortanakul

2003-01-01

462

REVISE AND UPDATE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DESIGN MANUAL FOR THE LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Land treatment is a reliable engineering process for wastewater management. It has been practiced in a number of modes, including crop and landscape irrigation (i.e., reuse); as a treatment process with collection and direct or indirect discharge of treated to surface water (i.e...

463

Heavy metals in industrial wastewater, soil and vegetables in Lohta village, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted at four major sites that were irrigated by either treated or untreated wastewater in the Lohta village of Varanasi, India, receiving the discharged water from DLW (Diesel Locomotive Works) sewage treatment plant. Samples of irrigation water, soil and the edible portion of various vegetables were collected monthly during the summer and winter seasons. Heavy metals

Prabhat Kumar Rai; B. D. Tripathi

2008-01-01

464

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

465

OCCURRENCE OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTHER ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONSTITUENTS IN SELECTED STREAMS IN NORTHERN ARKANSAS, 2004.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data was collected in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many chemicals that are an emerging concern. Samples were collected at17 sites upstream or downstream from municipal effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkans...

466

Utilization of a saltwater-marsh ecosystem for the management of seafood-processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of a cooperative study that examined the potential for using a saltwater wetland to manage seafood-processing wastewater. An irregularly flooded black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh located at Point aux Pins in coastal Alabama was selected for the study. The study determined that the application of seafood-processing wastewater to the marsh affected a number of the marsh's water-quality characteristics in direct relation to the wastewater loading rate. However, monitoring of the marsh flora and fauna showed virtually no impact at any of the experimental loading rates. As a result of the study a number of design and loading criteria are suggested for any future projects involving wastewater discharges to saltwater wetlands.

Not Available

1986-10-01

467

A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.  

PubMed

Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design. PMID:22699329

Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

2012-01-01

468

Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

469

Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the deve