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Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater, Surface, Ground, and Drinking Waters, Minnesota, 2000-02.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Household, industrial, and agricultural-use com-pounds (HIAs), pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, sterols, and hormones are newly recognized classes of organic com-pounds that are often associated with wastewater. These organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) are ...

K. E. Lee L. B. Barber E. T. Furlong J. D. Cahill D. W. Kolpin M. T. Meyer S. D. Zaugg



Partition of Volatile Organic Compounds in Activated Sludge and Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Henry’s law constant is important in the gas-liquid mass transfer process. Apparent dimensionless Henry’s law constant, or the gas-liquid partition coefficient (K’H), for both hydrophilic (methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone) and hydrophobic (toluene and p-xylene) organic compounds in deionized (DI) water, a wastewater with a maximum total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of 700 mg\\/L, and DI water mixed

Jun-Hong Lin; Ming-Shean Chou



Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Organic Wastewater Compounds in Pennsylvania Waters, 2006-09.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concern over the presence of contaminants of emerging concern, such as pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs), in waters of the United States and elsewhere is growing. Laboratory techniques developed within the last de...

A. Proctor A. G. Reif C. A. Loper J. K. Crawford R. Manning R. Titler




EPA Science Inventory

Fundamental aspects of partitioning of toxic organic compounds on municipal wastewater treatment plant solids have been investigated. Sorption on wastewater solids was not affected by solids-to-liquid ratio. Kinetic data on sorption showed an initial rapid uptake followed by a sl...


Volatile organic compound emissions from wastewater treatment plants in Taiwan: Legal regulations and costs of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed volatile organic compound (VOC) emission characteristics from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in five Taiwanese industrial districts engaged in numerous manufacturing processes, including petrochemical, science-based industry (primarily semiconductors, photo-electronics, electronic products and biological technology), as well as multiple manufacturing processes (primarily pharmaceuticals and paint manufacturing). The most aqueous hydrocarbons dissolved in the wastewater of Taiwanese WWTPs were acetone,

Wen-Hsi Cheng; Shu-Kang Hsu; Ming-Shean Chou



Sorption of toxic organic compounds on waste-water solids: Correlation with fundamental properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of toxic organic compounds on primary, mixed-liquor, and digested solids from municipal waste-water treatment plants was correlated with octanol\\/water partition coefficients and with modified Randic indexes. The correlations developed are useful for assessing the role of sorption in the treatment of toxic or hazardous compounds in conventional biological waste-water treatment plants. Correlations developed provide a basis for predicting the

R. A. Dobbs; L. Wang; R. Govind



Organic compounds in an industrial wastewater: a case study of their environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewater and receiving waters and sediments from a specialty chemicals manufacturing plant are extensively analyzed for organic compounds. The concentrations of anthropogenic compounds range up to about 15 ppM in the wastewater and 0.2 ppM in the river (receiving) water, but up to several hundred ppM in the sediments. The composition of the river water reflects the composition of

Gregory Jungclaus; V. Lopez-Avila; Ronald Hites




EPA Science Inventory

The fate of six organic compounds during rapid infiltration of primary wastewater through soil columns was studied. Breakthrough profiles of o-phenylphenol were relatively consistent during the test, with fractional breakthrough (mass output/mass input) being independent of input...



EPA Science Inventory

When soil columns were operated aerobically on a flooding-drying schedule in a previous study, good removals were observed for several organic compounds at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1,000 micrograms/l per liter in primary wastewater. In this study, fractional breakthrough ...


Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected on March 9 and 10, 1987 from one site upstream and three sites downstream of the discharge from a municipal wastewater-treatment plant on Rowlett Creek. Purge-and-trap, closed-loop stripping, and ph-adjusted solvent extraction methods for water samples, and a Soxhlet-solvent extraction method for streambed sediment were used with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for separation and identification of organic compounds. Results of the analyses confirm the persistence of many organic compounds in water as far as 13.5 kilometers down- stream from the wastewater-discharge point. These compounds include: (1) the volatile organic com- pounds chloroform, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, and trichlo- roethene; (2) several linear alkylbenzene compounds, octyl phenol, and a tetramethylbutyl phenol isomer that are related to detergent use; (3) 9-phenyl- 9H-carbazole, a compound related to cal tars and coal compustion residues; and (4) caffeine. The only compound detected in water in concentrations greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination levels for drinking water was tetra- chloroethene (6.0 micrograms per liter) in a sample collected 13.5 kilometers downstream from the dis- charge point. Compounds identified in the streambed- sediment samples include a xylene isomer at 7.7 kilometers and chrysene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and a xylene isomer at 13.5 kilometers downstream from the wastewater discharge.

Buszka, P. M.; Barber, L. B., II; Schroeder, M. P.; Becker, L. D.



Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. Fro...

C. A. Pfeifle M. J. Giorgino R. B. Rasmussen



Source Analysis and Hazard Screening of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds in Wastewater from Food-Processing Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we present and apply a methodology for identifying environmentally hazardous compounds in food industry wastewaters\\u000a (FIW). The methodology comprises a source analysis and a hazard screening of xenobiotic organic compounds based on environmental\\u000a distribution, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity in aqueous and solid phases. This approach was applied to four selected\\u000a FIW representing fish, pork meat, and vegetable

L. Maya-Altamira; E. Eriksson; A. Baun



Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which




[Adsorbable organic halogen compounds and bio-toxicity in hospital wastewater treatment].  


Adsorbable organic halogen compounds (AOX) exist persistently in the aquatic environment, and accumulate in the food chain. Some of them are toxic for humans and other organisms. However, hospital wastewater is considered as an important source of AOX in municipal wastewater. The aim of this study was to evaluate the generation of AOX both in a raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from a membrane sequencing batch reactor, also the effect of cR t value and the bio-toxicity were investigated. The results show that the removal of AOX in the hospital wastewater is 63.6% after treated by the membrane sequencing batch reactor, and the contribution of membrane rejection accounts for 14.5%. The concentration of AOX in the raw hospital wastewater is much higher than that of the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor at the same value of cR t for its higher chlorine-demands. Along with the increasing of cR t value, the fitting curves of AOX present exponential growth for the raw hospital wastewater, while linearity relation for the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor. To meet the requirement for indicative microorganism (fecal coliform) in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Medical Organization (GB 18466-2005), the demands of cR t value for the raw hospital wastewater and the effluent from membrane sequencing batch reactor are 5.5 (mg x h)/L and 0.0075 (mg x h)/L respectively, the bio-toxity by acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna are 40.39 microg/L (K2Cr2O7) and 8.96 microg/L (K2Cr2O7), and correspondingly the concentration of AOX produced are 607.1 microg/L and 102.5 microg/L. PMID:18268982

Sun, Ying-xue; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke-li; Gu, Ping



Xenobiotic organic compounds in runoff from fields irrigated with treated wastewater.  


Investigations of agricultural nonpoint source pollution typically focus on a relatively narrow range of targeted toxic and biostimulatory compounds (e.g., specific pesticides, nutrients). Regular application of numerous other organic compounds to agricultural fields in pesticide formulations, irrigation water, soil amendments, and fertilizers may result in their transport into surface waters via runoff. We examined whether potentially toxic dissolved and particle-associated "nontarget" organic compounds were present in surface runoff from agricultural fields irrigated with disinfected tertiary recycled water or wastewater effluent-dominated streamwater. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of filtered runoff samples revealed the presence of numerous nontarget compounds of potential toxicological significance including pesticide transformation products, pesticide adjuvant chemicals, plasticizers, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care product ingredients. Although the toxicity of many of these compounds is poorly characterized, some may elicit subtle but profound toxicological effects. Agricultural runoff also represented a source of allochthonous natural organic matter to the stream system. PMID:12590482

Pedersen, Joel A; Yeager, Matt A; Suffet, I H



[Source emission characteristics and impact factors of volatile halogenated organic compounds from wastewater treatment plant].  


A low enrichment method of using Tenax as absorbent and liquid nitrogen as refrigerant has been established to sample the volatile halogenated organic compounds in Guangzhou Liede municipal wastewater treatment plant as well as its ambient air. The composition and concentration of target halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed by combined thermal desorption/GC-MS to explore its sources profile and impact factors. The result showed that 19 halogenated organic compounds were detected, including 11 halogenated alkanets, 3 halogenated alkenes, 3 halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 haloesters, with their total concentrations ranged from 34.91 microg x m(-3) to 127.74 microg x m(-3) and mean concentrations ranged from n.d. to 33.39 microg x m(-3). Main pollutants of the studied plant were CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CFC-12, C2H4Cl2, CFC-11, C2HCl3 and C2Cl4, they came from the wastewater by volatilization. Among the six processing units, the dehydration room showed the highest level of halogenated organic compounds, followed by pumping station, while the sludge thickener was the lowest. The emissions from pumping station, aeration tank and biochemical pool were significantly affected by temperature and humidity of environment. PMID:22468521

He, Jie; Wang, Bo-Guang; Liu, Shu-Le; Zhao, De-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Zou, Yu



Bioremediation of trace organic compounds found in precious metals refineries’ wastewaters: A review of potential options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platinum group metal (PGM) refining processes produce large quantities of wastewater, which is contaminated with the compounds that make up the solvents\\/extractants mixtures used in the process. These compounds often include solvesso, ?-hydroxyxime, amines, amides and methyl isobutyl ketone. A process to clean up PGM refinery wastewaters so that they could be re-used in the refining process would greatly contribute

V. L. Barbosa; R. Tandlich; J. E. Burgess



Determination of organic silicon compounds in biogas from wastewater treatments plants, landfills, and co-digestion plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the organic silicon compounds in biogases from landfills, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and biogas plants processing different organic material. The aim was to provide information for gas utilisation applications, as siloxanes are reported to shorten the life time of engines when biogas is used for energy production. In total, 48 samples were measured. The total concentration of

Saija Rasi; Jenni Lehtinen; Jukka Rintala



Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in effluent-dominated streams in Northeastern Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-nine stream-water samples and 14 municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharge samples in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were analyzed for 55 compounds collectively described as organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). Stream-water samples were collected upstream, in, and downstream from WWTF discharges in urban and rural areas during base-flow conditions. The effect of secondary treatment processes on OWC occurrence was evaluated by collecting eight samples from WWTF discharges using activated sludge and six from WWTFs samples using trickling filter treatment processes. Samples collected directly from WWTF discharges contained the largest concentrations of most OWCs in this study. Samples from trickling filter discharges had significantly larger concentrations of many OWCs (p-value < 0.05) compared to samples collected from activated sludge discharges. OWC concentrations decreased significantly in samples from WWTF discharges compared to stream-water samples collected from sites greater than 2000??m downstream. Upstream from WWTF discharges, base-flow samples collected in streams draining predominantly urban watersheds had significantly larger concentrations of cumulative OWCs (p-value = 0.03), caffeine (p-value = 0.01), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p-value < 0.01) than those collected downstream from more rural watersheds.

Lee, C. J.; Rasmussen, T. J.



Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system.  


During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. PMID:20821446

Conn, Kathleen E; Siegrist, Robert L; Barber, Larry B; Meyer, Michael T



Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Remediation for wastewater. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater contamination by volatile organic materials and the technology for reclamation. Remediation techniques discussed include use of activated carbon, activated sludge, oxidation, scrubbing, vapor stripping, biodegradation, and other degradative treatments. Articles include remediation of soils contaminated by volatile wastes. The citations examine a variety of compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum wastes, chlorinated organics, and other volatile materials. (Contains a minimum of 215 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Effectiveness of three configurations of membrane bioreactors on the removal of priority and emergent organic compounds from wastewater: comparison with conventional wastewater treatments.  


In this work the effectiveness of membrane bioreactors as advanced treatment on the removal of emergent and priority organic compounds in wastewater treatment plants has been evaluated during a one-year monitoring study. The studied wastewater treatment plant operates with flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes in two parallel lines. Moreover, a reverse osmosis module connected in series after the hollow fibre membrane was evaluated for one month. Comparison of membrane bioreactor and conventional activated sludge treatment was also investigated, as well as the influence of the physicochemical properties of the compounds on the removal rates achieved. Sixteen pharmaceutical compounds belonging to seven therapeutic groups and eight priority organic pollutants, including linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, nonylphenol and its ethoxylates and phthalate, were monitored. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to priority organic pollutants (309 ?g L(-1) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate C(12)) followed by pharmaceutical compounds (24.5 ?g L(-1) of ibuprofen). No significant difference of effectiveness was found among flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes. However, an improvement was obtained with the addition of a reverse osmosis module for most of the compounds. Biodegradation has been shown as the main route involved in the removal of organic compounds during both technologies. PMID:22476254

Camacho-Muñoz, D; Martín, J; Santos, J L; Alonso, E; Aparicio, I; De la Torre, T; Rodriguez, C; Malfeito, J J




Microsoft Academic Search

Non-thermal plasma is an emerging technique in environmental pollution control technology, produced by the high-voltage discharge processes and therefore a large amount of high energy electrons and active species are generated. The degradation of difficult-degraded organic pollutions will be greatly enhanced by the active species generated from non-thermal plasma process. However, research on non-thermal plasma technology on organic wastewater cleaning

Hsu-Hui Cheng; Shiao-Shing Chen; Yu-Chi Wu; Din-Lit Ho


Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceuticals, Personal-Care Products, Organic Wastewater Compounds, and Pesticides in the Lower Tallapoosa River Watershed near Montgomery, Alabama, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthetic and natural organic compounds derived from agricultural operations, residential development, and treated and untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater discharges can contribute contaminants to surface and ground waters. To determine the occur...

A. C. Gill A. K. McPherson C. J. Oblinger E. T. Furlong M. T. Meyer



Effects of organic compounds on the degradation of p-nitrophenol in lake and industrial wastewater by inoculated bacteria.  


Many microorganisms fail to degrade pollutants when introduced in different natural environments. This is a problem in selecting inocula for bioremediation of polluted sites. Thus, a study was conducted to determine the success of four inoculants to degrade p-nitrophenol (PNP) in lake and industrial wastewater and the effects of organic compounds on the degradation of high and low concentrations of PNP in these environments. Corynebacterium strain Z4 when inoculated into the lake and wastewater samples containing 20 micrograms/ml of PNP degraded 90% of PNP in one day. Addition of 100 micrograms/ml of glucose as a second substrate did not enhance the degradation of PNP and the bacterium utilized the two substrates simultaneously. Glucose used at the same concentration (100 micrograms/ml), inhibited degradation of 20 micrograms of PNP in wastewater by Pseudomonas strain MS. However, glucose increased the extent of degradation of PNP by Pseudomonas strain GR. Phenol also enhanced the degradation of PNP in wastewater by Pseudomonas strain GR, but had no effect on the degradation of PNP by Corynebacterium strain Z4. Addition of 100 micrograms/ml of glucose as a second substrate into the lake water samples containing low concentration of PNP (26 ng/ml) enhanced the degradation of PNP and the growth of Corynebacterium strain Z4. In the presence of glucose, it grew from 2 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(4) cells/ml in 3 days and degraded 70% of PNP as compared to samples without glucose in which the bacterium declined in cell number from 2 x 10(4) to 8 x 10(3) cells/ml and degraded only 30% PNP. The results suggest that in inoculation to enhance biodegradation, depending on the inoculant, second organic substrate many play an important role in controlling the rate and extent of biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:8580642

Zaidi, B R; Mehta, N K



Fast online emission monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater and product streams (using stripping with direct steam injection).  


Open-loop stripping analysis (also referred to as dynamic headspace) is a very flexible and robust technology for online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in wastewater or coolant. However, the quality and reliability of the analytical results depend strongly on the temperature during the stripping process. Hence, the careful and constant heating of the liquid phase inside the stripping column is a critical parameter. In addition, this stripping at high temperatures extends the spectrum of traceable organics to less volatile and more polar compounds with detection limits down to the ppm-level. This paper presents a novel and promising approach for fast, efficient, and constant heating by the direct injection of process steam into the strip medium. The performance of the system is demonstrated for temperatures up to 75 °C and traces of various hydrocarbons in water (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, ethylbenzene). PMID:22186871

Schocker, Alexander; Lissner, Bert



Preparation of solid composite polyferric sulfate and its flocculation behavior for wastewater containing high concentration organic compounds.  


A new kind of inorganic polymer flocculant, the solid composite polyferric sulfate (SPFS) was prepared using ferrous sulfate and Na-Bentonite. The obtained SPFS was characterized by FT-IR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). It showed that SPFS was a kind of composite inorganic polymer, which was the complex of PFS and Na-Bent, not only a simple mixture of raw materials. The synthetic mechanism and surface structure of SPFS were also discussed. Acting as a kind of environment-friendly flocculating agent, the solid composite polyferric sulfate (SPFS) was applied in pretreatment of potato starch industry wastewater, a typical wastewater containing high concentration organic compounds, which COD was above 6,000 mg/L. The results showed that the COD removal value reached 4,070 mg/L with COD removal rates being 46.6%. Based on these results, it is suggested that the SPFS can be attractive pretreatment agent for the starch industry wastewater. PMID:20489247

Wang, R M; Wang, Y; He, Y F; Li, F Y; Zhou, Y; He, N P




Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment and their possible impact on wildlife and human health is an emerging area of research. In this study, we collected influent and effluent samples during summer, fall and winter months from a small wastewater treatment plant in Murray, Kentucky USA and analyzed for azithromycin and urobilin. Azithromycin concentrations

Mowery HR; Loganathan BG


Removal of organic compounds during treating printing and dyeing wastewater of different process units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater in Shaoxing wastewater treatment plant (SWWTP) is composed of more than 90% dyeing and printing wastewater with high pH and sulfate. Through a combination process of anaerobic acidogenic [hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15h], aerobic (HRT of 20h) and flocculation–precipitation, the total COD removal efficiency was up to 91%. But COD removal efficiency in anaerobic acidogenic unit was only

J. Wang; M. C. Long; Z. J. Zhang; L. N. Chi; X. L. Qiao; H. X. Zhu; Z. F. Zhang




EPA Science Inventory

A composite membrane was constructed on a porous ceramic support from a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (SBS). It was tested in a laboratory pervaporation apparatus for recovering volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such a 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene ...



EPA Science Inventory

The effect of ozone treatment of domestic wastewater and various model compounds has been determined with respect to trace organic components. Organic constituents were identified in wastewater that was treated with ozone at the Upper Thompson Sanitation District Treatment Plant,...


The Effect of Ozonation of Organics in Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of ozone treatment of domestic wastewater and various model compounds has been determined with respect to trace organic components. Organic constituents were identified in wastewater that was treated with ozone at the Upper Thompson Sanitation ...

W. R. Chappell R. E. Sievers R. H. Shapiro




EPA Science Inventory

Chemical byproducts produced during the chlorination of municipal wastewater were examined in a study that employed several specially modified analytical methodologies. Volatile byproducts were examined by the use of gas chromatography with selective detectors and gas chromatogra...


Recycled water for stream flow augmentation: benefits, challenges, and the presence of wastewater-derived organic compounds.  


Stream flow augmentation with recycled water has the potential to improve stream habitat and increase potable water supply, but the practice is not yet well understood or documented. The objectives of this report are to present a short review illustrated by a case study, followed by recommendations for future stream flow augmentation projects. Despite the fact that wastewater discharge to streams is commonplace, a water agency pursuing stream flow augmentation with recycled water will face unique challenges. For example, recycled water typically contains trace amounts of organic wastewater-derived compounds (OWCs) for which the potential ecological risks must be balanced against the benefits of an augmentation project. Successful stream flow augmentation with recycled water requires that the lead agency clearly articulate a strong project rationale and identify key benefits. It must be assumed that the public will have some concerns about water quality. Public acceptance may be better if an augmentation project has co-benefits beyond maintaining stream ecosystems, such as improving water system supply and reliability (i.e. potable use offset). Regulatory or project-specific criteria (acceptable concentrations of priority OWCs) would enable assessment of ecosystem impacts and demonstration of practitioner compliance. Additional treatment (natural or engineered) of the recycled water may be considered. If it is not deemed necessary or feasible, existing recycled water quality may be adequate to achieve project goals depending on project rationale, site and water quality evaluation, and public acceptance. PMID:23041295

Plumlee, Megan H; Gurr, Christopher J; Reinhard, Martin



Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

Conn, K. E.; Siegrist, Prof. , R. L.; Barber, L. B.; Brown, G. K.



Predicting concentrations of trace organic compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge and biosolids using the PhATE™ model.  


This article presents the capability expansion of the PhATE™ (pharmaceutical assessment and transport evaluation) model to predict concentrations of trace organics in sludges and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PhATE was originally developed as an empirical model to estimate potential concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in US surface and drinking waters that could result from patient use of medicines. However, many compounds, including pharmaceuticals, are not completely transformed in WWTPs and remain in biosolids that may be applied to land as a soil amendment. This practice leads to concerns about potential exposures of people who may come into contact with amended soils and also about potential effects to plants and animals living in or contacting such soils. The model estimates the mass of API in WWTP influent based on the population served, the API per capita use, and the potential loss of the compound associated with human use (e.g., metabolism). The mass of API on the treated biosolids is then estimated based on partitioning to primary and secondary solids, potential loss due to biodegradation in secondary treatment (e.g., activated sludge), and potential loss during sludge treatment (e.g., aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting). Simulations using 2 surrogate compounds show that predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated by PhATE are in very good agreement with measured concentrations, i.e., well within 1 order of magnitude. Model simulations were then carried out for 18 APIs representing a broad range of chemical and use characteristics. These simulations yielded 4 categories of results: 1) PECs are in good agreement with measured data for 9 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, 2) PECs are greater than measured data for 3 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, possibly as a result of as yet unidentified depletion mechanisms, 3) PECs are less than analytical reporting limits for 5 compounds with low analytical detection frequencies, and 4) the PEC is greater than the analytical method reporting limit for 1 compound with a low analytical detection frequency, possibly again as a result of insufficient depletion data. Overall, these results demonstrate that PhATE has the potential to be a very useful tool in the evaluation of APIs in biosolids. Possible applications include: prioritizing APIs for assessment even in the absence of analytical methods; evaluating sludge processing scenarios to explore potential mitigation approaches; using in risk assessments; and developing realistic nationwide concentrations, because PECs can be represented as a cumulative probability distribution. Finally, comparison of PECs to measured concentrations can also be used to identify the need for fate studies of compounds of interest in biosolids. PMID:22162313

Cunningham, Virginia L; D'Aco, Vincent J; Pfeiffer, Danielle; Anderson, Paul D; Buzby, Mary E; Hannah, Robert E; Jahnke, James; Parke, Neil J



Occurrence and potential transport of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds from wastewater-treatment plant influent and effluent to groundwater and canal systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An increased demand for fresh groundwater resources in South Florida has prompted Miami-Dade County to expand its water reclamation program and actively pursue reuse plans for aquifer recharge, irrigation, and wetland rehydration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), initiated a study in 2008 to assess the presence of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in the influent and effluent at three regional wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) operated by the WASD and at one WWTP operated by the City of Homestead, Florida (HSWWTP).

Foster, Adam L.; Katz, Brian G.; Meyer, Michael T.



Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs.

Chinagarn Kunacheva; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii; Suwanna Kitpati Boontanon; Chanatip Musirat; Thana Wongwattana; Binaya Raj Shivakoti



Determination of chemical oxygen demand of nitrogenous organic compounds in wastewater using synergetic photoelectrocatalytic oxidation effect at TiO2 nanostructured electrode.  


Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is one of the most important parameters in water quality assessment and monitoring. The natural degradation of nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in water requires significant amounts of oxygen. In the determination of standard COD however, NOCs are persistent compounds that cannot be completely oxidized even in the most oxidative chemical environments, i.e. the reaction media that contain high concentrations of dichromate in strong acid at high temperature. Consequently, the measured COD values of wastewater samples containing NOCs are commonly lower than theoretical COD values and do not reflect the actual oxygen demand of the water body. This problem is partially alleviated when the photoelectrochemical method for COD determination (PeCOD) based on nanostructured TiO(2) photoanode is utilized. To completely overcome this problem, a synergetic photoelectrochemical oxidation effect in thin layer cells is used to achieve complete oxidation of NOCs. This is done by the simple addition of a hydroxyl organic compound (i.e. glucose) into the test sample before the PeCOD measurement. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the synergetic PeCOD method provides an effective and reliable means to measure COD values of NOC-containing pollutants without the need for toxic or expensive reagents. PMID:23140953

Li, Lihong; Zhang, Shanqing; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Huijun



The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of

J. A. Field



Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment.  


In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 microg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p=0.021) yet higher levels of 17beta-estradiol (p=0.002) and vitellogenin (p=0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17beta-estradiol than control females (p=0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r=0.00) versus control (r=-0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r=-0.45) and control (r=-0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed. PMID:19748687

Walker, David B; Paretti, Nicholas V; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S; Zaugg, Steven D; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Matter, William J; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis




EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a literature search into the occurrence of EPA's selected 129 priority pollutants in household wastewater. The study identifies consumer product categories and general types of products containing the toxic compounds used in and around the home...


Electrochemical oxidation of phenolic and other organic compounds at boron doped diamond electrodes for wastewater treatment: effect of mass transfer.  


The paper presents the results of an experimental study on oxidation at boron doped diamond electrodes (BDD) of some phenolic compounds: phenol (PH), para-hydroxibenzoic acid (PHB), cathecole (CT), hydroquinone (HQ) are considered, singularly contained in aqueous solutions or in the presence of glucose (G), which was selected to represent the class of biodegradable compounds. Oxidation of benzoquinone (BQ) and maleic acid (MA), generally detected as intermediates products from phenol degradation, is also investigated. Great attention is paid to verify the feasibility of a selective process in which the oxidation is specifically addressed to the phenolic fraction up to non toxic intermediate products which are more biodegradable than the original phenols. PMID:14756252

Polcaro, Anna Maria; Mascia, Michele; Palmas, Simonetta; Vacca, Annalisa




EPA Science Inventory

Sorption of toxic organic compounds on primary, mixed-liquor, and digested solids from municipal wastewater treatment plants has been correlated with octanol/water partition coefficients arid with modified Randic indexes. he correlations developed are useful for assessing the rol...


Toxicological effects of disinfections using sodium hypochlorite on aquatic organisms and its contribution to AOX formation in hospital wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is often used for disinfecting hospital wastewater in order to prevent the spread of pathogenic microorganisms, causal agents of nosocomial infectious diseases. Chlorine disinfectants in wastewater react with organic matters, giving rise to organic chlorine compounds such as AOX (halogenated organic compounds adsorbable on activated carbon), which are toxic for aquatic organisms and are persistent environmental contaminants.

Evens Emmanuel; Gérard Keck; Jean-Marie Blanchard; Paul Vermande; Yves Perrodin



Gallic acid photochemical oxidation as a model compound of winery wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winery wastewaters (WW) are characterized by their high organic load and by the presence of non-biodegradable compounds such as phenolic compounds. This study was undertaken to evaluate the capacity of different Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) combined with several radiation sources to degrade the phenolic compound Gallic Acid (GA). A toxicological assessment was also carried out to evaluate the subproduct's harmful

Marco S. Lucas; Albino A. Dias; Rui M. Bezerra; José A. Peres



Fate of wastewater organic pollution during activated sludge treatment: nature of residual organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge treatment is used to remove wastewater organic matter (OM) and residual OM is found at low levels in treated water. The molecular composition of OM of waters and sludge was determined in order to understand the fate of the organic substances during biological treatment and the nature of residual OM. Proteins, sugars, lipids and polyphenolic compounds were quantified

M.-F Dignac; P Ginestet; D Rybacki; A Bruchet; V Urbain; P Scribe



Calibration and field test of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers for the determination of 15 endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewater and river water with special focus on performance reference compounds (PRC).  


In this work, home-made Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were studied for passive sampling of 15 endocrine disrupting compounds (4 alkylphenols and steroid hormones) in influent and effluent samples of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as up- and downstream of the receiving river water. POCIS calibration at laboratory conditions was carried out using a continuous-flow calibration system. The influence of the exposure position of the POCIS within the calibration device, horizontal or vertical, to the water flow direction was evaluated. While the sampling rates of most of the target substances were not affected by the sampler position, for cis-ADT, E1, E2 and E3, the vertical position provided the highest analyte accumulation. Hence, the POCIS samplers were preferably exposed vertical to the water flow in overall experiments. Using the continuous-flow calibration device, lab-based sampling rates were determined for all the target compounds (RSBPA = 0.0326 L/d; RScisADT = 0.0800 L/d, RSE1 = 0.0398 L/d, RSEQ = 0.0516 L/d, RSTT = 0.0745 L/d, RSE2 = 0.0585 L/d, RSEE2 = 0.0406 L/d, RSNT = 0.0846 L/d, RSPG = 0.0478 L/d and RSE3 = 0.1468 L/d), except for DES, MeEE2, 4tOP, 4OP, 4NPs, where the uptake after 14 days POCIS exposure was found to be insignificant or indicated a no linear behaviour. Recoveries from POCIS extractions were in the range between 71 and 152% for most of the target analytes except for DES and E3 with around 59%. Good precision of the sampling procedure up till 20% was observed and limits of detection were at ng/L level. Two deuterated compounds ([(2)H3]-E2 and [(2)H4]-EQ) were successfully tested as performance reference compounds (PRC, [Formula: see text] = 0.0507 L/d and [Formula: see text] = 0.0543 L/d)). Finally, the POCIS samplers were tested for monitoring EDCs at two wastewater treatment plants, in Halle and Leipzig (Germany). BPA, E1, EQ, E2, MeEE2, NT, EE2, PG and E3 were quantified and their time-weighted average concentrations calculated on the basis of the lab-derived sampling rates were compared with the results based on conventional grab samples. While the influent concentration of BPA, cisADT, E1, TT, PG, EE2 reached the ?g/L level, the rest of the target analytes were determined at ng/L. The analyte concentrations in the effluent never exceed ng/L level except for BPA. The concentration determined by spot sampling was partially lower (BPA, E1, TT) or comparable (EQ, E2, EE2, PG, E3) to the concentration obtained by POCIS using performance reference compounds (PRC). PMID:23517875

Vallejo, A; Prieto, A; Moeder, M; Usobiaga, A; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N; Paschke, A




EPA Science Inventory

This research program was conducted to determine the capability of biological and physical-chemical treatment processes to remove chemical carcinogens and other hazardous organic compounds from water and wastewater. Treatment processes investigated included biological degradation...


Sorption behavior of potential organic wastewater indicators with soils.  


Soil-aquifer treatment is a wastewater treatment and reclamation option to facilitate beneficial water reuse. The fate of wastewater originated micropollutants in the soil-aquifer system is important to understand. In the study the sorption behavior of potential wastewater indicators such as two antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, primidone), one sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole), and one corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole) were determined with three natural soils (Lufa 2.2, Euro Soil 5, and Wulpen sand) that differed in pH, organic carbon content and particle size distribution. As aqueous phase a 0.01M CaCl(2) solution as well as the effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used. Affinities of all analytes to the soil increased from Wulpen sand, over Lufa 2.2 to Euro Soil 5, indicating that the organic carbon contents might be crucial for sorption. Isotherms were well described by the Freundlich model. Sorption was mainly close to linear (n=0.93-1.07) for most target compounds and soils. Desorption gave rise to a small hysteresis only for Euro Soil 5 which was likely artificial, due to slow desorption kinetics beyond 24h used in the experiment. All sorption studies confirmed that Carbamazepine, Benzotriazole and Primidone are appropriate to be used as wastewater indicator substances based on their low sorption affinity to soils, while the suitability of Sulfamethoxazole is limited due to the formation of non-extractable residues, especially at lower pH values. PMID:19095277

Yu, Liang; Fink, Guido; Wintgens, Thomas; Melin, Thomas; Ternes, Thomas A



Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

Oboirien, Bilainu; Molokwane, P.E.; Chirwa, Evans [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)



Organic Compounds Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colby College Department of Chemistry offers the Organic Compounds Database, which was compiled by Harold Bell of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Visitors can search by the compounds melting point, boiling point, index of refraction, molecular weight, formula, absorption wavelength, mass spectral peak, chemical type, and by partial name. Once entered, results are returned with basically the same type of information that can be searched, plus any other critical information. References are provided for the close to 2500 organic compounds included in the database; yet, because the site was last modified in 1995, varying the data may be required to fully authenticate its accuracy.

Bell, Harold M.



Decontamination of wastewaters containing synthetic organic dyes by electrochemical methods: A general review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents of a large variety of industries usually contain important quantities of synthetic organic dyes. The discharge of these colored compounds in the environment causes considerable non-aesthetic pollution and serious health-risk factors. Since conventional wastewater treatment plants cannot degrade the majority of these pollutants, powerful methods for the decontamination of dyes wastewaters have received increasing attention over the past decade.

Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle; Enric Brillas



Indicator compounds for assessment of wastewater effluent contributions to flow and water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have reported the presence of trace (i.e., ng\\/L) organic chemicals in municipal wastewater effluents, but it is unclear which compounds will be useful to evaluate the contribution of effluent to overall river flow or the attenuation processes that occur in receiving streams. This paper presents a new approach that uses a suite of common trace organic chemicals as

Eric R. V. Dickenson; Shane A. Snyder; David L. Sedlak; Jörg E. Drewes



Effect of ozone exposure on the oxidation of trace organic contaminants in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three tertiary-treated wastewater effluents were evaluated to determine the impact of wastewater quality (i.e. effluent organic matter (EfOM), nitrite, and alkalinity) on ozone (O3) decomposition and subsequent removal of 31 organic contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. The O3 dose was normalized based upon total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrite to allow comparison between the different

Eric C. Wert; Fernando L. Rosario-Ortiz; Shane A. Snyder




EPA Science Inventory

The methods of sampling ambient air for organic compounds for subsequent analysis are discussed. The following methods of sample collection are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each is given: concentration of component of interest on to solid sorbents, into liqui...


Biodegradation of coal slurry transport wastewater organics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Activated sludge was successful in reducing the levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in coal slurry wastewaters. DOC removal by the activated sludge ranged from 61% to 97% with a large percentage (21–41%) of this DOC being completely metabolized to CO2. Second order kinetic constants (k2) developed for DOC removal ranged from 1.39·10-4 to 2.30·10-1 liter·day-1·(mg of sludge)-1, providing

J. W. Davis; M. C. Reid; Gary S. Sayler; R. A. Minear



Effect of biological wastewater treatment on the molecular weight distribution of soluble organic compounds and on the reduction of BOD, COD and P in pulp and paper mill effluent.  


Pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterizated, before (influent) and after (effluent) biological wastewater treatment based on an activated sludge process, by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22microm) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3kDa) of the wastewater samples into different size fractions. Various parameters were measured on each fraction: molecular weight distribution (MWD) using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), total organic carbon (TOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (Tot-P), phosphate phosphorus (PO(4)-P), electrical conductivity, pH, turbidity, charge quantity and zeta potential. The MWD, TOC and COD(Cr) results indicated that the majority of the material present in both the influent and effluent was in the medium molecular weight (MW) range (i.e. MW<10kDa) with three main MW sub-fractions. There were no significant differences in the range of the MWD between the influent and effluent samples. The magnitude of the MWD in the effluent was about one half that in the influent, the greatest reduction being in the 6kDa fraction. The 3kDa fractions of both the influent and effluent showed a considerable increase in BOD(7), probably due to the removal of compounds harmful to bacteria in 3kDa ultrafiltration. Influent turbidity decreased considerably in microfiltration (8-0.22microm). As the turbidity was removed by 0.22microm filtration, the anionic charge quantity started to decrease. Particles in the influent and effluent contained 19-29% and 14-20% of the total phosphorus, respectively. The major phosphorus fraction was in the form of soluble phosphate. PMID:18707750

Leiviskä, Tiina; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Rämö, Jaakko; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Pellinen, Jaakko



Treat Shrimp Wastewater with Compound Photosynthetic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract—Shrimp Shrimp wastewater was was studied by by using using photosynthetic bacteria sludge method. method. The results results indicated that this method method got got better better effects effects than single sludge sludge or only only photosynthetic bacteria treatment. The removal removal removal of of the CODcr could could reach 63%, 63%, the removal of the the NH3-N could

Jin Hang; Zhao Yu; Lei Xiaochun; Xue Guoxin; Tang Yanjun; He Yixin




EPA Science Inventory

A method was developed for the determination of nitrobenzene, 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and isophorone in wastewaters. The methods developement program consisted of: a literature review, determination of the stability of the compounds in organic solutions, determination ...


Occurrence of Endocrine-Disrupting and Other Wastewater Compounds during Water Treatment with Case Studies from Lincoln, Nebraska and Berlin, Germany  

EPA Science Inventory

Except for herbicides, research on the fate and transport of endocrine disrupting compounds and other organic wastewater compounds released into the environment and their potential presence in drinking water is in its infancy. Analytical methods still are being developed, evalua...


Determination of organic priority pollutants and emerging compounds in wastewater and snow samples using multiresidue protocols on the basis of microextraction by packed sorbents coupled to large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  


This paper describes the development and validation of a new procedure for the simultaneous determination of 41 multi-class priority and emerging organic pollutants in water samples using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) followed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). Apart from method parameter optimization the influence of humic acids as matrix components on the extraction efficiency of MEPS procedure was also evaluated. The list of target compounds includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PEs), nonylphenols (NPs), bisphenol A (BPA) and selected steroid hormones. The performance of the new at-line microextraction-LVI-GC-MS protocol was compared to standard solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LVI-GC-MS analysis. LODs for 100 mL samples (SPE) ranged from 0.2 to 736 ng L(-1) were obtained. LODs for 800 microL of sample (MEPS) were between 0.2 and 266 ng L(-1). In the case of MEPS methodology even a sample volume of only 800 microL allowed to detect the target compounds. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of both procedures which permitted to obtain good recoveries (>75%) for all cases. The precision of the methods, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 21% for all compounds and both methodologies. Finally, the developed methods were applied to the determination of target analytes in various samples, including snow and wastewater. PMID:20719318

Prieto, A; Schrader, S; Moeder, M



Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the bes...

G. Cooper



Perfluoroalkyl compounds in Danish wastewater treatment plants and aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the results of a screening survey of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the Danish environment. The study included point sources (municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and landfill sites) and the marine and freshwater environments. Effluent and influent water and sewage sludge were analysed for point sources. Sediment, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and liver from plaice (Pleuronectes platessa),

R. Bossi; J. Strand; O. Sortkjær; M. M. Larsen



Multiphase ozonolysis of organics in wastewater by a novel membrane reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional ozonation of recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater suffers from low transfer rate of ozone into water. The low transfer rate can be enhanced by adding an inert fluorocarbon (FC) liquid immiscible with water but having a much higher solubility for ozone. A novel membrane reactor was studied for the destruction of organic pollutants by using FC liquid simultaneously as

Asim K. Guha; V. Shanbhag; Kamalesh K. Sirkar; David A. Vaccari; Deven H. Trivedi



Ozonation of nonbiodegradable organics in tannery wastewater.  


The study explores the impact of ozonation on the fate of different soluble COD fractions in the tannery wastewater at different phases during the course of biological treatment, in order to identify the phase where ozonation is likely to generate the maximum beneficial effect on biological treatability. Samples from the biological treatment influent and from the mixed liquor at periods significant for the fate of COD fractions have been ozonated. Ozone treatment at the phase where the readily biodegradable COD component was biologically depleted is determined as the most promising alternative among others, since the highest COD removal efficiencies are achieved even with low feeding time of 5 min at the selected ozone flow-rate of 42.8 mg min. The merit of ozonation at this stage in the formation of simpler more biodegradable compounds deserves further attention. PMID:15242120

Dogruel, Serdar; Ates Genceli, Esra; Germirli Babuna, Fatos; Orhon, Derin



(Energies of organic compounds)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of our study of the enthalpy of reduction of carbonyl compounds has been completed and includes four aldehydes, acetone, a series of cyclic ketones and ethyl acetate. The results suggest that some of the literature data for these compounds are significantly in error. Equilibrium constants have been measured for the reaction of carbonyl compounds with water to




Partial nitrification in a SHARON reactor in the presence of salts and organic carbon compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial nitrification of ammonia to nitrite was studied as a shortcut process to reduce the oxygen consumption during nitrification and the necessities of organic carbon compounds for denitrification in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This process is specially recommended for the treatment of wastewater containing low total organic carbon to nitrogen ratios (C\\/N) like the effluents of anaerobic digesters from the

A. Mosquera-Corral; F. González; J. L. Campos; R. Méndez



Long-term operation of submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing styrene as volatile organic compound (VOC): Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT).  


In this study, the membrane bioreactor (MBR) was utilized to remove styrene from a synthetic wastewater having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) and styrene concentration of 1500 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. At two hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 h and 18 h, the MBR was operated for a period in excess of 100 days. The HRT effects were studied and it was found out that the removal efficiency of COD and styrene for both HRTs was consistently higher than 99%. Unlike conventional activated sludge processes (CASPs), no styrene was detected in the exhaust air, which meant that biodegradation was the major styrene removal mechanism at both HRTs. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) profile during the operation of the MBR showed a fairly low and constant TMP up to day 70, after which, the TMP showed a dramatic rise, as a result of the occurrence of severe membrane fouling. It was thought that an increase in styrene loading rate, when HRT was reduced to 18 h, resulted in the release of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from the bacterial cells, which in turn was responsible for the rise in soluble microbial product (SMP) and sludge deflocculation. The severe fouling observed during operation of MBR at HRT of 18 h was attributed to the rise in SMP concentrations and decrease in mean floc size and increase in the proportion of small particles in the activated sludge. PMID:20207478

Fallah, N; Bonakdarpour, B; Nasernejad, B; Alavi Moghadam, M R



Thermodynamics of organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic and applied research have continued on the thermodynamic properties of currently used high density\\/high energy fuels and of pure chemical compounds that may be constituents of high energy fuels of the future. Enthalpy of combustion was measured for three compounds that are constituents of current ramjet fuels--hexacyclic exo, exo-dihydrodinorbornadiene, hexacyclic endo, endo-dihydrodinorbornadiene and exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (JP-10). Heat capacities of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene

W. D. Good; R. H. P. Thomas; B. E. Gammon; S. Lee-Bechtold; J. E. Callanan; N. K. Smith



A novel treatment technique for DMSO wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an efficient treatment technique for wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO, (CH3)2SO], a compound used as a photoresist stripping solvent in semiconductor manufacturing processes. Generally, wastewater containing organic compounds can be treated biologically, but with DMSO wastewater, biological treatment is not available because noxious compounds are produced that harm the environment. Here, we present an effective DMSO wastewater

Tatsuya Koito; Masafumi Tekawa; Arata Toyoda



Sorption of hydrophobic pesticides on a Mediterranean soil affected by wastewater, dissolved organic matter and salts.  


Irrigation with treated wastewaters as an alternative in countries with severe water shortage may influence the sorption of pesticides and their environmental effects, as wastewater contains higher concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic matter and inorganic compounds than freshwater. We have examined the sorption behaviour of three highly hydrophobic pesticides (the herbicide pendimethalin and the insecticides ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on a Mediterranean agricultural soil using the batch equilibration method. We considered wastewater, extracts from urban sewage sludge with different dissolved organic carbon contents, and inorganic salt solutions, using Milli Q water as a control. All pesticides were strongly retained by soil although some sorption occurred on the walls of the laboratory containers, especially when wastewater and inorganic salt solutions were used. The calculation of distribution constants by measuring pesticide concentrations in soil and solution indicated that pendimethalin sorption was not affected whereas ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin retention were significantly enhanced (ca. 5 and 2 times, respectively) when wastewater or salt solutions were employed. We therefore conclude that the increased sorption of the two pesticides caused by wastewater cannot be only the result of its dissolved organic carbon content, but also of the simultaneous presence of inorganic salts in the solution. PMID:20980092

Rodríguez-Liébana, José A; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu



In vivo endocrine disruption assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluents with small organisms.  


Surface water receives a variety of micro-pollutants that could alter aquatic organisms' reproduction and development. It is known that a few nanograms per litre of these compounds can induce endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic species. Many compounds are released daily in wastewater, and identifying the compounds responsible for inducing such disruption is difficult. Methods using biological analysis are therefore an alternative to chemical analysis, as the endocrine disruption potential of the stream as a whole is considered. To detect hormonal disruption of thyroid and oestrogenic functions, fluorescent Xenopus laevis tadpoles and medaka (Oryzias latipes) fish larvae bearing genetic constructs integrating hormonal responsive elements were used for physiological screens for potential endocrine disruption in streams from an urban wastewater treatment plant. The Xenopus model was used to assess thyroid disruption and the medaka model oestrogenic disruption in wastewater samples. Assays using the genetically modified organisms were conducted on 9 influent and 32 effluent samples. The thyroidal effect of wastewater was either reduced or removed by the treatment plant; no oestrogenic effect was detected in any of the wastewater samples. PMID:23823564

Castillo, Luis; Seriki, Kemi; Mateos, Stéphanie; Loire, Nicolas; Guédon, Nathalie; Lemkine, Gregory F; Demeneix, Barbara A; Tindall, Andrew J



Organic emissions from shale oil wastewaters and their implications for air quality  

SciTech Connect

The emission of organic compounds from shale oil wastewaters used to cool hot, retorted, spent oil shale and for codisposal with retorted shale was investigated. The major classes of compounds emitted are aromatic nitrogen-containing compounds, ketones, phenols, and nitriles, the same as those previously reported to be emitted from wastewaters exposed to air at room temperature. A gas-stripping method was modified to allow the determination of several Henry's law constants simultaneously. Measured values of H for these solutes in the wastewaters (10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/ atm m/sub 3/ mol/sup -1/) generally agreed with values determined for solutes in pure water, indicating that the wastewater matrix has little effect on H. Air samples collected in regions likely to be affected by atmospheric emissions from the shale oil industry had no detectable levels of the major organic species that are emitted from shale oil wastewaters, indicating that these species may be useful in tracing pollutant air masses resulting from shale oil production.

Hawthorne, S.B.; Sievers, R.E.; Barkley, R.M.



Electrochemical studies of gold ore processing wastewater containing cyanide, copper, and sulfur compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemistry of real gold ore processing wastewater solutions from copper sulfide containing gold ore has been investigated. Analysis shows that the wastewater contains a range of sulfur compounds in various oxidation states from sulfide to sulfate. The electrochemical characteristics of the gold ore processing wastewater were evaluated using rotating disk, cyclic voltammetric, polarization and preparative electrolysis studies. The solutions

S. C. Cheng; M. Gattrell; T. Guena; B. MacDougall



Thermodynamics of organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic and applied research have been continued on the thermodynamic properties of currently used high density/high energy fuels and of pure chemical compounds that may be constituents of high energy fuels of the future. Enthalpy of combustion was measured for three compounds that are constituents of current ramjet fuels--hexacyclic exo, exo-dihydrodinorbornadiene, hexacyclic endo, endo-dihydrodinorbornadiene and exo-tetrahydrodicyclocpentadiene (JP-10). Heat capacities of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (JP-10) and RJ-6, a blend of JP-10 and the hydrogenated dimers of norbornadiene, were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Enthalpy of combustion was measured for two pure hydrocarbons, 1,7-dimethylindan and 1,4-dimethyl-2-isobutylbenzene, that are expected to have high steric interaction energies of alkyl substituents in the ring structure, and measurements are in progress on 1-ethyl-8-methylnaphthalene and 1,6-dimethylindan.

Good, W. D.; Smith, N. K.; Thomas, R. H. P.; Gammon, B. E.; Lee-Bechtold, S.



Emissions of Volatile and Potentially Toxic Organic Compounds from Sewage Treatment Plants and Collection Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) are a source of potentially toxic organic compound (PTOC) emissions for which limited data are available. The study assesses the potential for PTOC emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) and col...

D. P. Y. Chang E. D. Schroeder R. L. Corsi



Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds  


At least one of selectivity and reaction rate of photosensitized vapor phase dimerizations, including dehydrodimerizations, hydrodimerizations and cross-dimerizations of saturated and unsaturated organic compounds is improved by conducting the dimerization in the presence of hydrogen or nitrous oxide.

Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (Princeton, NJ); Muedas, Cesar A. (New Haven, CT); Ferguson, Richard R. (Branford, CT)



[Optimization of LCMSMS determination method for steroid compounds in wastewater and its application in feedlot wastewater].  


Taking Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) as pre-treatment process, a laboratory experiment was conducted by adopting the technology of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MSMS) to develop a method to determine the concentrations of 13 steroids in feedlot wastewater. Atmospheric Press Chemical ionization (APCI) source was applied and operated in negative ion model, with the parameters of Chromatography and Spectrometry being optimized. Quasi-molecular ion peak [M + H]+ appeared in the full scan of the first quadrupole of mass spectrometer (Q1) of Testosterone propionate and other 6 steroid compounds, while quasi-molecular ion peak [M + H-H2O]+ appeared in the full scan of Q1 of rest 6 steroid compounds. The linear range of the 9 points calibration curve for the 13 target compounds was determined to be from 1 to 1000 ng x ml(-1), and the calibration curve regression correlation coefficients (R) were always above 0.9990 for all sample batches. The average recovery rate of all target compounds was 83.75%-111.50%, and the methodological stability was determined to be acceptable, with the relative standard deviations between 2.02%-14.21% (n=6). Except that the limit of detection (LOD) of Mestradiol and Oestriol was higher than 15 ng x ml(-1), all the other target compounds had a LOD lower than 5 ng x ml(-1). In the determination of real samples from feedlot wastewater, the developed method represented a good profile to all target compounds at different concentrations in each stage of treatment. PMID:20353073

Wang, Song; Sun, Tie-heng; Stuetz, Richard; Sun, Li-na; Liu, Jia-nü




EPA Science Inventory

Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from wastewater was studied. hell-and-tube heat-exchanger type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluene,...



EPA Science Inventory

Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater was studied. A shell-and-tube heat-exchange type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluen...


Removal of specific organic contaminants from wastewater by activated carbon adsorption  

SciTech Connect

A two-year study, conducted for the EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, on the use of granular activated carbon columns for the treatment of industrial wastewaters involved the removal of dioctyl phthalate from a waste stream of a plant producing mixed phthalate esters; removal of benzene, toluene, and several polynuclear aromatics from a ligh-hydrocarbon-cracking quench water; removal of ethylene dichloride, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene from a chlorinated solvent plant waste stream; and removal of ethylene dichloride and chloroform from an ethylene dichloride/vinyl chloride plant wastewater. The adsorptive characteristics of each compound with respect to the chemistry of their wastewater matrixes; the observed adsorption characteristics as predicted by modern adsorption theory; and the suitability of Total Organic Carbon as a predictor or surrogate compound to indicate the breakthrough of priority pollutants are discussed.

Beaude, B.A.; Bilello, L.J.; Turner, R.J.; Kellar, E.M.




EPA Science Inventory

Industrial wastewater survey samples were analyzed for organic compounds not identified by spectrum matching. Analysis of the samples proceeded from an initial packed column GC/MS analysis for Priority Pollutants, through computerized spectrum matching for other compounds, to the...


Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand.  


Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs. Surveys were conducted in central wastewater treatment plant in two industrial zones in Thailand. Samples were collected from influent, aeration tank, secondary clarifier effluent, effluent and sludge. The major purpose of this field study was to identify PFCs occurrences and mass flow during industrial WWTP. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis. Total 10 PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA), perfluordecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) were measured to identify their occurrences. PFCs were detected in both liquid and solid phase in most samples. The exceptionally high level of PFCs was detected in the treatment plant of IZ1 and IZ2 ranging between 662-847ngL(-1) and 674-1383ngL(-1), respectively, which greater than PFCs found in most domestic wastewater. Due to PFCs non-biodegradable property, both WWTPs were found ineffective in removing PFCs using activated sludge processes. Bio-accumulation in sludge could be the major removal mechanism of PFCs in the process. The increasing amount of PFCs after activated sludge processes were identified which could be due to the degradation of PFCs precursors. PFCs concentration found in the effluent were very high comparing to those in river water of the area. Industrial activity could be the one of major sources of PFCs contamination in the water environment. PMID:21439605

Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Wongwattana, Thana; Shivakoti, Binaya Raj



Treatability of RCRA compounds in a BOD\\/nitrification waste-water treatment system with dual-media filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the treatability and fate of 28 organic RCRA compounds in a combined organic removal and nitrification process and by secondary effluent gravity filtration. A 3.8 l\\/min pilot-scale extended aeration waste-water treatment system with dual media effluent filter was utilized for the study. At a total concentration of approximately 1.5 mg\\/l organics (sum of the concentration of all

S. I. Safferman; S. K. Bhattacharya



Ammonia removal from wastewater by ion exchange in the presence of organic contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this study was the removal of ammonium by ion exchange from simulated wastewater. The study looks at the effect of organics upon ammonium ion exchange equilibrium uptake. The ion exchangers included a natural zeolite clinoptilolite, and two polymeric exchangers, Dowex 50w-x8, and Purolite MN500. The organic compounds studied included citric acid and a number of proteins. The

T. C. Jorgensen; L. R. Weatherley



Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms  

PubMed Central

The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu



Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.  


The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 ?g/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 ?g/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17?-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17?-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17?-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E



Persistence of two neonicotinoid insecticides in wastewater, and in aqueous solutions of surfactants and dissolved organic matter.  


Wastewater treatment plants receive organic contaminants, such as pesticides, which reach the sewage system from domestic, industrial or agricultural activities. In wastewater, which is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds, biotic or abiotic degradation of contaminants can be affected by the presence of co-solutes. The photodecomposition in natural sunlight of two neonicotinoid insecticides, thiamethoxam and thiacloprid, was investigated in wastewater, aqueous extracts of sewage sludge and in aqueous surfactant solutions, which are abundant in wastewater. Dissipation in the dark was also studied in wastewater, due to reduction of transmitted sunlight in wastewater ponds. With regard to photolysis, thiamethoxam degraded rapidly in all the aqueous solutions. Among them sewage sludge extracts slightly modified (average half-life 17.6h), wastewater increased (13.7h) and non-ionic surfactants led, as a family, to the highest dissipation rates (average 6.2h), with respect to control water (18.7h). Additionally this pesticide also underwent a slower biodegradation process in wastewater in the dark under anaerobic conditions (around 25d). A metabolite of thiamethoxam from the biological decomposition in wastewater was identified by HPLC/MS. On the other hand thiacloprid was found to be resistant to photo- and biodecomposition and remained almost unchanged during the experimental periods in all the tested media. PMID:21524784

Peña, A; Rodríguez-Liébana, J A; Mingorance, M D



Electrochemical treatment of wastewater containing polyaromatic organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of industrial wastewater containing naphthalene- and anthraquinone-sulphonic acids by electrochemical methods has been studied in this paper. It was found that only a small fraction of the organics was oxidised by direct electrolyses, while complete mineralisation of the organics was obtained with the indirect process, electrogenerating hypochlorite from chloride oxidation. The effects of operating factors, such as anode materials

Marco Panizza; Cristina Bocca; Giacomo Cerisola



Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater  

PubMed Central

Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW). Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000??g?mL?1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400??g?mL?1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400??g?mL?1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%), verbascoside (7.4%), and tyrosol (2.6%). The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100??g?mL?1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

Tafesh, Ahmed; Najami, Naim; Jadoun, Jeries; Halahlih, Fares; Riepl, Herbert; Azaizeh, Hassan



Antioxidizing potency of phenol compounds in olive oil mill wastewater.  


The antioxidizing potency of phenol compounds contained in olive oil mill wastewater (OOMWW) has been elucidated. Commercially available phenol standards at varying concentrations and the Rancimat oxidation test have been used. Refined purified olive oil was utilized as an oxidation lipid substrate. Synthetic antioxidants, such as 2,3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), l-ascorbic acid, and gallates (commonly used as food preservatives), and other known chemicals endowed with antioxidizing properties have been employed as reference compounds. The OOMWW phenol compounds have been classified into different groups depending on their antioxidizing potency. This was significantly affected by the tested concentrations of the standards. Mixtures of phenol standards and other antioxidants (l-proline, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol) have also been tested. Many phenol compounds present in OOMWW showed antioxidizing potency higher compared to that of the less safe synthetic antioxidants and could therefore replace these in the industrial preservation of food items. They could also be used in combination with other natural antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols). In fact, some mixtures of antioxidants, owing also to the synergistic phenomena, showed strong antioxidizing potency. PMID:14664521

Ranalli, Alfonso; Lucera, Lucia; Contento, Stefania



Synergistic antibacterial effects of polyphenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater.  


Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW). Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000??g?mL(-1). Hydroxytyrosol at 400??g?mL(-1) caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400??g?mL(-1) against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%), verbascoside (7.4%), and tyrosol (2.6%). The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100-100/100??g?mL(-1) caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria. PMID:21647315

Tafesh, Ahmed; Najami, Naim; Jadoun, Jeries; Halahlih, Fares; Riepl, Herbert; Azaizeh, Hassan




EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the systematic evaluation of a series of parameters leading to the development of a test procedure for 36 volatile priority pollutants in wastewaters. A study of the effect of pH, temperature, and residual chlorine on the aqueous stability of the compounds l...


Biorestoration of aquifers contaminated with organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several forms of biological treatment can be used to treat contaminated aquifers. In situ treatment increases the activity of the indigenous organisms by the addition of nutrients and electron acceptor. Withdrawal and treatment technologies rely on removal of the ground water and any of several wastewater treatment processes to biodegrade the organics. Addition of acclimated or genetically engineered organisms may

M. D. Lee; J. M. Thomas; R. C. Borden; P. B. Bedient; C. H. Ward; J. T. Wilson; R. A. Conway



The electronic nose as a rapid sensor for volatile compounds in treated domestic wastewater.  


An electronic nose consisting of 12 metal oxide sensors was used to monitor volatile compounds in effluent of a domestic wastewater treatment plant. Effluent and reference (deionized water) samples were heated to 60 and 90 degrees C to promote the volatilization and to increase the sensitivity. An effluent measuring campaign of 12 weeks was conducted and the repeatability and reproducibility of the procedure and the apparatus were determined. Processing the obtained fingerprints with principal component analysis (PCA) allowed interpretation and differentiation of the samples in terms of origin and quality, relative to the reference. To minimize the variance due to sensitivity fluctuations of the apparatus and to detect effluents with deviating qualities, two new concepts were defined, i.e. the relative sensorial odour perception (in short: rSOP) and the relative fingerprint. Correlations between the relative overall electronic nose output, expressed as rSOP, and selected routine parameters were weak except for the parameter "volatile suspended solids" (VSS), indicating adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto the organic particles. The results clearly demonstrate the possibility to use the electronic nose as a rapid alarm generator towards volatile compounds, e.g. in specific advanced treatment processes to produce reclaimed water from effluent of the domestic wastewater treatment plant under scrutiny. PMID:11394782

Dewettinck, T; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W



Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not efficient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater

M. H. O. Sampa; C. L. Duarte; P. R. Rela; E. S. R. Somessari; C. G. Silveira; A. L. Azevedo



Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not effecient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater

M. H. O. Sampa; C. L. Duarte; P. R. Rela; E. S. R. Somessari; C. G. Silveira; A. L. Azevedo



Indicator compounds for assessment of wastewater effluent contributions to flow and water quality.  


Numerous studies have reported the presence of trace (i.e., ng/L) organic chemicals in municipal wastewater effluents, but it is unclear which compounds will be useful to evaluate the contribution of effluent to overall river flow or the attenuation processes that occur in receiving streams. This paper presents a new approach that uses a suite of common trace organic chemicals as indicators to assess the degree of impact and attenuation of trace organic chemicals in receiving streams. The utility of the approach was validated by effluent monitoring at ten wastewater treatment plants and two effluent-impacted rivers with short retention times (<17 h). A total of 56 compounds were particularly well suited as potential indicators, occurring frequently in effluent samples at concentrations that were at least five times higher than their limit of quantification. Monitoring data from two effluent-impacted rivers indicated that biotransformation was not important for these two river stretches, whereas photolysis attenuation was possibly important for the shallow river. The application of this approach to receiving waters and water reclamation and reuse systems will allow for more effective allocation of resources in future monitoring programs. PMID:21144546

Dickenson, Eric R V; Snyder, Shane A; Sedlak, David L; Drewes, Jörg E



Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organic compounds or their precursorsfound in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellarmedium and were later incorporated intoplanetesimals during the formation of thesolar system. There they either survivedintact or underwent further processing tosynthesize secondary products on themeteorite parent body.The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceouschondrites, two typesof stony meteorites, is their high carbon content(up to 3% of

OLIVER BOTTAand; Jeffrey L. Bada



Industrial Electrosynthesis of Organic Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochemical methods are beginning to find uses in the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds with a high degree of purity. The processes of electrochemical synthesis in large-tonnage of some monomers are of special interest because of the...

M. Y. Fioshin A. P. Tomilov



Anaerobic treatment of organic chemical wastewater using packed bed reactors.  


The studied organic chemical wastewater had a high COD, 20-45g/L, and low TSS, less than 200 mg/L, making anaerobic bio-filtration a suitable treatment method. The organic matter consisted of alcohols, amines, ketones and aromatic compounds, such as toluene and phenol. Granulated activated carbon (GAC) and a porous stone called tezontle, widely available in Mexico, were used as a bio-film support. Once inoculated, the mesophilic reactors with granulated activated carbon (GAC-BFs) reached stability with 80% COD removal in 40 days, while the reactors with tezontle material (tezontle-BF) required 145 days. Biodegradation of more than 95% was obtained with both support media: at organic loads less than 1.7 kg m(-3) d (-1) in tezontle-BF and with loads of up to 13.3 kg m(-3) d(-1) in GAC-BFs. The bio-filters with GAC allowed COD removal efficiency of 80% at a load as high as 26.3 kg m (-3) d(-1), while the same efficiency with tezontle was obtained at loads up to 4.45 kgm (-3d) (-1). The use of GAC as support material allows greater biodegradation rates than tezontle and it makes the bio-filters more resistant to organic increases, inhibition effects and toxicity. Methanogenic activity was inhibited at loads higher than 1.7 kg m(-3) d(-1) in bio-filters with tezontle and 22.8 kg m(-3) d(-1 ) in bio-filters with GAC. At loads lower than the previously mentioned, high methane production yield was obtained, 0.32-0.35 m(3) CH4/kg COD removed. The biomass growth rates were low in the bio-filters with both kinds of material; however, a sufficiently high biomass holdup was obtained. PMID:17165449

Mijaylova-Nacheva, P; Peña-Loera, B; Cuevas-Velasco, S



Biotreatment of Industrial Wastewaters under Transient-State Conditions: Process Stability with Fluctuations of Organic Load, Substrates, Toxicants, and Environmental Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotreatment of industrial wastewater is often challenged by operation under transient states with respect to organic loads, pollutants, and physical characteristics. Furthermore, the potential presence of inhibitory compounds requires careful monitoring and adequate process design. This review describes difficulties encountered in biological treatment of wastewater with highly variable influent characteristics. Typical design aspects of biological processes are presented and discussed

Jan Sipma; M. Begoña Osuna; Maria A. E. Emanuelsson; Paula M. L. Castro




EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne site incorpo...



EPA Science Inventory

The presence of organic substances of industrial origin in wastewaters, storm runoff and in surface and groundwaters may not always be an unmitigated evil--but, it is safe to say, it never is good. In 1976, EPA was required to give special emphasis to 129 'priority pollutants' th...


Natural versus wastewater derived dissolved organic carbon: implications for the environmental fate of organic micropollutants.  


The interaction of organic micropollutants with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can influence their transport, degradation and bioavailability. While this has been well established for natural organic carbon, very little is known regarding the influence of DOC on the fate of micropollutants during wastewater treatment and water recycling. Dissolved organic carbon-water partition coefficients (K(DOC)) for wastewater derived and reference DOC were measured for a range of micropollutants using a depletion method with polydimethylsiloxane disks. For micropollutants with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(OW)) greater than 4 there was a significant difference in K(DOC) between reference and wastewater derived DOC, with partitioning to wastewater derived DOC over 1000 times lower for the most hydrophobic micropollutants. The interaction of nonylphenol with wastewater derived DOC from different stages of a wastewater and advanced water treatment train was studied, but little difference in K(DOC) was observed. Organic carbon characterisation revealed that reference and wastewater derived DOC had very different properties due to their different origins. Consequently, the reduced sorption capacity of wastewater derived DOC may be related to their microbial origin which led to reduced aromaticity and lower molecular weight. This study suggests that for hydrophobic micropollutants (log K(OW) > 4) a higher concentration of freely dissolved and thus bioavailable micropollutants is expected in the presence of wastewater derived DOC than predicted using K(DOC) values quantified using reference DOC. The implication is that naturally derived DOC may not be an appropriate surrogate for wastewater derived DOC as a matrix for assessing the fate of micropollutants in engineered systems. PMID:21703657

Neale, Peta A; Antony, Alice; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Leslie, Greg; Escher, Beate I



Volatile Organic Compounds in Uremia  

PubMed Central

Background Although “uremic fetor” has long been felt to be diagnostic of renal failure, the compounds exhaled in uremia remain largely unknown so far. The present work investigates whether breath analysis by ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of volatile organic compounds retained in uremia. Methods Breath analysis was performed in 28 adults with an eGFR ?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 26 adults with chronic renal failure corresponding to an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 28 adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after a hemodialysis session. Breath analysis was performed by ion mobility spectrometryafter gas-chromatographic preseparation. Identification of the compounds of interest was performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Breath analyses revealed significant differences in the spectra of patients with and without renal failure. Thirteen compounds were chosen for further evaluation. Some compounds including hydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonia accumulated with decreasing renal function and were eliminated by dialysis. The concentrations of these compounds allowed a significant differentiation between healthy, chronic renal failure with an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min, and ESRD (p<0.05 each). Other compounds including 4-heptanal, 4-heptanone, and 2-heptanone preferentially or exclusively occurred in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion Impairment of renal function induces a characteristic fingerprint of volatile compounds in the breath. The technique of ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of lipophilic uremic retention molecules.

Seifert, Luzia; Slodzinski, Rafael; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.



[Detection of organic compounds on Mars].  


McKay et al. detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Martian meteorite ALH 84001 by two-step laser mass spectrometry. From the presence of PAHs, together with other results, they concluded that there were past life of Mars. On the other hands, no organisms nor organic compounds were detected in Martian regolith in Viking experiments in 1976. In order to obtain solid evidence for organisms or bioorganic compounds compounds on Mars, further analyses of Martian samples are required. There may be four classes of organic compounds on Mars, which are (i) organic compounds abiotically formed from primitive Mars atmosphere, (ii) Organic compounds delivered out of Mars, (iii) Organic compounds biotically formed by Mars organisms, and (iv) Organic compounds abiotically formed from the present Mars atmosphere. Possible organic compounds on Mars and analytical methods for them are discussed. PMID:11540350

Kobayashi, K



A method for determination of the readily fermentable organic fraction in municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to determine the readily fermentable organic fraction in municipal wastewater has been developed. A simple batch procedure was used to measure the VFA potential, i.e. the sum of the volatile fatty acids (VFA) originally present in the wastewater and the amount of VFA that can be formed through fermentation of other organic wastewater constituents. The VFA potential

Ewa Lie; Thomas Welander



A Characterization of Selected Endocrine Disruptor Compounds in a Portuguese Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic compounds that are able to disrupt the endocrine system of wildlife species are a major cause for concern and\\u000a have led to a demand for new screening methods. The identification and quantification of endocrine disruptor compounds at\\u000a wastewater treatment plant is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of wastewater treatment plant discharges\\u000a into the environment. This study

R. MaurÍcio; M. Diniz; M. Petrovic; L. Amaral; I. Peres; D. Barceló; F. Santana



Biological removal of organic constituents in high-Btu coal gasification wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Studies have been initiated to assess the efficiency of activated sludge treatment for removal of organic contaminants from coal gasification process effluents. Samples of pilot plant raw gas quench wastewater were obtained from the Institute of Gas Technology's HYGAS process and from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center (GFETC) slagging fixed-bed process. These wastewaters were subjected to long term biological treatability studies, followed by detailed characterization of organic constituents. The samples were extracted using a methylene chloride pH-fractionation method to neutral, acidic, and basic fractions for analysis by capillary column gas chromotography/mass spectrometry. Influent acid extract samples of both HYGAS and GFETC wastewaters showed that nearly 99% of the total extractable and chromatographable organic material was comprised of phenol and alkylated phenols. Activated sludge treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Influent base extracts of HYGAS and GFETC samples showed alkylated pyridines, anilines, and quinolines; the GFETC sample also showed, as major components, aminopyrroles, imidazoles and/or pyrazoles, and diazines. Removal efficiency of these compounds was generally good, with the exception of certain alkylated pyridines. The influent neutral fractions of both the HYGAS and GFETC samples were comprised of cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, naphthalene, indole, acetophenone, and benzonitrile. Alkylated benzenes, abundant in the HYGAS sample, were generally absent in the GFETC sample. Removal efficiencies for certain alkylated benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes were poor, especially at low influent concentrations.

Stamoudis, V.C.; Luthy, R.G.



Studies on electrochemical treatment of wastewater contaminated with organotin compounds.  


Different anode materials were tested to evaluate their suitability to eliminate organotin compounds electrochemically from shipyard process waters. The capacity of two types of anode materials was investigated: niobium coated with boron-doped diamond (BDD) and titanium coated with iridium dioxide, (Ti/IrO(2)). The aim of this work was to characterize the performance of the process using both anode materials at different current densities, and also to evaluate the generation of by-products. A further objective of this work was to evaluate if operating at low potentials with BDD anodes (to avoid the generation of elemental oxygen) the consumption of energy for degradation of pollutants could be minimized. The processes were tested on synthetic and real shipyard water containing approximately 25,000ngL(-1) of tributyltin (TBT) (as Sn) and 5,000ngL(-1) dibutyltin. The range of current densities was between 6 and 70mAcm(-2). The results showed that electrochemical treatment is suitable to eliminate organotins down to very low concentrations following a stepwise debutylation mechanism. Both anode materials exhibited a similar performance with energy consumption in the range of 7-10kWhm(-3) in order to decrease organotins down to 100ngL(-1) (as Sn). For the water composition tested, BDD did not outperform Ti/IrO(2) as initially expected, most probably because organotins were not only oxidized by OH, but also by active chlorine compounds generated by the oxidation of chloride present in the wastewater (1.6gL(-1), Cl(-)) with both anode materials. It was also found that the residual oxidants remaining in the treated effluent had to be eliminated if the water is to be discharged safely in the aquatic environment. PMID:17521806

Arevalo, Eduardo; Calmano, Wolfgang



Calcium Sulfate Solubility in Organic-Laden Wastewater. Progress Report, September 1981-December 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the solubility of calcium sulfate in wastewaters, and to examine the effect of organic constituents in wastewater and in synthetic waters on calcium sulfate solubility. The study entailed both laboratory ...

I. Banz R. G. Luthy



Bioassay-directed identification of novel antiandrogenic compounds in bile of fish exposed to wastewater effluents.  


The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some UK Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTWs) has been associated with exposure to estrogenic and potentially antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in the effluents. In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in WwTW effluents and fish was conducted using HPLC in combination with in vitro androgen receptor transcription screens. Analysis of extracts of wastewater effluents revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 21-53 HPLC fractions. Structures of bioavailable antiandrogens were identified by exposing rainbow trout to a WwTW effluent and profiling the bile for AA activity using yeast (anti-YAS) and mammalian-based (AR-CALUX) androgen receptor transcription screens. The predominant fractions with AA activity in both androgen receptor screens contained the germicides chlorophene and triclosan, and together these contaminants accounted for 51% of the total anti-YAS activity in the fish bile. Other AA compounds identified in bile included chloroxylenol, dichlorophene, resin acids, napthols, oxybenzone, 4-nonylphenol, and bisphenol A. Pure standards of these compounds were active in the androgen receptor screens at potencies relative to flutamide of between 0.1 and 13.0. Thus, we have identified, for the first time, a diverse range of AA chemicals in WwTWs that are bioavailable to fish and which need to be assessed for their risk to the reproductive health of these organisms and other aquatic biota. PMID:22047186

Rostkowski, Pawel; Horwood, Julia; Shears, Janice A; Lange, Anke; Oladapo, Francis O; Besselink, Harrie T; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M



Volatile chlorinated organic compound levels in rain water from Kobe City in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution by volatile chlorinated organic compounds has become a serious environmental problem. The Environmental Agency of Japan has defined the regulations on trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride in wastewater in 1989. In order to protect against water pollution, it is important to keep concentrations in these compounds in environmental water as low as possible. Therefore, the determination of

Atsuko Adachi; Tadashi Kobayashi



Low volatile organic compound paints  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent air emission standards in various states has dictated the elimination of engineering finishes which are derived from high volatile organic compound (VOC) paint chemistries. In July 1989, Allied-Signal, Inc., Kansas City Division, Kansas City, Missouri, voluntarily closed its paint facility, due to non-compliance with local air emission standards. The following details the materials selection and evaluations which led to current processing using low VOC paints, which permitted the Allied Signal, Inc., paint facility to achieve compliance and resume operations. 1 tab.

Martinez, F.E.



Electroreduction of Halogenated Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroreductive cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond in halogenated organic compounds has been extensively studied for more than 70 years, since it is prodromal to a large variety of synthetic applications in organic electrochemistry. Over the years the research interest have progressively included the environmental applications, since several organic halocompounds are known to have (or have had) a serious environmental impact because of their (present or past) wide use as cleaning agents, herbicides, cryogenic fluids, reagents (e.g. allyl and vinyl monomers) for large production materials, etc. Recent studies have also demonstrated the wide spread out- and in-door-presence of volatile organic halides, although at low level, in connexion with residential and non-residential (e.g. stores, restaurants and transportation) activities. In this context, the detoxification of emissions to air, water and land by the selective removal of the halogen group represents a valid treatment route, which, although not leading to the complete mineralization of the pollutants, produces less harmful streams to be easily treated by electrochemical or conventional techniques. The electroreduction process is analysed and discussed in terms of electrode material, reaction medium, cell design and operation, and of substrate classification.

Rondinini, Sandra; Vertova, Alberto


Production of PHA from starchy wastewater via organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was produced from a starchy wastewater in a two-step process of microbial acidogenesis and acid polymerization. The starchy organic waste was first digested in a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to form acetic (60–80%), propionic (10–30%) and butyric (5–40%) acids. The total volatile fatty acids reached 4000 mg l?1 at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading

Jian Yu



Importance of Electrode Material in the Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical oxidation is a promising method for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds. As a general rule, the electrochemical incineration of organics at a given electrode can take place at satisfactory rates and without electrode deactivation only at high anodic potentials in the region of the water discharge due to the participation of the intermediates of oxygen evolution. The nature of the electrode material strongly influences both the selectivity and the efficiency of the process. In particular, anodes with low oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., good catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as graphite, IrO2, RuO2, and Pt only permit the partial oxidation of organics, while anodes with high oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., anodes that are poor catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as SnO2, PbO2, and boron-doped diamond (BDD) favor the complete oxidation of organics to CO2 and so are ideal electrodes for wastewater treatment.However, the application of SnO2 and PbO2 anodes may be limited by their short service life and the risk of lead contamination, while BDD electrodes exhibit good chemical and electrochemical stability, a long life, and a wide potential window for water discharge, and are thus promising anodes for industrial-scale wastewater treatment.

Panizza, Marco



EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory and pilot-scale studies were undertaken to develop economically feasible technologies for the treatment of wastewaters from wood preserving operations. Of prime concern was the removal of phenol and its chlorinated derivatives, in particular, pentachlorophenol. Screeni...


Catalytic ozonation-biological coupled processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing refractory chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds*  

PubMed Central

A treatability study of industrial wastewater containing chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs) by a catalytic ozonation process (COP) with a modified Mn/Co ceramic catalyst and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. A preliminary attempt to treat the diluted wastewater with a single SBR resulted in ineffective removal of the color, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Next, COP was applied as a pretreatment in order to obtain a bio-compatible wastewater for SBR treatment in a second step. The effectiveness of the COP pretreatment was assessed by evaluating wastewater biodegradability enhancement (the ratio of biology oxygen demand after 5 d (BOD5) to COD), as well as monitoring the evolution of TOC, carbon oxidation state (COS), average oxidation state (AOS), color, and major pollutant concentrations with reaction time. In the COP, the catalyst preserved its catalytic properties even after 70 reuse cycles, exhibiting good durability and stability. The performance of SBR to treat COP effluent was also examined. At an organic loading rate of 2.0 kg COD/(m3·d), with hydraulic retention time (HRT)=10 h and temperature (30±2) °C, the average removal efficiencies of NH3-N, COD, BOD5, TOC, and color in a coupled COP/SBR process were about 80%, 95.8%, 93.8%, 97.6% and 99.3%, respectively, with average effluent concentrations of 10 mg/L, 128 mg/L, 27.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L, and 20 multiples, respectively, which were all consistent with the national standards for secondary discharge of industrial wastewater into a public sewerage system (GB 8978-1996). The results indicated that the coupling of COP with a biological process was proved to be a technically and economically effective method for treating industrial wastewater containing recalcitrant CNACs.

Li, Bing-zhi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang



Rejection of organic micropollutants (disinfection by-products, endocrine disrupting compounds, and pharmaceutically active compounds) by NF\\/RO membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing demand on water resources has increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse, in which rejection of organic micropollutants such as disinfection by-products (DBPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) is of great concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the rejection of DBPs, EDCs, and PhACs by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis

Katsuki Kimura; Gary Amy; Jörg E. Drewes; Thomas Heberer; Tae-Uk Kim; Yoshimasa Watanabe



Anoxic transformations of wastewater organic matter in sewers - process kinetics, model concept and wastewater treatment potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sewer is an integral part of the urban wastewater system: the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant and the local receiving waters. The sewer is a reactor for microbial changes of the wastewater during transport, affecting the quality of the wastewater and thereby the successive treatment processes or receiving water impacts during combined sewer overflows. This paper presents the results

S. Abdul-Talib; T. Hvitved-Jacobsen; J. Vollertsen; Z. Ujang



Reduction in toxicity of organic priority pollutants by pilot-scale conventional wastewater treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static acute toxicity tests with fathead minnows,Daphnia magna, and rainbow trout were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a pilot-scale conventional wastewater treatment system in detoxifying a raw municipal wastewater that continuously received a mixture of 22 organic priority pollutants. Wastewater from the City of Cincinnati (Ohio) was added to two parallel pilot-scale (control and experimental) conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment

William B. Horning; Ernest L. Robinson; Albert C. Petrasek



Endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in Northern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a sewage treatment plant and two industrial wastewater treatment plants from textile and tannery factories were investigated. EDCs of interest are 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, their ethoxylate oligomers (mono- and di-ethoxylates of nonylphenol and octylphenol), bisphenol A, triclosan and steroid estrogens. Target compounds were determined in dissolved fraction, total suspended solids and

Paraskevi Pothitou; Dimitra Voutsa



Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of organic compounds in bottled waters available in the Greek market and their fate when the representative samples exposed at different conditions were the main purposes of this study. The determination of the organic compounds was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. Disinfection by-products compounds, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), were detected at low concentrations

Stavroula V. Leivadara; Anastasia D. Nikolaou; Themistokles D. Lekkas



Organic compounds in municipal landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachates from three municipal landfills in the Göteborg area of western Sweden were characterised in terms of their content of individual organic compounds. Two of the investigated landfills were still in use during the time of this study. The third landfill was closed down in the mid-seventies. More than 200 individual organic compounds and classes of compounds were identified in

N. Paxéus



Hazardous organic compounds in groundwater near Tehran automobile industry.  


Potential of groundwater contamination by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds VOCs near car industry was conducted in this study. TCE, PCE, toluene, xylene, dichloromethane, cyclohexane, n-hexane and n-pentane were detected in all groundwaters. Mean TCE levels in groundwater ranged from 124.37 to 1,035.9 ?g L?¹ with maximum level of 1,345.7 ?g L?¹. Due to the data obtained from conventional wastewater treatment in car factory the TCE removal efficiency was only 24 percent which necessitates the TCE removal by advanced treatment processes before the use of well water. PMID:21069286

Dobaradaran, Sina; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Naddafi, Kazem; Yunesian, Masoud; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh



Process for removing an organic compound from water  


A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Kamaruddin, Henky D. (San Francisco, CA)



Factors affecting the removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater in conventional treatment plants (CTP) and membrane bioreactors (MBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of insufficient removal during treatment of wastewater released from industry and households, different classes\\u000a of organic micropollutants are nowadays detected in surface and drinking water. Among these micropollutants, bioactive substances,\\u000a e.g., endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals, have been incriminated in negative effects on living organisms in\\u000a aquatic biotope. Much research was done in the last years on

Magdalena Cirja; Pavel Ivashechkin; Andreas Schäffer; Philippe F. X. Corvini



Solute transport model for trace organic neutral and charged compounds through nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rejection of trace organic compounds, including disinfection by-products (DBPs) and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), by high-pressure membranes has become a focus of public interest internationally in both drinking water treatment and wastewater reclamation\\/reuse. The ability to simulate, or even predict, the rejection of these compounds by high-pressure membranes, encompassing nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), will improve process economics and

Tae-Uk Kim; Jörg E. Drewes; R. Scott Summers; Gary L. Amy



High-Performance Anaerobic Granulation Processes for Treatment of Wastewater-Containing Recalcitrant Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the persistent and recalcitrant organic chemicals found in a wide variety of industrial wastewaters are potentially toxic to human beings and microorganisms. Such organics have been listed as priority pollutants. Because of their stable structures, and to these is added the possibility of a highly oxidized state, such organics are typically not easily degraded under aerobic conditions. This

A. M. Maszenan; Yu Liu; Wun Jern Ng



Phototransformation of wastewater-derived trace organic contaminants in open-water unit process treatment wetlands.  


Open-water cells in unit process treatment wetlands can be used to exploit sunlight photolysis to remove trace organic contaminants from municipal wastewater effluent. To assess the performance of these novel systems, a photochemical model was calibrated using measured photolysis rates for atenolol, carbamazepine, propranolol, and sulfamethoxazole in wetland water under representative conditions. Contaminant transformation by hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) and carbonate radical ((•)CO3(-)) were predicted from steady-state radical concentrations measured at pH values between 8 and 10. Direct photolysis rates and the effects of light screening by dissolved organic matter on photolysis rates were estimated using solar irradiance data, contaminant quantum yields, and light screening factors. The model was applied to predict the land area required for 90% removal of a suite of wastewater-derived organic contaminants by sunlight-induced reactions under a variety of conditions. Results suggest that during summer, open-water cells that receive a million gallons of water per day (i.e., about 4.4 × 10(-2) m(3) s(-1)) of nitrified wastewater effluent can achieve 90% removal of most compounds in an area of about 15 ha. Transformation rates were strongly affected by pH, with some compounds exhibiting faster transformation rates under the high pH conditions associated with photosynthetic algae at the sediment-water interface and other contaminants exhibiting faster transformation rates at the circumneutral pH values characteristic of algae-free cells. Lower dissolved organic carbon concentrations typically resulted in increased transformation rates. PMID:23470043

Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L



Gallic acid photochemical oxidation as a model compound of winery wastewaters.  


Winery wastewaters (WW) are characterized by their high organic load and by the presence of non-biodegradable compounds such as phenolic compounds. This study was undertaken to evaluate the capacity of different Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) combined with several radiation sources to degrade the phenolic compound Gallic Acid (GA). A toxicological assessment was also carried out to evaluate the subproduct's harmful effect generated during the most efficient AOP in the GA photoxidation. Through the course of the study it was verified that the UV radiation lamp TNN 15/32 showed the capacity to degrade 34.7% of GA, the UV radiation lamp TQ 150 achieved a value of 20.2% and the solar radiation presented only a value of 2.3% in 60 minutes. The combination of different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton's reagent, ferrioxalate and heterogeneous photocatalysis) were evaluated with the previously studied sources of radiation. From the experiments conducted it was possible to suggest that the AOP in combination with Fe(2 +) + H(2)O(2) + UV TNN 15/32 (photo-Fenton process) was the most efficient process thereby achieving the GA degradation value of 95.6% in 7.5 minutes and resulting in a total elimination of toxicity. PMID:18642152

Lucas, Marco S; Dias, Albino A; Bezerra, Rui M; Peres, Jose A



Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics found in caves and surface-water sites included brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides (chlordane and nonachlor), and polychlorinated biphenyls. The placement of samplers in the caves (near the cave mouth compared to farther in the system) might have influenced the number of halogenated organics detected due to possible aerial transport of residues. Guano from cave-dwelling bats also might have been a source of some of these chlorinated organics. Seven-day survival and growth bioassays with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to samples of cave water indicated initial toxicity in water from two of the caves, but these effects were transient, with no toxicity observed in follow-up tests. ??Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

Bidwell, J. R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M. T.



Wastewater disinfection and organic matter removal using ferrate (VI) oxidation.  


The use of iron in a +6 valence state, (Fe (VI), as FeO4(-2)) was tested as a novel alternative for wastewater disinfection and decontamination. The removal of organic matter (OM) and index microorganisms present in an effluent of a wastewater plant was determined using FeO4(-2) without any pH adjustment. It was observed that concentrations of FeO4(-2) ranging between 5 and 14 mg l(-1) inactivated up to 4-log of the index microorganisms (initial concentration c.a. 10(6) CFU/100 ml) and achieved OM removal up to almost 50%. The performance of FeO4(-2) was compared with OM oxidation and disinfection using hypochlorite. It was observed that hypochlorite was less effective in OM oxidation and coliform inactivation than ferrate. Results of this work suggest that FeO4(-2) could be an interesting oxidant able to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms in water with high OM content and readily oxidize organic matter without jeopardizing its efficiency on microorganism inactivation. PMID:19491501

Bandala, Erick R; Miranda, Jocelyn; Beltran, Margarita; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo; Torres, Luis G



Biodegradation of phenolic compounds from coking wastewater by immobilized white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  


A white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, immobilized with the wood chips of Italian poplar, was employed for biodegradation of phenolic compounds in coking wastewater. The immobilized fungus, dried by vacuum freeze desiccator, was kept high activity after a 9-month preservation and easy to be activated and domesticated. The removal rates of phenolic compounds and COD by immobilized fungus were 87.05% and 72.09% in 6 days, which were obviously higher than that by free fungus. For phenolic compounds biodegradation, a pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 and a temperature ranging from 28 degrees C to 37 degrees C create suitable conditions, and optimum 5.0 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The optimum removal rate of phenolic compounds was over 84% and COD was 80% in 3 days. And the biodegradation of phenolic compounds followed the first-order kinetics. It is an efficient and convenient method for coking wastewater treatment. PMID:19062164

Lu, Yong; Yan, Lianhe; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Shenfan; Fu, Jiajun; Zhang, Jianfa



Endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in Northern Greece.  


The occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a sewage treatment plant and two industrial wastewater treatment plants from textile and tannery factories were investigated. EDCs of interest are 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, their ethoxylate oligomers (mono- and di-ethoxylates of nonylphenol and octylphenol), bisphenol A, triclosan and steroid estrogens. Target compounds were determined in dissolved fraction, total suspended solids and sludge by employing solid phase extraction and ultrasonication followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonylphenols and oligomers with one or two ethoxy groups were the most abundant compounds in raw wastewater as well as in effluents from all the treatment stages of sewage treatment plant, followed by triclosan and bisphenol A. Steroids were found at very low concentrations. Almost all phenolic EDCs compounds were predominantly associated to suspended solids in influents whereas the dissolved fraction dominated the treated effluents. High removal rates, ranging from 86% to 99%, were observed throughout the whole treatment process. Biodegradation was the main removal pathway of EDCs. Tannery wastewaters exhibited high concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds. This type of wastewaters could pose a significant risk to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. PMID:18954890

Pothitou, Paraskevi; Voutsa, Dimitra



Seasonal variation of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants.  


The occurrence of 14 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in influents, effluents and sludge from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southern California was studied in winter and summer. All 14 compounds were detected in influent samples from the five WWTPs except for estrone. Paracetamol, naproxen and ibuprofen were the dominant compounds, with mean concentrations of 41.7, 35.7 and 22.3 ?g/L, respectively. The treatment removal efficiency for most compounds was more than 90% and concentrations in the effluents were relatively low. Seasonal variation of the compounds' concentration in the wastewater was significant: the total concentration of each compound in the wastewater was higher in winter than in summer, which is attributed to more human consumption of pharmaceuticals during winter and faster degradation of the compounds in summer. The highest concentrations of triclosan and octylphenol were detected in sewage sludge, with mean concentrations of 1505 and 1179 ng/g, respectively. Risk quotients (RQs), expressed as the ratios of environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), were less than unity for all the compounds except for estrone in the effluents, indicating no immediate ecological risk is expected. However, RQs were higher than unity for 2 EDCs (estrone and octylphenol) and carbamazepine in sludge samples, indicating a significant ecotoxicological risk to human health. Therefore, appropriate treatment of sewage sludge is required before its application. PMID:23178835

Yu, Yong; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C



Toxicities of “excessively” chlorinated organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now recognized that chlorine can combine with a large variety of organics present in waste waters to form stable organochlorinated compounds (JOLLEY 1973). Moreover, the possible entry of these stable organochlorines into supplies of drinking water has prompted the monitoring of these compounds in many localities (EPA 1974, HARRIS 1974). JOLLEY (1973) identified seventeen stable organochlorine compounds in

Bernice M. Katz; Glenn M. Cohen




EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their fate on land, and available con...


Degradation of Organic Contaminant by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Immersed in Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was applied to the degradation of an organic contaminant in wastewater. When electrical discharge occurs, the DBD reactor produces oxidative species (ozone) and emits ultraviolet light. For the purpose of using both ozone and ultraviolet light for the degradation of the organic contaminant, the DBD reactor was immersed in the wastewater. The DBD reactor for this

Young Sun Mok; Jin-Oh Jo



Dissolved organics in tannery wastewaters and their alteration by a combined anaerobic and aerobic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolved organic load of tannery wastewater and of the effluents of an anaerobic and aerobic treatment were investigated over a 2 yr period. The average dissolved organic carbon content (DOC) of raw wastewater is 900 mg 1?1, corresponding to a discharge of 23 kg DOC t?1 raw hide. The two step biological treatment removes an average 85% of the

Thorsten Reemtsma; Martin Jekel



Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Emerging Organic Pollutants in Water and Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast number of persistent organic pollutants have been found in wastewater effluent, surface water, and drinking water around the world. This indicates their ineffective removal from water and wastewater using conventional treatment technologies. In addition to classical persistent organics such as organochlorine insecticides, solvents, and polychlorinated biphenyls, a growing number of emerging pollutants of both synthetic and natural origins

Keisuke Ikehata; Mohamed Gamal El-Din; Shane A. Snyder



Organics removal and protein recovery from wastewater discharged during the production of chondroitin sulfate.  


Bentonite, chitosan and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were applied to treat wastewater discharged during the production of chondroitin sulfate and recover protein dissolved in the wastewater. The results showed that the combination of pH 9.00, 3-4 mL chitosan solution, 2 g of bentonite and 5 mL of 8% PAC solution per 100 mL of wastewater with a 4.0 h flocculation time were the optimal conditions for the recovery of protein and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) from wastewater. A pilot-scale test also was conducted, and 130 kg (dry weight) of sediment was obtained from 1.1 m(3) of discharged wastewater. This sediment contained abundant amino acids (proteins comprised 61% of the total sediment), after the recovery of protein, the dissolved TOC concentration in wastewater was decreased by approximately 80% and the residual wastewater could be readily disposed using a traditional activated sludge process. PMID:24135108

Sheng, Yanqing; Xing, Li



Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewaters: Removal of phenolic compounds and decolourization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) characterized by their dark brown colour and their very high content of phenolic compounds constitute an environmental concern, particularly in Mediterranean countries where the production of olive oil is important. In this investigation, OMW were electrolyzed at platinized expanded titanium electrodes in a modified Grignard reactor divided into two cylindrical compartments separated by a cation-exchange membrane.

Chokri Belaid; Monem Kallel; Moncef Khadhraou; Gérard Lalleve; Boubaker Elleuch; Jean-François Fauvarque



Role of Pycnoporus coccineus laccase in the degradation of aromatic compounds in olive oil mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work was reported the ability of Pycnoporus coccineus to decolorize olive oil mill wastewaters (OOMW) without an additional carbon source. We studied the composition of the enzymatic system involved in the process. The fungus secreted only laccase under the different culture conditions studied even in presence of compounds promoting the production of peroxidases. The highest laccase levels

Atef Jaouani; Francisco Guillén; Michel J. Penninckx; Angel T. Martínez; María Jesús Martínez



Application of Ozone Involving Advanced Oxidation Processes to Remove Some Pharmaceutical Compounds from Urban Wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different UVA radiation and advanced oxidation systems, most of them involving ozone, have been applied to remove mixtures of three contaminants of pharmaceutical type: diclofenac (DCF), sulfamethoxazole (SMT) and caffeine (CFF), both in ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater. The influence of the water matrix has been studied in terms of individual compound concentration and TOC removal. Also, biodegradability of the

Fernando J. Beltrán; Almudena Aguinaco; Juan F. García-Araya



Generation of endocrine disruptor compounds during ozone treatment of tannery wastewater confirmed by biological effect analysis and substance specific analysis.  


Ozone (O3) with its high oxidation potential was used to degrade or eliminate pollutants contained in tannery wastewater when applying different pHs and quantities of O3. Our objective was a chemical degradation by O3 to achieve an enhancement of biodegradability, with a parallel decrease in toxicity. Conventional analyses and bioassays beside substance specific analyses were performed to clear-up the behaviour of wastewater content from tanning process. The results demonstrate that the dominant organic pollutants were chemically degraded by oxidation as the chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD) prove, while changes in carbon content monitored by total or dissolved organic carbon content (TOC or DOC) were only marginal. Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna toxicity testing performed in parallel proved a decrease in toxicity after O3-treatment, while the estrogenic activity determined by enzyme-linked receptor assay (ELRA), however, proved an increase of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC). Results could be explained by substance-specific analyses using gas chromatography (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). From GC-MS analysis the elimination of non-polar compounds could be recognized, whereas the oxidative conversion led to an increase of EDC compounds, which qualitatively could be identified by LC-MS as nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) degradation products: short chain NPEOs, nonylphenol carboxylates (NPECs) and nonylphenol (NP). PMID:19151483

Schrank, S G; Bieling, U; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M; Schröder, H Fr




EPA Science Inventory

The development of elaborate industrial societies has led to proliferation of a vast number of complex chemicals for industrial, agricultural and domestic use. Some portion of these compounds eventually find their way into municipal and industrial wastewater. Unless specifically ...


Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools.  


Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts: (1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes. This investigation deals with these two aspects, an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under platinized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination. The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution. Indeed, 87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation. Moreover, 55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced. On the other hand, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW. It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Grignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW. Among the monitoring analytical tools applied, cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR a re among th e techniques that are introduced for thefirst time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance. PMID:23586318

Belaid, Chokri; Khadraoui, Moncef; Mseddii, Salma; Kallel, Monem; Elleuch, Boubaker; Fauvarque, Jean Frangois



Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.  


In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant compounds. Recent developments in designing recombinant microorganisms and hybrid metabolic pathways are discussed. PMID:2030673

Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S



Biological nitrogen and organic matter removal from tannery wastewater in pilot plant operations in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to set-up a pilot plant and to evaluate its effectiveness for biological nitrogen and organic matter removal from tannery wastewater in Ethiopia. A pilot wastewater treatment plant consisting of a predenitrification-nitrification process was constructed and operated for 6 months. This was fed with a raw tannery wastewater obtained from the Modjo Tannery located 70 km south

S. Leta; F. Assefa; L. Gumaelius; G. Dalhammar



Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved system is described for reproducibly analyzing, both qualitatively and quantitatively, trace amounts of a large number of organic volatiles existing in a gas sample. Applications include: (1) analyzing the headspace gas of body fluids and comp...

A. Zlatkis



Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier




EPA Science Inventory

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined...



EPA Science Inventory

Techniques available to remediate ground water contaminated with organic compounds. These include physical containment, in situ treatment with chemicals or microbes, and withdrawal and treatment via various forms of physical, chemical, or biological processes. (Copyright (c) CRC ...



EPA Science Inventory

A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...



EPA Science Inventory

This study was initiated for the purpose of compiling a list of all organic compounds that have been found in water. This report contains the names of compounds found, their location or a reference to a published study, the type of water in which they are found, and the date of s...


Organic compounds passage through RO membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic solute permeation, sorption, and rejection by reverse osmosis membranes, from aqueous solutions, were studied experimentally and via artificial neural networks (ANN)-based quantitative structure–property relations (QSPR), for a set of fifty organic compounds for polyamide and cellulose acetate membranes. Membrane solute sorption and passage for dead-end filtration model experiments were quantified based on radioactivity measurements for radiolabeled compounds in the

Dan Libotean; Jaume Giralt; Robert Rallo; Yoram Cohen; Francesc Giralt; Harry F. Ridgway; Grisel Rodriguez; Don Phipps



Organic Compounds used in Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport patterns and potential direct or indirect effects on the environment or even on human health of agents used\\u000a in aquaculture like antibiotics, triphenylmethane dyes and hormones used to modify sex ratios have barely been defined. Even\\u000a at trace levels, hormones may influence the endocrine systems of non-target organisms due to their high biological low-dose\\u000a activity. Antibiotics are often

Thomas Heberer


Organic mercury compounds and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on in vitro studies and short-term in vivo studies, all mercurials were for a long time considered as prototypic immunosuppressive substances. Recent studies have confirmed that organic mercurials such as methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl mercury (EtHg) are much more potent immunosuppressors than inorganic mercury (Hg). However, Hg interacts with the immune system in the presence of a susceptible

Said Havarinasab; Per Hultman



Multiphase ozonolysis of organics in wastewater by a novel membrane reactor  

SciTech Connect

Conventional ozonation of recalcitrant organic compounds in wastewater suffers from low transfer rate of ozone into water. The low transfer rate can be enhanced by adding an inert fluorocarbon (FC) liquid immiscible with water but having a much higher solubility for ozone. A novel membrane reactor was studied for the destruction of organic pollutants by using FC liquid simultaneously as a reaction medium and a liquid membrane. The membrane reactor consisted of two sets of microporous and/or non-porous hollow-fiber membranes well-mixed in a cylindrical shell filled with the inert FC liquid. Wastewater was allowed to flow through the lumen of one set of microporous fibers; O{sub 3}-containing gas flowed through the bore of the other set. Oxidative degradation products get partitioned back into the two mobile phases. Degradation of such pollutants as phenol, acrylonitrile, nitrobenzene, trichloroethylene, and toluene in such a reactor is presented. The kinetics of degradation of each pollutant in the two-phase (aqueous-FC) system were studied using batch and semibatch experiments. Simulation results based on a first-order model to predict the behavior of pollutant degradation in such a membrane reactor are compared with experimental data.

Guha, A.K.; Shanbhag, V.; Sirkar, K.K. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Environmental Science; Vaccari, D.A.; Trivedi, D.H. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States)



Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Wastewater Organic Matter from a Biological Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic and chromatographic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics of influent and treated sewage were investigated for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with a biological advanced process. Refractory DOM (R-DOM) was defined as the dissolved organic carbon concentrations of the samples after 28-day incubation for this study. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA), hydrophobicity, synchronous fluorescence spectra and molecular weight (MW) distributions were selected as DOM characteristics. The percent distribution of R-DOM for the effluent was much higher than that of the influent, indicating that biodegradable DOM was selectively removed during the process. Comparison of the influent versus the effluent sewage revealed that SUVA, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF), humic-like fluorescence (HLF), the apparent MW values were enhanced during the treatment. This suggests that more aromatic and humic-like compounds were enriched during the biological process. No significant difference in the DOM characteristics was observed between the original effluent (i.e., prior to the incubation) and the influent sewage after the incubation. This result suggests that the major changes in wastewater DOM characteristics occurring during the biological advanced process were similar to those for simple microbial incubation.

Park, Min-Hye; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Bo-Mi; Hur, Jin; Park, Dae-Hee



Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  


Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.



EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.  


In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium. PMID:24091184

Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M



Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), ??-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kolpin, D. W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M. T.; Furlong, E. T.; Zaugg, S. D.



Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions.  


During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200,000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), beta-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. PMID:15207578

Kolpin, Dana W; Skopec, Mary; Meyer, Michael T; Furlong, Edward T; Zaugg, Steven D



Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic

Charles J. Weschler; William W. Nazaroff



Influence of residual organic macromolecules produced in biological wastewater treatment processes on removal of pharmaceuticals by NF\\/RO membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been given to pollution of the water environment by pharmaceutical compounds discharged from wastewater treatment plants. High-pressure driven membranes such as a nanofiltration (NF) membrane and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane are considered to be effective for control of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment. In practical applications of NF\\/RO membranes to municipal wastewater treatment, feed water for the

Katsuki Kimura; Tomonori Iwase; Shusuke Kita; Yoshimasa Watanabe



Microbial dynamics in an extractive membrane bioreactor exposed to an alternating sequence of organic compounds.  


Wastewaters containing organic compounds have been treated using extractive membrane bioreactors (EMBs). During treatment, a biofilm normally develops on the surface of the membrane, on the biological side. This study investigates the dynamics of biofilm growth in an EMB exposed to an alternating sequence of organic compounds. Microbial dynamics of both suspended and attached cultures were investigated experimentally in a single-tube extractive membrane bioreactor (STEMB), which comprised a continuous stirred-tank bioreactor (CSTB) coupled to eight single-tube extractive membrane modules (STEMMs) via a recirculating biomedium. A model microbial culture consisting of a Burkholderia sp. strain JS150 (ATCC No. 51283), able to degrade monochlorobenzene, and a Xanthobacter autotrophicus sp. strain GJ10 (ATCC No. 43050), able to degrade 1, 2-dichloroethane, was used. Both microbial strains exhibited exclusive degradative capabilities. The CSTB was monitored by quantification of individual strains and by product and organic compound evolution. To investigate the biofilm growth dynamics, eight STEMMs were run in parallel with the same operating conditions. Every week, STEMMs were stopped for biofilm analysis and the organic compound in the wastewater was changed. Biofilm growth was investigated by quantification of individual strains, by evaluation of the overall biofilm growth, and by microscopic analysis. A biofilm composed of both strains was developed and maintained during the whole experiment in the STEMMs. The biofilm that developed on the membrane improved the response of the system to changes in the wastewater. PMID:10992235

Ferreira Jorge, R M; Livingston, A G



Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in hospital effluents and their contribution to wastewater treatment works  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of almost 40 pharmaceuticals; including antidepressants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, analgesics, hypolipidemics, ?- and ?-blockers, an anti cancer drug, anti-fungal agents, an opiate, an antibiotic, an anti-coagulant, a diuretic, an anti-anginal and an anti-diabetic compound. This was used to assess the contribution of pharmaceuticals originating from hospital effluents to one of Oslo city's wastewater

Katherine H. Langford; Kevin V. Thomas



Removal of phenolic compounds present in olive mill wastewaters by ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to study a pre-treatment process of olive mill wastewaters based on ozonation. The efficiency of the process depends on the removal of pollutants and on ozone mass transfer performance. In order to choose an appropriate gas\\/liquid contactor, the rate constants of three phenolic compounds (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid) were determined by

Olivier Chedeville; Marie Debacq; Catherine Porte



Studies on electrochemical treatment of wastewater contaminated with organotin compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different anode materials were tested to evaluate their suitability to eliminate organotin compounds electrochemically from shipyard process waters. The capacity of two types of anode materials was investigated: niobium coated with boron-doped diamond (BDD) and titanium coated with iridium dioxide, (Ti\\/IrO2). The aim of this work was to characterize the performance of the process using both anode materials at different

Eduardo Arevalo; Wolfgang Calmano




EPA Science Inventory

Trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants have been determined in the surface waters of Europe and the United States. A preliminary report of substantially higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sediment suggests that bottom sediment ...


Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.  


A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. PMID:23886540

Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin



Persistence and Potential Effects of Complex Organic Contaminant Mixtures in Wastewater-Impacted Streams.  


Natural and synthetic organic contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can cause ecosystem impacts, raising concerns about their persistence in receiving streams. In this study, Lagrangian sampling, in which the same approximate parcel of water is tracked as it moves downstream, was conducted at Boulder Creek, Colorado and Fourmile Creek, Iowa to determine in-stream transport and attenuation of organic contaminants discharged from two secondary WWTPs. Similar stream reaches were evaluated, and samples were collected at multiple sites during summer and spring hydrologic conditions. Travel times to the most downstream (7.4 km) site in Boulder Creek were 6.2 h during the summer and 9.3 h during the spring, and to the Fourmile Creek 8.4 km downstream site times were 18 and 8.8 h, respectively. Discharge was measured at each site, and integrated composite samples were collected and analyzed for >200 organic contaminants including metal complexing agents, nonionic surfactant degradates, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and pesticides. The highest concentration (>100 ?g L(-1)) compounds detected in both WWTP effluents were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylate oligomers, both of which persisted for at least 7 km downstream from the WWTPs. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals were lower (<1 ?g L(-1)), and several compounds, including carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole, were detected throughout the study reaches. After accounting for in-stream dilution, a complex mixture of contaminants showed little attenuation and was persistent in the receiving streams at concentrations with potential ecosystem implications. PMID:23398602

Barber, Larry B; Keefe, Steffanie H; Brown, Greg K; Furlong, Edward T; Gray, James L; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Sandstrom, Mark W; Zaugg, Steven D



Improving the Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants with Ozonation during Biological Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-ozonation is often used to enhance the biodegradability of recalcitrant compounds prior to biological treatment of wastewater. A usual shortcoming of such an approach is wasting ozone on other compounds that are already biodegradable. This research followed a groundbreaking approach of degrading a recalcitrant substance with ozone during biological treatment. Two parallel bench-top activated sludge processes were fed a synthetic

J. van Leeuwen; Anand Sridhar; A. Kamel Harrata; Marc Esplugas; Shinnosuke Onuki; Lingshuang Cai; Jacek A. Koziel



Sulfate minerals and organic compounds on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong evidence for evaporitic sulfate minerals such as gypsum and jarosite has recently been found on Mars. Although organic molecules are often codeposited with terrestrial evaporitic minerals, there have been no systematic investigations of organic components in sulfate minerals. We report here the detection of organic material, including amino acids and their amine degradation products, in ancient terrestrial sulfate minerals. Amino acids and amines appear to be preserved for geologically long periods in sulfate mineral matrices. This suggests that sulfate minerals should be prime targets in the search for organic compounds, including those of biological origin, on Mars.

Aubrey, Andrew; Cleaves, H. James; Chalmers, John H.; Skelley, Alison M.; Mathies, Richard A.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Bada, Jeffrey L.



Fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in treatment plants.  


This study reports the presence of fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in wastewater treatment plants. The findings pinpoint the inaccuracy of current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines which defines all organic carbon in wastewater to be of biogenic origin. Stable and radiocarbon isotopes ((13)C and (14)C) were measured throughout the process train in four municipal wastewater treatment plants equipped with secondary activated sludge treatment. Isotopic mass balance analyses indicate that 4-14% of influent total organic carbon (TOC) is of fossil origin with concentrations between 6 and 35 mg/L; 88-98% of this is removed from the wastewater. The TOC mass balance analysis suggests that 39-65% of the fossil organic carbon from the influent is incorporated into the activated sludge through adsorption or from cell assimilation while 29-50% is likely transformed to carbon dioxide (CO2) during secondary treatment. The fossil organic carbon fraction in the sludge undergoes further biodegradation during anaerobic digestion with a 12% decrease in mass. 1.4-6.3% of the influent TOC consists of both biogenic and fossil carbon is estimated to be emitted as fossil CO2 from activated sludge treatment alone. The results suggest that current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines, which assume that all CO2 emission from wastewater is biogenic may lead to underestimation of emissions. PMID:23863394

Law, Yingyu; Jacobsen, Geraldine E; Smith, Andrew M; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul



Metastable Equilibria Among Aqueous Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastable equilibrium states exist when reactions among a subset of compounds in a chemical system are reversible even though other irreversible reactions exist in the same system. The existence of metastable equilibrium among organic compounds was initially detected by comparing ratios of organic acid concentrations reported for oil-field brines (Shock, 1988, Geology 16, 886-890; Shock, 1989, Geology 17, 572-573), and calculating the same ratios for likely oxidation states determined by mineral assemblages and mixtures of hydrocarbons in coexisting petroleum (Shock, 1994, in: The Role of Organic Acids in Geological Processes, Springer). This led to the notion of extending the concept of metastable equilibrium states to explicitly account for petroleum compositions (Helgeson et al., 1993, GCA, 57, 3295-3339), which eventually yielded the concept of hydrolytic disproportionation of kerogens to produce petroleum and CO2(g) (Helgeson et al., 2009, GCA, 73, 594-695). Experimental tests of metastable equilibrium among organic compounds began with the identification of reversible reactions between alkanes and alkenes that are dependent on the H2 fugacity of the experimental system (Seewald, 1994, Nature 370, 285-287). These were followed with a comprehensive series of long-term experiments leading to the hypothesis that reversible reactions include alkanes, alkenes, alcohol, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (e.g., Seewald, 2001, GCA 65, 1641-1664; 2003, Nature 426, 327-333; McCollom & Seewald, 2003, GCA 67, 3645-3664). We have conducted sets of hydrothermal organic transformation experiments that test the extent to which these reactions are indeed reversible using aromatic and cyclic compounds. Results demonstrate reversibility for reactions among dibenzyl ketone, 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanol, 1,3-diphenylpropene and 1,3-diphenylpropane, as well as among methylcyclohexanes, methylcyclohexenes, methylcyclohexanols, methylcyclohexanones and methylcyclohexadienes. The compounds chosen for study include structural features that provide mechanistic insight into the reactions. By including cyclic and aromatic compounds, these results expand the diversity of organic compounds that react reversibly in geochemical processes. It follows that metastable equilibria among organic compounds may be inescapable during hydrothermal alteration and petroleum generation.

Shock, E.; Shipp, J.; Yang, Z.; Gould, I. R.



Volatile Organic Compounds Fibre Optic Nanosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel vapochromic material of formula (Au2Ag2(C6F5)4(C6H5N)2) has been used to develop a volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensor. This product changes its optical properties, such as colour or refractive index, when exposed to some organic vapours. The sensor consists of a nanometer-scale Fizeau interferometer doped with the above mentioned vapochromic complex and built onto a cleaved end of a multimode

César Elosúaa; Cándido Bariáina; Ignacio R. Matías; Francisco J. Arreguia; Asunción Luquin; Mariano Laguna; Julián Garrido


Method for monitoring the decomposition process in soil of organic wastewaters with high strength and low C\\/N ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squeezed fluid of pig manure and bonito processing wastewater, and their effluents from methane fermentation were studied in pot experiments in a model case of land application of organic wastewaters with high strength and low C\\/N ratio. Kanagawa alluvial soil (upland soil) and Kagoshima volcanic ash soil (upland soil) were used. The stabilization period of these four wastewaters in Kanagawa

Mitsuyo Hirai; Kuei-Cheng Ker; Tatsuo Endo; Koichi Fujie; Makoto Shoda; Hiroshi Kubota



Solubility of volatile organic compounds in aqueous ammonia solution.  


The Ostwald solubility coefficient, L of 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase into water and dilute aqueous ammonia solutions was determined by the equilibrium partitioning in closed system-solid phase micro extraction (EPICS-SPME) method at 303 K and at 0-2.5 mol dm(-3) ammonia concentrations. Ammonia increased the solubility of all VOCs nearly linearly, but to a different extent. The difference in the solubility values in aqueous ammonia solutions (Lmix) compared to pure water (L) is explained on the basis of a Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) equation made applicable for solvent mixtures, logLmix - logL = x((sNH3 - sH2O)pi2H + (aNH3 - aH2O)Sigma2H + (bNH3 - bH2O)Sigmabeta2H + (vNH3 - VH2O)Vx). sNH3 - sH2O, aNH3 - aH2O, bNH3 - bH2O, vNH3 - vH2O are the differences of solvent parameters, x is the mole fraction, pi2H is the solute dipolarity-polarizability, Sigmaalpha2H is the effective hydrogen bond acidity of the solute, Sigmabeta2H is the effective hydrogen bond basicity of the solute and Vx, the McGowan characteristic volume. The most significant term was v, the phase hydrophobicity. The solubility behavior was explained by the change in structure of the aqueous solution: the presence of ammonia reduces the cavity effect. These findings show that the presence of compounds such as ammonia, frequently observed in environmental waters, especially wastewaters, affect the fugacity of VOCs, having consequences for the environmental partitioning of VOCs and having technical consequences towards wastewater treatment technologies. PMID:15833481

Görgényi, Miklós; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Király, Zoltán



Trace organic compounds in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace organic chemicals include a range of compounds which, due to a combination of their physico-chemical properties and toxicological implications, have been described as a serious threat to the biotic environment. A global treaty to regulate the manufacture and release of some of the most persistent trace chemicals has been promulgated and signed.The marine environment is an important sink for

Michael R Moore; Walter Vetter; Caroline Gaus; Glen R Shaw; Jochen F Müller




Microsoft Academic Search

In a rapid and accurate method for the microdetermination of fluorine in ; organic compounds the Schoniger combustion technique is used for initial ; decomposition of the sample, followed by an improved ferric salicylate ; colorimetric analysis. Samples ranging from 0.4 to 20 mg. were successfully ; analyzed in 10 to 20 minutes. Accuracy and precision are adequate for ;

R. N. Rogers; S. K. Yasuda



Emerging Control Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have provided the driving force for sustained fundamental and applied research in the area of environmental remediation. Conventional methods currently used to treat VOCs include incineration, condensation, adsorption, and absorption. Incineration and condensation are cost-effective only for moderate to high VOC concentrations. Adsorption and absorption do not destroy VOCs

Geeta Rani Parmar; N. N. Rao



Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode.  


Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L(-1) (<100 mg L(-1), the National Discharge Standard of China). More importantly, the destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters. PMID:21377794

Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna



Effect of influent aeration on removal of organic matter from coffee processing wastewater in constructed wetlands.  


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of aeration and vegetation on the removal of organic matter in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) treated in 4 constructed wetlands (CWs), characterized as follows: (i) ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivated system operating with an aerated influent; (ii) non-cultivated system operating with an aerated influent, (iii) ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent; and (iv) non-cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. The lowest average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiencies of 87, 84 and 73%, respectively, were obtained in the ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. However, ryegrass cultivation did not influence the removal efficiency of organic matter. Artificial aeration of the CPW, prior to its injection in the CW, did not improve the removal efficiencies of organic matter. On other hand it did contribute to increase the instantaneous rate at which the maximum COD removal efficiency was reached. Although aeration did not result in greater organic matter removal efficiencies, it is important to consider the benefits of aeration on the removal of the other compounds. PMID:23892132

Rossmann, Maike; Matos, Antonio Teixeira; Abreu, Edgar Carneiro; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Borges, Alisson Carraro



Separation of volatile organic compounds by pervaporation for a binary compound combination: Trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the behavior of sweeping air pervaporation when used to separate trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCEthane) from wastewater. Selectivity and membrane preference are studied. Models for binary compounds are studied to evaluate the extent of cross influence on TCE flux due to the presence of another volatile organic compound, TCEthane. Using the models, the integral dry diffusion coefficient for TCEthane is evaluated. Results indicate that the membrane exhibits a preference for TCE over TCEthane. However, the values of the diffusion rates are found to be comparable. Selectivity values are found to be independent of the air flow rate but dependent on the relative concentration of the compounds in the feed solution. It is found that, due to the presence of TCEthane, the flux of TCE decreased. Further, it is found that the ratio of the integral dry diffusion coefficients of the compounds is inversely proportional to the ratio of their molecular weights.

Visvanathan, C.; Basu, B. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand). Environmental Engineering Program; Mora, J.C. [Inst. National Polytechnique de Toulouse (France)



Global Exposure Modelling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds which are persistent and toxic as the agrochemicals ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH, lindane) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pose a hazard for the ecosystems. These compounds are semivolatile, hence multicompartmental substances and subject to long-range transport (LRT) in atmosphere and ocean. Being lipophilic, they accumulate in exposed organism tissues and biomagnify along food chains. The multicompartmental global fate and LRT of DDT and lindane in the atmosphere and ocean have been studied using application data for 1980, on a decadal scale using a model based on the coupling of atmosphere and (for the first time for these compounds) ocean General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). The model system encompasses furthermore 2D terrestrial compartments (soil and vegetation) and sea ice, a fully dynamic atmospheric aerosol (HAM) module and an ocean biogeochemistry module (HAMOCC5). Large mass fractions of the compounds are found in soil. Lindane is also found in comparable amount in ocean. DDT has the longest residence time in almost all compartments. The sea ice compartment locally almost inhibits volatilization from the sea. The air/sea exchange is also affected , up to a reduction of 35 % for DDT by partitioning to the organic phases (suspended and dissolved particulate matter) in the global oceans. Partitioning enhances vertical transport in the sea. Ocean dynamics are found to be more significant for vertical transport than sinking associated with particulate matter. LRT in the global environment is determined by the fast atmospheric circulation. Net meridional transport taking place in the ocean is locally effective mostly via western boundary currents, upon applications at mid- latitudes. The pathways of the long-lived semivolatile organic compounds studied include a sequence of several cycles of volatilisation, transport in the atmosphere, deposition and transport in the ocean (multihopping substances). Multihopping is more significant for DDT than for lindane. It enhances the LRT potential for both compounds.

Guglielmo, F.; Lammel, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.



The fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the wastewater treatment process and its importance in the removal of wastewater contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a parameter of organic pollution for waters and wastewaters, which is not so often\\u000a studied, and it is not yet regulated by directives. The term ‘DOC’ is used for the fraction of organics that pass through\\u000a a 0.45 ?m pores’ size membrane. The type of wastewater plays an important role in the

Athanasios Katsoyiannis; Constantini Samara



Nonvolatile organic compounds in treated waters.  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade much information has been published on the analysis of organics extracted from treated water. Certain of these organics have been shown to be by-products of the chlorination disinfection process and to possess harmful effects at high concentrations. This has resulted in increased interest in alternative disinfection processes, particularly ozonation. The data on organics had been largely obtained by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is only capable of analyzing, at best, 20% of the organics present in treated water. Research in key areas such as mutagenicity testing of water and characterization of chlorination and ozonation by-products has emphasized the need for techniques suitable for analysis of the remaining nonvolatile organics. Several methods for the isolation of nonvolatile organics have been evaluated and, of these, freeze-drying followed by methanol extraction appears the most suitable. Reverse-phase HPLC was used for separation of the methanol extract, but increased resolution for separation of the complex mixtures present is desirable. In this context, high resolution size exclusion chromatography shows promise. Characterization of separated nonvolatiles is possible by the application of state-of-the-art mass spectrometric techniques. Results obtained by these techniques have shown that the nonvolatile organic fraction of chlorinated drinking water consists of many discrete compounds. Among these, some of the chlorinated compounds are almost certainly by-products of disinfection. Studies of the by-products of ozonation of fulvic and humic acids isolated from river waters have indicated a similar proportion of nonvolatile organics. Further, ozonation can result in the release of compounds that are trapped in the macromolecules.

Watts, C D; Crathorne, B; Fielding, M; Killops, S D



Organic Compounds in Savannah River Site High-Level Waste  

SciTech Connect

The present study identifies organic compounds or classes of compounds that may occur in SRS high-level waste (HLW) based on a review of previous sample analyses and records of disposals of organic compounds to the HLW tank farms.

Walker, D.D.



Immobilized reactor for rapid destruction of recalcitrant organics and inorganics in tannery wastewater.  


The wastewater discharged from tanneries lack biodegradability due to the presence of recalcitrant compounds at significant concentration. The focal theme of the present investigation was to use chemo-autotrophic activated carbon oxidation (CAACO) reactor, an immobilized cell reactor using chemoautotrophs for the treatment of tannery wastewater. The treatment scheme comprised of anaerobic treatment, sand filtration, and CAACO reactor, which remove COD, BOD, TOC, VFA and sulphides respectively by 86%, 95%, 81%, 71% and 100%. Rice bran mesoporous activated carbon prepared indigenously and was used for immobilization of chemoautotrophs. The degradation of xenobiotic compounds by CAACO was confirmed through HPLC and FT-IR techniques. PMID:16158605

Kumar, A Ganesh; Sekaran, G; Swamalatha, S; Rao, B Prasad



The treatment of organic bearing wastewater in the chemical industry using critical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent effluent limitations imposed by the EPA on a large sector of the U.S. chemical industry will mandate more stringent standards for wastewater treatment prior to discharge. As a result of these new regulations, cost-effective processes designed to remove priority pollutants and other non-biodegradable organics from industrial wastewater will be in significant demand. On November 5, 1987, the EPA published




Recalcitrant organic matter removal from textile wastewater by an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column.  


The treatment of textile wastewater is difficult because of its recalcitrant organic content. The biological removal of recalcitrant organics requires a long retention time for microbial growth. Activated sludge was immobilized in a polyethylene glycol pellet to allow for sufficient sludge retention time. The pellets were filled in an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column (CIPC) reactor in order to investigate the removal of recalcitrant organics from textile wastewater. A textile wastewater effluent treated by a conventional activated sludge reactor was used as a target wastewater. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the aerobic CIPC reactor at various empty bed contact times was in the range of 42.2-60.5%. Half of the input COD was removed in the lower part (bottom 25% of the reactor volume) of the reactor when the organic loading rate was less than 1.5 kg COD/(m(3)•d). About 15-30% of the input COD was removed in the remaining part of the column reactor. The COD removed in this region was limitedly biodegradable. The biodegradation of recalcitrant organics could be carried out by the interactional functions of the various bacteria consortia by using a cell-immobilization process. The CIPC process could effectively treat textile wastewater using a short retention time because the microorganisms that degrade limitedly biodegradable organics were dominant in the reactor. PMID:23656958

Kim, Moonil; Han, Dukkyu; Cui, Fenghao; Bae, Wookeun



Organic photosensitive devices using subphthalocyanine compounds  


An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound.

Rand, Barry (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Mutolo, Kristin L. (Hollywood, CA); Mayo, Elizabeth (Alhambra, CA); Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA)



Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents in selected streams in northern Arkansas, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, collected data in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many constituents of emerging environmental concern, in selected streams in northern Arkansas. Samples were collected in March and April 2004 from 17 sites located upstream and downstream from wastewater- treatment plant effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkansas and at 1 stream site in a relatively undeveloped basin in north-central Arkansas. Additional samples were collected at three of the sites in August 2004. The targeted organic wastewater constituents and sample sites were selected because wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharge provides a potential point source of these constituents and analytical techniques have improved to accurately measure small amounts of these constituents in environmental samples. At least 1 of the 108 pharmaceutical or other organic wastewater constituents was detected at all sites in 2004, except at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas. The number of detections generally was greater at sites downstream from municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges (mean = 14) compared to sites not influenced by wastewatertreatment plants (mean = 3). Overall, 42 of the 108 constituents targeted in the collected water-quality samples were detected. The most frequently detected constituents included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene.

Galloway, Joel M.; Haggard, Brian E.; Meyers, Michael T.; Green, W. Reed



Biological removal of cyanide compounds from electroplating wastewater (EPWW) by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system.  


Biological treatment system especially, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system could not be applied to treat the raw electroplating wastewater (EPWW) due to the low organic matter concentration of 10+/-3 mg-BOD5/L and toxic of high cyanide concentration of 23.0+/-2.2 mg-CN/L. However, EPWW could be used as the nitrogen source for the bio-sludge of SBR system. And 10% of EPWW (the final cyanide concentration of 2.3+/-0.2 mg/L) was most suitable to supplement into the wastewater as the nitrogen source. SBR system showed the highest COD, BOD5, TKN and cyanide removal efficiencies of 79+/-2%, 85+/-3%, 49.0+/-2.1% and 97.7+/-0.7%, respectively with 4-times diluted Thai-rice noodle wastewater (TRNWW) containing 10% EPWW and 138 mg/L NH4Cl (BOD5: TN of 100:10) at SRT of 72+/-13 days (under organic and cyanide loadings of 0.40 kg-BOD5/m3 d and 0.0023 kg-CN/m3 d, respectively). However, the effluent ammonia was still high of 22.6+/-0.4 mg-N/L while the effluent nitrate and nitrite was only 9.9+/-0.4 and 1.2+/-0.9 mg-N/L, respectively. And SVI and effluent SS of the system were higher than 95 and 75 mg/L, respectively. PMID:18054163

Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chairattanawan, Kanidta; Rarunroeng, Methinee



Organic Aerosols: A Potential Source of Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous laboratory studies have demonstrated that organic surfaces are readily oxidized by O3 and OH, in many cases producing oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) such as aldehydes and organic acids. Because many aerosols possess organic coatings, it is possible that oxidation of organic aerosol surfaces could provide a significant flux of OVOC into the troposphere that is not accounted for in current models. From data collected on the NASA DC-8 during INTEX-NA over North America in the summer of 2004 (part of ICARTT -- the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation), we estimate the potential flux of OVOC from organic aerosol oxidation, and discuss its implications for our understanding of atmospheric photochemistry.

Kwan, A. J.; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.



Synthesis and Characterization of Organic NLO Compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compound 1-(2 thiophene)-3-(2, 3, 5-trichloroph enyl)-2-propen-1-one [TTCP] with molecular formula C13H7Cl3OS was synthesized using condensation reaction method. FT-IR spectra were recorded to identify the various functional groups present in the compound. The third harmonic optical nonlinearity test was carried out using z-scan technique. The single crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique. Optical absorption studies reveal that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region and absorption (around 364 nm) takes place in the UV-region. The single-crystal XRD studies were carried out, and it was found that the compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with a space group P21/c. The observed lattice parameters are a = 16.6170(6) A? b = 7.6180(5) A? c = 10.9280(11) A? and V = 1338.47(17) A?3.

Kumar, P. C. Rajesh; Ravindrachary, V.; Janardhana, K.; Manjunath, H. R.; Karegoudar, Prakash



Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.



Microbiological degradation of atmospheric organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, aerosol transformation was assumed to be via chemical or physical processes. Here we present evidence that an important class of organic aerosols - dicarboxylic acids (DCA) - can be efficiently transformed by existing airborne microbes (bacteria and fungi) in the boundary layer. Isotopic studies indicate that microbiological entities transform and use DCA as nutrients. Several observed products are toxicants or pathogens. Identified volatile products indicate that DCA can be recycled back to the atmosphere via microbiological processes. Thus, biodegradation could be an important atmospheric transformation pathway for organic compounds.

Ariya, Parisa A.; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Ignatova, Olga; Amyot, Marc



Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils may act as sources or sinks of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many of the formed VOCs are produced by microorganisms,\\u000a and it would be a challenge to investigate soil microbial communities by studying their VOC profile. Such “volatilomics” would\\u000a have the advantage of avoiding extraction steps that are often a limit in genomic or proteomic approaches. Abundant literature\\u000a on

Heribert Insam; Martin S. A. Seewald




EPA Science Inventory

A state-of-the-art review is presented on the current GC/MS methodology for the analysis of priority toxic organics in municipal wastewater treatment. The review summarizes both recent published and unpublished literature on GC/MS methods for analysis of toxic organics in municip...


Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Winberry, W.T. Jr.




EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater sludges were stabilized by Purifax treatment, anaerobic digestion and heat conditioning. The processed sludges from the Purifax process at chlorine dosages normally used in processing wastewater sludges contained 2 to > 14 times the total organic chlorine content of th...


Comparative toxicity of SRC-I wastewater to aquatic organisms. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

SRI International performed a series of acute and chronic toxicity studies on SRC-I wastewaters using fish, zooplankton, and algae as test organisms. The tests were designed to determine the toxicity of SRC-I wastewaters to quatic organisms and based on differences in toxicity of the various water samples, to evaluate the efficacy of various wastewater treatment methods. Survival data from acute and chronic daphnid studies indicate that phenol recovery markedly reduced wastewater toxicity. In treatment processes that did not include phenol recovery, powdered activated carbon reduced toxicity more effectively than granulated activated carbon. All treated water supported algal growth in excess of that in controls, particularly those waters subjected to phenol recovery. The toxicity of each SRC-I wastewater sample was compared with that of a corresponding synthetic salt solution to determine whether the salt load was the toxic element. The wastewaters typically exhibited higher toxicity than their associated salt solutions. The effect was greatest in the daphnid chronic studies. The aquatic ecotoxicity tests were performed as part of ICRC's post-Base-line environmental R and D program. One objective of the program was to evaluate the impact of phenol recovery on effluent quality. Another objective was to assess the potential impact of wastewater discharge on aquatic organisms. The results of this study have been integrated with results from the rest of the R and D program, and are documented in ICRC's Integration Report for SRC-I Post-Baseline Environmental R and D. 7 references, 10 figures and 22 tables.

Bailey, H.C.



Treatment of textile wastewater using organically modified bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of anion-cation organobentonite for the treatment of wastewater generated during a textile dyeing and printing process was studied. It was found that the color removal of the organobentonite was higher than that of the natural bentonite. The maximum color removal was obtained by the anion-cation organobentonite with the mass ratio 4:1 of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (cation) to

J. X. Lina; L. Wang



Variability of trace organic chemical concentrations in raw wastewater at three distinct sewershed scales.  


The site-specific daily fluctuations and scale-dependent variability of influent water quality, particularly concentrations of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs), have not yet been well described. In this study, raw wastewater from three distinct sewershed scales was sampled including a centralized wastewater treatment facility in Boulder, Colorado (population ~125,000) and two decentralized wastewater catchments in Golden, Colorado (clustered system population 400, and septic system population 32). Each site was sampled hourly for 26 h and samples were subsequently analyzed in triplicate for 32 TOrCs using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and stable isotope dilution. Detection frequency (DF) of the various TOrCs was positively correlated with sewershed size with the greatest DF of the targeted TOrCs at the Boulder site and with decreasing DF with decreasing sewershed size. Site-specific fluctuations were both scale and compound-specific. The 11 TOrCs detected greater than 75% of the time across all three sites were used to further investigate and quantify variability and to develop a statistical model to investigate the flow-dependence and time-dependence of TOrC variability. Sewershed scale was inversely correlated to variability with coefficients of variation ranging from 0.24 to 0.96, 0.39 to 2.22, and 0.32 to 3.93 for the Boulder, cluster, and septic sites, respectively. A significant linear relationship was observed between concentration and flow and concentration and the concentration at prior time points for most TOrCs at the Boulder site. This suggests less variable influent concentrations result from dispersion and mixing in the conveyance system and a larger number of discrete inputs. A notable exception was the chlorinated flame retardant TCPP, which is likely associated with a high concentration, low-flow industrial input. A significant linear relationship between flow and concentration and sequential time points was not common at the decentralized sites. Scientists and engineers developing decentralized treatment systems must consider a larger range of influent qualities, particularly with respect to TOrCs. PMID:22516176

Teerlink, Jennifer; Hering, Amanda S; Higgins, Christopher P; Drewes, Jörg E



Volatile chlorinated organic compound levels in rain water from Kobe City in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Water pollution by volatile chlorinated organic compounds has become a serious environmental problem. The Environmental Agency of Japan has defined the regulations on trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride in wastewater in 1989. In order to protect against water pollution, it is important to keep concentrations in these compounds in environmental water as low as possible. Therefore, the determination of these compounds in rain water is very important to evaluate the loading amounts of these compounds into environmental water. Since few detailed reports have been made as to the assay of these volatile substances in rain water, we investigated this and compared these compound levels in rain water collected from three different locations in Kobe, Japan. The assayed values were compared to each other. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Adachi, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Tadashi [Kobe Women`s College of Pharmacy (Japan)



Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials.  


The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ?5.5 h), using wastewater with high (mean ?120 mg L(-1)) and low (mean ?20 mg L(-1)) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p < 0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p < 0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life. PMID:24001604

Nilsson, Charlotte; Renman, Gunno; Johansson Westholm, Lena; Renman, Agnieszka; Drizo, Aleksandra



[Relationship between typical organic matters in domestic wastewater and water characteristic parameters in activated sludge models].  


The contribution of typical organic matters such as proteins, sugars, lipids and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) to COD of the domestic wastewater was investigated. Nitrate utilization rate was used to determine wastewater characteristic parameters. Relationship between these typical organic matters and wastewater characteristic parameters (Ss, Xs, SI, XI) in activated sludge models were investigated. The results showed that YH of activated sludge under denitrifying conditions was 0.683. Proteins, sugars, lipids and LAS accounted for 24%-35%, 17%-35%, 5.78%-10.56% and 3.77%-7.23% of the total COD, respectively. It indicated that these four pollutants were the main COD source in the domestic wastewater. SS and XI were in the ranges of 22%-29% and 29%-38% of the total COD, respectively. Concentrations of the four typical target organic matters (proteins, sugars, lipids and LAS) correlated well with the wastewater characteristic parameters (Ss, Xs, SI, XI) of activated sludge models (ASMs) with the correlative coefficients above 0.9. PMID:19558125

Huang, Man-Hong; Li, Yong-Mei; Gu, Guo-Wei



Preparing Soil Samples for Volatile Organic Compound Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three equilibrium headspace and three solvent extraction methods of preparing soil samples for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compared. Soil samples were spiked with five gasoline range aromatic compounds and four chlorinated compounds...

A. D. Hewitt



A resource recycling technique of hydrogen production from the catalytic degradation of organics in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resource recycling technique of hydrogen production from the catalytic degradation of organics in wastewater by aqueous\\u000a phase reforming (APR) has been proposed. It is worthy of noting that this technique may be a potential way for the purification\\u000a of refractory and highly toxic organics in water for hydrogen production. Hazardous organics (such as phenol, aniline, nitrobenzene,\\u000a tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene,

XiaoNian Li; LingNiao Kong; YiZhi Xiang; YaoMing Ju; XiaoQiong Wu; Feng Feng; JunFeng Yuan; Lei Ma; ChunShan Lu; QunFeng Zhang



[Biodegradation characteristics of organic pollutants contained in tannery wastewater].  


Abstract: In the batch experiments inoculated with activated sludge from tannery wastewater treatment plant, biodegradation characteristics and kinetics of three tanning agents, naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium, tannic acid and bayberry tannin, were studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. And the aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation laws of real tannery wastewater with respect to COD change were also investigated using the same batch experiments. The results showed aerobic degradation was superior to anaerobic degradation for tanning agent removal and mineralization. The removal rates of naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium, tannic acid and bayberry tannin by aerobic biodegradation were >90% , >90% and 50% -75% , respectively whereas 10%-40%, >95% and 20% -30%, respectively by anaerobic degradation. In terms of COD removal about tannic acid biodegradation, the removal rates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were >75% and < 75% ,respectively. The first-order kinetic constants during aerobic biodegradation of tannic acid and bayberry tannin were slightly influenced by initial concentrations while initial concentration had a significant effect on the first-order kinetics rate in the case of naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium aerobic-biodegradation because naphthalene- 2-sulfonic sodium with initial concentration >or= 70 mg.L-1 was toxic to microorganism leading to a significant decline of kinetic constants. Biodegradation of real tannery wastewater under aerobic and anaerobic conditions represented obvious stage characteristics and the COD concentration had a good linear correlation with reaction time in the phases of fast degradation and slow degradation. The aerobic maximum specific degradation rate wqas 11.6 times higher of anaerobic degradation. PMID:23668129

Wang, Yong; Li, Wei-Guang; Yang, Li; Su, Cheng-Yuan



Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Ni?anta??, 34365, ?stanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Ka??thane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Ka??thane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of compounds. N-octane, 3-methylheptane, n-nonane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane and n-hexane parameters ranged between 3 ppbv and maximum value of 10 ppbv. The other VOC parameters are measured below 3 ppbv value. At participating urban locations for the year of data considered, levels of carbonyls were higher than the level of the other organic compound groups, suggesting that emissions from motor vehicles and photochemical reactions strongly in?uence ambient air concentrations of carbonyls. Of the most prevalent carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the dominant compounds, ranging from 1.5-7.4 ppbv for formaldehyde, to 0.8-2.7 ppbv for acetaldehyde. Keywords: Air quality, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), industry, meteorology, urban, Ka??thane, ?stanbul. Acknowledgment: This work was part of the TUJJB-TUMEHAP-01-10 and Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council Project No: 109Y132.

?apraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Co?kun, M.



Removal of organics and degradation products from industrial wastewater by a membrane bioreactor integrated with ozone or UV/H?O? treatment.  


The treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater resulting from the production of an antibacterial drug (nalidixic acid) was investigated employing a membrane bioreactor (MBR) integrated with either ozonation or UV/H(2)O(2) process. This was achieved by placing chemical oxidation in the recirculation stream of the MBR. A conventional configuration with chemical oxidation as polishing for the MBR effluent was also tested as a reference. The synergistic effect of MBR when integrated with chemical oxidation was assessed by monitoring (i) the main wastewater characteristics, (ii) the concentration of nalidixic acid, (iii) the 48 organics identified in the raw wastewater and (iv) the 55 degradation products identified during wastewater treatment. Results showed that MBR integration with ozonation or UV/H(2)O(2) did not cause relevant drawbacks to both biological and filtration processes, with COD removal rates in the range 85-95%. Nalidixic acid passed undegraded through the MBR and was completely removed in the chemical oxidation step. Although the polishing configuration appeared to give better performances than the integrated system in removing 15 out of 48 secondary organics while similar removals were obtained for 19 other compounds. The benefit of the integrated system was however evident for the removal of the degradation products. Indeed, the integrated system allowed higher removals for 34 out of 55 degradation products while for only 4 compounds the polishing configuration gave better performance. Overall, results showed the effectiveness of the integrated treatment with both ozone and UV/H(2)O(2). PMID:22136062

Laera, G; Cassano, D; Lopez, A; Pinto, A; Pollice, A; Ricco, G; Mascolo, G



Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic matter on fixed surfaces and airborne particles. Analyses indicate that equilibrium partitioning is achieved faster for particles than for typical indoor surfaces; indeed, for a strongly sorbing SVOC and a thick sorptive reservoir, equilibrium partitioning is never achieved. Mass-balance considerations are used to develop physical-science-based models that connect source- and sink-rates to airborne concentrations for commonly encountered situations, such as the application of a pesticide or the emission of a plasticizer or flame retardant from its host material. Calculations suggest that many SVOCs have long indoor persistence, even after the primary source is removed. If the only removal mechanism is ventilation, moderately sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 10) may persist indoors for hundreds to thousands of hours, while strongly sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 12) may persist for years. The paper concludes by applying the newly developed framework to explore exposure pathways of building occupants to indoor SVOCs. Accumulation of SVOCs as a consequence of direct air-to-human transport is shown to be potentially large, with a maximum indoor-air processing rate of 10-20 m 3/h for SVOC uptake by human skin, hair and clothing. Levels on human skin calculated with a simple model of direct air-to-skin transfer agree remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients.

Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.


Electricity generation from model organic wastewater in a cassette-electrode microbial fuel cell.  


A new highly scalable microbial fuel cell (MFC) design, consisting of a series of cassette electrodes (CE), was examined for increasing power production from organic matter in wastewater. Each CE chamber was composed of a box-shaped flat cathode (two air cathodes on both sides) sandwiched in between two proton-exchange membranes and two graphite-felt anodes. Due to the simple design of the CE-MFC, multiple cassettes can be combined to form a single unit and inserted into a tank to treat wastewater. A 12-chamber CE-MFC was tested using a synthetic wastewater containing starch, peptone, and fish extract. Stable performance was obtained after 15 days of operation in fed-batch mode, with an organic removal efficiency of 95% at an organic loading rate of 2.9 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic meter per day and an efficiency of 93% at 5.8 kg COD per cubic meter per day. Power production was stable during this period, reaching maximum power densities of 129 W m(-3) (anode volume) and 899 mW m(-2) (anode projected area). The internal resistance of CE-MFC decreased from 2.9 (day 4) to 0.64 Omega (day 25). These results demonstrate the usefulness of the CE-MFC design for energy production and organic wastewater treatment. PMID:18581110

Shimoyama, Takefumi; Komukai, Shoko; Yamazawa, Akira; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Logan, Bruce E; Watanabe, Kazuya




EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of the potential for toxic organic emissions from synfuels wastewater treatment systems. The synthetic fuels facilities examined were coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, shale oil, by-product coke, and associated pe...


Effects of Three Organic Wastewater Contaminants on American Toad, Bufo americanus , Tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent surveys of aquatic habitats suggest that organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) may be common in aquatic ecosystems. However, relatively little is known about the impacts of OWCs on amphibians. We studied the lethal and sublethal effects of three OWCs (acetaminophen, caffeine, and triclosan) on American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. High concentrations of triclosan increased activity, whereas acetaminophen had a significant

Geoffrey R Smith; Amber A Burgett



GC/MS Methodology for Priority Organics in Municipal Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A state-of-the-art review is presented on the current GC/MS methodology for the analysis of priority toxic organics in municipal wastewater treatment. The review summarizes both recent published and unpublished literature on GC/MS methods for analysis of ...

D. F. Bishop




EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne site incorpo...


Removal of phosphorus and organic matter removal by alum during wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferron reagent and FTIR spectroscopy were used for the identification and characterization of the aluminum species formed during dephosphorization of simulated wastewater with and without organic matter. Evidence from FTIR spectroscopy showed the formation of aluminum hydroxyphosphate, hydroxy-Al–tannate and aluminum complexes containing both phosphorus and tannic acid. The surface reactivity of the solid products is proportional to the rate of




Sources of priority substances entering an urban wastewater catchment—trace organic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of new legislation such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires Member States to gain a better understanding of priority substances entering surface waters. This will include inputs from wastewater treatment works as well as from other urban, industrial and agricultural sources. There is currently a lack of available data regarding the magnitude and sources of organic priority

K. L. Rule; S. D. W. Comber; D. Ross; A. Thornton; C. K. Makropoulos; R. Rautiu



Alternatives to Automotive Consumer Products That Use Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and/or Chlorinated Organic Compound Solvents. Addendum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This addendum to the document entitled 'Alternatives to Automotive Consumer Products that use Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and/or Chlorinated Organic Compound Solvents' presents the questionnaires that were filled out by the staff of the Institute for...

D. Wolf J. Zavadil M. Morris



Occurrence of pharmaceutically active and non-steroidal estrogenic compounds in three different wastewater recycling schemes in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery that natural and synthetic chemicals, in the form of excreted hormones and pharmaceuticals, as well as a vast array of compounds with domestic and industrial applications, can enter the environment via wastewater treatment plants and cause a wide variety of environmental and health problems even at very low concentrations, suggests the need for improvement of water recycling.Three Australian

Jawad H. Al-Rifai; Candace L. Gabelish; Andrea I. Schäfer



Modeling of Electrochemical Process for the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocoagulation and electrooxidation are promising electrochemical technologies that can be used to remove organic pollutants contained in wastewaters. To make these technologies competitive with the conventional technologies that are in use today, a better understanding of the processes involved must be achieved. In this context, the development of mathematical models that are consistent with the processes occurring in a physical system is a relevant advance, because such models can help to understand what is happening in the treatment process. In turn, a more detailed knowledge of the physical system can be obtained, and tools for a proper design of the processes, or for the analysis of operating problems, are attained. The modeling of these technologies can be carried out using single-variable or multivariable models. Likewise, the position dependence of the model species can be described with different approaches. In this work, a review of the basics of the modeling of these processes and a description of several representative models for electrochemical oxidation and coagulation are carried out. Regarding electrooxidation, two models are described: one which summarizes the pollution of a wastewater in only one model species and that considers a macroscopic approach to formulate the mass balances and other that considers more detailed profile of concentration to describe the time course of pollutants and intermediates through a mixed maximum gradient/macroscopic approach. On the topic of electrochemical coagulation, two different approaches are also described in this work: one that considers the hydrodynamic conditions as the main factor responsible for the electrochemical coagulation processes and the other that considers the chemical interaction of the reagents and the pollutants as the more significant processes in the description of the electrochemical coagulation of organic compounds. In addition, in this work it is also described a multivariable model for the electrodissolution of anodes (first stage in electrocoagulation processes). This later model use a mixed macroscopic/maximum gradient approach to describe the chemical and electrochemical processes and it also assumes that the rates of all processes are very high, and that they can be successfully modeled using pseudoequilibrium approaches.

Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Sáez, Cristina


Basic Principles of the Electrochemical Mineralization of Organic Pollutants for Wastewater Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical mineralization of organic pollutants is a new technology for treatment of dilute wastewater (COD < 5 g/L). In this method, utilizing the electrical energy, a complete oxidation of pollutants can be achieved on high oxidation power anodes. An ideal anode for this type of treatment is a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) characterized by a high reactivity toward organics oxidation. In the present work, both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of organics mineralization are discussed. The proposed theoretical kinetic model of organics mineralization on BDD anodes is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the economical aspect of electrochemical organics mineralization is reported.

Kapa?ka, Agnieszka; Fóti, György; Comninellis, Christos


Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen during co-composting of olive mill wastewater with solid organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four olive mill wastewater (OMW) composts, prepared with three N-rich organic wastes and two different bulking agents, were\\u000a studied in a pilot plant using the Rutgers system. Organic matter (OM) losses during composting followed a first-order kinetic\\u000a equation in all the piles, the slowest being the OM mineralisation rate in the pile using maize straw (MS). The highest N\\u000a losses

C. Paredes; A. Roig; M. P. Bernal; M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; J. Cegarra





A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.



Characterization and mass load estimates of organic compounds in agricultural irrigation runoff.  


Investigations of agricultural chemicals in surface runoff typically target nutrients or specific pesticides; however, numerous other organic compounds are regularly applied to agricultural fields in pesticide formulations, irrigation water, soil amendments and fertilizers. Many of these compounds have toxicological significance. We conducted a broad spectrum analysis of surface runoff from individual irrigated agricultural fields in coastal southern California to characterize organic compounds amenable to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and to estimate the mass flux of selected chemicals. Aqueous phase extracts contained several pesticides, as well as personal care product ingredients and pharmaceutically active compounds apparently derived from treated wastewater used for irrigation. Several compounds potentially associated with pesticide adjuvants were also present in aqueous phase extracts. Dissolved NOM constituents in water phase extracts included n-fatty acids, aliphatic alcohols and plant terpenoids. Tentatively identified compounds sorbed to suspended particles included pesticides, a fecal sterol, aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, and C14 and C16 n-fatty acids and fatty acid esters. Bicyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were identified in both aqueous and suspended particle phases. Constituent concentrations, including total suspended solids (TSS), varied over the course of the sampled events by up to an order of magnitude, and typically were not correlated with flow. Variation in sorbed organic compound concentrations often did not parallel those for TSS concentration. Mass load estimates were strongly influenced by the choice of sampling interval. PMID:12079091

Pedersen, J A; Yeager, M A; Suffet, I H Mel



Fenton type processes for minimization of organic content in coloured wastewaters: Part I: Processes optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was focussed on the application of Fenton (Fe2+\\/H2O2) and Fenton “like” processes (Fe3+\\/H2O2 and Fe0\\/H2O2) for the minimization of organic content of coloured synthetic wastewaters. Two reactive dyes, C.I. Reactive Blue 49 with anthraquinone chromophore and C.I. Reactive Blue 137 with azo chromophore were used as model organic pollutants. Fenton type processes were investigated in order to establish

Hrvoje Kuši?; Ana Lon?ari? Boži?; Natalija Koprivanac



Organic Compounds in Truckee River Water Used for Public Supply near Reno, Nevada, 2002-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including, in part, pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal care and domestic-use products, and refrigerants and propellants. Of 258 compounds measured, 28 were detected in at least 1 source water sample collected approximately monthly during 2002-05 at the intake of the Chalk Bluff Treatment Plant, on the Truckee River upstream of Reno, Nevada. The diversity of compounds detected indicate various sources and uses (including wastewater discharge, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others) and different pathways (including point sources from treated wastewater outfalls upstream of the sampling location, overland runoff, and groundwater discharge) to drinking-water supply intakes. Three compounds were detected in more than 20 percent of the source-water intake samples at low concentrations (less than 0.1 microgram per liter), including caffeine, p-cresol (a wood preservative), and toluene (a gasoline hydrocarbon). Sixteen of the 28 compounds detected in source water also were detected in finished water (after treatment, but prior to distribution; 2004-05). Additionally, two disinfection by-products not detected in source water, bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane, were detected in all finished water samples. Two detected compounds, cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol, are among five naturally occurring biochemicals analyzed in this study. Concentrations for all detected compounds in source and finished water generally were less than 0.1 microgram per liter and always less than human-health benchmarks, which are available for about one-half of the compounds. Seven compounds (toluene, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromodichloromethane, bisphenol A, cholesterol, and 3-beta-coprostanol) were measured at concentrations greater than 0.1 microgram per liter. On the basis of this screening-level assessment, adverse effects to human health are expected to be negligible (subject to limitations of available human-health benchmarks).

Thomas, Karen A.




EPA Science Inventory

Zenon Environmental Systems (Zenon) has developed the ZenoGem? process to remove organic compounds from wastewater by integrating biological treatment and membrane-based ultrafiltration. This innovative system combines biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compou...


Solute transport model for trace organic neutral and charged compounds through nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes.  


Rejection of trace organic compounds, including disinfection by-products (DBPs) and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), by high-pressure membranes has become a focus of public interest internationally in both drinking water treatment and wastewater reclamation/reuse. The ability to simulate, or even predict, the rejection of these compounds by high-pressure membranes, encompassing nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), will improve process economics and expand membrane applications. The objective of this research is to develop a membrane transport model to account for diffusive and convective contributions to solute transport and rejection. After completion of cross-flow tests and diffusion cell tests with target compounds, modeling efforts were performed in accordance with a non-equilibrium thermodynamic transport equation. Comparing the percentages of convection and diffusion contributions to transport, convection is dominant for most compounds, but diffusion is important for more hydrophobic non-polar compounds. Convection is also more dominant for looser membranes (i.e., NF). In addition, higher initial compound concentrations and greater J(0)/k ratios contribute to solute fluxes more dominated by convection. Given the treatment objective of compound rejection, compound transport and rejection trends are inversely related. PMID:17631378

Kim, Tae-Uk; Drewes, Jörg E; Scott Summers, R; Amy, Gary L



Odorous volatile organic sulfides in wastewater treatment plants in Guangzhou, China.  


Odorous volatile organic sulfides (VOSs) in headspace atmosphere and wastewaters were identified and quantified synchronously in two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Guangzhou, China. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), with concentrations ranging from 0.66 to 5.41 mg/m3, was the major VOS in air samples. Carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) ranged from 0.01 to 0.21, 0.03 to 0.44, and 0.06 to 1.61 mg/m3, respectively. Methanethiol was not found in any gas samples. The concentrations of DMS in wastewaters ranged from 23.68 to 308.17 mg/m3 and were also the highest values compared with other VOSs, for all of the treatment processes. Methanethiol was detected in all wastewater samples, except that from the aeration tank, which ranged from 113.08 to 216.82 mg/m3. The COS, carbon disulfide, and DMDS in wastewaters ranged from 0.11 to 2.21, 1.37 to 23.29, and 0.24 to 106.75 mg/m3, respectively. Odors from pollution related to VOS were different in the two plants, and they were strongly associated with the characteristics of incoming wastewater and treatment processes. The VOSs in ambient air samples from nearby residential areas downwind of the plant border were also measured, and the results strongly suggested that control measures are needed for odor pollution in the WWTPs to mitigate malodor in the surrounding neighborhoods. PMID:18536483

Sheng, Yanqing; Chen, Fanzhong; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo



Determination of organic compounds in landfill leachates treated by Fenton-Adsorption.  


The objective of this study was to identify the organic compounds removed from the leachate when treated with Fenton-Adsorption by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to identify toxic compounds that could be harmful for the environment or human health. The physicochemical characterization of the raw leachate was carried out before and after the Fenton-Adsorption process. The effluent from each stage of this process was characterized: pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD(5)), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Carbon (TC), Inorganic Carbon (IC), Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Color. The organic compounds were determined by GC-MS. The removal of COD and color reached over 99% in compliance with the Mexican Standard NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996, which establishes the maximum permissible limits for contaminants present in wastewater discharges to water and national goods. The chromatographic analysis from the Fenton-Adsorption effluent proved that this treatment removed more than 98% of the organic compounds present in the initial sample. The mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid persisted, although it is not considered as toxic compound by the NOM-052-SEMARNAT-2005. Therefore, the treated effluent can be safely disposed of into the environment. PMID:23146815

Ramírez-Sosa, Dorian R; Castillo-Borges, Elba R; Méndez-Novelo, Roger I; Sauri-Riancho, María R; Barceló-Quintal, Manuel; Marrufo-Gómez, José M



Study of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater in an Urban Agglomeration in Romania  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants.

Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P.



Shock Modifications of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts among asteroidal objects would have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. To begin filling a knowledge gap on the shock metamorphism of organic compounds, we are studying the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach

George W. Cooper




EPA Science Inventory

Static nonrenewal laboratory bioassays were conducted with 26 organic compounds commonly used by industry. The selected compounds represented the five following chemical classes: acids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, ketones and aldehydes, and phenols. Juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephal...



EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a global inventory anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds....


Volatile organic compound remedial action project  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).





SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad



Volatile Organic Compounds Contribute to Airway Hyperresponsiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in concentrations found in both the work and home environments may influence lung function. We investigated the prevalence of airway responsiveness in workers exposed to VOCs. Methods We used allergic skin tests, nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness testing and questionnaires to study twenty exposed workers and twenty-seven control subjects. Atopy was defined as a reactor who showed >3+ response to one or more allergens on the skin prick tests. Airway hyperresponsiveness (BRindex) was defined as log [% fall of FEV1/ log (last concentration of methacholine) +10]. Results The VOC exposed workers, in comparison with the control subjects, tended to have a higher BRindex (1.19±0.07 vs. 1.15±0.08, respectively). Workers exposed to VOCs with atopy or smoker, as compared with the workers exposed to VOCs with non-atopy and who were non-smokers and the control subjects with non-atopy and who were non-smokers, had a significantly higher BRindex (1.20±0.05 vs. 1.14±0.06 vs. 1.10±0.03, respectively p<0.05). The BRindex was not correlated with atopy, the smoking status or the duration of VOC exposure. Conclusions These findings suggest that VOCs may act as a contributing factor of airway hyperresponsiveness in workers exposed to VOCs.

Jang, An-Soo; Choi, Inseon-S; Koh, Young-Il



Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Agricultural Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) participate in ozone and aerosol formation, and comprise a substantial fraction of reactive VOC emission inventories. In the agriculturally intensive Central Valley of California, emissions from crops may substantially influence regional air quality, but emission potentials have not been extensively studied with advanced instrumentation for many important crops. Because crop emissions may vary according to the species, and California emission inventories are constructed via a bottom-up approach, a better knowledge of the emission rate at the species-specific level is critical for reducing uncertainties in emission inventories and evaluating emission model performance. In the present study we identified and quantified the BVOCs released by dominant agricultural crops in California. A screening study to investigate both volatile and semivolatile BVOC fractions (oxygenated VOCs, isoprene, monoterepenes, sesquiterpenes, etc.) was performed for 25 crop species (at least 3 replicates plants each), including branch enclosures of woody species (e.g. peach, mandarin, grape, pistachio) and whole plant enclosures for herbaceous species (e.g. onion, alfalfa, carrot), through a dynamic cuvette system with detection by PTRMS, in-situ GCMS/FID, and collection on carbon-based adsorbents followed by extraction and GCMS analysis. Emission data obtained in this study will allow inclusion of these crops in BVOC emission inventories and air quality simulations.

Ormeno, E.; Farres, S.; Gentner, D.; Park, J.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A.



Kinetics of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter.  


This study presents a new experimental technique for measuring rates of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic substances. The method is based on a fast solid-phase extraction of the freely dissolved fraction of a solute when the solution is flushed through a polymer-coated capillary. The extraction interferes with the solute-DOM sorption equilibrium and drives the desorption process. Solutes which remain sorbed to DOM pass through the extraction capillary and can be analyzed afterward. This technique allows a time resolution for the desorption kinetics from subseconds up to minutes. It is applicable to the study of interaction kinetics between a wide variety of hydrophobic solutes and polyelectrolytes. Due to its simplicity it is accessible for many environmental laboratories. The time-resolved in-tube solid-phase microextraction (TR-IT-SPME) was applied to two humic acids and a surfactant as sorbents together with pyrene, phenanthrene and 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane as solutes. The results give evidence for a two-phase desorption kinetics: a fast desorption step with a half-life of less than 1 s and a slow desorption step with a half-life of more than 1 min. For aliphatic solutes, the fast-desorbing fraction largely dominates, whereas for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, the slowly desorbing, stronger-bound fraction is also important. PMID:22035249

Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Ramus, Ksenia; Poerschmann, Juergen; Georgi, Anett



Secondary organic aerosol from biogenic volatile organic compound mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the ozonolysis of a Siberian fir needle oil (SFNO), a Canadian fir needle oil (CFNO), and several SOA precursor mixtures containing reactive and non-reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. The use of precursor mixtures more completely describes the atmosphere where many VOCs exist. The addition of non-reactive VOCs such as bornyl acetate, camphene, and borneol had very little to no effect on SOA yields. The oxidation of VOC mixtures with VOC mass percentages similar to the SFNO produced SOA yields that became more similar to the SOA yield from SFNO as the complexity and concentration of VOCs within the mixture became more similar to overall SFNO composition. The SOA yield produced by the oxidation of CFNO was within the error of the SOA yield produced by the oxidation of SFNO at a similar VOC concentration. The SOA yields from SFNO were modeled using the volatility basis set (VBS), which predicts the SOA yields for a given mass concentration of mixtures containing similar VOCs.

Hatfield, Meagan L.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.



Separation of Organic Compounds from Surfactant Solutions: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the recent development in separation of emulsified organic compounds from surfactant solutions for surfactant reuse and\\/or surfactant?contaminant disposal. Three major principles have been employed for separating organic compounds and\\/or surfactants from aqueous solutions, namely, organic compound inter?phase mass transfer, surfactant micelle removal, and manipulation of surfactant solution phase behavior. Details of these principles and their applications are

Hefa Cheng; David A. Sabatini



[The qualitative analysis method of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) for ABS wastewater].  


The dissolved organic matter (DOM) of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin wastewater was qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry(GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. The detected results shows that the GC-MS qualitatively analysed 21 dissolved organic pollutants, such as acetophenone, styrene, alpha, alpha-dimethyl-benzenemethanol, 3,3'oxybis-propanenitrile, 3, 3'-iminobis-propanenitrile, 3,3'-thiobis-propanenitrile, 3-(dimethylamino)-propanenitrile and 2-propenenitrile. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy could examine and certify the accuracy and integrity for the qualitative analysis of GC-MS. The results of this study provides an important guiding role for the development of wastewater treatment process. PMID:21595240

Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yue-xi; Song, Yu-dong; Xi, Hong-bo; Sun, Li-dong; Chen, Jia-yun



Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process.  


Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in a common treatment plant of an organized tannery industrial region in Istanbul, Turkey. Treatment of the wastewater was carried out by an electrochemical batch reactor equipped with two iron electrodes, which were connected parallel to each other. The oxidation process was studied for optimization of H(2)O(2) and the electricity consumptions were observed at different contact times under different pH conditions (3.0, 5.0 and 7.2). In each case, electricity consumption for decreased COD mass was estimated. In this process, COD was reduced by 60-70% within 10 min. By taking into consideration the local sewerage discharge limit, applicability of EF process for the tannery wastewaters was evaluated. PMID:17014953

Kurt, Ugur; Apaydin, Omer; Gonullu, M Talha



Volatilization of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater Treatment: Model Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods are presented for simulating the transfer of volatile organic contaminants to the atmosphere during surface and bubble aeration. Suitable values of the input parameters for conditions representative of activated sludge treatment are suggested, and...

P. V. Roberts C. Munz P. Daendliker C. Matter-Mueller




EPA Science Inventory

Methods are presented for simulating the transfer of volatile organic contaminants to the atmosphere during surface and bubble aeration. Suitable values of the input parameters for conditions representative of activated sludge treatment are suggested, and model calculations are p...



EPA Science Inventory

Principal objectives of this research program were to examine the effects of disinfection by chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light irradiation on nonvolatile organic constituents in secondary effluents relative to chemical effects and formation of mutagenic substances. In a comp...


Control of residual organic matter to reduce bacterial regrowth potential for wastewater reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several problems have been reported about accumulated microorganisms in reclaimed water distribution systems. This paper presents\\u000a the results of residual organic matter (OM) removal and apparent bacterial regrowth potential of treated wastewater obtained\\u000a from laboratory-scale experiments using advanced biological treatments: two immobilization processes in series and a membrane\\u000a bioreactor (MBR) process. Furthermore, a nanofiltration (NF) membrane process was applied to

Shijun Kim; Jeongsook Kim; Yutaka Suzuki



PreTreatment of Organic-High Refractory Dyestuff Wastewater with Electrolysis Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three kinds of electrochemical methods, electro-flocculation, indirect electro-oxidation and electro-Fenton were examined as pre-treatment processes for fresh dyestuff wastewater with high salinity and non-biodegradable organic concentration. The efficiency of each technique was evaluated according to the reduction levels of COD and toxicity, as well as biodegradability improvement. The results indicate electro-Fenton process as the most efficient pre-treatment for reducing toxicity,

Peishi Qi; Zhanli Chen; Huanxin Zhang; Yunzhi Liu



Characterization of dissolved organic matter in effluents from wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from sewage and human-wastes treatment plants (STPEs and HWTPEs) was fractionated using resin adsorbents into six classes: aquatic humic substances (AHS), hydrophobic bases (HoB), hydrophobic neutrals (HoN), hydrophilic acids (HiA), hydrophilic bases (HiB), and hydrophilic neutrals (HiN).DOM-fraction distribution varied substantially depending on the kind of wastewater and the type of treatment process. AHS and

Akio Imai; Takehiko Fukushima; Kazuo Matsushige; Yong-Hwan Kim; Kwangsoon Choi



Organic matter humification in olive oil mill wastewater by abiotic catalysis with manganese(IV) oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical changes occurring in an olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) sample digested catalytically with MnO2 for 30 and 60 days were evaluated comparatively with those occurring in the same OMW left standing for the same time in an open-air lagoon. Both treatments increased the pH and electrical conductivity and decreased the contents of dry matter, total organic C and

G. Brunetti; N. Senesi; C. Plaza



Modeling hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable organic compounds in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.  


Hydrolysis is an important process in biological wastewater treatment and is known to be the rate-limiting step in organic carbon removal from municipal or industrial wastewater. The influence of the readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand fraction in biological wastewater treatment systems has been extensively investigated, but little is known about the effects of slowly biodegradable substrate (XS) on denitrification and enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The biodegradation of XS is initiated by hydrolysis, which is an integral part of activated sludge models, such as the Activated Sludge Model no. 2d (ASM2d). This process is slower than heterotrophic growth and thus becomes the rate-limiting step for the biodegradation of organic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate different concepts of modeling the hydrolysis process using the original and modified version of ASM2d. Batch test results obtained at a large biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant in Gdansk (Poland) provided an experimental database for comparison of the two model predictions. Both models were compared in terms of their predictions for the most important process rates in BNR activated sludge systems. In comparison with the orginal ASM2d, the modified model had no or only minor effect on the predicted nitrate utilization rate, phosphate release rate and anoxic/aerobic phosphate uptake rate, but better predicted the oxygen uptake rate. The average ARDs (average relative deviations) were 19.0 and 29.3% (original ASM2d) vs. 13.4 and 20.4% (modified ASM2d), respectively, for the settled wastewater without pretreatment and after coagulation-flocculation. PMID:23656951

Drewnowski, J; Makinia, J




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...


40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Subpart Fff - Standards of Performance for Flexible Vinyl and Urethane] [Sec. 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds...SOURCES-- Standards of Performance for Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Sec. 60.582 Standard for volatile organic...



Nitrification of an industrial wastewater in a moving?bed biofilm reactor: effect of salt concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification of wastewaters from chemical industries can pose some challenges due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. Some wastewaters, besides their organic complexity present variable levels of salt concentration. In order to investigate the effect of salt (NaCl) content on the nitrification of a conventional biologically treated industrial wastewater, a bench scale moving?bed biofilm reactor was operated on a sequencing

Simone Vendramel; Marcia Dezotti; Geraldo L. Sant’Anna



Hospital Wastewater Treatment Using an Integrated Anaerobic Aerobic Fixed Film Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation of wastewater treatment systems for hospital is a challenge for wastewater engineers. In this study, a pilot-scale system integrated anaerobic-aerobic fixed film reactor for hospital wastewater treatment was constructed and its performance was evaluated. The aim of the study was the elimination of organic compounds and a significant reduction of bacteria. The system had been operated

A. Rezaee; M. Ansari; A. Khavanin; A. Sabzali; M. M. Aryan


Characterization of four olive-mill-wastewater indigenous bacterial strains capable of aerobically degrading hydroxylated and methoxylated monocyclic aromatic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven aerobic bacterial strains capable of degrading several of the monocyclic aromatic compounds occurring in the phenolic fraction of olive-mill wastewaters (OMWs) were isolated from an Italian OMW. The results of the 16S rDNA restriction analysis evidenced that these strains are distributed among four different groups. One strain of each group was taxonomically characterized by sequencing the amplified 16S rDNA,

Diana Di Gioia; Claudia Barberio; Sonia Spagnesi; Leonardo Marchetti; Fabio Fava



Accumulation and Transformation of Sulfonated Aromatic Compounds by Higher Plants –Toward the Phytotreatment of Wastewater from Dye and Textile Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfonated anthraquinones are precursors of many synthetic dyes and pigments, recalcitrant to biodegradation and thus not\\u000a eliminated by classical wastewater treatments. In the development of a phytoremediation process to remove sulfonated aromatic\\u000a compounds from industrial effluents, the most promising results have been obtained with Rheum rabarbarum (rhubarb), a plant species producing natural anthraquinones. Rhubarb is not only able to accumulate,

Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel; Stéphanie Braillard; Valérie Page; Sylvie Aubert


Effects of Cr(III) organic compounds on Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotransformation of Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) has been known to produce insoluble Cr(III) compounds and soluble Cr(III) organic complexes. However, recent research reports have indicated that Cr(III) organic complexes are relatively stable in the environment. Little has been reported on the fate and toxic effects of Cr(III) organic compounds on organisms. In this study, the toxic effects of the

Titus Wambua Mutisya; Zejiao Luo; Nivedita Chatterjee



Cross-linked tyrosinase aggregates for elimination of phenolic compounds from wastewater.  


A novel, practical and inexpensive immobilization method has been developed for mushroom tyrosinase to be used for enzymatic treatment of phenolic wastewater. Catalyzed by the enzyme immobilized in the form of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), phenolic compounds such as phenol, p-cresol, p-chlorophenol and bisphenol A can be efficiently eliminated, with a complete conversion obtained within 0.5-3h, superior to other processes catalyzed by the same enzyme which is either free or immobilized with traditional carrier-bound immobilization methods. The effects of reaction time, pH, enzyme dosage and initial concentration of the phenol solution were examined. The sequence of dephenolization rate (p-cresol>p-chlorophenol>phenol) was in accordance with the substrate selectivity of the enzyme. The reusability of the CLEAs has been tested in a batch reactor for each phenol. In a continuous stirred tank reactor, the CLEAs encapsulated into calcium alginate gels were effective for removing phenol for at least 26h. The toxicity of the phenol-containing solution was remarkably diminished after treatment with the tyrosinase CLEAs, as demonstrated by the Hydra sinensis test. PMID:23411085

Xu, Da-You; Yang, Zhen



Nitrated Secondary Organic Tracer Compounds in Biomass Burning Smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and human-initiated biomass burning releases large amounts of gases and particles into the atmosphere, impacting climate, environment and affecting public health. Several hundreds of compounds are emitted from biomass burning and these compounds largely originate from the pyrolysis of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Some of compounds are known to be specific to biomass burning and widely recognized as tracer compounds that can be used to identify the presence of biomass burning PM. Detailed chemical analysis of biomass burning influenced PM samples often reveals the presence compounds that correlated well with levoglucosan, a known biomass burning tracer compound. In particular, nitrated aromatic compounds correlated very well with levoglucosan, indicating that biomass burning as a source for this class of compounds. In the present study, we present evidence for the presence of biomass burning originating secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) compounds in biomass burning influenced ambient PM. These BSOA compounds are typically nitrated aromatic compounds that are produced in the oxidation of precursor compounds in the presence of NOx. The precursor identification was performed from a series of aerosol chamber experiments. m-Cresol, which is emitted from biomass burning at significant levels, is found to be a major precursor compounds for nitrated BSOA compounds found in the ambient PM. We estimate that the total concentrations of these compounds in the ambient PM are comparable to biogenic SOA compounds in winter months, indicating the BSOA contributes important amounts to the regional organic aerosol loading.

Iinuma, Y.; Böge, O.; Gräfe, R.; Herrmann, H.



Identification of Organic Compounds by Gas Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE identification of unknown compounds separated by gas chromatography is often effected by comparison of their retention values with those of known compounds together with infra-red spectro-photometry or mass spectrometry. For this purpose graphs are prepared of log r against boiling point or log r on one stationary phase against log r on another stationary phase, where r is the

Ian Brown



Volatile chelates and organic compounds of neptunium and plutonium  

SciTech Connect

In this review, volatile coordination and organic compounds of neptunium and plutonium are described, including complex halides, alkoxides, borohydrides, ..beta..-diketonates, phthalocyanines, and organometallic ..pi..-complexes. Comparison is made with analogous compounds of other f-elements (particularly, uranium and thorium). The prospects of practical use of volatile compounds of neptunium and plutonium are discussed.

Mishin, V.Ya.; Sidorenko, G.V.; Suglobov, D.N.



Degradation of organic matter from domestic wastewater with loofah sponge biofilm reactor.  


A laboratory-scale oxic biofilm reactor using loofah sponge as support material was carried out to study its start-up characteristics and the optimum operation parameters in removing organic matter and nitrogen from domestic wastewater. It took no more than 10 days to complete microbiological cultivation and acclimation, indicating that the natural loofah sponge was a superior support material compared with some conventional ones. The influence parameter experiments showed that the hydraulic retention time (HRT) had a significant influence on the COD and NH(3)-N removal efficiencies, the average COD and NH(3)-N removal efficiencies were 83.7 and 96.9% respectively when the temperature was 25 ± 2 °C, the influent flow rate was 0.21 L/h and the HRT was 7.5 h. The loofah sponge biofilm system had a strong tolerance to organic shock loading in the present experiment. Additionally, it was found that domestic wastewater could be preferably treated with 88.9% of COD and 98.7% of NH(3)-N removal efficiencies with the corresponding influent concentrations of 260.0 and 26.8 mg/L, respectively. The observations obtained in the present study indicated that the loofah sponge was an excellent natural support material, potentially feasible for the present system for the treatment of the decentralized domestic wastewater. PMID:22173425

Zhang, Liwei; Sun, Ken; Hu, Na



A Systematic Presentation of Organic Phosphorus and Sulfur Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because the names, interrelations, and oxidation levels of the organic compounds of phosphorus and sulfur tend to confuse students, a simple way to organize these compounds has been developed. The system consists of grouping them by oxidation state and extent of carbon substitution. (JN)|

Hendrickson, James B.



40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment...Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which §...



40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment...Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which the...



40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment...Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after the date on which the...



40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment...Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the performance test...



40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment...Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On and after the date on which the...



40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment...Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or operator of any...



40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment...Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which the...



40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment...Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of an...



40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment...Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the...



40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment...Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the...



40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment...Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected petroleum solvent...



Organic--Inorganic Layer Compounds: Physical Properties and Chemical Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with intercalation compounds, which can exist both with and without organic molecules between the planes of inorganic material, `molecular composite' compounds have organic groups covalently or ionically bound to inorganic layers. In such crystals the aim is to combine magnetic or optical properties characteristic of the inorganic solid state, like magnetism and luminescence, with properties found in the

P. Day




Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated and brominated volatile organic compounds are among the groundwater pollutants creating major environmental problems. In this study, dynamic behavior of certain volatile organic compounds in water was investigated by using a novel moment technique. Adsorption equilibrium constant and the penetration length of tracers were evaluated by the first absolute and the second central moment expressions derived for a pulse-response

Nail Yasyerli; Ugur Harbili




SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad



Influence of organic shock loads in an ASBBR treating synthetic wastewater with different concentration levels.  


Safe application of the anaerobic sequencing biofilm batch reactor (ASBBR) still depends on deeper insight into its behavior when faced with common operational problems in wastewater treatments such as tolerance to abrupt variations in influent concentration, so called shock loads. To this end the current work shows the effect of organic shock loads on the performance of an ASBBR, with a useful volume of 5L, containing 0.5-cm polyurethane cubes and operating at 30 degrees C with mechanical stirring of 500 rpm. In the assays 2L of two types of synthetic wastewater were treated in 8-h cycles. Synthetic wastewater I was based on sucrose-amide-cellulose with concentration of 500 mg COD/L and synthetic wastewater II was based on volatile acids with concentration ranging from 500 to 2000 mg COD/L. Organic shock loads of 2-4 times the operation concentration were applied during one and two cycles. System efficiency was monitored before and after application of the perturbation. When operating with concentrations from 500 to 1000 mg COD/L and shock loads of 2-4 times the influent concentration during one or two cycles the system was able to regain stability after one cycle and the values of organic matter, total and intermediate volatile acids, bicarbonate alkalinity and pH were similar to those prior to the perturbations. At a concentration of 2000 mg COD/L the reactor appeared to be robust, regaining removal efficiencies similar to those prior to perturbation at shock loads twice the operation concentration lasting one cycle and stability was recovered after two cycles. However, for shock loads twice the operation concentration during two cycles and shock loads four times the operation concentration during one or two cycles filtered sample removal efficiency decreased to levels different from those prior to perturbation, on an average of 90-80%, approximately, yet the system managed to attain stability within two cycles after shock application. Therefore, this investigation envisions the potential of full scale application of this type of bioreactor which showed robustness to organic shock loads, despite discontinuous operation and the short times available for treating total wastewater volume. PMID:17669646

Moreira, Mariana Bueno; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugênio



Occurrence of some organic UV filters in wastewater, in surface waters, and in fish from Swiss Lakes.  


Organic UV filters are used in personal care products such as sunscreen products, and in cosmetics, beauty creams, skin lotions, lipsticks, hair sprays, hair dyes, shampoos, and so forth. The compounds enter the aquatic environmentfrom showering, wash-off, washing (laundering), and so forth via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) ("indirect inputs") and from recreational activities such as swimming and bathing in lakes and rivers ("direct inputs"). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of four important organic UV filter compounds (benzophenone-3, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC) in wastewater, and in water and fish from various Swiss lakes, using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses. All four UV filters were present in untreated wastewater (WWTP influent) with a maximum concentration of 19 microg L(-1) for EHMC. The data indicate a seasonal variation with influent loads higher in the warmer season (June 2002) than in the colder one (April 2002). The influent loads were in the order EHMC > 4-MBC approximately BP-3 > OC. The concentrations in treated wastewater (WWTP effluent) were considerably lower, indicating substantial elimination in the plants. 4-MBC was usually the most prevalent compound (maximum concentration, 2.7 microg L(-1)), followed by BP-3, EHMC, and OC. UV filters were also detected in Swiss midland lakes and a river (Limmat) receiving inputs from WWTPs and recreational activities. However, all concentrations were low (<2-35 ng L(-1)); no UV filters (<2 ng L(-1)) were detected in a remote mountain lake. Data from passive sampling using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) supported the presence of these UV filters in the lakes and the river and suggested some potential for accumulation of these compounds in biota. SPMD-derived water concentrations increased in the order Greifensee < Zürichsee < Hüttnersee. This order is reversed from that observed for methyl triclosan, used as a chemical marker for WWTP-derived lipophilic contaminants in the lakes. This indicated inputs of UV filters from sources other than WWTPs to the lakes during summer,for example,inputs from recreational activities. Fish (white fish, Coregonus sp.; roach, Rutilus rutilus; perch, Perca fluviatilis) from these lakes contained low but detectable concentrations of UV filters, in particular, 4-MBC (up to 166 ng g(-1) on a lipid basis). 4-MBC concentrations relative to methyl triclosan were lower in fish than in SPMDs exposed in the same lakes, suggesting that 4-MBC is less bioaccumulated than expected or metabolized in fish. The lipid-based bioconcentration factor (BCF(L)) estimated from the fish (roach) data and SPMD-derived water concentrations was about 1-2.3 x 10(4) and thus approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than expected from its Kow value. PMID:15773466

Balmer, Marianne E; Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas



Application of wastewater from paper and food seasoning industries with green manure to increase soil organic carbon: A laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory scale experiment was designed to study the suitability of organic wastes from paper and food seasoning industries to improve the soil organic carbon for rice cultivation. Lignin-rich wastewater from paper industry and nitrogen-rich effluent from a food industry at suitably lower concentrations were used at two levels of green manure to enhance the soil organic carbon fraction over

Chin-Ching Lin; A. B. Arun; P. D. Rekha; Chiu-Chung Young



Anaerobic degradation of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from pulp and paper industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbable organic halides (AOX) are generated in the pulp and paper industry during the bleaching process. These compounds are formed as a result of reaction between residual lignin from wood fibres and chlorine\\/chlorine compounds used for bleaching. Many of these compounds are recalcitrant and have long half-life periods. Some of them show a tendency to bioaccumulate while some are proven

D. V. Savant; R. Abdul-Rahman; D. R. Ranade



Wastewater treatment plant and landfills as sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds to the atmosphere.  


Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in air around a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and two landfill sites using sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers in summer 2009. The samples were analyzed for five PFC classes (i.e., fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs)) to investigate their concentration in air, composition and emissions to the atmosphere. ?PFC concentrations in air were 3-15 times higher within the WWTP (2280-24?040 pg/m(3)) and 5-30 times higher at the landfill sites (2780-26?430 pg/m(3)) compared to the reference sites (597-1600 pg/m3). Variations in the PFC pattern were observed between the WWTP and landfill sites and even within the WWTP site. For example, FTOHs were the predominant PFC class in air for all WWTP and landfill sites, with 6:2 FTOH as the dominant compound at the WWTP (895-12?290 pg/m(3)) and 8:2 FTOH dominating at the landfill sites (1290-17?380 pg/m(3)). Furthermore, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was dominant within the WWTP (43-171 pg/m(3)), followed by perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (55-116 pg/m(3)), while PFBA was dominant at the landfill sites (101-102 pg/m(3)). It is also noteworthy that the PFCA concentrations decreased with increasing chain length and that the emissions for the even chain length PFCAs outweighed emissions for the odd chain length compounds. Furthermore, highly elevated PFC concentrations were found near the aeration tanks compared to the other tanks (i.e., primary and secondary clarifier) and likely associated with increased volatilization during aeration that may be further enhanced through aqueous aerosol-mediated transport. ?PFC yearly emissions estimated using a simplified dispersion model were 2560 g/year for the WWTP, 99 g/year for landfill site 1, and 1000 g/year for landfill site 2. These results highlight the important role of WWTPs and landfills as emission sources of PFCs to the atmosphere. PMID:21466185

Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Lee, Sum Chi; Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J



A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States--II) untreated drinking water sources.  


Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people. Sixty-three of the 100 targeted chemicals were detected in at least one water sample. Interestingly, in spite of the low detection levels 60% of the 36 pharmaceuticals (including prescription drugs and antibiotics) analyzed were not detected in any water sample. The five most frequently detected chemicals targeted in surface water were: cholesterol (59%, natural sterol), metolachlor (53%, herbicide), cotinine (51%, nicotine metabolite), beta-sitosterol (37%, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27%, caffeine metabolite); and in ground water: tetrachloroethylene (24%, solvent), carbamazepine (20%, pharmaceutical), bisphenol-A (20%, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16%, caffeine metabolite), and tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12%, fire retardant). A median of 4 compounds were detected per site indicating that the targeted chemicals generally occur in mixtures (commonly near detection levels) in the environment and likely originate from a variety of animal and human uses and waste sources. These data will help prioritize and determine the need, if any, for future occurrence, fate and transport, and health-effects research for subsets of these chemicals and their degradates most likely to be found in water resources used for drinking water in the United States. PMID:18433838

Focazio, Michael J; Kolpin, Dana W; Barnes, Kimberlee K; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Barber, Larry B; Thurman, Michael E



Organic pollutants in the effluents of large wastewater treatment plants in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from the three largest WWTPs in Sweden were analysed for the presence of organic pollutants by GC-MS. From a total of 137 identified compounds only 10 were priority pollutants. A broad spectrum of non-regulated organic pollutants found in the effluents included aromatic hydrocarbons, food and household related compounds, solvents, plasticisers, flame retardants, preservatives, antioxidants and washing and cleaning related

Nicklas Paxéus



Anaerobic transformations of wastewater organic matter and sulfide production--investigations in a pilot plant pressure sewer.  


Anaerobic transformations of wastewater organic matter and sulfide production rate were studied using a pilot plant pressure sewer (inner diameter: 102 mm, length: 47 m). Furthermore, a process model description including carbon and sulfur cycle was presented. Wastewater characterization based on oxygen utilization rate (OUR) measurement and VFA analysis was employed. Under anaerobic conditions, a net production of readily biodegradable substrate was observed, which fact is important for biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus at subsequent wastewater treatment plants. Model parameters were determined on the basis of experimental findings. The model simulation of transformations of organic matter in sewers can be used as input to the model simulation and evaluation of the processes in wastewater treatment plants. The model is also useful to evaluate the problems in both sewers themselves and treatment plants caused by hydrogen sulfide. PMID:11902483

Tanaka, N; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T



Acute toxicity of an in situ shale oil process wastewater and its major compounds to Daphnia magna  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the potential environmental hazard of an in situ shale oil process wastewater to aquatic organisms is presented. The study determined the acute toxicity (48 hours) of the wastewater to Daphnia magma, a microcrustacean commonly found in lakes in northern and western North American and a sensitive test organism for many toxicity studies. The effluent under study was obtained from the Laramie Energy Technology Center's experimental in situ shale oil site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. In addition, a synthetic effluent was prepared by mixing each of the major inorganic components identified in the waste water at the concentrations found. The acute toxicity of the synthetic mixture was compared with that of the waste water and it was found that the waste water was approximately 1.5 times as toxic as the synthetic mixture. Because of the differences in toxicity, it was determined that not all of the chemicals present in the original effluent at acutely toxic concentrations have been identified.

Burnham, L.N.; Melvin, W.W.; Buchan, R.M.



Radioiodine Volatilization in the Presence of Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The impact of organic compounds on iodine volatility was investigated under a range of postaccident chemical conditions expected in a reactor containment structure. The rate of production of volatile iodine was evaluated in the presence of 10{sup -3} M concentrations of carbonyl, alkyl halide, and aromatic compounds. A bench-scale apparatus, installed in the irradiation chamber of a Gammacell, was used to measure the rate of iodine volatilization from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -4} M CsI solutions with pH values from 5 to 9. The results indicated that organic compounds could be classified into groups, based on their distinct effects on iodine volatility. Iodine volatilization increased significantly, up to two orders of magnitude, in the presence of carbonyl compounds and alkyl chlorides, while it decreased in the presence of aromatic compounds. Gas phase speciation indicated that organic iodides dominate the airborne iodine species in the presence of carbonyl compounds and alkyl halides.

Taghipour, Fariborz; Evans, Greg J. [University of Toronto (Canada)



Extended structures and physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds.  


The ability of uranium to undergo nuclear fission has been exploited primarily to manufacture nuclear weapons and to generate nuclear power. Outside of its nuclear physics, uranium also exhibits rich chemistry, and it forms various compounds with other elements. Among the uranium-bearing compounds, those with a uranium oxidation state of +6 are most common and a particular structural unit, uranyl UO(2)(2+) is usually involved in these hexavalent uranium compounds. Apart from forming solids with inorganic ions, the uranyl unit also bonds to organic molecules to generate uranyl-organic coordination materials. If appropriate reaction conditions are employed, uranyl-organic extended structures (1-D chains, 2-D layers, and 3-D frameworks) can be obtained. Research on uranyl-organic compounds with extended structures allows for the exploration of their rich structural chemistry, and such studies also point to potential applications such as in materials that could facilitate nuclear waste disposal. In this Account, we describe the structural features of uranyl-organic compounds and efforts to synthesize uranyl-organic compounds with desired structures. We address strategies to construct 3-D uranyl-organic frameworks through rational selection of organic ligands and the incorporation of heteroatoms. The UO(2)(2+) species with inactive U?O double bonds usually form bipyramidal polyhedral structures with ligands coordinated at the equatorial positions, and these polyhedra act as primary building units (PBUs) for the construction of uranyl-organic compounds. The geometry of the uranyl ions and the steric arrangements and functionalities of organic ligands can be exploited in the the design of uranyl--organic extended structures, We also focus on the investigation of the promising physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds. Uranyl-organic materials with an extended structure may exhibit attractive properties, such as photoluminescence, photocatalysis, photocurrent, and photovoltaic responses. In particular, the intriguing, visible-light photocatalytic activities of uranyl-organic compounds are potentially applicable in decomposition of organic pollutants and in water-splitting with the irradiation of solar light. We ascribe the photochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds to the electronic transitions within the U?O bonds, which may be affected by the presence of organic ligands. PMID:21612214

Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng




EPA Science Inventory

One process determining the fate of xenobiotics (organics not natural to a system) in environmental waters is bacterial transformation. Bacteria are one of the most metabolically active groups of organisms in the environment. They can degrade and derive energy from a variety of o...


Heavy metals removal from wastewaters using organic solid waste-rice husk.  


In this study, the removal of Cr(III) and Cu(II) from contaminated wastewaters by rice husk, as an organic solid waste, was investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of wastewater initial concentration, pH of solution, and contact time on the efficiency of Cr(III) and Cu(II) removal. The results indicated that the maximum removal of Cr(III) and Cu(II) occurred at pH 5-6 by rice husk and removal rate increased by increased pH from 1 to 6. It could be concluded that the removal efficiency was enhanced by increasing wastewater initial concentration in the first percentage of adsorption and then decreased due to saturation of rice husk particles. Also according to achieved results, calculated saturation capacity in per gram rice husk for Cr(III) and Cu(II) were 30 and 22.5 mg?g(-1), respectively. The amounts of Cr(III) and Cu(II) adsorbed increased with increase in their contact time. The rate of reaction was fast. So that 15-20 min after the start of the reaction, between 50 and 60 % of metal ions were removed. Finally, contact time of 60 min as the optimum contact time was proposed. PMID:23381799

Sobhanardakani, S; Parvizimosaed, H; Olyaie, E



Usefulness of Organic Acid Produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on Neutralization of Alkaline Wastewater  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita



Usefulness of organic acid produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on neutralization of alkaline wastewater.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry. PMID:22666107

Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita



Early diagenetic alterations of biogenetic organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant matter from a beech forest, leaves, and soil were extracted and analyzed by GC-MS technique. The amount of the extract varies with the CPI value. Characteristic compounds like phytadienes, plant alcohols, polycyclic aromatics, sterols, and triterpenes are observed in different samples at various concentrations. It seems there is a rapid change in the composition of extracts from recent plant

A. Hollerbach; Lehrstuhl ffir Geologie



Degradability of five aromatic compounds in a pilot wastewater treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified terephthalic acid-manufacturing wastewater was treated aerobically with the microbial fusant Fhhh in the carrier activated sludge process at a pilot wastewater treatment plant. Biodegradability of p-toluic acid (p-Tol), benzoic acid (BA), 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA), phthalic acid (PA) and terephthalic acid (TA) was monitored. The TOC and COD loading rate of suspended solids (SS) in the sludge were 0.53gTOCgSS?1 d?1 and

X. X. Zhang; S. P. Cheng; Y. Q. Wan; S. L. Sun; C. J. Zhu; D. Y. Zhao; W. Y. Pan



Degradation of Organic Compounds by Active Species Sprayed in a Dielectric Barrier Corona Discharge System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation was made into the degradation of organic compounds by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) system. The DBCD, consisting of a quartz tube, a concentric high voltage electrode and a net wrapped to the external wall (used as ground electrode), was introduced to generate active species which were sprayed into the organic solution through an aerator fixed on the bottom of the tube. The effect of four factors-the discharge voltage, gas flow rate, solution conductivity, and pH of wastewater, on the degradation efficiency of phenol was assessed. The obtained results demonstrated that this process was an effective method for phenol degradation. The degradation rate was enhanced with the increase in power supplied. The degradation efficiency in alkaline conditions was higher than those in acid and neutral conditions. The optimal gas flow rate for phenol degradation in the system was 1.6 L/min, while the solution conductivity had little effect on the degradation.

Li, Jie; Song, Ling; Liu, Qiang; Qu, Guangzhou; Li, Guofeng; Wu, Yan



Comprehensive bench- and pilot-scale investigation of trace organic compounds rejection by forward osmosis.  


Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane separation technology that has been studied in recent years for application in water treatment and desalination. It can best be utilized as an advanced pretreatment for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from scaling and fouling. In the current study the rejection of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, and flame-retardants by FO and a hybrid FO-RO system was investigated at both the bench- and pilot-scales. More than 30 compounds were analyzed, of which 23 nonionic and ionic TOrCs were identified and quantified in the studied wastewater effluent. Results revealed that almost all TOrCs were highly rejected by the FO membrane at the pilot scale while rejection at the bench scale was generally lower. Membrane fouling, especially under field conditions when wastewater effluent is the FO feed solution, plays a substantial role in increasing the rejection of TOrCs in FO. The hybrid FO-RO process demonstrated that the dual barrier treatment of impaired water could lead to more than 99% rejection of almost all TOrCs that were identified in reclaimed water. PMID:21838294

Hancock, Nathan T; Xu, Pei; Heil, Dean M; Bellona, Christopher; Cath, Tzahi Y



Biodegradation technology for volatile organic compound removal from airstreams. Phase 1: Performance verification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic air pollutants are emitted in significant quantities from wastewater treatment plants (POTWs, or publicly owned treatment works). However, the concentrations are low, presenting a challenge for emissions control. Laboratory and field studies verified the potential application of microbial packed bed systems (biofilters) for the removal of VOCs from off-gases resulting from wastewater treatment. The contractor built a pilot scale biofilter designed to treat about 200 cfm of air, consisting of a reactor chamber, gas intake system, humidification chamber, a gas flow measurement system, and a filter bed. The filter medium consisted of compost obtained from a POTW, with perlite and crushed oyster shells added. The biofilter was installed at a headworks for incoming sewage at a POTW. After an acclimation period of several days, appreciable removal of VOCs was observed. In the field, removals of benzene, toluene, and hydrogen sulfide were generally over 90 percent. However, removals of chlorinated compounds were varied, and generally were below 40 percent of the inlet concentrations. Hydrogen sulfide removal was consistently greater than 99 percent, and the resulting odors were not unpleasant.

Ergas, S.J.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.



Removal of natural and xeno-estrogens during conventional wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological impacts of natural estrogens and xenoestrogens in treated wastewater include altered sexual development and\\u000a sex ratios among continuously exposed organisms. The primary sources of estrogenic activity in wastewater are natural estrogens\\u000a such as estrone, 17?-estradiol and estriol and synthetic compounds like 17?-ethinylestradiol, alkylphenols and alklphenol\\u000a ethoxylates. Precursors in raw wastewater can yield estrogenic intermediates during wastewater treatment. All

Sondra S. Teske; Robert G. Arnold




EPA Science Inventory

Ninty-six organic priority pollutants (from EPA Effluent Guidelines Consent Decree) were studied to determine the extent and rate of microbial degradation and the acclimation periods needed for substrate biooxidation. The pollutants have been classified into groups with character...


Development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the identification of micro-organisms associated with wastewater particles and flocs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides a unique tool to study micro-organisms associated with particles and flocs. FISH enables visual examination of micro-organisms while they are structurally intact and associated with particles. However, application of FISH to wastewater and sludge samples presents a specific set of problems. Wastewater samples generate high background fluorescence due to their organic and inorganic content

Banu Örmeci; Karl G. Linden



Plant uptake of pharmaceutical chemicals detected in recycled organic manure and reclaimed wastewater.  


Land application of recycled manure produced from biosolids and reclaimed wastewater can transfer pharmaceutical chemicals to terrestrial environments, giving rise to potential accumulation of these residues in edible plants. In this study, the potential for plant uptake of 13 pharmaceutical chemicals, and the relation between the accumulation features within the plant and the physicochemical properties were examined by exposing pea and cucumber to an aqueous solution containing pharmaceutical chemicals. Ten of 13 compounds tested were detected in plant leaves and stems. Comparison of the plant uptake characteristics and the octanol-water partition coefficient of pharmaceutical chemicals showed that compounds with an intermediate polarity such as carbamazepine and crotamiton could be easily transported to plant shoots. Moreover, these results suggest the possibility of highly hydrophilic pharmaceutical chemicals such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides to be accumulated in plant roots owing to their low permeability in root cell membranes. PMID:23003104

Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Shinohara, Ryota; Nomiyama, Kei



[Emission volatile organic compounds from new textile floor coverings].  


The emission of formaldehyde and the other volatile organic compounds (toluene, styrene, 4-PC) and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new textile floor coverings was measured with the use of environmental chamber (0.6 m3 capacity) in the following conditions: temperature 23 degrees C, relative humidity 45%, 1 exchange/hour and factor loading 1 m2 m-3. The formaldehyde was determined by using colorimetric method, VOCs by GC method. The tested carpets did not emit formaldehyde. The emission of other volatile organic compounds was very low and fulfill known requirements. PMID:12621886

Igielska, Barbara; Pecka, Irena; Sitko, Elzbieta; Nikel, Grazyna; Wiglusz, Renata



Natural production of organic bromine compounds in Berlin Lakes.  


Berlin surface waters are characterized by elevated concentrations of organic bound bromine (up to 35 microg/L) in late summer. Organic bromine compounds in lakes are of significant importance because human life is closely connected to fresh water. Apart from recreational use, fresh water is frequently used for the production of drinking water, e.g., after bank filtration. Therefore the source, particularly the mechanism responsible for the formation is studied. Field studies indicate that the organic bromine compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr), are autochthonous. Staggered maxima concentrations of chlorophyll-a, DOC and AOBr indicate that phototrophic organisms might contribute to the AOBr after death. The involvement of phototrophic organisms was established in the laboratory using surface water and/or cultures of organisms. Light and the presence of phototrophic organisms are essential for an AOBr production. Phototrophic organisms incorporate bromide, which is released randomly and after cell death. A part of the incorporated bromide is used for the formation of organic bromine compounds in the cell. After death of the organisms the brominated compounds and the incorporated bromide are released into the water phase, and an extracellular AOBr production can lead to a further formation of AOBr, most probably due to the parallel release of haloperoxidases. PMID:17547185

Hütteroth, Alexandra; Putschew, Anke; Jekel, Martin



Membrane filtration of wastewater effluents for reuse: effluent organic matter rejection and fouling.  


The reuse of treated wastewater to augment natural drinking water supplies is receiving serious consideration. Treatment of secondary and tertiary effluent by membrane filtration was investigated by assessing nanofiltration (NF) membrane and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in bench-scale experiments. It was found that secondary and tertiary effluent contained high concentration of effluent organic matter (EfOM), contributing EfOM-related fouling. Flux decline and EfOM rejection tests were evaluated, using a dead-end stirred cell filtration unit. Surface charge and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of membranes were significant factors in membrane performance including permeability and EfOM-rejection. PMID:11436785

Jarusutthirak, C; Amy, G



Reduction of organic pollutants in Olive Mill Wastewater by using different mineral substrates as adsorbents.  


Physico-chemical treatments of Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) were carried out using different inorganic substrates such as soil, bentonite and zeolite, in order to assess their efficiency to remove the organic load from OMW, in particular polyphenols (Pp) and to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD). The effect of repeated treatments of OMW with different minerals and the possibility of regenerating them by the Low Temperature Ashing (LTA) technique, an eco-friendly procedure, for the reutilization of treated OMW, has been investigated. Zeolite was found to be highly efficient in adsorbing Pp and COD from OMW and was easy to regenerate by means of the LTA technique. PMID:17499501

Santi, C A; Cortes, S; D'Acqui, L P; Sparvoli, E; Pushparaj, B



40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart G of... - Organic HAP's Subject to the Wastewater Provisions for Process Units at New Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organic HAP's Subject to the Wastewater Provisions...CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for...



40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart G of... - Organic HAP's Subject to the Wastewater Provisions for Process Units at New and Existing Sources...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organic HAP's Subject to the Wastewater Provisions...CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for...



Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process.

Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo



Concentration of Organic Compounds in Water. A Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the large variety of chemical compounds present either naturally or as industrial contaminants in water samples, no single concentration method currently available is adequate for concentrating all organics in the water sample. Consequently, in...

R. L. Jolley




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory, industrial, chemical, or other waste products may have constituents that evolve volatile organic compounds (VOCS) at very high concentrations. hese could pose human health risks during handling, storage, and disposal of the waste through inhalation, dermal exposure, o...



EPA Science Inventory

Pervaporation is gradually becoming an accepted and practical method for the recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous process and waste streams. As the technolog has matured, new applications for pervaporation have emerged. One such application is the separati...



EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...



EPA Science Inventory

High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic hydrocarbons, by photocatalytic oxidation using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxgenated in both liquid and gaseous phase reactors usi...



EPA Science Inventory

Methods for developing a numerical scale ranking reactivities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards ozone formation were investigated. ffects of small VOC additions on ozone formation (incremental reactivities) were calculated for 140 types of VOCs in model scenarios repre...



EPA Science Inventory

The report gives Level 2 procedures, including results of a laboratory evaluation of detailed methods for analyzing organic chemicals in particular compound categories. The report, supplementing an earlier Level 2 procedures manual, provides an initial experimental data base as a...



EPA Science Inventory

The computer program SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) has been under development for several years to estimate physical properties and chemical reactivity parameters of organic compounds strictly from molecular structure. SPARC uses computational algorithms...


Collaborative Study of Soils Spiked with Volatile Organic Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vapor fortification is a method of spiking soils with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that was recently developed for producing materials suitable for performance evaluation and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). Using this treatment method, soi...

A. D. Hewitt C. L. Grant




EPA Science Inventory

Improved methods for onsite measurement of multiple volatile organic compounds are needed for process control, monitoring, and remediation. This Phase I SBIR project sets forth an optical measurement method that meets these needs. The proposed approach provides an instantaneous m...


Protozoan and metazoan communities treating a simulated petrochemical industry wastewater in a rotating disc biological reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microfauna of adhered biofilms treating a simulated petrochemical plant wastewater was investigated in relation to the organic loading and the toxicity. Experiments in a six-compartment laboratory rotating biological reactor were performed at organic loadings of 0.99, 1.38 and 1.97g\\/ The concentration of organic compounds in the artificial wastewater (phenol, acetophenone and styrene), toxicity of the wastewater, number of representative

S. Y. Selivanovskaya; A. M. Petrov; K. V. Egorova; R. P. Naumova



Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD5\\/COD) increased at a 1.0kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jae-Kwang Lee; Myun-Joo Lee




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three methods of extracting volatile organic compounds (VOC's) adsorbed on the airborne dust in a swine finishing building were investigated. Airborne dust was collected in pre-baked glass fiber filters (GFF's) and the compounds were extracted by solvent extraction using dichloromethane, solid phas...



EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compound...



Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation was made of some mass spectra of various organic and ; inorganic compounds which are not listed in previous compilations of mass ; spectral data. These compounds were collected from various sources, and many are ; the result of syntheses in the University of California Chemistry Department or ; the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. All have appreciable vapor pressures

A. S. Newton; S. J. Waters



Radiocarbon dating of diatom-bound organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a new method for obtaining radiocarbon dates for the organic compounds intrinsic to diatom frustules. This method will improve age models for sediment cores that lack calcium carbonate and improve current interpretations of diatom-based paleoproxies. In preparation for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, compounds intrinsic to diatom frustules are released from their opal matrix by dissolution

Anitra E. Ingalls; Robert F. Anderson; Ann Pearson



Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients of Simple Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) for 611 simple organic compounds representing all principal classes have been retrieved from the literature. Available experimental details of measurement are documented from original articles. Pertinent thermodynamic relations are presented, with a discussion of direct and indirect methods of measurement. Reported log P data for each compound have been evaluated according to stated criteria, and

James Sangster



Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compounds Containing Alkyldiammonium Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, C n N 2 PbBr 4 (n=4,6,8 and 10) and C 2 N 2 PbBr 4 · DMSO, were prepared by the self-organization of lead bromide and a variety of alkyldiammonium cations. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns of C n N 2 PbBr 4 demonstrated that the compounds form layered perovskite structures and the interlayer spacing

Takashi Matsui; Mitsuyasu Kawahara; Kenjiro Teshima; Masahiro Rikukawa; Kohei Sanui



Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment--a review.  


This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. PMID:22583809

Verlicchi, P; Al Aukidy, M; Zambello, E



Removal of estrogenic compounds from filtered secondary wastewater effluent in a continuous enzymatic membrane reactor. Identification of biotransformation products.  


In the present study, a novel and efficient technology based on the use of an oxidative enzyme was developed to perform the continuous removal of estrogenic compounds from polluted wastewaters. A 2 L enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was successfully operated for 100 h with minimal requirements of laccase for the transformation of estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), and 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2)from both buffer solution and real wastewater (filtered secondary effluent). When the experiments were performed at high and low concentrations of the target compounds, 4 mg/L and 100 ?g/L, not only high removal yields (80-100%) but also outstanding reduction of estrogenicity (about 84-95%) were attained. When the EMR was applied for the treatment of municipal wastewaters with real environmental concentrations of the different compounds (0.29-1.52 ng/L), excellent results were also achieved indicating the high efficiency and potential of the enzymatic reactor system. A second goal of this study relied on the identification of the transformation products to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of estrogens' transformation by laccase. The formation of dimers and trimers of E1, E2, and EE2, as well as the decomposition of E2 into E1 by laccase-catalyzed treatment, has been demonstrated by liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-APCI) analysis and confirmed by determination of accurate masses through liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF). Dimeric products of E2 and EE2 were found even when operating at environmental concentrations. Moreover, the reaction pathways of laccase-catalyzed transformation of E2 were proposed. PMID:23544499

Lloret, Lucia; Eibes, Gemma; Moreira, M Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Lema, Juan M



Use of organo-clays in the removal of toxic organics from industrial wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the development of organo-clays as cost-effective adsorbents for the removal of nonionic, toxic organics from wastewaters. Cetyl pyridinium montmorillonite (CPC-CLAY; an interlayer organo-clay) and Cetyl pyridinium hydroxy aluminum montmorillonite (CPC(HYDAL-CLAY; a predominantly external layer organo-clay) were prepared as model sorbents. Using pentachlorophenol (PCP) as the target organic molecule, our studies show that CPC-HYDAL-CLAY containing 12.0% by weight surface organic carbon is significantly more effective (about 10 times) than CPC-CLAY with 19.2% by weight surface organic carbon. Similar results were obtained with La-CPC-CLAY (12% organic carbon) and CPC-kaolinite (3.0% organic carbon), both of which exhibit surface orientation of organic carbon similar to that of CPC-HYDAL-CLAY. Specifically, the effectiveness of CPC-kaolinite establishes the idea that orientation of surface organic carbon may be as significant as the actual amount. All the three external surface oriented organo-clays studied here are comparable to activated carbon in their sorption potential for PCP. Electrokinetic and adsorption/desorption measurements reveal that in the cases of CPC-HYDAL-CLAY and La-CPC-CLAY, binding of CPC ion to the respective surfaces is of the high affinity and irreversible type and that the endpoint of adsorption may be in the form of a bidimensional aggregate or a ''hemimicelle''.

Srinivasan, K.R.; Fogler, H.S.



Geosynthesis of organic compounds: I. Alkylphenols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylation, isopropylation, and sec-butylation are proposed as geosynthetic processes to account for the alkylphenol compositions of crude oils with phenol distributions dominated by ortho and para substituted compounds. Phenol distributions in eleven crude oils and four kerogen pyrolysates were analysed using GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Ten of the crude oils show high relative abundances of ortho and para substituted phenol isomers and some were also enriched in C 3-C 5 alkylphenols compared to the kerogen pyrolysates. Because the distributions of products obtained from the laboratory alkylation of cresols closely resemble those of phenols in these crude oils, we propose that similar alkylation processes occur in source rocks. Alkylation ratios reflecting the degree of methylation, isopropylation, and sec-butylation, which were based on the relative abundance of the dominant alkylation products compared to their likely precursor ortho-cresol, indicate that high levels of methylation occurred in crude oils over a wide range of maturities, whereas high levels of isopropylation and sec-butylation were observed only in mature samples. Dissolution of the phenols in crude oils by water contact was discounted as an explanation for the observed phenol distributions based on the relative distribution coefficients of phenols between a hydrocarbon phase and water.

Ioppolo-Armanios, Marisa; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.



Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.



Rejection of trace organic compounds by high-pressure membranes.  


High-pressure membranes, encompassing reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and low-pressure RO, may provide an effective treatment barrier for trace organic compounds including disinfection by-products (DBPs), pesticides, solvents, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). The objective is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the rejection of trace organic compounds by high-pressure membranes, based on an integrated framework of compound properties, membrane properties, and operational conditions. Eight trace organic compounds, four DBPs and four chlorinated (halogenated) solvents, are being emphasized during an initial study, based on considerations of compound properties, occurrence, and health effects (regulations). Four polyamide FilmTec membranes; three reverse osmosis/RO (BW-400, LE-440, XLE-440) and one nanofiltration/NF (NF-90); are being characterized according to pure water permeability (PWP), molecular weight cutoff (MWCO), hydrophobicity (contact angle), and surface charge (zeta potential). It is noteworthy that rejections of compounds of intermediate hydrophobicity by the candidate membranes were observed to be less than salt rejections reported for these membranes, suggesting that transport of these solutes through these membranes is facilitated by solute-membrane interactions. We are continuing with diffusion cell measurements to describe solute-membrane interactions by estimation of diffusion coefficients through membranes pores, either hindered or facilitated. PMID:16003994

Kim, T U; Amy, G; Drewes, J E




EPA Science Inventory

A series of fourteen experimental sampling runs were carried out at a field site to collect data from several ambient air monitoring methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ambient air was drawn through a sampling manifold and was continuously spiked with volatile organic ...


Chemical reactions of organic compounds on clay surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Chemical reactions of organic compounds including pesticides at the interlayer and exterior surfaces of clay minerals and with soil organic matter are reviewed. Representative reactions under moderate conditions possibly occurring in natural soils are described. Attempts have been made to clarify the importance of the chemical nature of molecules, their structures and their functional groups, and the Broensted or Lewis acidity of clay minerals.

Soma, Yuko; Soma, Mitsuyuki (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan))



Chemical reactions of organic compounds on clay surfaces.  

PubMed Central

Chemical reactions of organic compounds including pesticides at the interlayer and exterior surfaces of clay minerals and with soil organic matter are reviewed. Representative reactions under moderate conditions possibly occurring in natural soils are described. Attempts have been made to clarify the importance of the chemical nature of molecules, their structures and their functional groups, and the Brönsted or Lewis acidity of clay minerals.

Soma, Y; Soma, M



Organic sulfur compounds in crude oils of West Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study of the distribution of organic sulfur compounds (mercaptans, disulfides, and sulfides) in crude oils and in 50°C cuts, and also in gas condensates. Notes that the crude oils of West Kazakhstan, particularly the field that have been discovered recently, are extremely diverse in physiochemical properties, particularly in their content and structure of organic sulfur

V. V. Ryzhenko; N. S. Buyanova; A. V. Kotova; N. K. Nadirov




EPA Science Inventory

Computational and experimental techniques are combined in order to better understand interactions involving organic compounds and cyclodextrin (CD)-clay systems. CD-clay systems may have great potential in the containment of organic contaminants in the environment. This study w...



EPA Science Inventory

Samples of air and leaves were taken at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas campus and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The data were used to estimate the bioconcentration of volatile organic compo...


Toxicity and organic content characterization of olive oil mill wastewater undergoing a sequential treatment with fungi and photo-Fenton oxidation.  


Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) is responsible for serious environmental problems. In this study, the efficiency of two treatments involving fungi and photo-Fenton oxidation, sequentially applied to OOMW was analyzed for organic compounds degradation and toxicity mitigation. The treatment with fungi (especially Pleurotus sajor caju) of diluted OOMW samples promoted a reduction of their acute toxicity to Daphnia longispina. Although this fungi species have not induced significant color reduction it was responsible for 72,91 and 77% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolic and organic compound contents. After biological treatment, photo-Fenton oxidation seemed to be an interesting solution, especially for color reduction. However, the OOMWs remained highly toxic after photo-Fenton oxidation. Considering the second sequence of treatments, namely photo-Fenton oxidation followed by biological treatment, the former revealed, once more, a great potential because it can be applied to non-diluted OOMW, with significant reductions in COD (53-76%), total phenolic content (81-92%) and organic compounds content (100%). Despite fungal species still have demonstrated a high capacity for bioaccumulation of organic compounds, resulting from photo-Fenton oxidation, the biological treatment did not cause substantial benefits in terms of COD, total phenolic content and toxicity reduction. PMID:19740604

Justino, Celine I; Duarte, Katia; Loureiro, Filipe; Pereira, Ruth; Antunes, Sara C; Marques, Sérgio M; Gonçalves, Fernando; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Freitas, Ana C



[Methods for the assessment of organic compounds biodegradability: A review].  


There are plenty of methods used for the assessment of organic compounds biodegradability, but lack of comprehensive literatures in systematically introducing the assessment methods and guiding the choice of the methods. This paper briefly introduced the indicative parameters in assessing organic compounds biodegradability and the assessment methods of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation, with the focus on the principles and criteria in the choice of the assessment methods, and analyzed in detail the reasons for the differences in the biodegradation rates of organic compounds when different test methods were adopted. Taking the standards established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as an example, the process of choosing and applying the assessment methods was introduced, the systematic method-choosing route was integrated, and the advantages of the OECD standard methods were pointed out. PMID:23705410

Lu, Kang; Yang, Shang-Yuan; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yun-Long; Li, Xin; Yu, Hua-Dong; Wu, Wei-Xiang



Identification and separation of the organic compounds in coal-gasification condensate waters  

SciTech Connect

A substantial fraction of the organic solutes in condensate waters from low-temperature coal-gasification processes are not identified by commonly employed analytical techniques, have low distribution coefficients (K/sub D/) into diisopropyl ether (DIPE) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and are resistant to biological oxidation. These compounds represent an important wastewater treatment problem. Analytical techniques were developed to detect these polar compounds, the the liquid-liquid phase equilibria were measured with several solvents. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was employed to analyze four condensate-water samples from a slagging fixed-bed gasifier. A novel sample-preparation technique, consisting of an azeotropic distillation with isopropanol, allowed identification of compounds in the HPLC eluant by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Solvents containing trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) have high K/sub D/ values for phenol and dihydroxy benzenes. A fraction of the compounds which are not removed by MIBK may be Lewis acids, because some of them were extracted by the strong Lewis bases, TBP and TOPO.

Mohr, D.H. Jr.



Thermal decomposition studies of halogenated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Thermal decomposition results for CCl{sub 4}, CHCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}Cl, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}Cl, CFCl{sub 3}, CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CF{sub 3}Cl, CF{sub 2}HCl, CF{sub 3}I, CH{sub 3}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}I, and CCl{sub 2}O are presented. The results were obtained by shock tube techniques coupled with optical spectroscopic detection of transient species formed from dissociation. The method is illustrated with the CH{sub 3}I (+ Kr) {yields} CH{sub 3} + I (+ Kr) reaction where decomposition was monitored using I-atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS). Modern unimolecular rate theoretical analysis has been carried out on the present cases, and the conclusions from these calculations are discussed. Lastly, the possible destruction of halo-organics by incineration is considered and some implications are discussed.

Michael, J.V.; Kumaran, S.S.



A method for on-line measurement of wastewater organic substrate oxidation level during aerobic heterotrophic respiration.  


A method for on-line measurement of the organic carbon oxidation level (OXC) during aerobic heterotrophic respiration in domestic wastewater was developed and tested. The method is based on batch incubation of sewer wastewater in an intermittently aerated respirometric reactor. Between aeration cycles, measured pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) were used to calculate electron flow accepted by DO and the resulting production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The CO2 production was measured using a novel fiber-optic sensor based on luminescence quenching. The method was tested on domestic wastewater with a relatively high pH and alkalinity. From the DO and DIC measurements, it was possible to evaluate substrate oxidation levels with a temporal resolution of less than an hour. Addition of organic substrates during the experiments confirmed the method's applicability. The substrates tested included ethanol (OXC = -2), glucose (OXC = 0) and oxalic acid (OXC = 3). PMID:23579837

Rudelle, E A; Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Nielsen, A H



77 FR 46961 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control Measures for...Technology (RACT) for sources of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in moderate...recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: June 11, 2012....



Emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere in the solvent sublation process. II. Volatile chlorinated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The mass of trichloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and 1,3-dichlorobenzene removed from an aqueous solution and emitted to the atmosphere during solvent sublation was determined experimentally. It was shown that the emission of these compounds in solvent sublation was reduced by 30 to 85% over air stripping under the same experimental conditions. The efficiency of removal of these compounds from water was also studied. The reduction of emissions over air stripping was more effective for the more hydrophobic and less volatile compounds. Emissions are reduced as the thickness of organic layer on the top of the column is increased. The use of decyl alcohol as the layer compound decreases emissions to a greater extent than does paraffin oil. Removal of these chlorinated volatile organic compounds from water by solvent sublation at an elevated temperature of 45{degrees}C is significantly faster than at room temperature. However, the emissions to the atmosphere are also increased.

Ososkov, V.; Kebbekus, B.; Chou, C.C. [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States)



Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To provide the first nationwide reconnaissance of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey used five newly developed analytical methods to measure concentrations of 95 OWCs in water samples from a network of 139 streams across 30 states during 1999 and 2000. The selection of sampling sites was biased toward streams susceptible to contamination (i.e. downstream of intense urbanization and livestock production). OWCs were prevalent during this study, being found in 80% of the streams sampled. The compounds detected represent a wide range of residential, industrial, and agricultural origins and uses with 82 of the 95 OWCs being found during this study. The most frequently detected compounds were coprostanol (fecal steroid), cholesterol (plant and animal steroid), N,N-diethyltoluamide (insect repellant), caffeine (stimulant), triclosan (antimicrobial disinfectant), tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (fire retardant), and 4-nonylphenol (nonionic detergent metabolite). Measured concentrations for this study were generally low and rarely exceeded drinking-water guidelines, drinking-water health advisories, or aquatic-life criteria. Many compounds, however, do not have such guidelines established. The detection of multiple OWCs was common for this study, with a median of seven and as many as 38 OWCs being found in a given water sample. Little is known about the potential interactive effects (such as synergistic or antagonistic toxicity) that may occur from complex mixtures of OWCs in the environment. In addition, results of this study demonstrate the importance of obtaining data on metabolites to fully understand not only the fate and transport of OWCs in the hydrologic system but also their ultimate overall effect on human health and the environment.

Kolpin, D. W.; Furlong, E. T.; Meyer, M. T.; Thurman, E. M.; Zaugg, S. D.; Barber, L. B.; Buxton, H. T.



Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Wastewater: Constituents, Effects, and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reuse is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for conservation of limited resources of freshwater and as a mean of safeguarding the aquatic environment due to contaminants present in wastewater. Although secondary and tertiary treated wastewater is often discharged into surface waters, it cannot be reused without further treatment. One of the parameters of concern for human and environmental

H. K. Shon; S. Vigneswaran; S. A. Snyder



Respirometric evaluation of biodegradation characteristics of dairy wastewater for organic carbon removal.  


This study evaluates the biodegradation kinetics of an integrated dairy wastewater, with the main purpose of defining the experimental basis for modelling of the activated sludge process. Besides conventional characterization, the experiments involved detailed chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation and assessment of major kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients, by using respirometric methods. A multi-component model based on the endogenous decay concept was used for the kinetic interpretation. The results of conventional analyses and respirometric evaluations together with the assessment of residual components showed that the organic carbon content of the dairy wastewater was mostly soluble and biodegradable. The soluble, slowly biodegradable COD was the major COD fraction, representing around 50% of the total COD. Model calibration of the oxygen uptake rate profiles were consistent and revealed the existence of dual hydrolysis kinetics for soluble and particulate COD components. The hydrolysis rate associated with the main COD component--the soluble, slowly biodegradable COD fraction--was found to be 1.2 d(-1), which is quite low and underlines the role of this COD fraction as the rate-limiting factor for effluent quality. Simulation of process efficiency by the adopted model, calibrated with the experimentally determined parameters, indicated that effective control of the biodegradation of the soluble biodegradable COD components could be done by selection of appropriate values for the sludge age and hydraulic retention time. In this way, the total effluent soluble COD level could be lowered to 30-40 mg L(-1) range, in conformity with effluent limitations. PMID:19947147

Ubay Cokgör, E; Sözen, S; Insel, G; Orhon, D



Effects of organic pollutants from wastewater treatment plants on aquatic invertebrate communities.  


Pesticides are a major stressor for stream ecosystem health. They enter surface waters from diffuse agricultural sources but also from point sources such as municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, to date, no studies have focused on the ecological effects of pesticide-contaminated WWTP effluent on macroinvertebrate communities. On the basis of governmental monitoring data of 328 sites in Hesse, Germany, we identified insecticidal long-term effects on the structure of the macroinvertebrate community up to 3 km downstream of WWTPs. The effects were quantified using the trait-based SPEAR(pesticides) index, which has been shown to be an effective tool for identifying community effects of pesticide contamination. In addition, based on the German Saprobic Index, we revealed that WWTPs are still an important source of oxygen-depleting organic pollution, despite the extensive technological improvements in wastewater management over several centuries. In general, our findings emphasize the need to take municipal WWTPs into consideration in the management of river basins under the EU Water Framework Directive to achieve good ecological and chemical status for European streams and rivers. PMID:23174534

Bunzel, Katja; Kattwinkel, Mira; Liess, Matthias



The Differentiation of Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Matter in Wastewaters Using Fluorescence and Raman Scattering Data}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and biochemical oxygen demand values of a number of synthetic and wastewater samples were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Treated and untreated wastewater samples were obtained from a local sewage treatment works while synthetic samples were treated via a rotating biodisc contactor. Fluorescence intensities were normalised using the water Raman signal as an internal standard and corrections applied to take into account the attenuation effects caused by the sample matrix. The fluorescence properties (? exc = 280nm) of synthetic and wastewater samples exhibited major similarities regarding their fluorescence response. Two main fluorescence bands centred around 350 nm and 440 nm were observed in all samples. Normalised fluorescence data, centred at 350 nm, correlate well with corresponding BOD, COD and TOC values (R2 values ranging between 0.93 and 0.98). Using BOD, COD and TOC data the fluorescence at 350nm and 440 nm can be apportioned to biodegradable and non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter respectively. The findings of this research show that fluorescence and Raman scattering data can be used to quantify chemical and biochemical oxygen demand values of wastewater. Furthermore the spectral data can be apportioned to biodegradable (BOD) and non-biodegradable (COD-BOD) dissolved organic matter. The potential of using fluorescence spectroscopy as a possible tool for real-time monitoring of sewage wastes is discussed. Key words - fluorescence, biodegradable, non-biodegradable, synthetic sewage, wastewater, monitoring

Reynolds, D. M.



Volatile organic compounds in Gulf of Mexico sediments  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOC), concentrations and compositions were documented for estuarine, coastal, shelf, slope, and deep water sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. VOC were measured (detection limit >0.01 ppb) using a closed-loop stripping apparatus with gas chromatography (GC) and flame ionization, flame photometric, and mass spectrometric detectors. The five primary sources of Gulf of Mexico sediment VOC are: (1) planktonic and benthic fauna and flora; (2) terrestrial material from riverine and atmospheric deposition; (3) anthropogenic inputs: (4) upward migration of hydrocarbons; and (5) transport by bottom currents or slumping. Detected organo-sulfur compounds include alkylated sulfides, thiophene, alkylated thiophenes, and benzothiophenes. Benzothiophenes are petroleum related. Low molecular weight organo-sulfur compounds result from the biological oxidation of organic matter. A lack of organosulfur compounds in the reducing environment of the Orca Basin may result from a lack of free sulfides which are necessary for their production.

McDonald, T.J.



Intermittent Aeration in Biological Treatment of Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: E-coating process is widely used to provide a prote ctive coating layer on metal parts in the automotive and metal finishin g industry. The wastewater from the coating process contains organic compounds that are used in the cle aning, pretreatment and coating steps. Organic pollutants can be removed biologically. In the aero bic biological treatment, water aeration accounts

H. Doan; A. Lohi



Photosynthetic marine organisms as a source of anticancer compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since early human history, plants have served as the most important source of medicinal natural products, and even in the\\u000a “synthetic age” the majority of lead compounds for pharmaceutical development remain of plant origin. In the marine realm,\\u000a algae and seagrasses were amongst the first organisms investigated by marine natural products scientists on their quest for\\u000a novel pharmaceutical compounds. Forty

F. Folmer; M. Jaspars; M. Dicato; M. Diederich



Adsorption Selectivity of FSM-16 for Several Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A folded-sheet mesoporous material (FSM-16) was prepared, and its adsorption selectivity for several organic compounds (p-nitrophenol, toluene, n-heptane, benzene, cyclohexane, and o-dichlorobenzene) was studied. The adsorbed amounts of these compounds were measured by batch operation in liquid phase. The p-nitrophenol in aqueous solution was hardly adsorbed into FSM-16, but toluene (in n-heptane solvent) and benzene (in n-heptane solvent or cyclohexane

Masahiro Katoh; Hitoshi Takao; Naoto Abe; Tahei Tomida



Transformation of certain organic compounds on exhaustive oxidation catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors studied the role of water in vapor-phase catalytic oxidation. Two catalysts and three organic compounds of different chemical natures - formic acid, 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane, and isopropanol - were used as examples, and it was shown that water vapor does not hinder the vapor-phase transformations of these compounds at the intermediate stages of exhaustive catalytic oxidation during dehydrogenation and dehydration.

E. V. Kuznetsova; S. V. Zubarev; V. V. Ivanova; L. N. Karazeeva; S. A. Taranenko



Decolourization and removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) has been investigated using sacrificial aluminium electrodes. The optimum working pH was found to be in the range 4–6, allowing OMW to be treated directly without pH adjustment. In addition, it is found that an increase in the current enhanced the speed of the treatment

Nafaâ Adhoum; Lotfi Monser



Existence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Tertiary Treated Urban Wastewater that is Utilized for Reuse Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the effects of chemical pollution in the environment that is related to urban wastewaters’ discharge and reuse\\u000a until recently was focused almost exclusively on conventional pollutants. During the last several years though there has been\\u000a a growing level of concern related to the hypothesis that various chemicals may exhibit endocrine disrupting effects. In addition,\\u000a thousands of tons of

Despo Fatta-Kassinos; E. Hapeshi; A. Achilleos; S. Meric; M. Gros; M. Petrovic; D. Barcelo



Operation of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland - Microbial fuel cell treating wastewater under different organic loading rates.  


The aim of the present work is to determine whether a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating wastewater could act simultaneously as a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Specifically, and as the main variable under study, different organic loading rates were used, and the response of the system was monitored. The installation consisted of a synthetic domestic wastewater-feeding system and a pilot-scale constructed wetland for wastewater treatment, which also included coupled devices necessary to function as an MFC. The wetland worked under continuous operation for 180 d, treating three types of synthetic wastewater with increasing organic loading rates: 13.9 g COD m(-2) d(-1), 31.1 g COD m(-2) d(-1), and 61.1 g COD m(-2) d(-1). The COD removal efficiencies and the cell voltage generation were continuously monitored. The wetland worked simultaneously as an MFC generating electric power. Under low organic loading rates, the wastewater organic matter was completely oxidised in the lower anaerobic compartment, and there were slight aerobic conditions in the upper cathodic compartment, thus causing an electrical current. Under high organic loading rates, the organic matter could not be completely oxidised in the anodic compartment and flowed to the cathodic one, which entered into anaerobic conditions and caused the MFC to stop working. The system developed in this work offered similar cell voltage, power density, and current density values compared with the ones obtained in previous studies using photosynthetic MFCs, sediment-type MFCs, and plant-type MFCs. The light/darkness changes caused voltage fluctuations due to the photosynthetic activity of the macrophytes used (Phragmites australis), which affected the conditions in the cathodic compartment. PMID:24074815

Villaseñor, J; Capilla, P; Rodrigo, M A; Cañizares, P; Fernández, F J



Abundance and ecophysiology of Defluviicoccus spp., glycogen-accumulating organisms in full-scale wastewater treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants has been proposed as one cause of deterioration of EBPR. Putative GAOs from the Alphaproteobacteria, Defluviicoccus spp. (including D. vanus), were studied in full-scale EBPR plants to determine their distribution, abundance and ecophysiology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that Defluviicoccus spp. were generally low

Luke C. Burow; Yunhong Kong; Jeppe L. Nielsen; Linda L. Blackall; Per H. Nielsen



Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculated solid fraction of olive mill wastewaters, obtained from two different olive oil extraction systems (FOMW1 and FOMW2) was composted, with olive leaves (OL) as bulking agent, by the static pile system (Rutgers). The dynamic of organic matter (OM) degradation during composting and its relationship with the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, as indicators of biological

A Garc??a-Gómez; A Roig; M. P Bernal



The role of organic vs. inorganic fertilizers in reducing phytoavailability of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term use of industrial and domestic wastewater for irrigation leads to accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and consequently in the edible portion of the plants. This study examined the role of fertilizers in reducing the heavy metal availability in the soil, and subsequent uptake in Beta vulgaris L. (var. All green). The effects of organic fertilizer as farmyard

Anita Singh; Madhoolika Agrawal; Fiona M. Marshall



Toxicity of TNT (Trinitrotoluene) Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 4. Chronic Toxicity of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene and Condensate Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the last in a series of four reports on the toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) wastewaters to aquatic organisms. The information presented in the four volumes was developed in a study performed by SRI International for the U.S. Army Me...

D. H. W. Liu H. C. Bailey H. S. Javitz R. J. Spanggord



Potential of BAC combined with UVC/H2O2 for reducing organic matter from highly saline reverse osmosis concentrate produced from municipal wastewater reclamation.  


The organic matter present in the concentrate streams generated from reverse osmosis (RO) based municipal wastewater reclamation processes poses environmental and health risks on its disposal to the receiving environment (e.g., estuaries, bays). The potential of a biological activated carbon (BAC) process combined with pre-oxidation using a UVC/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for treating a high salinity (TDS?10000mgL(-1)) municipal wastewater RO concentrate (ROC) was evaluated at lab scale during 90d of operation. The combined treatment reduced the UVA254 and colour of the ROC to below those for the influent of the RO process (i.e., biologically treated secondary effluent), and the reductions in DOC and COD were approximately 60% and 50%, respectively. UVC/H2O2 was demonstrated to be an effective means of converting the recalcitrant organic compounds in the ROC into biodegradable substances which were readily removed by the BAC process, leading to a synergistic effect of the combined treatment in degrading the organic matter. The tests using various BAC feed concentrations suggested that the biological treatment was robust and consistent for treating the high salinity ROC. Using Microtox analysis no toxicity was detected for the ROC after the combined treatment, and the trihalomethane formation potential was reduced from 3.5 to 2.8mgL(-1). PMID:23820538

Lu, Jie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A



Removal of organics and nutrients from food wastewater using combined thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process combining pilot-scale two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) was developed to treat organics and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from food wastewater. The thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion process was investigated without adjusting the pH of the wastewater for the pre-acidification process. The digested food wastewater was treated using the SBNR process without supplemental carbon sources or

Fenghao Cui; Seungho Lee; Moonil Kim



SDBS: Integrated Spectral Data Base System for Organic Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Japan, the Integrated Spectral Data Base System for Organic Compounds is a database of mass spectral, NMR (proton and carbon), and infrared spectra data. As of March 1999, the database contains 19,600 spectra of MS, 11,000 spectra of ^13 C NMR, 13,500 spectra of ^1 H NMR, 2,000 spectra of ESR, 47,500 spectra of IR, 3,500 spectra of Raman, and 30,000 compounds in the Compound Dictionary. A search engine (Frames) for the database allows the following fields to be specified: Compound Name, Molecular Formula, Number of Atoms (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen), Molecular Weight, CAS Registry Number, and SDBS Number. Access is free; however, no more than 50 spectra and/or compound files may be downloaded in one day.


Bioconcentration factors for volatile organic compounds in vegetation.  


Samples of air and leaves were taken at the University of Nevada [Formula: see text] Las Vegas campus and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The data were used to estimate the bioconcentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to characterize the equilibration of VOCs between the leaves and air. The bioconcentration of volatiles in the leaves of some species can be predicted using the partition coefficients between air and octanol (K(oa)) and only considering VOC absorption in the lipid fraction of leaves. For these leaves, the bioconcentration factors agreed with existing models. Leaves of some species displayed a bioconcentration of volatiles that greatly exceeded theory. These hyperbioconcentration leaves also contain appreciable concentrations of monoterpenes, suggesting that a terpenoid compartment should be considered for the bioconcentration of organic compounds in leaves. Adding an additional "terpenoid" compartment should improve the characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment. The uptake of VOCs from air by leaves is rapid, and the equilibration rates are seen to be quicker for compounds that have higher vapor pressures. The release of VOCs from the leaves of plants is slower for hyperbioconcentration leaves. PMID:21644617

Hiatt, M H



Emissions and Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Semivolatile and Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic aerosols are a highly-dynamic system dominated by both variable gas-particle partitioning and chemical evolution. Important classes of organics include semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC, respectively). SVOCs are compounds that exist in both the gas and particle phases at typical atmospheric conditions while IVOC are low-volatility vapors that exist exclusively in the gas phase. Both classes

A. L. Robinson; A. A. Presto; M. A. Miracolo; N. M. Donahue; J. H. Kroll; D. R. Worsnop



Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  


A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.



Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  


A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)



Effects of three organic wastewater contaminants on American toad, Bufo americanus, tadpoles.  


Recent surveys of aquatic habitats suggest that organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) may be common in aquatic ecosystems. However, relatively little is known about the impacts of OWCs on amphibians. We studied the lethal and sublethal effects of three OWCs (acetaminophen, caffeine, and triclosan) on American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. High concentrations of triclosan increased activity, whereas acetaminophen had a significant effect on activity but there was no discernable pattern or trend with concentration. Caffeine did not affect activity in B. americanus tadpoles. None of the OWCs we studied had a significant effect on growth. Caffeine had no effect on survivorship. Higher concentrations of acetaminophen increased mortality. Intermediate concentrations of triclosan had a negative effect on survivorship, but the highest concentration apparently had a positive effect on survivorship. Our results suggest that there is variation in the toxicity of the three OWCs we studied. PMID:16385741

Smith, Geoffrey R; Burgett, Amber A



Raman scattering studies of organic semiconducting charge-transfer compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic semiconductors offer the possibility of devices with greater mechanical flexibility and lower production costs compared to existing materials. Reports of carrier mobilities in monomolecular organic semiconductors in the 10-50 cm^2/V-s range and success in fabricating electronic devices from organic materials has increased the interest in their properties for electronic applications. However, the range of properties displayed by the monomolecular crystals is rather narrow. Charge-transfer compounds composed of two different organic molecules in which one acts as a donor and the other as an acceptor may represent the next generation of organic semiconductors. Control of their properties by modification of the molecules or changes in stoichiometry and crystalline structure makes them particularly attractive for a wide range of applications provided that the relationship between the structure and constituents of the compounds and their physical properties can be elucidated. Raman scattering studies of single crystals of two representative charge-transfer compounds, perylene-TCNQ and anthracene-TCNQ, will be presented. Theoretical calculations suggest that these materials have the potential for ambipolar charge transport, and so intermolecular interactions in these compounds are of particular interest.

McNeil, Laurie; Kloc, Christian



Gas chromatographic determination of water in organic compounds and of organic compounds in water after steam distillation  

SciTech Connect

A gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID) is shown to be effective in the determination of water in organic compounds. The ketal, 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP), reacts quantitatively with water to yield the products methanol and acetone when an acid catalyst is present. A solid acid catalyst, Nafion, has been effective and is easily separated before sample introduction into the GC. Several organic solvents were analyzed using this indirect method for determining water. The method is effective for determining water from 0.001-3.5% w/w. Solid samples were also analyzed and the water found in additional spikes agreed with the amount added. Simple steam distillation is used for the isolation and concentration of organic compounds from water matrices. Organic compounds are spiked into a flask containing water and the mixture is then boiled. Typical distillation times take less than 25 minutes. The condensate is collected in a small collection tube and a portion is injected into a GC containing a capillary column. The recovery of most compounds with boiling points from 77 to 238{degree}C is better than 90% and a concentration effect of ten is realized. Steam distillation combined with solid phase extraction is shown to be effective in isolating and concentrating compounds from water in the part-per-billion range. A simple interface between the boiling apparatus and resin collection column is presented. Once the organic analytes are boiled and collected on the resin, they are removed with a small amount of ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate solution is then injected into a GC. Compounds with boiling points above 400{degree}C can be determined by turning off the flow of cold water in the condenser. Recoveries are better than 80% for compounds with boiling points between 132 to 404{degree}C.

Dix, K.D.



pH, ionic strength and dissolved organic matter alter aggregation of fullerene C60 nanoparticles suspensions in wastewater.  


The rapid increase in the production and use of fullerene C(60) nanoparticles raise concerns about environmental risks and human health. Wastewater treatment plants are key barriers to their discharge into the environment. The aggregation behavior of aqueous suspensions of C(60) nanoparticles (nC(60)) could affect their transport, bioavailability, and removal during wastewater treatment. We tested the aggregation of nC(60) in wastewater at different values of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The nC(60) remained relatively stable in filtered wastewater under environmentally relevant conditions up to 24 h. But at pH 3 or at high ionic strength (>100 mM NaCl), the aggregate size increased greatly, reaching micrometer scale after only 1 h. However, the aggregation behavior varied among wastewater samples even at values of similar zeta potential, compared with that in filtered secondary effluent and aeration tank liquor, that in filtered primary effluent was obviously inhibited. This inhibition could be attributed to the steric stabilization due to the adsorption of DOM on nC(60) aggregate in addition to electrostatic stabilization. The aggregation results also suggest that membrane filtration could be improved by adjustments to pH. PMID:23177247

Yang, Yongkui; Nakada, Norihide; Nakajima, Ryoji; Yasojima, Makoto; Wang, Chao; Tanaka, Hiroaki



Comparison of partial nitrification to nitrite for ammonium-rich organic wastewater in sequencing batch reactors and continuous stirred-tank reactor at laboratory-scale.  


The combined partial nitrification/Anammox process is especially suitable for the treatment of influents with low C/N ratio. However, many nitrogenous wastewater are also rich in organics. Two systems (continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR)) are commonly used to achieve nitrite accumulation, but no complete comparison between these two systems for treating different wastewater has been reported. The objective of this paper was to compare the partial nitrification in CSTR and SBR for the treatment of ammonium-rich organic wastewater. The result showed that it took a shorter time to startup partial nitrification in CSTR, but SBR was a better option for treating ammonium-rich organic wastewater with C/N lower than 0.34. With increase HRT to 48 h, excellent nitrite accumulation could be achieved in both reactors for wastewater containing landfill leachate. For subsequent anammox, CSTR was more suitable when leachate percentage ranged from 35% to 40%. PMID:19934507

Yan, J; Hu, Y Y




EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a mathematical model that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs on controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) fugitive emissions from chemical, petroleum, and other process units. The report also descr...



EPA Science Inventory

The contamination of subsurface soil and groundwater by volatile organic compounds (VOCS) is a pervasive problem in the United States. n-situ soil vapor extraction (SVE) and ex-situ thermal desorption are the most adapted technologies for the remediation of contaminated soil whil...


Volatile organic compound emissions from dairy facilities in central California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two central Califor...



EPA Science Inventory

Organic compounds emitted from a variety of indoor materials have been measured using small (166 L) environmental test chambers. The paper discusses: a) factors to be considered in small chamber testing; b) parameters to be controlled; c) the types of results obtained. The follow...



EPA Science Inventory

Data on the observed concentrations of three hundred twenty (320) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compiled, critically evaluated, and assembled into a relational data base. Ambient (i.e., outdoor) measurements, indoor data, and data collected with personal monitors are inc...



EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...



EPA Science Inventory

The interim report presents general information on the use of aeration to remove volatile organic compounds from drinking water for public health reasons. The report illustrates the types of aerators, shows where they are being used, presents a means of estimating aeration perfor...


Volatile organic compounds in some urban locations in United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been determined to be human risk factors in urban environments, as well as primary contributors to the formation of photochemical oxidants. Ambient air quality measurements of 54 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in or near 13 urban locations in the United States during September 1996 to August 1997. Air samples were

Mahmoud F. Mohamed; Daiwen Kang; Viney P. Aneja



Assessment of volatile organic compound emissions from ecosystems of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoprene, monoterpene, and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from grasslands, shrublands, forests, and peatlands in China were characterized to estimate their regional magnitudes and to compare these emissions with those from landscapes of North America, Europe, and Africa. Ecological and VOC emission sampling was conducted at 52 sites centered in and around major research stations located in seven different

L. F. Klinger; Q.-J. Li; A. B. Guenther; J. P. Greenberg; B. Baker; J.-H. Bai



Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from polluted air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are among the most common air pollutants emitted from chemical, petrochemical, and allied industries. VOCs are one of the main sources of photochemical reaction in the atmosphere leading to various environmental hazards; on the other hand, these VOCs have good commercial value. Growing environmental awareness has put up stringent regulations to control the VOCs emissions. In

Faisal I. Khan; Aloke Kr. Ghoshal




EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation on the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compo...


Organic Compounds in Coal-Slurry-Pipeline Waters. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic compounds in the water separated from coal pipeline slurry has been investigated on a laboratory basis for the slurry with each of three subbituminous coals: Wyodak, Illinois No. 6 and Black Mesa. The results are compare with results from the Blac...

A. S. Newton H. Villarreal P. J. Fox R. Raval W. Walker



Mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents data pertaining to the mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media. Physical properties of porous solids, including surface and pore areas, are studied. Information from these studies, along with dissolution data, are used to develop correlations relating the Sherwood Number to the Peclet Number. The contaminant used in this study is naphthalene; the solids used

Crist Simon Khachikian




EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the field operation problems associated with use of four portable volatile organic compound (VOC) detection instruments in conducting Reference Method 21 VOC screenings. The report presents the results of the field trials and summarizes the ease of use of ea...


Synthesis of tritium-labeled nitrogen-containing organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Conditions of tritium labeling of certain nitrogen-containing organic compounds have been determined. Combination of isotope exchange or hydrogenation with gaseous tritium and chemical synthesis allowed preparation of N-oleyldihydrosphingosine (I) and spermine with molar radioactivities of 200-210 and 23-25 Ci mmol{sup {minus}1} respectively.

Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Potapova, A.V. [Inst. of Molecular Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others



In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Moreover, the world`s rivers, estuaries, and oceans are threatened by contamination from petroleum leaks and spills. Fortunately, most petroleum hydrocarbons

B. C. Alleman; A. Leeson



Volatile organic compound emission factors from roadside measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a significant role in the generation of urban photochemical smog. In addition, some VOCs, such as benzene, are harmful to human health. In Japan, motor vehicles are the dominant source of VOCs. Therefore, it is important to determine the emission of VOCs from vehicles in order to estimate human risk and the production mechanisms of

Hiroto Kawashima; Shigeki Minami; Yoshimichi Hanai; Akihiro Fushimi



Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...


Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), necessary reactants for photochemical smog formation, are emitted from numerous sources. Limited available data suggest that dairy farms emit VOCs with cattle feed, primarily silage, being the primary source. Process-based models of VOC transfer within and from si...


Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (echo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are complex sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the planetary boundary layer. The impact of biogenic VOC on tropospheric photochem- istry, air quality, and the formation of secondary products affects our climate on a regional and global scale but is far from being understood. A considerable lack of knowledge exists concerning a forest stand as a net

R. Koppmann; T. Hoffmann; J. Kesselmeier; M. Schatzmann



Extractable Organic Components and Nutrients in Wastewater from Dairy Lagoons Influence the Growth and Survival of Escherichia coli 0157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of nutrients in wastewater from dairy lagoons on the survival of Escherichia. coli O157:H7 was monitored. Initially, the survival of E. coli in wastewater was compared with or without removing the competing native organisms by filter-sterilization or autoclaving. E. coli declined rapid...


Determination of acidic pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters and spring waters by selective elution and analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the trend in development of analytical methods for emerging contaminants is towards reduced sample preparation and increased detector selectivity, there are still benefits from removal of matrix material during sample preparation. This paper describes a simple method for acidic pharmaceuticals and a range of potential endocrine disrupting compounds in untreated wastewaters and spring waters. It is based on separation

Richard Gibson; Elías Becerril-Bravo; Vanessa Silva-Castro; Blanca Jiménez



Distribution of volatile organohalogen compounds in petrochemical plant water streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assesses halogenated volatile organic compound concentrations in the water and wastewater streams of a petrochemical plant. Water samples were collected at 11 sampling points during 5 sampling campaigns. The samples were collected from the oil dewaxing unit and in the wastewater treatment plant. Dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane were the most frequently determined compounds. Tetrachloroethene was also detected at the

Marek Tobiszewski; Jacek Namie?nik



Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study.  


Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. PMID:23026644

Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L



Optimizing the industrial wastewater pretreatment by activated carbon and coagulation: effects of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and molecular weights of dissolved organics.  


This study addresses industrial wastewater treatment to remove dissolved organic compounds (DOC) using Fenton and coagulation processes, followed by granular activated carbon (GAC), and powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a pretreatment before reverse osmosis (RO). The effects of the hydrophobic / hydrophilic fractions and the molecular weights (MW) of the organics on DOC removal were tested and used to optimize the combination process. The raw wastewater (RWW) had a dominant hydrophobic fraction, as determined by polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) results showed that MW of organics were 256, 172, 258, 146, 392, 321, 182, 373, 276, 365, 409 and 453 in increasing order of hydrophobicity. GAC had higher adsorption capacity and was more selective for hydrophobic DOC removal than PAC. The removal efficiency of DOC by PAC and GAC was decreased after Fenton treatment, which decreased the hydrophobic fraction. Coagulation with ferric chloride efficiently removed the non-ionic hydrophilic and anionic hydrophilic organics. The coagulant doses selected as a pretreatment before GAC were 2.1 and 15.5 mg Fe(III)/mg DOC. The effluent total organic carbon (TOC) trends were correlated with the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions by using a rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) for GAC breakthrough with a scale down factor of 5. GAC preferentially adsorbed the hydrophobic and the cationic hydrophilic organics. The effluent TOC trend could be divided into four stages: maximum adsorption, hydrophobic stage, exhaustion, and biological. The TOC removal after the exhaustion stage was almost equal to the hydrophilic fraction of TOC. Therefore these results demonstrated that the combination of coagulation and GAC adsorption was a highly efficient process for reducing DOC. PMID:23383639

Khan, M Hammad; Ha, Dong-Hwan; Jung, Jinyoung



A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...


Analysis of Organic Compounds in Returned Comet Nucleus Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets are generally believed to be primitive bodies that preserve solar system matter in, or nearly in, its primordial state. This expectation has been at least partially borne out by the 1986 flyby missions to Comet Halley which provided data indicating that, with the exception of hydrogen, the light elements (C, N, O, and S) occur in approximately their solar abundances. Although mass spectrometers carried aboard the spacecraft provided much additional data from which to speculate about the molecular forms of these elements a detailed understanding of cometary organic chemistry will ultimately require the laboratory examination of returned samples. Some of the problems that will be encountered in such studies, for example, sensitivity to trace constituents, resolution of numerous isomeric forms, and avoidance of terrestrial contaminants, have already been faced in analyses of the organic compounds from carbonaceous chondrites. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that the progenitors of the carbonaceous chondrites were volatile rich planetesimals similar to those which, at greater radial distances, formed comets. Thus, the organic chemistry of carbonaceous chondrites may represent the outcome of a process of chemical evolution that parallels, although is perhaps further advanced than, that which occurred in comets. These meteorites may then represent not only a useful model for the development and refinement of analytical methods, but also a guide to the types of organic compounds that may be encountered in analyses of cometary matter. In this paper, I have (i) briefly reviewed the results of amino acid analyses of CM chondrites, (ii) discussed the origin of these compounds and the implications for comet organic chemistry, and (iii) described some recent developments in analytical instrumentation for amino acids and their implications for analyses of extraterrestrial materials. Although the emphasis is on amino acids, their general characteristics are common to the other classes of organic compounds in CM chondrites and inferences regarding their origins should be generally relevant.

Cronin, John R.



Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.  


Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent. PMID:23168635

Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping




EPA Science Inventory

The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally significant organic acid compounds were determined as a function of aqueous-phase salt concentration (0.05-0.2 M LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, or MgCl2) and pH. he compounds were pentachlorophenol 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, (2,4,5-t...


Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.  


Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure. PMID:23477409

Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J



Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: compounds, sources, and implications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission r...


Improvement of Biodegradability of Oil Field Drilling Wastewater Using Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of improving the biodegradability of drilling wastewater using ozone was investigated following coagulation pretreatment. The biodegradability of wastewater was improved significantly following the start of ozonation, and the molecular weight of organic compounds decreased continuously with the progress of oxidation. It is interesting that minimum biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon (BOD\\/TOC) ratio (0.4 g\\/g) was observed when

Yanming Wang; Min Yang; Jing Zhang; Yu Zhang; Mengchun Gao



Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering



Treatment of organic synthesis wastewater using anaerobic packed bed and aerobic suspended growth bioreactors.  


The performance of an anaerobic mesophilic packed bed reactor, with a mixture of GAC and tezontle, followed by an aerobic suspended growth system was studied for the treatment of organic chemical wastewater with a high COD concentration (22-29 g/L). The testing of the anaerobic-aerobic system was conducted in an experimental set-up for almost 2.5 years. Different operational conditions were evaluated. The anaerobic reactor showed performance stability and COD removals higher than 80% were obtained with loads up to 16.6 kg x m(-3) x d(-1). The acclimation of the aerobic biomass to the substrate in the anaerobic effluent was very quick and COD removals higher than 94% were obtained even at high organic loads. The combined anaerobic-aerobic system allowed total COD removals higher than 99.5% and the accomplishment of the discharge requirements of 200 mgCOD/L when the anaerobic reactor was operated with loads of 8-11 kg x m(-3)x d(-1) and the aerobic reactor with 0.33 kg x kg(-1) x d(-1), being the total HRT of 4.4. The average TKN removal in the anaerobic-aerobic system was 97%, the average for the anaerobic reactor being 52% and that one for the aerobic system being 94%. PMID:17506443

Mijaylova-Nacheva, P; Ramírez-Camperos, E; Cuevas-Velasco, S



Organic matter humification in olive oil mill wastewater by abiotic catalysis with manganese(IV) oxide.  


The chemical changes occurring in an olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) sample digested catalytically with MnO2 for 30 and 60 days were evaluated comparatively with those occurring in the same OMW left standing for the same time in an open-air lagoon. Both treatments increased the pH and electrical conductivity and decreased the contents of dry matter, total organic C and total N, and C/N ratio of OMW. The humic acid (HA)-like fraction isolated from the fresh OMW was characterized by a marked aliphatic character, small O and acidic functional group contents, marked presence of proteinaceous materials, partially modified lignin moieties and polysaccharides-like structures, extended molecular heterogeneity, and small degrees of aromatic ring polycondensation, polymerization and humification. With increasing the time of either lagooning or catalytic digestion, a loss of aliphatic materials and an increase of extraction yield, oxygenation, acidic functional groups, carbohydrates and aromaticity occurred in the HA-like fractions. The more evident changes measured for the HA-like fractions from catalytically-digested OMW, with respect to those from lagooned OMW, indicated that MnO2 was able to catalyze organic matter humification in OMW. PMID:18406606

Brunetti, G; Senesi, N; Plaza, C



Optimisation of entrapped activated carbon conditions to remove coloured compounds from winery wastewaters.  


The objective of this work was to study the entrapped conditions of activated carbon in calcium-alginate beads for the clarification of winery wastewaters. An incomplete 3(3) factorial design was carried out to study the efficiency of activated carbon (0.5-2%); sodium alginate (1-5%); and calcium chloride (0.050-0.900 M), on the following dependent variables: colour reduction at 280, 465, 530 and 665 nm. The activated carbon and calcium chloride were the most influential variables in the colour reduction. Nearly 100% colour reductions were found for the wavelengths assayed when employing 2% of activated carbon, 5% of sodium alginate and intermediate concentrations of calcium chloride (0.475 M). Instead, other conditions like, 2% of activated carbon, 4% of sodium alginate and 0.580 M of calcium chloride can also give absorbance reductions close to 100%. PMID:21507631

Devesa-Rey, R; Bustos, G; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B



Use of zoogloeal culture for enhancing tannery wastewater treatment: High organic loading and unbalanced nutrient condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition effects of both Zoogloea ramigera and its extracellular zoogloeal polymer for enhancing the operation efficiency in biological wastewater treatment system were investigated. The zoogloeal culture which was composed of Zoogloea ramigera and its extracellular zoogloeal polymer was daily added to a lab?scale activated sludge reactor for treating a tannery wastewater. Compared with controlled reactor without any addition of

Dae Hee Ahn; Young Je Yoo; Jin Young Jung



Reduction of COD in wastewater from an organized tannery industrial region by Electro-Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have led the way in the treatment of aqueous waste and are rapidly becoming the chosen technology for many applications. In this paper, COD reduction potential of leather tanning industry wastewaters by Electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, as one of the AOPs, was experimentally evaluated. The wastewater sample was taken from an outlet of an equalization basin in

Ugur Kurt; Omer Apaydin; M. Talha Gonullu



Polishing Domestic Wastewater on a Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland: Organic Matter Removal and Microbial Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial monitoring of constructed wetlands (CWs) treating domestic wastewater is generally scarce, despite the need of more knowledge about its biocenosis. The sanitation quality of a wastewater treated in a CW is a crucial aspect, mainly when the receiving water body is used as a swimming and\\/or recreation area. The present study was carried out in a horizontal subsurface flow

I. Aguiar-Pinto Mina; M. Costa; A. Matos; C. Sousa Coutinho Calheiros; P. M. L. Castro



78 FR 24990 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control Measures for...Implementation Plan (SIP), several volatile organic compound (VOC) rules that were submitted...stationary sources, storage of volatile organic liquids, industrial cleaning...



40 CFR 60.112b - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). 60.112b Section... Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Liquid Storage Vessels (Including Petroleum... § 60.112b Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) The...



Identification and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Dairy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Livestock operations in the United States are an escalating environmental concern. The increasing density of livestock within a farm results in an increased emission of odorous gases, which have gained considerable attention by the public in recent years (National Research Council (NRC), 2002). Odorous compounds such as ammonia (NH3), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were reported to have a major effect on the quality of life of local residents living near livestock facilities (NRC, 2002). There has been little data collected related to identification and quantification of gaseous compounds collected from open stall dairy operations in the United States. The research to be presented identifies and quantifies VOCs produced from a dairy operation that contribute to odor and other air quality problems. Many different VOCs were identified in the air downwind of an open lactating cow stall area and near a waste lagoon at the Washington State University dairy using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis techniques. Identified compounds were very diverse and included many alcohols, aldehydes, amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, a fixed gas, halogenated hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons, ketones, other nitrogen containing compounds, sulfur containing compounds, and terpenes. The VOCs directly associated with cattle waste were dependent on ambient temperature, with the highest emissions produced during the summer months. Low to moderate wind speeds were ideal for VOC collection. Concentrations of quantified compounds were mostly below odor detection thresholds found in the literature, however the combined odor magnitude of the large number of compounds detected was most likely above any minimum detection threshold.

Filipy, J.; Mount, G.; Westberg, H.; Rumburg, B.



Treatment of persistent organic compounds by integrated advanced oxidation processes and sequential batch reactor.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of improvement in the biodegradability of persistent organic compounds by pre-oxidation by using Sequential Batch Reactors (SBRs). Dichlorodiethyl ether (DCDE), a non-biodegradable compound, was used as a test chemical. Ozonation, Fenton reagent and ultra-violet light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H(2)O(2)) were used for oxidation of DCDE at levels of 50-100%. Pre-oxidized DCDE solutions were then subjected to SBR studies using activated sludge to determine the rate and extent of biodegradation of oxidation by-products. The results indicated that the biodegradability of pre-oxidized DCDE increased drastically, reaching an average of 90% for all three oxidation methods versus zero for non-oxidized DCDE. It was concluded that the results of SBR experiments may be better indicators of biodegradability of chemically-oxidized wastewaters due to significant acclimation of microorganisms in SBRs, which cannot be observed in conventional respirometric laboratory studies. PMID:19427015

Christensen, Alex; Gurol, Mirat D; Garoma, Temesgen



Metamaterial resonator arrays for organic and inorganic compound sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an electromagnetic metamaterial resonator operating in the terahertz frequency range is presented. By arranging the resonator in a planar array, it is possible to use the structure as a sensing device for organic and inorganic compounds. The sensor is designed to detect the presence of a biological compound by permittivity or absorption measurements. The presence of the biological matter modifies the effective permittivity and, thus, the resonant frequency significantly varies. In addition, biological compounds typically exhibit absorption characteristics that depend on the corresponding molecular structure. Therefore, it is necessary to illuminate the material selectively. We show that by employing the "selective" properties of the metamaterial resonator proposed, it is possible to enhance the sensing performances. The proposed design is suitable to sense the presence of healthy and malignant tissues, with possible applications in food and medical diagnostics. The operation of the sensing device has been demonstrated through proper full-wave simulations.

La Spada, Luigi; Bilotti, Filiberto; Vegni, Lucio



Nonlinear Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of nonlinear laser fluorescence spectroscopy of complicated organic compounds and of the method capable of determining photophysical parameters are considered in this chapter. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the method connected with specific photophysical processes in natural organic compounds, especially in proteins, and to the major role of intramolecular energy transfer and presence of localized donor-acceptor pairs (LDAP) of fluorophores within single macromolecules. These facts stimulated the development of models based on the collective states formalism describing fluorescent response of LDAP to pulsed laser excitation. Unique features of the method are illustrated by the example of proteins (proteins with intrinsic fluorescence (HSA, BSA) and fluorescent protein mRFP1) that can be used as fluorescent tags of intracellular processes while their photophysical parameters can be used as the information channel.

Fadeev, Victor V.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.


Transformations of organic compounds under the action of mechanical stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformations of organic compounds (monomeric and polymeric) under the action of mechanical stress are considered. Two types of processes occur under these conditions. The first type involves disordering and amorphisation of crystal structure and conformational transformations as a result of rupture of intermolecular bonds. The second type includes mechanochemical reactions activated by deformation of valence bonds and angles under mechanical stress, namely, the rupture of bonds, oxidation and hydrolysis. Data on the organic mechanochemical synthesis of new compounds or molecular complexes are systematised and generalised. It is demonstrated that mechanical treatment ensures mass transfer and the contact of reacting species in these reactions. Proteins are especially sensitive to mechanical stress and undergo denaturation; enzymes are inactivated. The bibliography includes 115 references.

Dubinskaya, Aleksandra M.



Concentration stability of four volatile organic compounds in soil subsamples  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the short-term (14- to 20-day) concentration stability of benzene, toluene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene in soil matrices, in the absence of volatilization losses. Previously, holding time studies failed to eliminate volatilization as a variable, making them difficult to interpret. Here, vapor-fortified soil subsamples, sealed in glass ampoules for 16 days, experienced appreciable reductions in benzene, presumably attributable only to biodegradation. Treated soil subsamples, on the other hand, prepared without vapor losses for either aqueous extraction headspace or purge-and-trap analyses, showed appreciable reductions in toluene and lost all the benzene over a 14-day holding period at 4 deg C. These findings suggest that chemical preservatives are necessary to maintain volatile organic compound concentrations in soil when more than a couple of days pass between collection and analysis. Biodegradation, Soil samples, Holding time, Volatile-organic compounds.

Hewitt, A.D.



Volatile organic compound (VOC) species data manual. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This document contains tables of potential emissions of organic compounds for selected source categories. The species profile table format has been organized to be particularly useful in preparation of emission inventory inputs to photochemical modeling. Accompanying each VOC profile table is a brief narrative that describes process, emissions, controls, and basis of source report and data quantification. The chemical classifications include paraffin, olefin, aromatic, carbonyl (aldehydes and ketones), methane, non-reactive other than methane, and miscellaneous. Data confidence levels for each profile table have been assigned. Reports, published data, and names and titles of personal contacts are referenced for each source category.

Not Available



Orientation dependent molecular friction on organic layer compound crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution friction force maps of the benzylammonium terminated crystalline surface of a layer compound are presented. The lateral force map acquired with an atomic force microscope, reveals a significant contrast between different molecular orientations yielding molecular rows which differ from their neighboring ones. The single crystals are formed by stacks of copper oxalate sheets sandwiched between stereoregular organic cations, resulting in highly organized surface structures. Single molecular defects are observed at small loads. The experimental results are compared with numerical calculations which indicate a transition from an unperturbed state at small loads to a distorted state at higher loads.

Fessler, Gregor; Zimmermann, Iwan; Glatzel, Thilo; Gnecco, Enrico; Steiner, Pascal; Roth, Raphael; Keene, Tony D.; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Meyer, Ernst



Application of Ozone and Advanced Oxidation Processes to the Treatment of Lye-Wastewaters from the Table Olives Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important fraction of wastewaters generated in the black table olives industry results from the treatment of the olives with sodium hydroxide for debittering and darkening of the fruit. These lye-wastewaters are characterized by a high presence of organic compounds, mainly phenols and polyphenols. The decomposition of that organic content was studied by means of several chemical treatments: ozonation alone

F. Javier Benítez; Juan L. Acero; Teresa González; Juan García



Removal of organics and nutrients from tannery effluent by advanced integrated Wastewater Pond Systems technology.  


In this study, a pilot-scale experiment was carried out on a pre-settled combined tannery effluent from Modjo tannery, Ethiopia, to evaluate the feasibility of the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems or AIWPS Technology, for the treatment of tannery effluent. The pilot-scale AIWPS Facility was comprised of an Advanced Facultative Pond (AFP), Secondary Facultative Pond (SFP) and Maturation Pond (MP) all arranged in series. Three feed phases with low, moderate and overloading organic loading rates were applied to assess the organics and nutrients removal performances of the AIWPS reactors. The overall organics removal performance of the AIWPS Process was high, with removal efficiencies in the range of 90-98% for BOD5 and 86-92% for COD. Among the AIWPS reactors, the AFP attained the highest organics removal efficiency with a BOD5 removal of 70-89%. BOD5 removal efficiencies of the SFP and MP were 34-65% and 30-40%, respectively. The AFP was also able to withstand a much higher volumetric organic loading rate (70% more) than the conventional open anaerobic ponds. The drop in BOD5 removal efficiency of the AFP at the overloading condition was only 7%, while the corresponding drop in the SFP was 29%. AIWPS reactors achieved a cumulative ammonia removal efficiency of 85%. The highest ammonia removal (50-60%) occurred in the SFP, followed by the MP with removal efficiency of 20-26%. At the overloading condition the overall ammonia removal efficiency of the AIWPS Facility decreased by 50%, while the BOD5 organics removal dropped by only 6%, signifying the higher vulnerability of ammonia removal mechanism to high loading conditions than the organics removal. The phosphorus removal in the AIWPS Facility was erratic, with highest removal (up to 75%) occurring in the AFP. The lack of H2S odour nuisance from the AFP was mainly due to the proliferation of sulphide oxidizing anoxygenic photosynthetic pink bacteria of the genera: Thiocystis, Rhodobacter, Rhodospirillum and Rhodopseudomonas in the upper solar illuminated water layers of the AFP. PMID:14510225

Tadesse, I; Isoaho, S A; Green, F B; Puhakka, J A



Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from PVC floor coverings.  


In this study 29 PVC floor coverings were tested for emission of vinyl chloride (VC) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A study on the effect of higher temperature on emission of VOCs from newly manufactured PVC flooring was also carried out. The study was conducted in climatic chamber, according to Polish Standard PN-89/Z-04021. GC method was used for analyzing of the compounds emitted. VC was not emitted from any of the floorings tested. Other VOCs were emitted in different concentrations. The influence of temperature on emission was conducted at temperatures of 23 degrees C and 35 degrees C from 2 hrs up to 180 days after introduction of materials in the chamber. The increase of temperature caused increase of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emission during 24 hrs of experiment. Then the emission was comparable for both temperatures. After 9 days emission of identified and unidentified compounds (TVOC) showed a rapid decay and stayed on very low level during a few months. The study conducted showed that PVC floorings after 10 days of installation in the room should not be source of indoor air contamination. PMID:10431652

Wiglusz, R; Igielska, B; Sitko, E; Nikel, G; Jarnuszkiewicz, I



Destruction of organic compounds in water using supported photocatalysts  

SciTech Connect

Photocatalytic destruction of organic compounds in water is investigated using tanning lamps and fixed-bed photoreactors. Platinized titanium dioxide (Pt-TiO{sub 2}) supported on silica gel is used as a photocatalyst. Complete mineralization of influent concentrations of 4.98 mg/L tetrachloroethylene and 2.35 mg/L p-dichlorobenzene requires a reactor residence time less than 1.3 minutes. While for influent concentrations of 3.58 mg/L 2-chlorobiphenyl, 2.50 mg/L methyl ethyl ketone and 0.49 mg/L carbon tetrachloride, complete mineralization requires reactor residence times of 1.6, 10.5, and 16.8 minutes, respectively. A reactor model is developed using Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and the model parameters are determined using a reference compound, trichloroethylene. Based on the results of experiments with trichloroethylene, the model predicts the mineralization of the aforementioned compounds from ultraviolet (UV) irradiance, influent concentration, hydroxyl radical rate constants, and the known physical properties of the compounds. The model is also able to predict organic destruction using solar insolation (which has a different spectral distribution from the tanning lamps) based on the UV absorption characteristics of titanium dioxide.

Zhang, Y.; Crittenden, J.C.; Hand, D.W.; Perram, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering



Volatile organic compound emissions: an inventory for Western Europe  

SciTech Connect

The report gives details of an inventory compiled by CONCAWE and covering man-made non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Western Europe. The survey shows that the major man-made sources are road transport and solvents, each contributing around 40%. Total oil industry operations account for around 8%, with refining operations contribution about 2%. The major oil industry contribution comes from the distribution of gasoline, including vehicle refuelling (5%).

Edwards, A.H.; Campobasso, A.; Camps, R.; Cremer, G.; Long, M.D.



Compositions of volatile organic compounds and methods of use thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides compositions and methods for treating, inhibiting or preventing the developing of a plant pathogenic disease. The compositions comprise volatile organic compounds effective to inhibit the growth of, or kill pathogenic microbes, including Ganoderma boninense. Invention compositions are especially useful in preventing and treating basal stem rot in the oil palm, and can be applied in the vicinity of the plant or used to sterilize the plant growth medium prior to or concurrent with plant growth therein.



Determination of total volatile organic compound emissions from furniture polishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an environmental test chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity, and airflow rate was developed\\u000a to evaluate emissions of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) from three different kinds of furniture polish. The time\\u000a dependence of TVOC concentrations produced from the emissions of furniture polish products in the chamber was tested. TVOC\\u000a emissions from each furniture polish were compared.

Hai Guo; Frank Murray



Influence of sorbate structure on nonequilibrium sorption of organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the relationship between sorbate structure and nonequilibrium sorption. The rate-limited sorption of compounds representing eight classes of organic chemicals, including chlorinated benzenes, unsubstituted and alkyl-substituted aromatics, chlorinated ethenes and ethanes, chlorinated phenols, nitrogen heterocycles, s-triazines, substituted amides, and substituted ureas, was examined by use of a single sorbent (sandy aquifer material) and the miscible displacement technique. The

Mark L. Brusseau; P. Suresh C. Rao



Water Pollution: Organic Compounds in the Charles River, Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major lipophilic organic compounds present in water collected during November and December 1971 from the Charles River Basin (Boston) are as follows: normal alkanes (C15 to C31), alkyl naphthalenes, alkyl anthracenes or phenanthrenes, pyrene, fluoranthene, dibutyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The concentration of the naphthalenes (determined by liquid chromatography) correlates with the effective storm-water runoff content of the river.

Ronald A. Hites; K. Biemann



Relationships between melting point and boiling point of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Relationships between melting point and boiling point are shown to be dependent upon the molecular symmetry number and a modified count of the total number of atoms in the molecule. Using the above relationships, the boiling and melting points of nearly 1,000 non-hydrogen-bonding organic compounds have been correlated. The correlations for boiling point and melting point have root mean square errors of 28 and 36 C, respectively.

Yalkowsky, S.H.; Krzyzaniak, J.F.; Myrdal, P.B. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). College of Pharmacy)



Gas-phase degradation of organic compounds in the troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of knowledge of the gas-phase reactions of selected classes of volatile non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing NMOCs and nitrogen-containing NMOCs) and their degradation products in the troposphere is briefly discussed. In the troposphere, NMOCs can undergo photolysis, reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical during daylight hours, reaction with the nitrate (NO3) radical (primarily

Roger Atkinson



Identification of nonmethane organic compound emissions from grassland vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) from grassland vegetation were collected in Summa® passivated stainless-steel canisters with a static enclosure technique and were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization and ion trap mass spectrometric detectors. Approximately 40NMOCs with 6–10 carbon atoms were observed in samples analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with the flame ionization detector. Nineteen NMOCs in

Yoshiko Fukui; Paul V. Doskey



The synthesis of organic and inorganic compounds in evolved stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust has identified solid-state materials of pre-solar origin. We can now trace the origin of these inorganic grains to the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. Moreover, organic (aromatic and aliphatic) compounds have been detected in proto-planetary nebulae and planetary nebulae, which are the descendants of carbon stars. This implies that molecular synthesis is

Sun Kwok



Oxidation of organic compounds in a microstructured catalytic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microstructured catalytic reactor for the oxidation of organic compounds has been fabricated from aluminum alloy AlMgSiCu1 (6082 series, Al51st). The catalyst section was assembled of 63 microstructured plates with catalytic coating. In each plate of 416?m thickness, 45 semi-cylindrical microchannels of 208?m in radius with a distance in between of 150?m were electrodischarge machined. A porous alumina layer of

I. Z. Ismagilov; E. M. Michurin; O. B. Sukhova; L. T. Tsykoza; E. V. Matus; M. A. Kerzhentsev; Z. R. Ismagilov; A. N. Zagoruiko; E. V. Rebrov; J. C. Schouten



Treatment of hypersaline wastewater in the sequencing batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersaline wastes are generated during industrial activities that include chemical manufacturing, oil and gas production and waste minimization practices. These wastes which contain organic compounds and high concentrations of salt (>3.5%), are difficult to treat using conventional microorganisms typically found in wastewater facilities. Biological treatment to remove organics without dilution will require the use of halophilic organisms which have special

C. R. Woolard; R. L. Irvine



DFT derived solvation models for organic compounds in alkane solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a density functional theory (DFT) analysis of solvation and the different components which comprise the free energy of solvation we propose quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) models to predict free energy of solvation, ?GS0, of organic compounds in seven alkane solvents (n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, n-decane, and n-hexadecane). The data contains 151 structurally different compounds containing diverse organic functions: unbranched and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, amines, nitriles, pyridines, fluorinated hydrocarbons, thiols, sulfides, carboxylic acids and nitro hydrocarbons; covering a ?GS0 range from about -50 to 0 kJ/mol. The models for the seven n-alkane solvents contain the same two molecular descriptors, one DFT descriptor (softness) and one geometric (molecular surface area). This fact suggests that the physical mechanisms behind the solvation of organic compounds in n-alkane solvents are of the same nature, as expected from the similar physical and chemical properties of alkanes. The models proposed have the merit of predicting free energy of solvation in alkane solvents with fewer descriptors than other QSPR models reported in the literature having similar statistics, allowing in this way a well-defined physical interpretation. The two descriptors have definite physical meaning corresponding to the different components which comprise free energy of solvation. Thus, the models proposed reach the desired compromise among simpleness, physical interpretation and computation time.

Delgado, Eduardo J.; Alderete, Joel B.; Jaña, Gonzalo A.



Quantification of human norovirus GII, human adenovirus, and fecal indicator organisms in wastewater used for irrigation in Accra, Ghana.  


Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is frequently used to estimate health risks associated with wastewater irrigation and requires pathogen concentration estimates as inputs. However, human pathogens, such as viruses, are rarely quantified in water samples, and simple relationships between fecal indicator bacteria and pathogen concentrations are used instead. To provide data that can be used to refine QMRA models of wastewater-fed agriculture in Accra, stream, drain, and waste stabilization pond waters used for irrigation were sampled and analyzed for concentrations of fecal indicator microorganisms (human-specific Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, enterococci, thermotolerant coliform, and somatic and F+ coliphages) and two human viruses (adenovirus and norovirus genogroup II). E. coli concentrations in all samples exceeded limits suggested by the World Health Organization, and human-specific Bacteroidales was found in all but one sample, suggesting human fecal contamination. Human viruses were detected in 16 out of 20 samples, were quantified in 12, and contained 2-3 orders of magnitude more norovirus than predicted by norovirus to E. coli concentration ratios assumed in recent publications employing indicator-based QMRA. As wastewater irrigation can be beneficial for farmers and municipalities, these results should not discourage water reuse in agriculture, but provide motivation and targets for wastewater treatment before use on farms. PMID:23981876

Silverman, Andrea I; Akrong, Mark O; Amoah, Philip; Drechsel, Pay; Nelson, Kara L



Occurrences and behavior of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan and Thailand.  


This study examines occurrences of 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in several wastewater treatment plants in Japan and Thailand. Surveys are conducted in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan and central WWTPs of five industrial estates (IEs) in Thailand. Samples are collected from all major treatment processes in order to understand the behavior of PFCs in WWTPs. PFCs are detected in all WWTPs in Japan and Thailand. Concentrations of PFCs even exceed several thousands ng/L in some WWTPs. PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA are mainly detected in WWTPs in Japan, while PFBuS, PFOA, and PFHxA are mainly detected in WWTP of IEs in Thailand. Even though some of the investigated WWTPs utilize biological treatment processes coupled with chlorination, ozonation, or activated carbon adsorption, they are found ineffective to remove PFCs. During the treatment process, PFCs are found to accumulate at exceptionally high concentration levels in the activated sludge of an aeration tank and returned activated sludge. Overall, the estimated total daily mass of discharged PFCs is 124.95 g/d (PFASs: 49.81 g/d; PFCAs: 75.14 g/d) from eight WWTPs in Japan and 55.04 g/d (PFASs: 12 g/d; PFCAs: 43.04 g/d) from five WWTPs in Thailand. Although the presented data are from a single observation in each WWTP, the results indicate that certain industries using PFCs in manufacturing processes could be the principle point source, while domestic activities could be releasing PFCs at detectable levels causing environmental concern. PMID:20502787

Shivakoti, Binaya Raj; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Seneviratne, S T M L D; Tanaka, Hiroaki