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1

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER. THEIR TRANSPORT INTO SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The wastewater from a small specialty chemicals manufacturing plant located on the Pawtuxet River (Rhode Island, USA) has contaminated the water and sediment of that river, the Pawtuxet Cove, the Providence River, and (to a lesser extent) the Narragansett Bay. Since the compounds...

2

Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

2005-01-01

3

Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4?7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

2010-11-01

4

Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds. PMID:24434982

Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemen?i?, A Krivograd

2014-01-01

5

Xenobiotic organic compounds in runoff from fields irrigated with treated wastewater.  

PubMed

Investigations of agricultural nonpoint source pollution typically focus on a relatively narrow range of targeted toxic and biostimulatory compounds (e.g., specific pesticides, nutrients). Regular application of numerous other organic compounds to agricultural fields in pesticide formulations, irrigation water, soil amendments, and fertilizers may result in their transport into surface waters via runoff. We examined whether potentially toxic dissolved and particle-associated "nontarget" organic compounds were present in surface runoff from agricultural fields irrigated with disinfected tertiary recycled water or wastewater effluent-dominated streamwater. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of filtered runoff samples revealed the presence of numerous nontarget compounds of potential toxicological significance including pesticide transformation products, pesticide adjuvant chemicals, plasticizers, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care product ingredients. Although the toxicity of many of these compounds is poorly characterized, some may elicit subtle but profound toxicological effects. Agricultural runoff also represented a source of allochthonous natural organic matter to the stream system. PMID:12590482

Pedersen, Joel A; Yeager, Matt A; Suffet, I H

2003-02-26

6

Effect of organic compounds on nitrite accumulation during the nitrification process for coking wastewater.  

PubMed

Coking wastewater is one of the most toxic industrial effluents since it contains high concentrations of ammonia and toxic organic compounds. Nitrification might be upset by the inhibitory effect of organic compounds during the biological treatment of the wastewater. In this study, shortcut nitrification was obtained in a sequencing batch bioreactor (SBR) and the inhibitory effect of organic compounds on the nitrification was examined when temperature was 30±1°C, pH was 7.0-8.5, and dissolved oxygen concentration was 2.0-3.0 mg L(-1). The inhibitory effect of organic compounds was presumed to be one of the main factors to obtain satisfactory nitrite accumulation. The effect of organic compounds on nitrification was examined in the SBR with initial inhibitor concentrations ranging from 0 to 80 mg L(-1), including phenol, pyrocatechol, resorcin, benzene, quinoline, pyridine and indole. The inhibitory effect became stronger with the increase in the concentration, and it was presumed to take place through a direct mechanism resulting from biological toxicity of the inhibitor itself. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect on ammonia oxidation was slighter than that on nitrite oxidation, and the nitrite accumulation ratio during the nitrification was determined by the difference between the reaction rates of above two processes. PMID:21045337

Li, H B; Cao, H B; Li, Y P; Zhang, Y; Liu, H R

2010-01-01

7

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and organic wastewater compounds in Pennsylvania waters, 2006-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern over the presence of contaminants of emerging concern, such as pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs), in waters of the United States and elsewhere is growing. Laboratory techniques developed within the last decade or new techniques currently under development within the U.S. Geological Survey now allow these compounds to be measured at concentrations in nanograms per liter. These new laboratory techniques were used in a reconnaissance study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, to determine the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in streams, streambed sediment, and groundwater of Pennsylvania. Compounds analyzed for in the study are pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary drugs), hormones (natural and synthetic), and OWCs (detergents, fragrances, pesticides, industrial compounds, disinfectants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fire retardants and plasticizers). Reconnaissance sampling was conducted from 2006 to 2009 to identify contaminants of emerging concern in (1) groundwater from wells used to supply livestock, (2) streamwater upstream and downstream from animal feeding operations, (3) streamwater upstream from and streamwater and streambed sediment downstream from municipal wastewater effluent discharges, (4) streamwater from sites within 5 miles of drinking-water intakes, and (5) streamwater and streambed sediment where fish health assessments were conducted. Of the 44 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed in groundwater samples collected in 2006 from six wells used to supply livestock, only cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) and the antibiotics tylosin and sulfamethoxazole were detected. The maximum concentration of any contaminant of emerging concern was 24 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for cotinine, and was detected in a groundwater sample from a Lebanon County, Pa., well. Seven pharmaceutical compounds including acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, and the four antibiotics tylosin, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and oxytetracycline were detected in streamwater samples collected in 2006 from six paired stream sampling sites located upstream and downstream from animal-feeding operations. The highest reported concentration of these seven compounds was for the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (157 ng/L), in a sample from the downstream site on Snitz Creek in Lancaster County, Pa. Twenty-one pharmaceutical compounds were detected in streamwater samples collected in 2006 from five paired stream sampling sites located upstream or downstream from a municipal wastewater-effluent-discharge site. The most commonly detected compounds and maximum concentrations were the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, 276 ng/L; the antihistamine diphenhydramine, 135 ng/L; and the antibiotics ofloxacin, 329 ng/L; sulfamethoxazole, 1,340 ng/L; and trimethoprim, 256 ng/L. A total of 51 different contaminants of emerging concern were detected in streamwater samples collected from 2007 through 2009 at 13 stream sampling sites located downstream from a wastewater-effluent-discharge site. The concentrations and numbers of compounds detected were higher in stream sites downstream from a wastewater-effluent-discharge site than in stream sites upstream from a wastewater-effluent-discharge site. This finding indicates that wastewater-effluent discharges are a source of contaminants of emerging concern; these contaminants were present more frequently in the streambed-sediment samples than in streamwater samples. Antibiotic compounds were often present in both the streamwater and streambed-sediment samples, but many OWCs were present exclusively in the streambed-sediment samples. Compounds with endocrine disrupting potential including detergent metabolites, pesticides, and flame retardants, were present in the streamwater and streambed-sediment samples. Killinger Creek, a stream where wastewater-effluent discharges contribute a large percentage of the total flow, stands out as a stream with particularly high numbers of compound

Reif, Andrew G.; Crawford, J. Kent; Loper, Connie A.; Proctor, Arianne; Manning, Rhonda; Titler, Robert

2012-01-01

8

Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows, and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) to streams, lakes, and estuaries, including wastewater-treatment-plant effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) and urban runoff, may also be major sources of OWCs. Samples of wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, CSO effluent, urban streams, large rivers, a reference (undeveloped) stream, and Lake Champlain were collected from March to August 2006. The highest concentrations of many OWCs associated with wastewater were in WWTP-effluent samples, but high concentrations of some OWCs in samples of CSO effluent and storm runoff from urban streams subject to leaky sewer pipes or CSOs were also detected. Total concentrations and numbers of compounds detected differed substantially among sampling sites. The highest total OWC concentrations (10-100 ??g/l) were in samples of WWTP and CSO effluent. Total OWC concentrations in samples from urban streams ranged from 0.1 to 10 ??g/l, and urban stream-stormflow samples had higher concentrations than baseflow samples because of contributions of OWCs from CSOs and leaking sewer pipes. The relations between OWC concentrations in WWTP-effluent and those in CSO effluent and urban streams varied with the degree to which the compound is removed through normal wastewater treatment. Concentrations of compounds that are highly removed during normal wastewater treatment [including caffeine, Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and cholesterol] were generally similar to or higher in CSO effluent than in WWTP effluent (and ranged from around 1 to over 10 ??g/l) because CSO effluent is untreated, and were higher in urban-stream stormflow samples than in baseflow samples as a result of CSO discharge and leakage from near-surface sources during storms. Concentrations of compounds that are poorly removed during treatment, by contrast, are higher in WWTP effluent than in CSO, due to dilution. Results indicate that CSO effluent and urban stormwaters can be a significant major source of OWCs entering large water bodies such as Burlington Bay. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.

2009-01-01

9

Presence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-02  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, and sterols and hormones were measured at 65 sites in Minnesota as part of a cooperative study among the Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were collected in Minnesota during October 2000 through November 2002 and analyzed for the presence and distribution of 91 OWCs at sites including wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent; landfill and feedlot lagoon leachate; surface water; ground water (underlying sewered and unsewered mixed urban land use, a waste dump, and feedlots); and the intake and finished drinking water from drinking water facilities. There were 74 OWCs detected that represent a wide variety of use. Samples generally comprised a mixture of compounds (average of 6 OWCs) and 90 percent of the samples had at least one OWC detected. Concentrations for detected OWCs generally were less than 3 micrograms per liter. The ten most frequently detected OWCs were metolachlor (agricultural-use herbicide); cholesterol (sterol primarily associated with animal waste); caffeine (stimulant), N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) (topical insect repellant); bromoform (disinfection by product); tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (flame-retardant and plastic component); beta-sitosterol (plant sterol that is a known endocrine disruptor); acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro- naphthalene (AHTN) (synthetic musk widely used in personal care products, and a known endocrine disruptor); bisphenol-A (plastic component and a known endocrine disruptor); and cotinine (metabolite of nicotine). Wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent, landfill leachate, and ground water underlying a waste dump had the greatest number of OWCs detected. OWC detections in ground-water were low except underlying the one waste dump studied and feedlots. There generally were more OWCs detected in surface water than ground water, and there were twice as many OWCs detected in the surface water sites downstream from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluent than at sites not directly downstream from effluent. Comparisons among site classifications apply only to sites sampled during the study. Results of this study indicate ubiquitous distribution of measured OWCs in the environment that originate from numerous sources and pathways. During this reconnaissance of OWCs in Minnesota it was not possible to determine the specific sources of OWCs to surface, ground, or drinking waters. The data indicate WWTP effluent is a major pathway of OWCs to surface waters and that landfill leachate at selected facilities is a potential source of OWCs to WWTPs. Aquatic organism or human exposure to some OWCs is likely based on OWC distribution. Few aquatic or human health standards or criteria exist for the OWCs analyzed, and the risks to humans or aquatic wildlife are not known. Some OWCs detected in this study are endocrine disrupters and have been found to disrupt or influence endocrine function in fish. Thirteen endocrine disrupters, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydoxyanisole (BHA), 4- cumylphenol, 4-normal-octylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), benzo[a]pyrene, beta-sitosterol, bisphenol-A, diazinon, nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), octyphenol diethoxylate (OP2EO), octylphenol monoethoxylate (OP1EO), and total para-nonylphenol (NP) were detected. Results of reconnaissance studies may help regulators who set water-quality standards begin to prioritize which OWCs to focus upon for given categories of water use.

Lee, Kathy E.; Barber, Larry B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.

2004-01-01

10

Analysis of pharmaceutical and other organic wastewater compounds in filtered and unfiltered water samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research on the effects of exposure of stream biota to complex mixtures of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds associated with wastewater requires the development of additional analytical capabilities for these compounds in water samples. Two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical methods used at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to analyze organic compounds associated with wastewater were adapted to include additional pharmaceutical and other organic compounds beginning in 2009. This report includes a description of method performance for 42 additional compounds for the filtered-water method (hereafter referred to as the filtered method) and 46 additional compounds for the unfiltered-water method (hereafter referred to as the unfiltered method). The method performance for the filtered method described in this report has been published for seven of these compounds; however, the addition of several other compounds to the filtered method and the addition of the compounds to the unfiltered method resulted in the need to document method performance for both of the modified methods. Most of these added compounds are pharmaceuticals or pharmaceutical degradates, although two nonpharmaceutical compounds are included in each method. The main pharmaceutical compound classes added to the two modified methods include muscle relaxants, opiates, analgesics, and sedatives. These types of compounds were added to the original filtered and unfiltered methods largely in response to the tentative identification of a wide range of pharmaceutical and other organic compounds in samples collected from wastewater-treatment plants. Filtered water samples are extracted by vacuum through disposable solid-phase cartridges that contain modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. Unfiltered samples are extracted by using continuous liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The compounds of interest for filtered and unfiltered sample types were determined by use of the capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The performance of each method was assessed by using data on recoveries of compounds in fortified surface-water, wastewater, and reagent-water samples. These experiments (referred to as spike experiments) consist of fortifying (or spiking) samples with known amounts of target analytes. Surface-water-spike experiments were performed by using samples obtained from a stream in Colorado (unfiltered method) and a stream in New York (filtered method). Wastewater spike experiments for both the filtered and unfiltered methods were performed by using a treated wastewater obtained from a single wastewater treatment plant in New York. Surface water and wastewater spike experiments were fortified at both low and high concentrations and termed low- and high-level spikes, respectively. Reagent water spikes were assessed in three ways: (1) set spikes, (2) a low-concentration fortification experiment, and (3) a high-concentration fortification experiment. Set spike samples have been determined since 2009, and consist of analysis of fortified reagent water for target compounds included for each group of 10 to18 environmental samples analyzed at the NWQL. The low-concentration and high-concentration reagent spike experiments, by contrast, represent a one-time assessment of method performance. For each spike experiment, mean recoveries ranging from 60 to 130 percent indicate low bias, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than ( Of the compounds included in the filtered method, 21 had mean recoveries ranging from 63 to 129 percent for the low-level and high-level surface-water spikes, and had low ()132 percent]. For wastewater spikes, 24 of the compounds included in the filtered method had recoveries ranging from 61 to 130 percent for the low-level and high-level spikes. RSDs were 130 percent) or variable recoveries (RSDs >30 percent) for low-level wastewater spikes, or low recoveries ( Of the compounds included in the unfiltered method, 17 had mean spike recoveries ranging from 74

Zaugg, Steven D.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Smith, Steven G.

2014-01-01

11

Roles of methanogens on volatile organic sulfur compound production in anaerobically digested wastewater biosolids.  

PubMed

Land application of wastewater biosolids is both economical and beneficial to resource recycling. However, this environmentally friendly practice can be at risk due to odor complaints. Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) including methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, have been identified as major contributors to biosolids odor. In this study, methanogens were shown to play a key role in removing VOSCs and reducing odors, and methane production was related to reduced VOSC production. Factors influencing the growth of methanogens such as the shear during dewatering and storage temperature showed a strong impact on net odor production. Examination of the microbial communities of both bacteria and archaea indicated a simplified archaeal community in biosolids, which is susceptible to environmental perturbations. Therefore, one possible odor control strategy is the preservation and enhancement of the methanogenic population during biosolids storage. PMID:16180410

Chen, Y; Higgins, M J; Maas, N A; Murthy, S N; Toffey, W E; Foster, D J

2005-01-01

12

Bioremediation of wastewaters with recalcitrant organic compounds and metals by aerobic granules.  

PubMed

Compared to activated sludge flocs, aerobic granules have a regular shape, and a compact and dense structure which enhances settleability, higher biomass retention, multi-microbial functions, higher tolerance to toxicity, greater tolerance to shock loading, and relatively low excess sludge production. The potential for improved process efficiency and cost-effectiveness can be attractive when it is applied to both municipal and industrial wastewaters. This review discusses potential applications of aerobic granulation technology in wastewater treatment while drawing attention to relevant findings such as diffusion gradients existing in aerobic granules which help the biomass cope with inhibitory compounds and the ability of granules to continue degradation of inhibitory compounds at extreme acid and alkaline pHs. PMID:20940035

Maszenan, A M; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern

2011-01-01

13

Treatment of coke-plant wastewater by biofilm systems for removal of organic compounds and nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coke-plant wastewater was treated by an anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic (A1–A2–O) biofilm system and an anoxic–aerobic (A\\/O) biofilm system, respectively. At same or similar levels of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the two systems had almost identical chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3 removals, but a different organic-N removal. Set-up of an acidogenic stage benefited for the removal of organic-N and the A1–A2–O system

Y. M. Li; G. W. Gu; J. F. Zhao; H. Q. Yu; Y. L. Qiu; Y. Z. Peng

2003-01-01

14

A POLYMER-CERAMIC COMPOSITE MEMBRANE FOR RECOVERING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WASTEWATERS BY PERVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A composite membrane was constructed on a porous ceramic support from a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (SBS). It was tested in a laboratory pervaporation apparatus for recovering volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such a 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene ...

15

Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in drinking water, wastewater effluent, and the Big Sioux River in or near Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 2001-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls conducted several rounds of sampling to determine the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the city of Sioux Falls drinking water and waste-water effluent, and the Big Sioux River in or near Sioux Falls during August 2001 through May 2004. Water samples were collected during both base-flow and storm-runoff conditions. Water samples were collected at 8 sites, which included 4 sites upstream from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge, 2 sites downstream from the WWTP discharge, 1 finished drinking-water site, and 1 WWTP effluent (WWE) site. A total of 125 different OWCs were analyzed for in this study using five different analytical methods. Analyses for OWCs were performed at USGS laboratories that are developing and/or refining small-concentration (less than 1 microgram per liter (ug/L)) analytical methods. The OWCs were classified into six compound classes: human pharmaceutical compounds (HPCs); human and veterinary antibiotic compounds (HVACs); major agricultural herbicides (MAHs); household, industrial,and minor agricultural compounds (HIACs); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); and sterol compounds (SCs). Some of the compounds in the HPC, MAH, HIAC, and PAH classes are suspected of being endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Of the 125 different OWCs analyzed for in this study, 81 OWCs had one or more detections in environmental samples reported by the laboratories, and of those 81 OWCs, 63 had acceptable analytical method performance, were detected at concentrations greater than the study reporting levels, and were included in analyses and discussion related to occurrence of OWCs in drinking water, wastewater effluent, and the Big Sioux River. OWCs in all compound classes were detected in water samples from sampling sites in the Sioux Falls area. For the five sampling periods when samples were collected from the Sioux Falls finished drinking water, only one OWC was detected at a concentration greater than the study reporting level (metolachlor; 0.0040 ug/L). During base-flow conditions, Big Sioux River sites upstream from the WWTP discharge had OWC contributions that primarily were from nonpoint animal or crop agriculture sources or had OWC concentrations that were minimal. The influence of the WWTP discharge on OWCs at downstream river sites during base-flow conditions ranged from minimal influence to substantial influence depending on the sampling period. During runoff conditions, OWCs at sites upstream from the WWTP discharge probably were primarily contributed by nonpoint animal and/or crop agriculture sources and possibly by stormwater runoff from nearby roads. OWCs at sites downstream from the WWTP discharge probably were contributed by sources other than the WWTP effluent discharge, such as stormwater runoff from urban and/or agriculture areas and/or resuspension of OWCs adsorbed to sediment deposited in the Big Sioux River. OWC loads generally were substantially smaller for upstream sites than downstream sites during both base-flow and runoff conditions.discharge had OWC contributions that primarily were from nonpoint animal or crop agriculture sources or had OWC concentrations that were minimal. The influence of the WWTP discharge on OWCs at downstream river sites during base-flow conditions ranged from minimal influence to substantial influence depending on the sampling period. During runoff conditions, OWCs at sites upstream from the WWTP discharge probably were primarily contributed by nonpoint animal and/or crop agriculture sources and possibly by stormwater runoff from nearby roads. OWCs at sites downstream from the WWTP discharge probably were contributed by sources other than the WWTP effluent discharge, such as stormwater runoff from urban and/or agriculture areas and/or resuspension of OWCs adsorbed to sediment deposited in the Big Sioux River. OWC loads generally were substantially smaller for

Sando, Steven K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.

2006-01-01

16

THE EFFECT OF OZONATION OF ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of ozone treatment of domestic wastewater and various model compounds has been determined with respect to trace organic components. Organic constituents were identified in wastewater that was treated with ozone at the Upper Thompson Sanitation District Treatment Plant,...

17

Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

2004-01-01

18

Summary of Organic Wastewater Compounds and Other Water-Quality Data in Charles County, Maryland, October 2007 through August 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the government of Charles County, Maryland, and the Port Tobacco River Conservancy, Inc., conducted a water-quality reconnaissance and sampling investigation of the Port Tobacco River and Nanjemoy Creek watersheds in Charles County during October 2007 and June-August 2008. Samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, organic wastewater compounds, and other selected constituents from 17 surface-water sites and 11 well sites (5 of which were screened in streambed sediments to obtain porewater samples). Most of the surface-water sites were relatively widely spaced throughout the Port Tobacco River and Nanjemoy Creek watersheds, although the well sites and some associated surface-water sites were concentrated in one residential community along the Port Tobacco River that has domestic septic systems. Sampling for enterococci bacteria was conducted by the Port Tobacco River Conservancy, Inc., at each site to coordinate with the sampling for chemical constituents. The purpose of the coordinated sampling was to determine correlations between historically high, in-stream bacteria counts and human wastewater inputs. Chemical data for the groundwater, porewater, and surface-water samples are presented in this report.

Lorah, Michelle M.; Soeder, Daniel J.; Teunis, Jessica A.

2010-01-01

19

Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

2007-01-01

20

Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceutical and Organic Wastewater Compounds in Effluent and Water Samples from Municipal Wastewater and Drinking-Water Treatment Facilities in the Tar and Cape Fear River Basins, North Carolina, 2003-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of treated effluent and treated and untreated water were collected at 20 municipal wastewater and drinkingwater treatment facilities in the Tar and Cape Fear River basins of North Carolina during 2003 and 2005. The samples were analyzed for a variety of prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical compounds and a suite of organic compounds considered indicative of wastewater. Concentrations of these compounds generally were less than or near the detection limits of the analytical methods used during this investigation. None of these compounds were detected at concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Bromoform, a disinfection byproduct, was the only compound detected at a concentration that exceeded regulatory guidelines. The concentration of bromoform in one finished drinking-water sample, 26 micrograms per liter, exceeded North Carolina water-quality criteria. Drinking-water treatment practices were effective at removing many of the compounds detected in untreated water. Disinfection processes used in wastewater treatment - chlorination or irradiation with ultraviolet light - did not seem to substantially degrade the organic compounds evaluated during this study.

Ferrell, G.M.

2009-01-01

21

Occurrence and potential transport of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds from wastewater-treatment plant influent and effluent to groundwater and canal systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An increased demand for fresh groundwater resources in South Florida has prompted Miami-Dade County to expand its water reclamation program and actively pursue reuse plans for aquifer recharge, irrigation, and wetland rehydration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), initiated a study in 2008 to assess the presence of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in the influent and effluent at three regional wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) operated by the WASD and at one WWTP operated by the City of Homestead, Florida (HSWWTP).

Foster, Adam L.; Katz, Brian G.; Meyer, Michael T.

2012-01-01

22

The effect of mean cell residence time on the adsorbability of dissolved organic compounds found in petrochemical wastewaters  

E-print Network

of the compounds decreases rapidly. 1 The molecular weight and adsorbability relationship is not confined to saccharides, since it holds for most homologous series. Adsorbate molecule interactions with the carbon surface and interaction between adsorbates... the added wastewater over a reasonable period of time. The f1rst activated sludge process was a fill-and- draw or batch-type operation. Later, it was operated in a continuous- flow mode. Warren and Doudoroff concluded that bacteria, rather than fungi, 5...

Johnson, Timothy Loring

2012-06-07

23

The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of

J. A. Field

1989-01-01

24

Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 ??g/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17??-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17??-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = -0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = -0.45) and control (r = -0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walker, D.B.; Paretti, N.V.; Cordy, G.; Gross, T.S.; Zaugg, S.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Matter, W.J.; Gwinn, J.; McIntosh, D.

2009-01-01

25

Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 ?g/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17?-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = ?0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = ?0.45) and control (r = ?0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

Walker, David B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Matter, William J.; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

2009-01-01

26

Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceuticals, Personal-Care Products, Organic Wastewater Compounds, and Pesticides in the Lower Tallapoosa River Watershed near Montgomery, Alabama, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synthetic and natural organic compounds derived from agricultural operations, residential development, and treated and untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater discharges can contribute contaminants to surface and ground waters. To determine the occurrence of these compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed, Alabama, new laboratory methods were used that can detect human and veterinary antibiotics; pharmaceuticals; and compounds found in personal-care products, food additives, detergents and their metabolites, plasticizers, and other industrial and household products in the environment. Well-established methods for detecting 47 pesticides and 19 pesticide degradates also were used. In all, 186 different compounds were analyzed by using four analytical methods. The lower Tallapoosa River serves as the water-supply source for more than 100,000 customers of the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board. Source-water protection is a high priority for the Board, which is responsible for providing safe drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board, conducted this study to provide baseline data that could be used to assess the effects of agriculture and residential development on the occurrence of selected organic compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Twenty samples were collected at 10 sites on the Tallapoosa River and its tributaries. Ten samples were collected in April 2005 during high base streamflow, and 10 samples were collected in October 2005 when base streamflow was low. Thirty-two of 186 compounds were detected in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Thirteen compounds, including atrazine, 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), hexazinone, metalaxyl, metolachlor, prometryn, prometon, simazine, azithromycin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and tylosin, had measurable concentrations above their laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations were estimated for an additional 19 compounds that were detected below their laboratory reporting levels. The two most frequently detected compounds were the pesticides atrazine (19 of 20 samples) and simazine (13 of 20 samples). Tylosin, a veterinary antibiotic, was detected in 8 of 20 samples. Other compounds frequently detected at very low concentrations included CIAT and hexazinone (a degradate of atrazine and a pesticide, respectively); camphor (derived from personal-care products or flavorants), para-cresol (various uses including solvent, wood preservative, and in household cleaning products), and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET, an insect repellent).

Oblinger, Carolyn J.; Gill, Amy C.; McPherson, Ann K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

2007-01-01

27

SOURCES OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a literature search into the occurrence of EPA's selected 129 priority pollutants in household wastewater. The study identifies consumer product categories and general types of products containing the toxic compounds used in and around the home...

28

Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater  

E-print Network

processes (via wastewater treatment plants, or domestic septic systems), which often are not designedPharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams, 1999 as biogenic hormones are released directly to the environment after passing through wastewater treatment

29

Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

2006-01-01

30

Widespread detection of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in U.S. streams: Comparison with concentrations of pesticides, personal care products, and other organic wastewater compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the most frequently detected organic chemicals in a nationwide study concerning the effects of wastewater on stream water quality conducted in the year 2000 was the widely used insect repellant N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). It was detected at levels of 0.02 ??g/L or greater in 73% of the stream sites sampled, with the selection of sampling sites being biased toward streams thought to be subject to wastewater contamination (i.e., downstream from intense urbanization and livestock production). Although DEET frequently was detected at all sites, the median concentration was low (0.05 ??g/L). The highest concentrations of DEET were found in streams from the urban areas (maximum concentration, 1.1 ??g/L). The results of the present study suggest that the movement of DEET to streams through wastewater-treatment systems is an important mechanism that might lead to the exposure of aquatic organisms to this chemical. ?? 2005 SETAC.

Sandstrom, M.W.; Kolpin, D.W.; Thurman, E.M.; Zaugg, S.D.

2005-01-01

31

EMISSIONS OF METALS, CHROMIUM AND NICKEL SPECIES, AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to provide data to support regulations on municipal wastewater sludge incineration, emissions of metals, hexavalent chromium, nickel subsulfide, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs), semivolatile and volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO)...

32

Occurrence and suitability of sucralose as an indicator compound of wastewater loading to surface waters in urbanized regions.  

PubMed

Urban watersheds are susceptible to numerous pollutant sources and the identification of source-specific indicators can provide a beneficial tool in the identification and control of input loads, often times needed for a water body to achieve designated beneficial uses. Differentiation of wastewater flows from other urban wet weather flows is needed in order to more adequately address such environmental concerns as water body nutrient impairment and potable source water contamination. Anthropogenic compounds previously suggested as potential wastewater indicators include caffeine, carbamazepine, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, and TCEP. This paper compares the suitability of a variety of anthropogenic compounds to sucralose, an artificial sweetener, as wastewater indicators by examining occurrence data for 85 trace organic compounds in samples of wastewater effluents, source waters with known wastewater point source inputs, and sources without known wastewater point source inputs. The findings statistically demonstrate the superior performance of sucralose as a potential indicator of domestic wastewater input in the U.S. While several compounds were detected in all of the wastewater effluent samples, only sucralose was consistently detected in the source waters with known wastewater discharges, absent in the sources without wastewater influence, and consistently present in septic samples. All of the other compounds were prone to either false negatives or false positives in the environment. PMID:21665241

Oppenheimer, Joan; Eaton, Andrew; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Haghani, Ali W; Jacangelo, Joseph G

2011-07-01

33

Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

2014-02-01

34

Occurrence of Endocrine-Disrupting and Other Wastewater Compounds during Water Treatment with Case Studies from Lincoln, Nebraska and Berlin, Germany  

EPA Science Inventory

Except for herbicides, research on the fate and transport of endocrine disrupting compounds and other organic wastewater compounds released into the environment and their potential presence in drinking water is in its infancy. Analytical methods still are being developed, evalua...

35

Chemical procedures to detect carcinogenic compound in domestic wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review presents chemical methods to detect carcinogenic compound in wastewater. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) and their alternative attached equipments were discussed. The application of each method is elaborated using related studies in the field.

S, Abd Manan T.; A, Malakahmad

2013-06-01

36

Removal of Xenobiotic Compounds from Water and Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute a family of redox technologies that have been involved in various environmental\\u000a applications, including, amongst others, the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater contaminated by various organic\\u000a and inorganic compounds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This chapter focuses on the science and engineering of water and wastewater treatment in relation to AOPs applications. The\\u000a chapter gives a short but necessary

Despo Fatta-Kassinos; Evroula Hapeshi; Sixto Malato; Dionisis Mantzavinos; Luigi Rizzo; Nikos P. Xekoukoulotakis

37

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation from model organic wastewater  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation from model organic wastewater in a cassette-008-1516-0 T. Shimoyama :S. Komukai :K. Watanabe Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Marine Biotechnology

38

Characterisation of volatile organic contaminants after different pretreatment systems in reclaimed wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of reclamation has been tested in the Palamós\\/Vall-Llobrega, Spain wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Each line consists on a filtration treatment and a disinfection system. Different lines have been tested in order to establish the fate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during wastewater treatment and reclamation procedures. The studied technologies after a classical activated sludge treatment were infiltration-percolation, ring

J. Romero; F. Ventura; M. Folch; M. Salgot; A. Torrens

39

Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

Cooper, Grorge

2001-01-01

40

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

41

Antibiotic, Pharmaceutical, and Wastewater-Compound Data for Michigan, 1998-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in the late 1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey began to develop analytical methods to detect, at concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter (ug/L), emerging water contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, personal-care chemicals, and a variety of other chemicals associated with various human and animal sources. During 1998-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey analyzed the following Michigan water samples: 41 samples for antibiotic compounds, 28 samples for pharmaceutical compounds, 46 unfiltered samples for wastewater compounds (dissolved and suspended compounds), and 113 filtered samples for wastewater compounds (dissolved constituents only). The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of emerging contaminants in Michigan waters based on data from several different project-specific sample-collection efforts in Michigan during an 8-year period. During the course of the 8-year sampling effort, antibiotics were determined at 20 surface-water sites and 2 groundwater sites, pharmaceuticals were determined at 11 surface-water sites, wastewater compounds in unfiltered water were determined at 31 surface-water sites, and wastewater compounds in filtered water were determined at 40 surface-water and 4 groundwater sites. Some sites were visited only once, but others were visited multiple times. A variety of quality-assurance samples also were collected. This report describes the analytical methods used, describes the variations in analytical methods and reporting levels during the 8-year period, and summarizes all data using current (2009) reporting criteria. Very few chemicals were detected at concentrations greater than current laboratory reporting levels, which currently vary from a low of 0.005 ug/L for some antibiotics to 5 ug/L for some wastewater compounds. Nevertheless, 10 of 51 chemicals in the antibiotics analysis, 9 of 14 chemicals in the pharmaceuticals analysis, 34 of 67 chemicals in the unfiltered-wastewater analysis, and 56 of 62 chemicals in the filtered-wastewater analysis were detected. Antibiotics were detected at 7 of 20 tested surface-water sites, but none were detected in 2 groundwater samples. Pharmaceuticals were detected at 7 of 11 surface-water sites. Wastewater compounds were detected at 25 of 31 sites for which unfiltered water samples were analyzed and at least once at all 40 surface-water sites and all 4 groundwater sites for which filtered water samples were analyzed. Overall, the chemicals detected most frequently in Michigan waters were similar to those reported frequently in other studies nationwide. Patterns of chemical detections were site specific and appear to be related to local sources, overall land use, and hydrologic conditions at the time of sampling. Field-blank results provide important information for the design of future sampling programs in Michigan and demonstrate the need for careful field-study design. Field-replicate results indicated substantial confidence regarding the presence or absence of the many chemicals tested. Overall, data reported herein indicate that a wide array of antibiotic, pharmaceutical, and organic wastewater compounds occur in Michigan waters. Patterns of occurrence, with respect to hydrologic, land use, and source variables, generally appear to be similar for Michigan as for other sampled waters across the United States. The data reported herein can serve as a basis for future studies in Michigan.

Haack, Sheridan Kidd

2010-01-01

42

Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ?8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removed<25% of DON and DOC without selectivity. PAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

2011-10-01

43

Organic Compounds in Stardust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful return of the STARDUST spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from Comet 81P/Wild-2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N-rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivities suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C N). While organic species in the STARDUST samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N-containing species in comets has astrobiological implications since comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

McKay, David S.; Clemett. Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hoerz, Fredrich

2011-01-01

44

Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds  

DOEpatents

At least one of selectivity and reaction rate of photosensitized vapor phase dimerizations, including dehydrodimerizations, hydrodimerizations and cross-dimerizations of saturated and unsaturated organic compounds is improved by conducting the dimerization in the presence of hydrogen or nitrous oxide.

Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (Princeton, NJ); Muedas, Cesar A. (New Haven, CT); Ferguson, Richard R. (Branford, CT)

1992-01-01

45

Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

2009-03-15

46

Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

47

Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms  

PubMed Central

The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

2004-01-01

48

APPLICATION OF AN ANALYSIS PROTOCOL TO IDENTIFY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS NOT IDENTIFIED BY SPECTRUM MATCHING. PART 2: APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial wastewater survey samples were analyzed for organic compounds not identified by spectrum matching. Analysis of the samples proceeded from an initial packed column GC/MS analysis for Priority Pollutants, through computerized spectrum matching for other compounds, to the...

49

An assessment of estrogenic organic contaminants in Canadian wastewaters.  

PubMed

A suite of 30 primarily estrogenic organic wastewater contaminants was measured in several influent/effluent wastewater samples from four municipal wastewater treatment plants and effluents from one bleached kraft pulp mill (BKME) using an ultra-trace analytical method based on gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS). In vitro recombinant yeast assay detection of the estrogenic equivalent (EEq) on whole and solid phase extracted (SPE) and fractionated wastewater was also performed. 19-norethindrone was the most frequently detected and abundant (26-224 ng/L) of all the synthetic estrogens/progesterones in the influent samples. 17alpha-ethinylestradiol was the more frequently detected synthetic estrogen/progesterone in the effluents occurring at or below 5 ng/L with some sporadic occurrences of up to 178 ng/L. The greatest levels of steroidal estrogens in municipal effluents were E1>E2>E3 which were all <20 ng/L. Nonylphenol and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were found to be the highest non-steroidal synthetic compounds surveyed in both municipal influent and effluent samples, both occurring at 6-7 microg/L in municipal effluents. BKME contained relatively large amounts of the plant sterol stigmasterol (4 microg/L) but low amounts of fecal sterols, and steroidal estrogens (E2 only at 6 ng/L) when compared to the municipal effluents. In vitro EEq in the wastewater surveyed ranged from 9-106 ng E2/L and ranked from municipal influent>municipal effluent approximately BKME, with most of the estrogenicity fractionating in the 100% methanol SPE fraction followed by a secondary amount in the diethyl ether (for municipal) or methyl-tert butyl ether (for BKME) SPE fractions. Most correlations between chemical and in vitro estrogenic equivalency were weak (p>0.05 in most cases). Unexpected inverse correlations between in vitro estrogenic activity and concentrations of the estrogenic contaminant bisphenol A were found which likely contributed to the weakness of these correlations. A modified toxicity identification and evaluation procedure was continued with the SPE extracts from the more potent 100% methanol SPE fractions of municipal effluent. High performance liquid chromatography band elution retention times, based on in vitro estrogen detection, indicated that steroidal estrogens such as E2 were responsible for most of the estrogenicity of the samples. Subsequent collection and GC-MS analysis of active bands did not confirm the presence of steroidal estrogens, but expanded the possibility of phthalate esters (i.e. dibutyl phthalate) and natural sterols (i.e. beta-sitosterol) contributing to the overall estrogenic load. PMID:17197011

Fernandez, Marc P; Ikonomou, Michael G; Buchanan, Ian

2007-02-01

50

OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater was studied. A shell-and-tube heat-exchange type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluen...

51

OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from wastewater was studied. hell-and-tube heat-exchanger type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluene,...

52

In vivo endocrine disruption assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluents with small organisms.  

PubMed

Surface water receives a variety of micro-pollutants that could alter aquatic organisms' reproduction and development. It is known that a few nanograms per litre of these compounds can induce endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic species. Many compounds are released daily in wastewater, and identifying the compounds responsible for inducing such disruption is difficult. Methods using biological analysis are therefore an alternative to chemical analysis, as the endocrine disruption potential of the stream as a whole is considered. To detect hormonal disruption of thyroid and oestrogenic functions, fluorescent Xenopus laevis tadpoles and medaka (Oryzias latipes) fish larvae bearing genetic constructs integrating hormonal responsive elements were used for physiological screens for potential endocrine disruption in streams from an urban wastewater treatment plant. The Xenopus model was used to assess thyroid disruption and the medaka model oestrogenic disruption in wastewater samples. Assays using the genetically modified organisms were conducted on 9 influent and 32 effluent samples. The thyroidal effect of wastewater was either reduced or removed by the treatment plant; no oestrogenic effect was detected in any of the wastewater samples. PMID:23823564

Castillo, Luis; Seriki, Kemi; Mateos, Stéphanie; Loire, Nicolas; Guédon, Nathalie; Lemkine, Gregory F; Demeneix, Barbara A; Tindall, Andrew J

2013-01-01

53

Fate and degradation of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

In order to explore the biodegradation behavior of nonylphenolic compounds during wastewater treatment processing, two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were investigated and batch biodegradation experiments were conducted. The biodegradation pathways under the various operational conditions were identified from batch experiments: shortening of ethoxy-chains dominated under the anaerobic condition, whereas oxidizing of the terminal alcoholic group prevailed over the other routes under the aerobic condition. Results showed that the anoxic condition could accelerate the biodegradation rates of nonylphenolic compounds, but had no influence on the biodegradation pathway. The biodegradation rates of nonylphenol (NP) and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, n: number of ethoxy units) increased from the anaerobic condition, then the anoxic, finally to the aerobic condition, while those of long-chain NPnEOs and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) seemed similar under the various conditions. Under every operational condition, long-chain NPnEOs showed the highest biodegradation activity, followed by NPECs and short-chain NPnEOs, whereas NP showed relatively recalcitrant characteristics especially under the anaerobic condition. In addition, introducing sulfate and nitrate to the anaerobic condition could enhance the biodegradation of NP and short-chain NPnEOs by supplying more positive redox potentials. PMID:24520688

Lian, Jing; Liu, Junxin

2013-08-01

54

Review of various treatment methods for the abatement of phenolic compounds from wastewater.  

PubMed

Phenol and its derivatives are considered among the most hazardous organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and they are toxic even at low concentrations. Besides the existence of phenol in natural water source it can lead to the formation of other toxic substituted compounds. So this has led to growing concern on setting up of rigid limits on the acceptable level of phenol in the environment. The various methods for the treatment of phenol from wastewater streams are briefly reviewed. The various technologies like distillation, liquid-liquid extraction with different solvents, adsorption over activated carbons and polymeric and inorganic adsorbents, membrane pervaporation and membrane-solvent extraction, have been elucidated. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are illustrated and their performances are compared. PMID:24749384

Girish, C R; Murty, V Ramachandra

2012-04-01

55

Antioxidizing potency of phenol compounds in olive oil mill wastewater.  

PubMed

The antioxidizing potency of phenol compounds contained in olive oil mill wastewater (OOMWW) has been elucidated. Commercially available phenol standards at varying concentrations and the Rancimat oxidation test have been used. Refined purified olive oil was utilized as an oxidation lipid substrate. Synthetic antioxidants, such as 2,3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), l-ascorbic acid, and gallates (commonly used as food preservatives), and other known chemicals endowed with antioxidizing properties have been employed as reference compounds. The OOMWW phenol compounds have been classified into different groups depending on their antioxidizing potency. This was significantly affected by the tested concentrations of the standards. Mixtures of phenol standards and other antioxidants (l-proline, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol) have also been tested. Many phenol compounds present in OOMWW showed antioxidizing potency higher compared to that of the less safe synthetic antioxidants and could therefore replace these in the industrial preservation of food items. They could also be used in combination with other natural antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols). In fact, some mixtures of antioxidants, owing also to the synergistic phenomena, showed strong antioxidizing potency. PMID:14664521

Ranalli, Alfonso; Lucera, Lucia; Contento, Stefania

2003-12-17

56

Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater  

PubMed Central

Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW). Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000??g?mL?1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400??g?mL?1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400??g?mL?1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%), verbascoside (7.4%), and tyrosol (2.6%). The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100??g?mL?1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria. PMID:21647315

Tafesh, Ahmed; Najami, Naim; Jadoun, Jeries; Halahlih, Fares; Riepl, Herbert; Azaizeh, Hassan

2011-01-01

57

Transformation in Bulk and Trace Organics during Ozonation of Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to determine the ozone dosages needed to oxidize bulk and trace organics. Treated effluent from eight full-scale wastewater treatment plants was collected and subjected to lab-scale ozonation. Because both organics and inorganics exert ozone demand, an approach was developed to calculate only the ozone demand associated with organics. This method allowed normalization of dosing

Fariya Sharif; Jun Wang; Paul Westerhoff

2012-01-01

58

Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organic compounds or their precursorsfound in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellarmedium and were later incorporated intoplanetesimals during the formation of thesolar system. There they either survivedintact or underwent further processing tosynthesize secondary products on themeteorite parent body.The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceouschondrites, two typesof stony meteorites, is their high carbon content(up to 3% of

OLIVER BOTTAand; Jeffrey L. Bada

2002-01-01

59

Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many organic compounds or their precursorsfound in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellarmedium and were later incorporated intoplanetesimals during the formation of thesolar system. There they either survivedintact or underwent further processing tosynthesize secondary products on themeteorite parent body.The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceouschondrites, two typesof stony meteorites, is their high carbon content(up to 3% of weight), either in theform of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulkof the organic carbon consistsof an insoluble macromolecular material with a complexstructure. Also present is asoluble organic fraction, which has been analyzedby several separation and analyticalprocedures. Low detection limits can be achievedby derivatization of the organicmolecules with reagents that allow for analysisby gas chromatography/massspectroscopy and high performance liquidchromatography. The CM meteoriteMurchison has been found to contain more than70 extraterrestrial amino acids andseveral other classes of compounds includingcarboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylicacids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic,aromatic and polar hydrocarbons,fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonylcompounds, alcohols, amines and amides.The organic matter was found to be enriched indeuterium, and distinct organiccompounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon andnitrogen relative to terrestrialmatter.

Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.

60

Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

2013-12-01

61

Potential endocrine disrupting organic chemicals in treated municipal wastewater and river water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Select endocrine disrupting organic chemicals were measured in treated wastewater from Chicago, IL, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, Detroit, MI, and Milwaukee, WI, and in the Des Plaines, Illinois, and Minnesota Rivers during the fall of 1997 and the spring of 1998. Emphasis was given to alkylphenolpolyethoxylate (APEO) derived compounds, although 17-??-estradiol, bisphenol A, caffeine, total organic carbon, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other compounds also were measured. Contaminants were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) with methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The extracts were derivatized to form the methyl esters of alkylphenolethoxycarboxylates (APEC), and EDTA was isolated by evaporation and derivatized to form the tetrapropyl ester. The mass spectra of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) compounds are complex and show variations among the different ethoxylate and carboxylate homologs, reflecting variations in the ethylene oxide chain length. Recoveries for target compounds and surrogate standards ranged from 20-130%, with relative standard deviations of 9.9-53%. Detection limits for the various compounds ranged from 0.06-0.35 ??g/L. Analysis of the wastewater effluents detected a number of compounds including NP, NPEO, OP, OPEO, NPEC, caffeine, and EDTA at concentrations ranging from <1-439 ??g/L, with EDTA and NPEC being most abundant. There was variability in compound distributions and concentrations between the various sewage treatment plants, indicating differences in treatment type and influent composition. Several wastewater-derived compounds were detected in the river samples, with EDTA and NPEC persisting for considerable distance downstream from wastewater discharges, and NP and NPEO being attenuated more rapidly.

Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Zaugg, S.D.

2000-01-01

62

Volatile Organic Compounds in Uremia  

PubMed Central

Background Although “uremic fetor” has long been felt to be diagnostic of renal failure, the compounds exhaled in uremia remain largely unknown so far. The present work investigates whether breath analysis by ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of volatile organic compounds retained in uremia. Methods Breath analysis was performed in 28 adults with an eGFR ?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 26 adults with chronic renal failure corresponding to an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 28 adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after a hemodialysis session. Breath analysis was performed by ion mobility spectrometryafter gas-chromatographic preseparation. Identification of the compounds of interest was performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Breath analyses revealed significant differences in the spectra of patients with and without renal failure. Thirteen compounds were chosen for further evaluation. Some compounds including hydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonia accumulated with decreasing renal function and were eliminated by dialysis. The concentrations of these compounds allowed a significant differentiation between healthy, chronic renal failure with an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min, and ESRD (p<0.05 each). Other compounds including 4-heptanal, 4-heptanone, and 2-heptanone preferentially or exclusively occurred in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion Impairment of renal function induces a characteristic fingerprint of volatile compounds in the breath. The technique of ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of lipophilic uremic retention molecules. PMID:23049998

Seifert, Luzia; Slodzinski, Rafael; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

2012-01-01

63

DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANICS IN INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the systematic evaluation of a series of parameters leading to the development of a test procedure for 36 volatile priority pollutants in wastewaters. A study of the effect of pH, temperature, and residual chlorine on the aqueous stability of the compounds l...

64

Biotreatment of Industrial Wastewaters under Transient-State Conditions: Process Stability with Fluctuations of Organic Load, Substrates, Toxicants, and Environmental Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotreatment of industrial wastewater is often challenged by operation under transient states with respect to organic loads, pollutants, and physical characteristics. Furthermore, the potential presence of inhibitory compounds requires careful monitoring and adequate process design. This review describes difficulties encountered in biological treatment of wastewater with highly variable influent characteristics. Typical design aspects of biological processes are presented and discussed

Jan Sipma; M. Begoña Osuna; Maria A. E. Emanuelsson; Paula M. L. Castro

2010-01-01

65

Removal of organic wastewater contaminants in septic systems using advanced treatment technologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The detection of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in ground water and surface-water bodies has raised concerns about the possible ecological impacts of these compounds on nontarget organisms. On-site wastewater treatment systems represent a potentially significant route of entry for organic contaminants to the environment. In this study, effluent samples were collected and analyzed from conventional septic systems and from systems using advanced treatment technologies. Six of 13 target compounds were detected in effluent from at least one septic system. Caffeine, paraxanthine, and acetaminophen were the most frequently detected compounds, and estrogenic activity was detected in 14 of 15 systems. The OWC concentrations were significantly lower in effluent after sand filtration (p < 0.01) or aerobic treatment (p < 0.05) as compared with effluent that had not undergone advanced treatment. In general, concentrations in conventional systems were comparable to those measured in previous studies of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent, and concentrations in systems after advanced treatment were comparable to previously measured concentrations in WWTP effluent. These data indicate that septic systems using advanced treatment can reduce OWCs in treated effluent to similar concentrations as municipal WWTPs. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Wilcox, J.D.; Bahr, J.M.; Hedman, C.J.; Hemming, J.D.C.; Barman, M.A.E.; Bradbury, K.R.

2009-01-01

66

Bioassay-directed identification of novel antiandrogenic compounds in bile of fish exposed to wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some UK Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTWs) has been associated with exposure to estrogenic and potentially antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in the effluents. In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in WwTW effluents and fish was conducted using HPLC in combination with in vitro androgen receptor transcription screens. Analysis of extracts of wastewater effluents revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 21-53 HPLC fractions. Structures of bioavailable antiandrogens were identified by exposing rainbow trout to a WwTW effluent and profiling the bile for AA activity using yeast (anti-YAS) and mammalian-based (AR-CALUX) androgen receptor transcription screens. The predominant fractions with AA activity in both androgen receptor screens contained the germicides chlorophene and triclosan, and together these contaminants accounted for 51% of the total anti-YAS activity in the fish bile. Other AA compounds identified in bile included chloroxylenol, dichlorophene, resin acids, napthols, oxybenzone, 4-nonylphenol, and bisphenol A. Pure standards of these compounds were active in the androgen receptor screens at potencies relative to flutamide of between 0.1 and 13.0. Thus, we have identified, for the first time, a diverse range of AA chemicals in WwTWs that are bioavailable to fish and which need to be assessed for their risk to the reproductive health of these organisms and other aquatic biota. PMID:22047186

Rostkowski, Pawel; Horwood, Julia; Shears, Janice A; Lange, Anke; Oladapo, Francis O; Besselink, Harrie T; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

2011-12-15

67

EMISSIONS OF METALS AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne site incorpo...

68

Soluble, semivolatile phenol and nitrogen compounds in milk-processing wastewaters.  

PubMed

Potable water is an essential and major input in processing our food supplies, and the continued growth in food manufacturing is placing increased pressure on this limited resource. Recycling and reuse of factory wastewater can lessen potable water use but requires a detailed understanding of wastewater properties. This study uses solid-phase extraction techniques with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to investigate trace-level semivolatile organic species in various waste and reference waters associated with the Burra Foods milk-processing plant located in Southeastern Australia. Our focus was on contaminants containing phenolic and heterocyclic nitrogen functional groups, which, because of their toxicity and persistence, may limit options for water recycling and reuse. Effluent from the wastewater treatment plant of the factory showed both the highest soluble carbon burden (47 mg/kg) and concentrations of target compounds. The target species found in these effluents included methyl phenol (13 mg/kg), hydroxy indole (9.8 mg/kg), synthetic tolyltriazoles (5.1 mg/kg) and alkyl phenol ethoxylates (0.2 mg/kg). Given the environmental stability of the tolyltriazoles, they may act as chemical markers where these effluents are used for purposes such as irrigation. Milk evaporator condensate waters, in contrast to the effluent, contained very few target species, with only low levels of pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives such as ethylglutarimide (450 mug/L) detected. Although there were fewer target microcontaminants overall in the potable and creek reference waters, these samples had characteristic profiles. The potable water analysis revealed hydroxy cineole (2.1 microg/L) and the creek analysis revealed dichlorohydroxyacetophenone (0.3 microg/L), which were not detected in other waters. The compounds found in the wastewaters are likely to have been derived from milk or synthetic chemicals used in factory operations. The presence of nitrogen compounds in all the different milk-processing waters suggest their likely source was milk, probably milk phosphoproteins subjected to thermal, chemical, or microbial degradation. Our benign results for the condensates suggest it may be possible to substitute condensate for potable water with minimal pretreatment, both within the plant and in other applications, such as irrigation of recreation turf. PMID:19528627

Verheyen, V; Cruickshank, A; Wild, K; Heaven, M W; McGee, R; Watkins, M; Nash, D

2009-07-01

69

Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Wastewater by Pervaporation  

E-print Network

TREATMENT OF ORGANIC-CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER BY PERVAPORATION J.G. WIJMANS J. KASCHEMEKAT R.W. BAKER V.L. SIMMONS Research Director Design Engineer President Marketing Director Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA ABSTRACT... The removal and recovery of organic contaminants from aqueous streams by pervaporation membrane systems is a viable and economical treatment for many waste streams. Specific opportunities for the technology are identified in this paper. La...

Wijmans, J. G.; Kaschemekat, J.; Baker, R. W.; Simmons, V. L.

70

Characterisation of organic matter in IX and PACl treated wastewater in relation to the fouling of a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane.  

PubMed

Extensive organic characterisation of a wastewater using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV(254) and organic carbon detector (Method B) was undertaken, as well as with fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy (EEM). Characterisation was performed on the wastewater before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, and following microfiltration of the wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. Characterisation by EEM was unable to detect biopolymers within the humic rich wastewaters and was not subsequently used to characterise the MF permeates. IX treatment preferentially removed low molecular weight (MW) organic acids and neutrals, and moderate amounts of biopolymers in contrast to a previous report of no biopolymer removal with IX. PACl preferentially removed moderate MW humic and fulvic acids, and large amounts of biopolymers. PACl showed a great preference for removal of proteins from the biopolymer component in comparison to IX. An increase in the fluorescence response of tryptophan-like compounds in the biopolymer fraction following IX treatment suggests that low MW neutrals may influence the structure and/or inhibit aggregation of organic compounds. Fouling rates for IX and PACl treated wastewaters had high initial fouling rates that reduced to lower fouling rates with time, while the untreated Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) wastewater displayed a consistent, high rate of fouling. The results for the IX and PACl treated wastewaters were consistent with the long-term fouling rate being determined by cake filtration while both pore constriction and cake filtration contributed to the higher initial fouling rates. Higher rejection of biopolymers was observed for PACl and IX waters compared to the untreated ETP water, suggesting increased adhesion of biopolymers to the membrane or cake layer may lead to the higher rejection. PMID:22871319

Myat, Darli T; Mergen, Max; Zhao, Oliver; Stewart, Matthew B; Orbell, John D; Gray, Stephen

2012-10-15

71

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOEpatents

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

1995-08-29

72

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOEpatents

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

1995-01-01

73

Rejection of organic micropollutants (disinfection by-products, endocrine disrupting compounds, and pharmaceutically active compounds) by NF\\/RO membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing demand on water resources has increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse, in which rejection of organic micropollutants such as disinfection by-products (DBPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) is of great concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the rejection of DBPs, EDCs, and PhACs by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis

Katsuki Kimura; Gary Amy; Jörg E. Drewes; Thomas Heberer; Tae-Uk Kim; Yoshimasa Watanabe

2003-01-01

74

Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of organic compounds in bottled waters available in the Greek market and their fate when the representative samples exposed at different conditions were the main purposes of this study. The determination of the organic compounds was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. Disinfection by-products compounds, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), were detected at low concentrations

Stavroula V. Leivadara; Anastasia D. Nikolaou; Themistokles D. Lekkas

2008-01-01

75

REMOVAL OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM WOOD PRESERVING WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory and pilot-scale studies were undertaken to develop economically feasible technologies for the treatment of wastewaters from wood preserving operations. Of prime concern was the removal of phenol and its chlorinated derivatives, in particular, pentachlorophenol. Screeni...

76

Calibration and field evaluation of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) for monitoring pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater.  

PubMed

The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a new tool for the sampling of organic pollutants in water. We tested this device for the monitoring of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater. After calibration, a field application was carried out in a French hospital for six pharmaceutical compounds (Atenolol, Prednisolone, Methylprednisolone, Sulfamethoxazole, Ofloxacin, Ketoprofen). POCIS were calibrated in tap water and wastewater in laboratory conditions close to relevant environmental conditions (temperature, flow velocity). Sampling rates (R(s)) were determined and we observed a significant increase with flow velocity and temperature. Whatever the compound, the R(s) value was lower in wastewater and the linear phase of uptake was shorter. POCIS were deployed in a hospital sewage pipe during four days and the estimated water concentrations were close to those obtained with twenty-four hour composite samples. PMID:23246753

Bailly, Emilie; Levi, Yves; Karolak, Sara

2013-03-01

77

Formation of halogenated organics during waste-water disinfection  

SciTech Connect

The research examined the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and total organic halides (TOX) during wastewater chlorination at three wastewater treatment plants in the central Piedmont of North Carolina. Secondary effluent samples were collected before and after the addition of chlorine at each of the three treatment facilities; chlorinated samples were taken from various locations within the chlorine contact chambers and at the plant discharge. Water samples were also collected upstream and downstream from two of the plant outfalls to determine the increase and persistence of THMs and TOX below each plant. TOX and THM formation was evaluated in terms of effluent wastewater quality (e.g., residual chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and ammonia concentration), chlorine dose, chlorine contacting system, methods of chlorine addition, and chlorine-to-ammonia ratio. The results showed that TOX was present in the unchlorinated wastewater and that additional TOX was formed immediately after chlorine addition. Small to insignificant amounts of THMS were detected. TOX formation did not increase with increasing contact time, due to the rapid depletion of free chlorine and the formation of combined chlorine in the chlorine contact chamber.

Singer, P.C.; Brown, R.A.; Wiseman, J.F.

1988-11-01

78

Catalytic ozonation-biological coupled processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing refractory chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds*  

PubMed Central

A treatability study of industrial wastewater containing chlorinated nitroaromatic compounds (CNACs) by a catalytic ozonation process (COP) with a modified Mn/Co ceramic catalyst and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. A preliminary attempt to treat the diluted wastewater with a single SBR resulted in ineffective removal of the color, ammonia, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Next, COP was applied as a pretreatment in order to obtain a bio-compatible wastewater for SBR treatment in a second step. The effectiveness of the COP pretreatment was assessed by evaluating wastewater biodegradability enhancement (the ratio of biology oxygen demand after 5 d (BOD5) to COD), as well as monitoring the evolution of TOC, carbon oxidation state (COS), average oxidation state (AOS), color, and major pollutant concentrations with reaction time. In the COP, the catalyst preserved its catalytic properties even after 70 reuse cycles, exhibiting good durability and stability. The performance of SBR to treat COP effluent was also examined. At an organic loading rate of 2.0 kg COD/(m3·d), with hydraulic retention time (HRT)=10 h and temperature (30±2) °C, the average removal efficiencies of NH3-N, COD, BOD5, TOC, and color in a coupled COP/SBR process were about 80%, 95.8%, 93.8%, 97.6% and 99.3%, respectively, with average effluent concentrations of 10 mg/L, 128 mg/L, 27.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L, and 20 multiples, respectively, which were all consistent with the national standards for secondary discharge of industrial wastewater into a public sewerage system (GB 8978-1996). The results indicated that the coupling of COP with a biological process was proved to be a technically and economically effective method for treating industrial wastewater containing recalcitrant CNACs. PMID:20205304

Li, Bing-zhi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

2010-01-01

79

Perfluorinated compounds in sediment samples from the wastewater canal of Pan?evo (Serbia) industrial area.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples from the wastewater canal draining the industrial complex of Pan?evo, Serbia (oil refinery, petrochemical plant, and fertilizer factory). The canal is directly connected to Europe's second largest river, the Danube, which drains its water into the Black Sea. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) up to 5.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and total Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) up to 6.3ngg(-1) dw were detected. Compared to other reports, high levels of PFOS were found, even though PFCs are not used in the industrial production associated with this canal. The PFOS concentration in water was recalculated using the adsorption coefficient, KOC from literature. Using the average output of wastewater from the canal, a mass load of 1.38kg PFOS per year discharged in the Danube River has been calculated, which undoubtedly points to the contribution to global persistent organic pollution of surface waters originating from this industrial place. PMID:23415492

Beškoski, Vladimir P; Takemine, Shusuke; Nakano, Takeshi; Slavkovi? Beškoski, Latinka; Gojgi?-Cvijovi?, Gordana; Ili?, Mila; Mileti?, Srdjan; Vrvi?, Miroslav M

2013-06-01

80

Process for removing an organic compound from water  

DOEpatents

A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Kamaruddin, Henky D. (San Francisco, CA)

1993-12-28

81

Bioaugmentation as a tool to enhance the removal of refractory compound in coke plant wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution caused by coal conversion wastewater has been a severe problem for decades in China due to the use of coal as the main energy source. An aerobic–anoxic–oxic (A1–A2–O) system was developed for treating coke plant wastewater and good results were obtained. GC\\/MS analysis indicated that the main ingredients of the effluent were aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, alkanes and phthalic

Wang Jianlong; Quan Xiangchun; Wu Libo; Qian Yi; Werner Hegemann

2002-01-01

82

Treatment and phosphorus removal from high-concentration organic wastewater by the yeast Hansenula anomala J224 PAWA.  

PubMed

A flocculent yeast, Hansenula anomala J224 PAWA, bred in this study, accumulated twice as much phosphorus as the wild type. Over a 30-d period, PAWA removed 70-80% of dissolved total phosphorus from sweet-potato and barley shochu wastewaters (alcoholic distillery wastewaters) while the wild type removed only 30%. Waste sludge was easily separated from effluent wastewater because PAWA cells made large flocks that rapidly settled. Component analysis suggested that PAWA sludge could be used as a protein source for feedstuff and as a phosphorus source for fertilizer. Under anaerobic conditions, denitrification was rapid, resulting in the removal of large amounts of nitrogen from barley shochu wastewater. These results suggest that small shochu manufacturers could benefit from using PAWA to remove phosphorus and organic compounds and then by using a combination of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and the downflow hanging sponge method (UASB-DHS method) for nitrification/denitrification. PMID:19010663

Watanabe, Takashi; Masaki, Kazuo; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2009-03-01

83

High-Performance Anaerobic Granulation Processes for Treatment of Wastewater-Containing Recalcitrant Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the persistent and recalcitrant organic chemicals found in a wide variety of industrial wastewaters are potentially toxic to human beings and microorganisms. Such organics have been listed as priority pollutants. Because of their stable structures, and to these is added the possibility of a highly oxidized state, such organics are typically not easily degraded under aerobic conditions. This

A. M. Maszenan; Yu Liu; Wun Jern Ng

2011-01-01

84

Occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in selected water supplies, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, June 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment, sampled water from 14 wastewater sources and drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for the presence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. The geographic distribution of sampling locations does not represent the distribution of drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod. The environmental presence of the analyte compounds is mostly unregulated; many of the compounds are suspected of having adverse ecological and human health effects. Of the 85 different organic analyte compounds, 43 were detected, with 13 detected in low concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter) from drinking-water supplies thought to be affected by wastewater because of previously detected high nitrate concentrations. (Phenol and d-limonene, detected in equipment blanks at unacceptably high concentrations, are not included in counts of detections in this report.) Compounds detected in the drinking-water supplies included the solvent, tetrachloroethylene; the analgesic, acetaminophen; the antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole; and the antidepressant, carbamazapine. Nitrate nitrogen, an indicator of wastewater, was detected in water supplies in concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 8.8 milligrams per liter.

Zimmerman, Marc J.

2005-01-01

85

Factors affecting the removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater in conventional treatment plants (CTP) and membrane bioreactors (MBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of insufficient removal during treatment of wastewater released from industry and households, different classes\\u000a of organic micropollutants are nowadays detected in surface and drinking water. Among these micropollutants, bioactive substances,\\u000a e.g., endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals, have been incriminated in negative effects on living organisms in\\u000a aquatic biotope. Much research was done in the last years on

Magdalena Cirja; Pavel Ivashechkin; Andreas Schäffer; Philippe F. X. Corvini

2008-01-01

86

Wastewater-Derived Dissolved Organic Nitrogen: Analytical Methods, Characterization, and Effects—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater-derived dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) accounts for up to 80% of dissolved nitrogen in nitrified-denitrified effluent. The sturdiness of DON measurements hindered the characterization of DON, especially in wastewater matrix, leading to an unsatisfying knowledge level. Measurement of DON and DON species is imortant not only as a measure of treatibility of wastewater in treatment plants, but also for the

Elif Pehlivanoglu-Mantas; David L. Sedlak

2006-01-01

87

Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of aerobic chemical and biological oxidation of selected odorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by wastewater and biofilm from sewers. The VSCs included methyl mercaptan (MeSH), ethyl mercaptan (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and total inorganic sulfide, which have all been reported as the main constituents of foul sewer gas. Samples of wastewater and biofilm for the experiments were obtained from two locations that differed significantly with respect to the occurrence of VSCs. One location represented an odor hot-spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order of reactivity: total inorganic sulfide > EtSH ? MeSH > DMS. Except for total inorganic sulfide oxidation in wastewater, kinetic parameters for each VSC were of similar magnitude for the two locations. In the wastewater from the odor hot-spot, sulfide inorganic oxidation rates were approximately 12 times faster than in the aerobic wastewater. PMID:24334879

Rudelle, E A; Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Nielsen, A H

2013-01-01

88

Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Whole Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 69 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on aquatic organisms in wastewater. This method also is useful for evaluating the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are indicators of wastewater or have endocrine-disrupting potential. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Wastewater compounds in whole-water samples were extracted using continuous liquid-liquid extractors and methylene chloride solvent, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 0.5 microgram per liter averaged 72 percent ? 8 percent relative standard deviation. The concentration of 21 compounds is always reported as estimated because method recovery was less than 60 percent, variability was greater than 25 percent relative standard deviation, or standard reference compounds were prepared from technical mixtures. Initial method detection limits averaged 0.18 microgram per liter. Samples were preserved by adding 60 grams of sodium chloride and stored at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory established a sample holding-time limit prior to sample extraction of 14 days from the date of collection.

Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.

2006-01-01

89

Phototransformation of wastewater-derived trace organic contaminants in open-water unit process treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Open-water cells in unit process treatment wetlands can be used to exploit sunlight photolysis to remove trace organic contaminants from municipal wastewater effluent. To assess the performance of these novel systems, a photochemical model was calibrated using measured photolysis rates for atenolol, carbamazepine, propranolol, and sulfamethoxazole in wetland water under representative conditions. Contaminant transformation by hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) and carbonate radical ((•)CO3(-)) were predicted from steady-state radical concentrations measured at pH values between 8 and 10. Direct photolysis rates and the effects of light screening by dissolved organic matter on photolysis rates were estimated using solar irradiance data, contaminant quantum yields, and light screening factors. The model was applied to predict the land area required for 90% removal of a suite of wastewater-derived organic contaminants by sunlight-induced reactions under a variety of conditions. Results suggest that during summer, open-water cells that receive a million gallons of water per day (i.e., about 4.4 × 10(-2) m(3) s(-1)) of nitrified wastewater effluent can achieve 90% removal of most compounds in an area of about 15 ha. Transformation rates were strongly affected by pH, with some compounds exhibiting faster transformation rates under the high pH conditions associated with photosynthetic algae at the sediment-water interface and other contaminants exhibiting faster transformation rates at the circumneutral pH values characteristic of algae-free cells. Lower dissolved organic carbon concentrations typically resulted in increased transformation rates. PMID:23470043

Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

2013-10-01

90

Forward osmosis for wastewater treatment: advancing trace organic contaminant removal and nutrient recovery.  

E-print Network

??Forward osmosis (FO) can substantially advance water and wastewater treatment, particularly in battling against the wide occurrence of emerging trace organic contaminants (TrOCs). This thesis… (more)

Xie, Ming

2014-01-01

91

SORPTION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermodynamic and kinetic principles which govern the uptake of nonionic, hydrophobic organic chemicals by sediments in aqueous systems are summarized. Sorption onto organic-rich sediments can be modeled as a process where the hydrophobic compound partitions into the organic matt...

92

Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools.  

PubMed

Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts: (1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes. This investigation deals with these two aspects, an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under platinized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination. The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution. Indeed, 87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation. Moreover, 55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced. On the other hand, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW. It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Grignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW. Among the monitoring analytical tools applied, cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR a re among th e techniques that are introduced for thefirst time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance. PMID:23586318

Belaid, Chokri; Khadraoui, Moncef; Mseddii, Salma; Kallel, Monem; Elleuch, Boubaker; Fauvarque, Jean Frangois

2013-01-01

93

The electronic nose as a rapid sensor for volatile compounds in treated domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic nose consisting of 12 metal oxide sensors was used to monitor volatile compounds in effluent of a domestic wastewater treatment plant. Effluent and reference (deionized water) samples were heated to 60 and 90°C to promote the volatilization and to increase the sensitivity. An effluent measuring campaign of 12 weeks was conducted and the repeatability and reproducibility of the

T Dewettinck; K Van Hege; W Verstraete

2001-01-01

94

Effects of wastewater effluent organic materials on fouling in ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the effects of wastewater effluent organic materials (EfOM) on fouling of ultrafilters (100kDa polyethersulfone (PES)). EfOM constituents were sequentially removed, first by removing particles down to the approximate ultrafilter pore size and then by removing dissolved EfOM based on functionality. Particles and colloids >20nm accounted for 19% of total organic carbon (TOC), including 96% of EfOM >100kDa. Removal of particles and colloids resulted in increased fouling, attributed to increased contact of dissolved EfOM with the membrane. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic (HPO/HPI) acids were 22% of total EfOM, and accounted for nearly all of the fouling. HPO/HPI base/neutrals were 59% of EfOM, but did not cause any significant fouling. Although HPO/HPI base/neutrals did not cause any fouling, they were the dominant EfOM constituent at the surface of fouled and then hydraulically cleaned membranes, as measured by attenuated reflectance infrared spectroscopy. Since the filtration runs were short, the effects of HPO/HPI base/neutrals on long-term fouling should be further investigated, but these results cast doubt on the presumption that organic materials that are identified during membrane autopsies are necessarily a primary cause of fouling. These results also indicate that wastewater EfOM should be treated to remove HPO/HPI acids prior to membrane filtration. PMID:18534655

Kim, Hyun-Chul; Dempsey, Brian A

2008-07-01

95

Organic pollutants removal in wastewater by heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation.  

PubMed

Heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation are robust advanced oxidation processes for eliminating organic contaminants in wastewater. The combination of these two methods is carried out in order to enhance the overall mineralization of refractory organics. An apparent synergism between heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation has been demonstrated in many literatures, which gives rise to an improvement of total organic carbon removal. The present overview dissects the heterogeneous catalysts and the influences of different operational parameters, followed by the discussion on the kinetics, mechanism, economic feasibility and future trends of this integrated technology. The enhanced oxidation rate mainly results from a large amount of hydroxyl radicals generated from a synergistically induced decomposition of dissolved ozone, besides superoxide ion radicals and the photo-induced holes. Six reaction pathways possibly exist for the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the reaction mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation. PMID:25479808

Xiao, Jiadong; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin

2015-02-01

96

Hospital wastewater treatment by fungal bioreactor: removal efficiency for pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds.  

PubMed

Hospital effluents contribute to the occurrence of emerging contaminants in the environment due to their high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) and some endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Nowadays, hospital wastewaters are co-treated with urban wastewater; however, the dilution factor and the inefficiency of wastewater treatment plants in the removal of PhACs and EDCs make inappropriate the co-treatment of both effluents. In this paper, a new alternative to pre-treat hospital wastewater concerning the removal of PhACs and EDCs is presented. The treatment was carried out in a batch fluidized bed bioreactor under sterile and non-sterile conditions with Trametes versicolor pellets. Results on non-sterile experiments pointed out that 46 out of the 51 detected PhACs and EDCs were partially to completely removed. The total initial PhAC amount into the bioreactor was 8185 ?g in sterile treatment and 8426 ?g in non-sterile treatment, and the overall load elimination was 83.2% and 53.3% in their respective treatments. In addition, the Microtox test showed reduction of wastewater toxicity after the treatment. Hence, the good efficiency of the fungal treatment regarding removal of the wide diversity of PhACs and EDCs detected in hospital effluents is demonstrated. PMID:24951894

Cruz-Morató, Carles; Lucas, Daniel; Llorca, Marta; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Gorga, Marina; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

2014-09-15

97

Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

White, W. F.

1975-01-01

98

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-09-07

99

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1994-06-14

100

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

1989-01-01

101

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1989-07-18

102

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1993-01-01

103

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1994-01-01

104

(CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

105

PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

106

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) CHAPTER 31.  

EPA Science Inventory

The term "volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) was originally coined to refer, as a class, to carbon-containing chemicals that participate in photochemical reactions in the ambient (outdoor) are. The regulatory definition of VOCs used by the U.S. EPA is: Any compound of carbon, ex...

107

Volatile organic compounds of Schenella pityophilus.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds of Schenella pityophilus have been identified via solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Ten compounds have been identified, in which 3-methylthio-1-propene was the most significant component. Some other components were previously identified in Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum. PMID:22236093

D'Auria, Maurizio; Racioppi, Rocco; Rana, Gian Luigi

2013-01-01

108

Organic compounds passage through RO membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic solute permeation, sorption, and rejection by reverse osmosis membranes, from aqueous solutions, were studied experimentally and via artificial neural networks (ANN)-based quantitative structure–property relations (QSPR), for a set of fifty organic compounds for polyamide and cellulose acetate membranes. Membrane solute sorption and passage for dead-end filtration model experiments were quantified based on radioactivity measurements for radiolabeled compounds in the

Dan Libotean; Jaume Giralt; Robert Rallo; Yoram Cohen; Francesc Giralt; Harry F. Ridgway; Grisel Rodriguez; Don Phipps

2008-01-01

109

Bioavailability and characterization of dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus in wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

There is still a great knowledge gap in the understanding of characteristics and bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in wastewater effluents, which surmise implications related to both discharge regulation and treatment practice. In this study, we simultaneously investigated the characteristics and bioavailability of both DON and DOP, with separated hydrophilic versus hydrophobic fractions, in highly-treated wastewater effluents for the first time. The tertiary effluents from two wastewater treatment plants were separated into two fractions by XAD-8 resin coupled with anion exchange resin based on the hydrophobicity. Results showed that the majority of DON was present in hydrophilic forms while more DOP existed in hydrophobic forms. Hydrophilic DON contributed to 64.0%-72.2% of whole DON, while hydrophobic DOP accounted for 61.4%-80.7% of total DOP for the two plants evaluated. The effluents and their fractions were then subject to bioavailability assay based on 14-day algae growth. The results indicated that majority (~73-75%) of the effluent DOP, particularly the hydrophobic fraction with lower C/P ratio was more likely to be bioavailable for algal growth. The bioavailable fraction of DON varied widely (28%-61%) for the two plants studied and the hydrophilic fraction with lower C/N ratio seemed to exhibit higher bioavailability than the hydrophobic portion. The differences in bioavailable DON and DOP distributions of effluents from those two plants could be attributed to different receiving effluent compositions and wastewater treatment processes. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were used to characterize the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater effluent, which provided insights into the nature of organic matter in wastewater samples with different characteristics and originating sources. PMID:25527968

Qin, Chao; Liu, Haizhou; Liu, Lei; Smith, Scott; Sedlak, David L; Gu, April Z

2015-04-01

110

Identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds from a dairy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to odor and air quality problems have been identified from the Washington State University Knott Dairy Farm using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eighty-two VOCs were identified at a lactating cow open stall and 73 were detected from a slurry wastewater lagoon. These compounds included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, terpenes, other hydrocarbons, amines, other nitrogen containing compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds. The concentration of VOCs directly associated with cattle waste increased with ambient air temperature, with the highest concentrations present during the summer months. Concentrations of most detected compounds were below published odor detection thresholds. Emission rates of ethanol (1026±513 ?g cow -1 s -1) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) (13.8±10.3 ?g cow -1 s -1) were measured from the lactating stall area using an atmospheric tracer method and concentrations were plotted using data over a 2-year period. Emission rates of acetone (3.03±0.85 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-butanone (145±35 ng cow -1 s -1), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.46±1.11 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-methyl-3-pentanone (25.1±8.0 ng cow -1 s -1), DMS (2.19±0.92 ng cow -1 s -1), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (16.1±3.9 ng cow -1 s -1) were measured from the slurry waste lagoon using a laboratory emission chamber.

Filipy, Jenny; Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian

111

Wastewater disinfection and organic matter removal using ferrate (VI) oxidation.  

PubMed

The use of iron in a +6 valence state, (Fe (VI), as FeO4(-2)) was tested as a novel alternative for wastewater disinfection and decontamination. The removal of organic matter (OM) and index microorganisms present in an effluent of a wastewater plant was determined using FeO4(-2) without any pH adjustment. It was observed that concentrations of FeO4(-2) ranging between 5 and 14 mg l(-1) inactivated up to 4-log of the index microorganisms (initial concentration c.a. 10(6) CFU/100 ml) and achieved OM removal up to almost 50%. The performance of FeO4(-2) was compared with OM oxidation and disinfection using hypochlorite. It was observed that hypochlorite was less effective in OM oxidation and coliform inactivation than ferrate. Results of this work suggest that FeO4(-2) could be an interesting oxidant able to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms in water with high OM content and readily oxidize organic matter without jeopardizing its efficiency on microorganism inactivation. PMID:19491501

Bandala, Erick R; Miranda, Jocelyn; Beltran, Margarita; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo; Torres, Luis G

2009-09-01

112

Organic pollutant removal versus toxicity reduction in industrial wastewater treatment: the example of wastewater from fluorescent whitening agent production.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater treatment in the chemical industry aims at eliminating organic contaminants, as these pollutants may be persistent and ecotoxic. In a case study performed in collaboration with the chemical industry, we investigated the removal of a fluorescent whitening agent and its side products in the wastewater-treatment system. Adsorption to activated carbon and biological treatment were simulated in laboratory tests. Algae toxicity tests were performed to quantify the toxicity of the wastewater mixture and of single components. The contaminants identified accounted for up to 82% of the wastewater's total organic carbon (TOC). Adsorption to activated carbon eliminated the TOC and the single contaminants only slightly. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the wastewater decreased by 40%. In contrast, biological treatment reduced the TOC by up to 80%, and the whole effluent toxicity increased. These results indicate that new ecotoxic metabolites were formed during the biological treatment. They also illustrate that mere reduction of the TOC in the wastewater-treatment system is not sufficient for ensuring a reduction of environmental impact. Therefore, simultaneously conducting TOC measurements and toxicity tests, as demonstrated in the current work, is recommended. PMID:16749712

Köhler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie; Escher, Beate I; Hungerbühler, Konrad

2006-05-15

113

Effects-directed analysis of organic toxicants in wastewater effluent from Zagreb, Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic toxicants present in the effluent of the main sewer of the city of Zagreb, Croatia were isolated and identified through the use of effects-directed characterisation techniques. At the time of investigation, the wastewater effluent received no treatment and was comprised of a mixture of effluent from domestic and industrial sources. The organic load of the wastewater was isolated

Merete Grung; Rainer Lichtenthaler; Marijan Ahel; Knut-Erik Tollefsen; Katherine Langford; Kevin V. Thomas

2007-01-01

114

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-01-05

115

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOEpatents

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1993-01-01

116

Organic mercury compounds and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on in vitro studies and short-term in vivo studies, all mercurials were for a long time considered as prototypic immunosuppressive substances. Recent studies have confirmed that organic mercurials such as methyl mercury (MeHg) and ethyl mercury (EtHg) are much more potent immunosuppressors than inorganic mercury (Hg). However, Hg interacts with the immune system in the presence of a susceptible

Said Havarinasab; Per Hultman

2005-01-01

117

Enhancement of organic removals in high strength herbal pharmaceutical wastewater.  

PubMed

Herbal Pharmaceutical wastewater was subjected to physico-chemical treatment using conventional coagulants individually and in combination with different anionic, cationic and nonionic polyelectrolytes. Results indicate cationic polyelectrolyte to be the best polymer. Individually Alum did not give good results but Alum with cationic polymer in the ratio of 300:0.25 mg l(-1) resulted in the best removals of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Suspended Solids (SS) of 64.0%, 69.4% and 80.82% respectively. The next combination which resulted in good removals was Lime: cationic polymer in the ratio of 300:0.20 mg l(-1) with COD, BOD, and SS removals of 57.6%, 65.1% and 74.0%, respectively. Overall the studies indicated that the herbal pharmaceutical wastewater needs to be treated by physico-chemical treatment as a primary process to reduce the organic load and increase the performance efficiency of the secondary biological treatment process. This paper discusses in detail the studies carried out using conventional coagulants along with synthetic polyelectrolyte. PMID:15906490

Vanerkar, A P; Satyanarayan, S; Dharmadhikari, D M

2005-04-01

118

Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

2009-01-01

119

Strategies to characterize polar organic contamination in wastewater: exploring the capability of high resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Wastewater effluents contain a multitude of organic contaminants and transformation products, which cannot be captured by target analysis alone. High accuracy, high resolution mass spectrometric data were explored with novel untargeted data processing approaches (enviMass, nontarget, and RMassBank) to complement an extensive target analysis in initial "all in one" measurements. On average 1.2% of the detected peaks from 10 Swiss wastewater treatment plant samples were assigned to target compounds, with 376 reference standards available. Corrosion inhibitors, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals exhibited the highest concentrations. After blank and noise subtraction, 70% of the peaks remained and were grouped into components; 20% of these components had adduct and/or isotope information available. An intensity-based prioritization revealed that only 4 targets were among the top 30 most intense peaks (negative mode), while 15 of these peaks contained sulfur. Of the 26 nontarget peaks, 7 were tentatively identified via suspect screening for sulfur-containing surfactants and one peak was identified and confirmed as 1,3-benzothiazole-2-sulfonate, an oxidation product of a vulcanization accelerator. High accuracy, high resolution data combined with tailor-made nontarget processing methods (all available online) provided vital information for the identification of a wider range of heteroatom-containing compounds in the environment. PMID:24417318

Schymanski, Emma L; Singer, Heinz P; Longrée, Philipp; Loos, Martin; Ruff, Matthias; Stravs, Michael A; Ripollés Vidal, Cristina; Hollender, Juliane

2014-02-01

120

Trace organics variation across the wastewater treatment system of a Class-B refinery and estimate of removal of refractory organics by add-on mixed-media filtration and granular activated carbon at pilot scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater at SOHIO's Toledo refinery was sampled every four hours for four successive days in December 1976. Effluents from the full-scale system (dissolved-air-flotation (DAF) unit and final clarifier for the activated-sludge unit) and an add-on pilot-scale unit (mixed-media filter and activated-carbon columns) were sampled for analysis of common wastewater parameters and trace organic compounds. Grab samples taken every four hours

L. A. Raphaelian; W. Harrison

1978-01-01

121

Origin of organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous chondrites, a class of primitive meteorite, have long been known to contain their complement of carbon largely in the form of organic, i.e., hydrocarbon-related, matter. Both discrete organic compounds and an insoluble, macromolecular material are present. Several characteristics of these materials provide evidence for their abiotic origin. The principal formation hypothesis have invoked chemistry occurring either in the solar nebula or on the parent body. However, recent stable isotope analyses of the meteorite carboxylic acids and amino acids indicate that they may be related to interstellar cloud compounds. These results suggest a formation scheme in which interstellar compounds were incorporated into the parent body and subsequently converted to the present suite of meteorite organics by the hydrothermal process believed to have formed the clay minerals of the meteorite matrix.

Cronin, J. R.

122

Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

123

Effect of short-term exposure of selected aromatic nitrogen compounds on wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of melamine and p-nitrophenol (PNP) and their impact on wastewater treatment was evaluated after a short-term individual chemical loading in activated sludge treatment systems. Melamine was not degraded and quickly washed out of the system. PNP was degraded, but it led to a prolonged period of nitrification inhibition and deterioration of effluent quality. Both melamine and PNP loadings increased the effluent nitrogen concentrations, with their main contributors being melamine and NH4+, respectively. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira were dominant in the activated sludge. Melamine did not affect the nitrifying assemblages, whereas PNP led to a reduced Nitrosomonas population size and complete washout of Nitrobacter. The results suggest that melamine is an inert compound if it enters the treatment facility for a short duration. Although the short-term exposure of melamine or PNP decreased effluent water quality,the impact of such aromatic nitrogen compounds on wastewater treatment performance may vary significantly. Water PMID:25509521

Guo, Jia; Sims, Atreyee; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Wu, Donglei; Hu, Zhiqiang

2014-11-01

124

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), ??-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kolpin, D.W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.

2004-01-01

125

Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater process streams in Dublin, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to establish baseline levels of pharmaceuticals in three wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) streams\\u000a in the greater Dublin region to assess the removal efficiency of the selected WWTPs and to investigate the existence of any\\u000a seasonal variability. Twenty compounds including several classes of antibiotics, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, and prescribed\\u000a medications were selected for investigation

Clair Lacey; Shaik Basha; Anne Morrissey; John M. Tobin

126

[Kinetic analysis of laccase catalyze phenolic and aniline compounds and detecting catechol in wastewater].  

PubMed

Phenolic or aniline compounds were important pollutants in the industrial wastewaters to seriously polluted water environment. This research developed a detecting method of phenolic and aniline compounds based on the kinetic parameters of the substrates of laccase. Catalytic reaction between laccase and phenolic and aniline compounds was characterized using spectrophotometic method, which resulted 0-10 mg/L substrate reaction rate and calibration curve of substrate concentration and reaction rate. And then the non-volatile phenols in three kinds of coking wastewater were screened and the contents were detected. The result showed that polyhydric phenol, multi-amine and aminophenol were the main substrates of laccase. The optimum pH of phenols was around 7.0 and anilines 4.5-5.0, K(m) values of each substrates was 0.4-10 mmol/L. The calibration curve performed good first order kinetics linear relationship except benzidine with correlation coefficients above 0.96. Using laccase method, the contents of catechol in three kinds of coking wastewater were respectively detected to be 190.5, 265.8 and 155.3 mg/L with recoveries ranged from 89.9% to 115.8%. PMID:21250450

Zhong, Ping-Fang; Peng, Hui-Min; Peng, Fang-Yi; Cai, Qiang; He, Miao

2010-11-01

127

EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

PubMed

In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium. PMID:24091184

Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

2013-11-01

128

Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Wastewater Organic Matter from a Biological Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic and chromatographic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics of influent and treated sewage were investigated for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with a biological advanced process. Refractory DOM (R-DOM) was defined as the dissolved organic carbon concentrations of the samples after 28-day incubation for this study. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA), hydrophobicity, synchronous fluorescence spectra and molecular weight (MW) distributions were selected as DOM characteristics. The percent distribution of R-DOM for the effluent was much higher than that of the influent, indicating that biodegradable DOM was selectively removed during the process. Comparison of the influent versus the effluent sewage revealed that SUVA, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF), humic-like fluorescence (HLF), the apparent MW values were enhanced during the treatment. This suggests that more aromatic and humic-like compounds were enriched during the biological process. No significant difference in the DOM characteristics was observed between the original effluent (i.e., prior to the incubation) and the influent sewage after the incubation. This result suggests that the major changes in wastewater DOM characteristics occurring during the biological advanced process were similar to those for simple microbial incubation. PMID:22315538

Park, Min-Hye; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Bo-Mi; Hur, Jin; Park, Dae-Hee

2010-01-01

129

Metastable Equilibria Among Aqueous Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastable equilibrium states exist when reactions among a subset of compounds in a chemical system are reversible even though other irreversible reactions exist in the same system. The existence of metastable equilibrium among organic compounds was initially detected by comparing ratios of organic acid concentrations reported for oil-field brines (Shock, 1988, Geology 16, 886-890; Shock, 1989, Geology 17, 572-573), and calculating the same ratios for likely oxidation states determined by mineral assemblages and mixtures of hydrocarbons in coexisting petroleum (Shock, 1994, in: The Role of Organic Acids in Geological Processes, Springer). This led to the notion of extending the concept of metastable equilibrium states to explicitly account for petroleum compositions (Helgeson et al., 1993, GCA, 57, 3295-3339), which eventually yielded the concept of hydrolytic disproportionation of kerogens to produce petroleum and CO2(g) (Helgeson et al., 2009, GCA, 73, 594-695). Experimental tests of metastable equilibrium among organic compounds began with the identification of reversible reactions between alkanes and alkenes that are dependent on the H2 fugacity of the experimental system (Seewald, 1994, Nature 370, 285-287). These were followed with a comprehensive series of long-term experiments leading to the hypothesis that reversible reactions include alkanes, alkenes, alcohol, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (e.g., Seewald, 2001, GCA 65, 1641-1664; 2003, Nature 426, 327-333; McCollom & Seewald, 2003, GCA 67, 3645-3664). We have conducted sets of hydrothermal organic transformation experiments that test the extent to which these reactions are indeed reversible using aromatic and cyclic compounds. Results demonstrate reversibility for reactions among dibenzyl ketone, 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanol, 1,3-diphenylpropene and 1,3-diphenylpropane, as well as among methylcyclohexanes, methylcyclohexenes, methylcyclohexanols, methylcyclohexanones and methylcyclohexadienes. The compounds chosen for study include structural features that provide mechanistic insight into the reactions. By including cyclic and aromatic compounds, these results expand the diversity of organic compounds that react reversibly in geochemical processes. It follows that metastable equilibria among organic compounds may be inescapable during hydrothermal alteration and petroleum generation.

Shock, E.; Shipp, J.; Yang, Z.; Gould, I. R.

2011-12-01

130

Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV–vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were

Wei-ling Sun; Yan-zhi Qu; Qing Yu; Jin-ren Ni

2008-01-01

131

Emerging Control Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have provided the driving force for sustained fundamental and applied research in the area of environmental remediation. Conventional methods currently used to treat VOCs include incineration, condensation, adsorption, and absorption. Incineration and condensation are cost-effective only for moderate to high VOC concentrations. Adsorption and absorption do not destroy VOCs

Geeta Rani Parmar; N. N. Rao

2008-01-01

132

Ozone Production Potential of Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculation of the ozone production potential of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) has traditionally been performed using so-called incremental reactivity techniques. Here were present a new approach to this problem using a photochemical box model with a tagged chemical mechanism. The results of our approach are consistent with previous work, but deliver much more detailed information about the VOC intermediate oxidation

T. Butler; M. G. Lawrence; J. Lelieveld

2010-01-01

133

Emission Characteristics and Factors of Selected Odorous Compounds at a Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

This study was initiated to explore the emission characteristics of Reduced Sulfur Compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide), ammonia and trimethylamine from a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) located at Sun-Cheon, Chonlanam-Do in South Korea. The study also evaluates flux profiles of the six selected odorous compounds and their flux rates (?g/m2/min) and compares their emission characteristics. A Dynamic Flux Chamber DFC was used to measure fluxes of pollutants from the treatment plant. Quality control of odor samples using a non-reactive sulfur dioxide gas determined the time taken for DFC concentration to reach equilibrium. The reduced sulfur compounds were analyzed by interfacing gas chromatography with a Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector (PFPD). Air samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on one day during summer (August) and two days in winter (December and January). Their emission rates were determined and it was observed that during summer relatively higher amounts of the selected odorous compounds were emitted compared to winter. Air samples from primary settling basin, aeration basin, and final settling basin were tested and the total amount of selected odorous compounds emitted per wastewater ton was found to be 1344 ?g/m3 from the selected treatment processes. It was also observed that, in this study, the dominant odor intensity contribution was caused by dimethyl disulfide (69.1%). PMID:22389601

Jeon, Eui-Chan; Son, Hyun-Keun; Sa, Jae-Hwan

2009-01-01

134

Separation of volatile organic compounds by pervaporation for a binary compound combination: Trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the behavior of sweeping air pervaporation when used to separate trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCEthane) from wastewater. Selectivity and membrane preference are studied. Models for binary compounds are studied to evaluate the extent of cross influence on TCE flux due to the presence of another volatile organic compound, TCEthane. Using the models, the integral dry diffusion coefficient for TCEthane is evaluated. Results indicate that the membrane exhibits a preference for TCE over TCEthane. However, the values of the diffusion rates are found to be comparable. Selectivity values are found to be independent of the air flow rate but dependent on the relative concentration of the compounds in the feed solution. It is found that, due to the presence of TCEthane, the flux of TCE decreased. Further, it is found that the ratio of the integral dry diffusion coefficients of the compounds is inversely proportional to the ratio of their molecular weights.

Visvanathan, C.; Basu, B. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand). Environmental Engineering Program; Mora, J.C. [Inst. National Polytechnique de Toulouse (France)

1995-11-01

135

Global Exposure Modelling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds which are persistent and toxic as the agrochemicals ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH, lindane) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pose a hazard for the ecosystems. These compounds are semivolatile, hence multicompartmental substances and subject to long-range transport (LRT) in atmosphere and ocean. Being lipophilic, they accumulate in exposed organism tissues and biomagnify along food chains. The multicompartmental global fate and LRT of DDT and lindane in the atmosphere and ocean have been studied using application data for 1980, on a decadal scale using a model based on the coupling of atmosphere and (for the first time for these compounds) ocean General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). The model system encompasses furthermore 2D terrestrial compartments (soil and vegetation) and sea ice, a fully dynamic atmospheric aerosol (HAM) module and an ocean biogeochemistry module (HAMOCC5). Large mass fractions of the compounds are found in soil. Lindane is also found in comparable amount in ocean. DDT has the longest residence time in almost all compartments. The sea ice compartment locally almost inhibits volatilization from the sea. The air/sea exchange is also affected , up to a reduction of 35 % for DDT by partitioning to the organic phases (suspended and dissolved particulate matter) in the global oceans. Partitioning enhances vertical transport in the sea. Ocean dynamics are found to be more significant for vertical transport than sinking associated with particulate matter. LRT in the global environment is determined by the fast atmospheric circulation. Net meridional transport taking place in the ocean is locally effective mostly via western boundary currents, upon applications at mid- latitudes. The pathways of the long-lived semivolatile organic compounds studied include a sequence of several cycles of volatilisation, transport in the atmosphere, deposition and transport in the ocean (multihopping substances). Multihopping is more significant for DDT than for lindane. It enhances the LRT potential for both compounds.

Guglielmo, F.; Lammel, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.

2008-12-01

136

Nonvolatile organic compounds in treated waters.  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade much information has been published on the analysis of organics extracted from treated water. Certain of these organics have been shown to be by-products of the chlorination disinfection process and to possess harmful effects at high concentrations. This has resulted in increased interest in alternative disinfection processes, particularly ozonation. The data on organics had been largely obtained by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is only capable of analyzing, at best, 20% of the organics present in treated water. Research in key areas such as mutagenicity testing of water and characterization of chlorination and ozonation by-products has emphasized the need for techniques suitable for analysis of the remaining nonvolatile organics. Several methods for the isolation of nonvolatile organics have been evaluated and, of these, freeze-drying followed by methanol extraction appears the most suitable. Reverse-phase HPLC was used for separation of the methanol extract, but increased resolution for separation of the complex mixtures present is desirable. In this context, high resolution size exclusion chromatography shows promise. Characterization of separated nonvolatiles is possible by the application of state-of-the-art mass spectrometric techniques. Results obtained by these techniques have shown that the nonvolatile organic fraction of chlorinated drinking water consists of many discrete compounds. Among these, some of the chlorinated compounds are almost certainly by-products of disinfection. Studies of the by-products of ozonation of fulvic and humic acids isolated from river waters have indicated a similar proportion of nonvolatile organics. Further, ozonation can result in the release of compounds that are trapped in the macromolecules. PMID:6759110

Watts, C D; Crathorne, B; Fielding, M; Killops, S D

1982-01-01

137

Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene  

PubMed Central

Summary Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest–host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T

2014-01-01

138

Organic photosensitive devices using subphthalocyanine compounds  

DOEpatents

An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound.

Rand, Barry (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Mutolo, Kristin L. (Hollywood, CA); Mayo, Elizabeth (Alhambra, CA); Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

2011-07-05

139

Wastewater analysis for volatile organic sulfides using purge-and-trap with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper presented a modified method for the analysis of volatile organic sulfides (VOS) simultaneously with volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater using purge-and-trap with gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Calibration standards were prepared using filtered and nitrogen-purged VOS-free wastewater, acidified to pH 1.4. Samples were also acidified to pH 1.4. This approach minimized the oxidation of methanethiol to dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which hampered the liquid-phase analysis of VOS. Compounds were concentrated from the liquid phase, and automated analyses were performed without additional equipment, other than that required for routine wastewater VOC analysis. The linear range was 5 to 500 microg/L, with r2 > or = 0.99. The average recovery from replicate analyses of spiked samples was 81 +/- 0.5% for methanethiol, 100 +/- 1.5% fordimethyl sulfide (DMS), and 92 +/- 1.5% for DMDS. Method detection limits were 4.8, 2.8, and 1.2 microg/L for methanethiol, DMS, and DMDS, respectively. The relative percent differences were between 0 and 8%. PMID:17489280

Cheng, Xianhao; Peterkin, Earl; Narangajavana, Kanthaka

2007-04-01

140

Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. PMID:23886540

Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

2013-10-01

141

DENSITY LEVELS OF PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a critical review of the literature from laboratory and full scale studies regarding density levels of indicator and pathogenic organisms in municipal wastewater sludges and septage. The effectiveness of conventional municipal sludge stabilization processes (...

142

A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - I) Groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the continuing effort to collect baseline information on the environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals, and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in the Nation's water resources, water samples were collected from a network of 47 groundwater sites across 18 states in 2000. All samples collected were analyzed for 65 OWCs representing a wide variety of uses and origins. Site selection focused on areas suspected to be susceptible to contamination from either animal or human wastewaters (i.e. down gradient of a landfill, unsewered residential development, or animal feedlot). Thus, sites sampled were not necessarily used as a source of drinking water but provide a variety of geohydrologic environments with potential sources of OWCs. OWCs were detected in 81% of the sites sampled, with 35 of the 65 OWCs being found at least once. The most frequently detected compounds include N,N-diethyltoluamide (35%, insect repellant), bisphenol A (30%, plasticizer), tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (30%, fire retardant), sulfamethoxazole (23%, veterinary and human antibiotic), and 4-octylphenol monoethoxylate (19%, detergent metabolite). Although sampling procedures were intended to ensure that all groundwater samples analyzed were indicative of aquifer conditions it is possible that detections of some OWCs could have resulted from leaching of well-construction materials and/or other site-specific conditions related to well construction and materials. Future research will be needed to identify those factors that are most important in determining the occurrence and concentrations of OWCs in groundwater.

Barnes, K.K.; Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Barber, L.B.

2008-01-01

143

Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

Haas, C.N. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago); McCreary, J.J.

1982-06-01

144

Toxic organic compounds from energy production  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

Hites, R.A.

1991-09-20

145

Organic compounds in star forming regions.  

PubMed

The influence of complex dust composition on the general chemical evolution of a prestellar core and the content of complex organic compounds is studied. It is shown that various component groups respond differently to the presence of a small dust population. At early stages the difference is determined primarily by changes in the balance of photo processes due to effective absorption of ultraviolet photons by small dust grains of the second population and collisional reactions with dust particles. At later stages differences are also caused by the growing dominance of additional reaction channels related to surface organic synthesis. PMID:25515345

Kochina, O; Wiebe, D

2014-09-01

146

Metabolic Reactions among Organic Sulfur Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur is central to the metabolisms of many organisms that inhabit extreme environments. Numerous authors have addressed the energy available from a variety of inorganic sulfur redox pairs. Less attention has been paid, however, to the energy required or gained from metabolic reactions among organic sulfur compounds. Work in this area has focused on the oxidation of alkyl sulfide or disulfide to thiol and formaldehyde, e.g. (CH3)2S + H2O yields CH3SH + HCHO + H2, eventually resulting in the formation of CO2 and SO4(-2). It is also found that reactions among thiols and disulfides may help control redox disequilibria between the cytoplasm and the periplasm. Building on our earlier efforts for thiols, we have compiled and estimated thermodynamic properties for alkyl sulfides. We are investigating metabolic reactions among various sulfur compounds in a variety of extreme environments, ranging from sea floor hydrothermal systems to organic-rich sludge. Using thermodynamic data and the revised HKF equation of state, along with constraints imposed by the geochemical environments sulfur-metabolizing organisms inhabit, we are able to calculate the amount of energy available to these organisms.

Schulte, M.; Rogers, K.

2005-01-01

147

Water-Quality Data for Pharmaceuticals and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Ground Water and in Untreated Drinking Water Sources in the United States, 2000-01  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents water-quality data from two nationwide studies on the occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater contaminants. These data are part of the continuing effort of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program to collect baseline information on the environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants. In 2000, samples were collected from 47 ambient ground-water sites (not drinking-water wells) in 18 states and analyzed for 65 organic wastewater contaminants. In the summer of 2001, samples were collected from 74 sources of raw, untreated, drinking water in 25 states and Puerto Rico and analyzed for 100 organic wastewater contaminants. These sources comprise 25 ground-water and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to more than 8 million people. Site selection for both studies focused on areas known or suspected to contain sources of animal and/or human wastewater. The five most frequently detected compounds in samples collected from ambient ground-water sites are N,N-diethyltoluamide (35 percent, insect repellant), bisphenol A (30 percent, plasticizer), tri(2-chloroethy) phosphate (30 percent, fire retardant), sulfamethoxazole (23 percent, veterinary and human antibiotic), and 4-octylphenol monoethoxylate (19 percent, detergent metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from surface-water sources are cholesterol (59 percent, natural sterol), metolachlor (53 percent, herbicide), cotinine (51 percent, nicotine metabolite), B -sitosterol (37 percent, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27 percent, caffeine metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from ground-water sources are tetrachloroethylene (24 percent, solvent), carbamazepine (20 percent, pharmaceutical), bisphenol A (20 percent, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16 percent, caffeine metabolite), and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12 percent, fire retardant).

Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

2008-01-01

148

Effect of influent aeration on removal of organic matter from coffee processing wastewater in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of aeration and vegetation on the removal of organic matter in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) treated in 4 constructed wetlands (CWs), characterized as follows: (i) ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivated system operating with an aerated influent; (ii) non-cultivated system operating with an aerated influent, (iii) ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent; and (iv) non-cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. The lowest average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiencies of 87, 84 and 73%, respectively, were obtained in the ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. However, ryegrass cultivation did not influence the removal efficiency of organic matter. Artificial aeration of the CPW, prior to its injection in the CW, did not improve the removal efficiencies of organic matter. On other hand it did contribute to increase the instantaneous rate at which the maximum COD removal efficiency was reached. Although aeration did not result in greater organic matter removal efficiencies, it is important to consider the benefits of aeration on the removal of the other compounds. PMID:23892132

Rossmann, Maike; Matos, Antonio Teixeira; Abreu, Edgar Carneiro; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Borges, Alisson Carraro

2013-10-15

149

Supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol and desizing wastewater: influence of NaOH on the organic decomposition.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl alcohol is a refractory compound widely used in industry. Here we report supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol solution and desizing wastewater with and without sodium hydroxide addition. However, it is difficult to implement complete degradation of organics even though polyvinyl alcohol can readily crack under supercritical water treatment. Sodium hydroxide had a significant catalytic effect during the supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol. It appears that the OH- ion participated in the C-C bond cleavage of polyvinyl alcohol molecules, the CO2-capture reaction and the neutralization of intermediate organic acids, promoting the overall reactions moving in the forward direction. Acetaldehyde was a typical intermediate product during reaction. For supercritical water oxidation of desizing wastewater, a high destruction rate (98.25%) based on total organic carbon was achieved. In addition, cases where initial wastewater was alkaline were favorable for supercritical water oxidation treatment, but salt precipitation and blockage issues arising during the process need to be taken into account seriously. PMID:24520696

Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Xu, Donghai; Gong, Yanmeng; Tang, Xingying

2013-08-01

150

REDUCTION OF TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS BY INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The specific goal of this research was to conduct 24-hour static acute bioassays with 'untreated' influent and 'treated' effluent using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Daphnia magna) to biologically evaluate the effectiveness of industrial wastewater facilit...

151

Self assembly properties of primitive organic compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A central event in the origin of life was the self-assembly of amphiphilic, lipid-like compounds into closed microenvironments. If a primitive macromolecular replicating system could be encapsulated within a vesicular membrane, the components of the system would share the same microenvironment, and the result would be a step toward true cellular function. The goal of our research has been to determine what amphiphilic molecules might plausibly have been available on the early Earth to participate in the formation of such boundary structures. To this end, we have investigated primitive organic mixtures present in carbonaceous meteorites such as the Murchison meteorite, which contains 1-2 percent of its mass in the form of organic carbon compounds. It is likely that such compounds contributed to the inventory of organic carbon on the prebiotic earth, and were available to participate in chemical evolution leading to the emergence of the first cellular life forms. We found that Murchison components extracted into non-polar solvent systems are surface active, a clear indication of amphiphilic character. One acidic fraction self-assembles into vesicular membranes that provide permeability barriers to polar solutes. Other evidence indicates that the membranes are bimolecular layers similar to those formed by contemporary membrane lipids. We conclude that bilayer membrane formation by primitive amphiphiles on the early Earth is feasible. However, only a minor fraction of acidic amphiphiles assembles into bilayers, and the resulting membranes require narrowly defined conditions of pH and ionic composition to be stable. It seems unlikely, therefore, that meteoritic infall was a direct source of membrane amphiphiles. Instead, the hydrocarbon components and their derivatives more probably would provide an organic stock available for chemical evolution. Our current research is directed at possible reactions which would generate substantial quantities of membranogenic amphiphiles. One possibility is photochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons.

Deamer, D. W.

1991-01-01

152

Effect of Organic Loading on Membrane Fouling in Membrane Bioreactor for Berberine Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to specify the effects of organic loading on membrane fouling, the relationships of organic loadings, activated sludge properties and membrane fouling rates were studied based on statistical analysis of the long-term operation data of a lab-scale MBR for berberine pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. Results showed that, the activated sludge properties were directly determined by organic loading rate (OLR) and

Guanglei Qiu; Yonghui Song; Peng Yuan; Ping Zeng; Liang Duan; Xiaoyou Feng

2011-01-01

153

Production of volatile organic compounds by mycobacteria.  

PubMed

The need for improved rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis disease has prompted interest in the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. We have investigated VOCs emitted by Mycobacterium bovis BCG grown on Lowenstein-Jensen media using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds observed included dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, butanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-phenylethanol and hydrogen sulphide. Changes in levels of acetaldehyde, methanol and ammonia were also observed. The compounds identified are not unique to M. bovis BCG, and further studies are needed to validate their diagnostic value. Investigations using an ultra-rapid gas chromatograph with a surface acoustic wave sensor (zNose) demonstrated the presence of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) in the headspace of cultures of M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis, when grown on Lowenstein-Jensen supplemented with glycerol. PEA is a reversible inhibitor of DNA synthesis. It is used during selective isolation of gram-positive bacteria and may also be used to inhibit mycobacterial growth. PEA production was observed to be dependent on growth of mycobacteria. Further study is required to elucidate the metabolic pathways involved and assess whether this compound is produced during in vivo growth of mycobacteria. PMID:22224870

McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Okolo, Phyllis Ifeoma; Turner, Claire

2012-03-01

154

Polyphenolic compounds progress during olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure co-composting, and humic substances building (Southeastern Tunisia).  

PubMed

In Mediterranean areas, olive mill wastes pose a major environmental problem owing to their important production and their high polyphenolic compounds and organic acids concentrations. In this work, the evolution of polyphenolic compounds was studied during co-composting of olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure, based on qualitative (G-50 sephadex) and quantitative (Folin-Ciocalteu), as well as high pressure liquid chromatography analyses. Results showed a significant polyphenolic content decrease of 99% and a noticeable transformation of low to high molecular weight fraction during the compost maturation period. During this step, polyphenols disappearance suggested their assimilation by thermophilic bacteria as a carbon and energy source, and contributed to humic substances synthesis. Polyphenolic compounds, identified initially by high pressure liquid chromatography, disappeared by composting and only traces of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids were detected in the compost. In the soil, the produced compost application improved the chemical and physico-chemical soil properties, mainly fertilising elements such as calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Consequently, a higher potato production was harvested in comparison with manure amendment. PMID:25502693

Rigane, Hafedh; Chtourou, Mohamed; Ben Mahmoud, Imen; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

2015-01-01

155

Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds  

DOEpatents

The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Hu, Jianli (Kennewick, WA); Hart, Todd R. (Kennewick, WA); Neuenschwander, Gary G. (Burbank, WA)

2008-09-16

156

40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment...Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of an affected...

2011-07-01

157

40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment...Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds On and after the date on which the initial...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment...Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which the initial...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment...Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds On and after the date on which the initial...

2010-07-01

160

40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment...Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which the initial...

2011-07-01

161

Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.

2009-04-01

162

Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to <2m above ground level. Emissions at leaf scale are well documented and widely presented, and are not discussed here. Instead we describe some details of recent research on rhizosphere bVOCs, and bVOCs associated with pollination of flowers. Although bVOC emissions from soil surfaces are small, bVOCs are exuded by roots of some plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (?-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, ?-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three floral stages of a fig-wasp dependency mechanism: receptive, post pollinator and interfloral. Of 28 compounds detected, transcaryophyllene with trans-?-farnesene were the most important at the receptor stage, trans-caryophyllene was the most abundant at the post-pollinator stage, and isoprene was the most abundant in the interfloral stage. Alpinia kwangsiensis presents two morphologies for the reproductive parts of the flower. The "anaflexistyle" morphology has the flower style lowered in the morning and raised in the afternoon. This is reversed for the "cataflexistyle" morphology. The bVOC mixture emitted by each morphology in morning and afternoon was complex. However for compounds showing a difference (cis-ocimene and Z + E epoxy -ocimene), the emissions from the anaflexistyle were greater than from the cataflexistyle, and were greater in the afternoon compared with the morning emissions. Where large flowering plant species are abundant, big changes in monoterpene emissions at < 2m above ground level over relatively small periods of time during pollination are likely to be missed in larger scale integrated flux measurements.

Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

2012-12-01

163

[Source profile of volatile carbonyl compounds in wastewater treatment plant of an oil refinery].  

PubMed

An observation was conducted at the wastewater treatment plant in a refinery in Guangdong province, using the PFPH-GC/MS method to analyze the composition and the concentration of volatile carbonyl compounds. The emission characteristics and the atmospheric chemical reactivity of these compounds were also studied. The results showed that 20 kinds of carbonyl compounds were detected with a concentration range of 0 to 68.80 microg x m(-3). The mean value of total concentration in all processing unit was (253.02 +/- 124.5) microg x m(-3). Background corrected concentrations showed that for each of the 6 treatment units of the plant, over 90% of the volatile carbonyl emissions were contributed by 14 of the 20 volatile carbonyl compounds, among which aldehyde was the most abundant with an average concentration of (44.74 +/- 20.89) microg x m(-3), followed by 2-butanone and acetaldehyde with average concentrations of (30.47 +/- 12.94) microg x m(-3) and (23.51 +/- 14.57) microg x m(-3), respectively. Several molecular markers were identified based on the analysis of the chemical activities and atmospheric lifetimes of the 20 carbonyl compounds. Finally, a source profile was established for the plant. PMID:24027983

Zhou, Bo-Yu; Liu, Wang; Wang, Bo-Guang; Zhou, Mi; Huang, Qing; Zhou, Lei

2013-07-01

164

Response surface modeling for optimization heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation of persistence organic pollution in high total dissolved solid containing wastewater.  

PubMed

The rice-husk-based mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) used in this study was precarbonized and activated using phosphoric acid. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, (29)Si-NMR spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to characterize the MAC. The tannery wastewater carrying high total dissolved solids (TDS) discharged from leather industry lacks biodegradability despite the presence of dissolved protein. This paper demonstrates the application of free electron-rich MAC as heterogeneous catalyst along with Fenton reagent for the oxidation of persistence organic compounds in high TDS wastewater. The heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of the pretreated wastewater at optimum pH (3.5), H2O2 (4 mmol/L), FeSO4[Symbol: see text]7H2O (0.2 mmol/L), and time (4 h) removed chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and dissolved protein by 86, 91, 83, and 90%, respectively. PMID:23925658

Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Maharaja, P; Gupta, V K; Anandan, C

2014-01-01

165

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents in selected streams in northern Arkansas, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, collected data in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many constituents of emerging environmental concern, in selected streams in northern Arkansas. Samples were collected in March and April 2004 from 17 sites located upstream and downstream from wastewater- treatment plant effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkansas and at 1 stream site in a relatively undeveloped basin in north-central Arkansas. Additional samples were collected at three of the sites in August 2004. The targeted organic wastewater constituents and sample sites were selected because wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharge provides a potential point source of these constituents and analytical techniques have improved to accurately measure small amounts of these constituents in environmental samples. At least 1 of the 108 pharmaceutical or other organic wastewater constituents was detected at all sites in 2004, except at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas. The number of detections generally was greater at sites downstream from municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges (mean = 14) compared to sites not influenced by wastewatertreatment plants (mean = 3). Overall, 42 of the 108 constituents targeted in the collected water-quality samples were detected. The most frequently detected constituents included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene.

Galloway, Joel M.; Haggard, Brian E.; Meyers, Michael T.; Green, W. Reed

2005-01-01

166

Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Ni?anta??, 34365, ?stanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Ka??thane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Ka??thane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of compounds. N-octane, 3-methylheptane, n-nonane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane and n-hexane parameters ranged between 3 ppbv and maximum value of 10 ppbv. The other VOC parameters are measured below 3 ppbv value. At participating urban locations for the year of data considered, levels of carbonyls were higher than the level of the other organic compound groups, suggesting that emissions from motor vehicles and photochemical reactions strongly in?uence ambient air concentrations of carbonyls. Of the most prevalent carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the dominant compounds, ranging from 1.5-7.4 ppbv for formaldehyde, to 0.8-2.7 ppbv for acetaldehyde. Keywords: Air quality, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), industry, meteorology, urban, Ka??thane, ?stanbul. Acknowledgment: This work was part of the TUJJB-TUMEHAP-01-10 and Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council Project No: 109Y132.

?apraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Co?kun, M.

2012-04-01

167

Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic matter on fixed surfaces and airborne particles. Analyses indicate that equilibrium partitioning is achieved faster for particles than for typical indoor surfaces; indeed, for a strongly sorbing SVOC and a thick sorptive reservoir, equilibrium partitioning is never achieved. Mass-balance considerations are used to develop physical-science-based models that connect source- and sink-rates to airborne concentrations for commonly encountered situations, such as the application of a pesticide or the emission of a plasticizer or flame retardant from its host material. Calculations suggest that many SVOCs have long indoor persistence, even after the primary source is removed. If the only removal mechanism is ventilation, moderately sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 10) may persist indoors for hundreds to thousands of hours, while strongly sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 12) may persist for years. The paper concludes by applying the newly developed framework to explore exposure pathways of building occupants to indoor SVOCs. Accumulation of SVOCs as a consequence of direct air-to-human transport is shown to be potentially large, with a maximum indoor-air processing rate of 10-20 m 3/h for SVOC uptake by human skin, hair and clothing. Levels on human skin calculated with a simple model of direct air-to-skin transfer agree remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients.

Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

168

Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SS?L-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg COD?L-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 L?d-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

2010-11-01

169

CHARACTERIZATION OF REUSABLE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS AND CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The main thrust of this project was to collect organic concentrates from operating advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plants for use in health effects testing. A reverse osmosis process was employed in the first stage concentration; the organics were further concentrated and rec...

170

Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...

171

GC/MS METHODOLOGY FOR PRIORITY ORGANICS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A state-of-the-art review is presented on the current GC/MS methodology for the analysis of priority toxic organics in municipal wastewater treatment. The review summarizes both recent published and unpublished literature on GC/MS methods for analysis of toxic organics in municip...

172

P-RoC- Phosphorus Recovery from Wastewater by Crystallisation of Calcium Phosphate Compounds  

E-print Network

The P-RoC process – the phosphorus recovery straight from the aqueous phase by crystallisation of calcium phosphate – was developed in order to simultaneously remove and recover phosphorus from municipal waste- and industrial process waters by applying calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) compounds or synthesised tobermorite pellets as crystallisation seed materials. At first, the experiments were performed in fixed bed reactors in laboratory- and in pilot scale. In continuation stirred reactor technique was developed and optimised in order to reduce operation and maintenance efforts of the process. Apart from the composition and grain size of the seed materials and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the reactor, the efficiency and longevity of the P-RoC process was mainly controlled by the initial P concentration of the wastewater. P-RoC proved to be feasible to treat also highly DOC- and P-enriched process waters. Total P (P-tot) contents in the generated crystallisation products of at least 10-11 % P-tot were achieved in long-term fixed bed experiments, which was promising for the substitution of natural phosphate rock in the phosphorus industry. Mineralogical investigations (FTIR-ATR, XRD) proved the formation of hydroxy-apatite-(HAP) like coatings onto the surface of the seed materials using municipal wastewater.

unknown authors

173

Charge Ordering in Organic ET Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge ordering phenomena in quasi two-dimensional 1/4-filled organic compounds (ET)2X (ET=BEDT-TTF) are investigated theoreticallyfor the ? and ?-type structures, based on the Hartree approximation for the extended Hubbard models with both on-site and intersite Coulomb interactions.It is found that charge ordered states of stripe-type are stabilized for the relevant values of Coulomb energies, while the spatial pattern of the stripes sensitively depends on the anisotropy of the models. By comparing the results of calculations with the experimental facts, where the effects of quantum fluctuation is incorporated by mapping the stripe-type charge ordered states to the S=1/2 Heisenberg Hamiltonians, the actual charge patterns in the insulating phases of ?-(ET)2MM'(SCN)4 and ?-(ET)2I3 are deduced. Furthermore, to obtain a unified view among the ?, ? and ?-(ET)2X families, the stability of the charge ordered state in competition with the dimeric antiferromagnetic state viewed as the Mott insulating state, which is typically realized in ?-type compounds, and with the paramagnetic metallic state, is also pursued by extracting essential parameters.

Seo, Hitoshi

2000-03-01

174

The application of microfiltration-reverse osmosis/nanofiltration to trace organics removal for municipal wastewater reuse.  

PubMed

The fate of organic micropollutans (MPs) in a membrane system based on microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) has been investigated for the case of wastewater reuse. Both an operating full-scale water reuse plant and a pilot plant were employed, with 22 individual organic compounds at their ambient concentrations studied for the former and the latter employing two target compounds over a range of feed concentrations. Results revealed removal efficiencies higher than 75% for most compounds in the full-scale plant, though mass flow studies on all streams revealed a significant imbalance of material for some compounds. Rejection efficiencies measured for candidate commercial NF and RO membranes tested at pilot scale challenged with a pharmaceutically active compound (ibuprofen, IBU) and an endocrine-disrupting chemical (nonylphenol, NP) exceeded 99%. Permeate concentrations were 0.005-0.14 microg/L for IBU and below the limit of detection for NP. A mass balance of the MPs for the full-scale plant across the MF and RO stages revealed a significant imbalance associated with the challenge of accurate determination of low concentrations. Differences in pilot plant and full-scale data were otherwise attributed to the impact of membrane ageing (and specifically hydrolysis) on RO rejection of the MPs examined. PMID:24617078

Garcia, N; Moreno, J; Cartmell, E; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Judd, S

2013-01-01

175

The effects of long-term feeding of high organic loading in a submerged membrane bioreactor treating oil refinery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of a refinery wastewater (oily stream) was investigated using a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) operating with constant permeate flux. During the operation, long-term high organic loading rates were applied in the SMBR by feeding blends of the oily stream with a high strength phenolic wastewater, also generated in petroleum refineries. The effects of high organic loadings were evaluated

Aline F. Viero; Thainá M. de Melo; Ana Paula R. Torres; Neemias R. Ferreira; Geraldo L. Sant’Anna Jr.; Cristiano P. Borges; Vania M. J. Santiago

2008-01-01

176

ACUTE TOXICITY OF SELECTED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO FATHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Static nonrenewal laboratory bioassays were conducted with 26 organic compounds commonly used by industry. The selected compounds represented the five following chemical classes: acids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, ketones and aldehydes, and phenols. Juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephal...

177

Soluble organic compounds in the Tagish Lake meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C2 ungrouped Tagish Lake meteorite preserves a range of lithologies, reflecting variable degrees of parent-body aqueous alteration. Here, we report on soluble organic compounds, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, monocarboxylic acids, and amino acids, found within specimens representative of the range of aqueous alteration. We find that differences in soluble organic compounds among the lithologies may be explained by oxidative, fluid-assisted alteration, primarily involving the derivation of soluble organic compounds from macromolecular material. In contrast, amino acids probably evolved from precursor molecules, albeit in parallel with other soluble organic compounds. Our results demonstrate the role of parent-body alteration in the modification of organic matter and generation of prebiotic compounds in the early solar system, and have implications for interpretation of the complement of soluble organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites.

Hilts, Robert W.; Herd, Christopher D. K.; Simkus, Danielle N.; Slater, Greg F.

2014-04-01

178

Occurrence of cytostatic compounds in hospital effluents and wastewaters, determined by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The occurrence of 26 commonly used cytostatic compounds in wastewaters was evaluated using an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method with liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Detection was optimized using Oasis HLB SPE cartridges at pH 2. Two hospital effluents and their two receiving wastewater treatment plants were sampled over five days. In hospital effluents, eight cytostatics were detected at levels up to 86.2 ?g L(-1) for ifosfamide, 4.72 ?g L(-1) for cyclophosphamide, and 0.73 ?g L(-1) for irinotecan, the three most relevant compounds identified. Cyclophosphamide and megestrol acetate were found in wastewaters at concentrations up to 0.22 ?g L(-1) for the latter. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in sewage effluents of ifosfamide (2.4-4.3 ng L(-1)), capecitabine (11.5-14.2 ng L(-1)), and irinotecan (0.4-0.6 ng L(-1)), calculated from consumption data in each hospital, published excretion values for the target compounds, and wastewater elimination rates, were in agreement with experimental values. PMID:24825763

Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Ventura, Francesc; Caixach, Josep; Lacorte, Silvia

2014-06-01

179

Temperature dependent redox zonation and attenuation of wastewater-derived organic micropollutants in the hyporheic zone.  

PubMed

The hyporheic zone - a spatially fluctuating ecotone connecting surface water and groundwater - is considered to be highly reactive with regard to the attenuation of organic micropollutants. In the course of the presented study an undisturbed sediment core was taken from the infiltration zone of a bank filtration site in Berlin and operated under controlled laboratory conditions with wastewater-influenced surface water at two different temperatures, simulating winter and summer conditions. The aim was to evaluate the fate of site-relevant micropollutants, namely metoprolol, iopromide, diclofenac, carbamazepine, acesulfame, tolyltriazole, benzotriazole, phenazone and two phenazone type metabolites, within the first meter of infiltration dependent on the prevailing temperature. A change in temperature resulted in a development of significantly distinct redox conditions. Both temperature dependencies and related redox dependencies were identified for all micropollutants except for benzotriazole and carbamazepine, which behaved persistent under all conditions. For the remaining compounds degradation rate constants generally decreased from warm and oxic/penoxic/suboxic over cold and oxic/penoxic to warm and manganese reducing (transition zone). Individual degradation rate constants ranged from 0 (e.g. diclofenac, acesulfame and tolyltriazole in the transition zone) to 1.4×10(-4)s(-1) for metoprolol under warm conditions within the oxic to suboxic zone. PMID:24642095

Burke, Victoria; Greskowiak, Janek; Asmuß, Tina; Bremermann, Rebecca; Taute, Thomas; Massmann, Gudrun

2014-06-01

180

Method and reaction pathway for selectively oxidizing organic compounds  

DOEpatents

A method of selectively oxidizing an organic compound in a single vessel comprises: a) combining an organic compound, an acid solution in which the organic compound is soluble, a compound containing two oxygen atoms bonded to one another, and a metal ion reducing agent capable of reducing one of such oxygen atoms, and thereby forming a mixture; b) reducing the compound containing the two oxygen atoms by reducing one of such oxygen atoms with the metal ion reducing agent to, 1) oxidize the metal ion reducing agent to a higher valence state, and 2) produce an oxygen containing intermediate capable of oxidizing the organic compound; c) reacting the oxygen containing intermediate with the organic compound to oxidize the organic compound into an oxidized organic intermediate, the oxidized organic intermediate having an oxidized carbon atom; d) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the acid counter ion and higher valence state metal ion to bond the acid counter ion to the oxidized carbon atom and thereby produce a quantity of an ester incorporating the organic intermediate and acid counter ion; and e) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the higher valence state metal ion and water to produce a quantity of alcohol which is less than the quantity of ester, the acid counter ion incorporated in the ester rendering the carbon atom bonded to the counter ion less reactive with the oxygen containing intermediate in the mixture than is the alcohol with the oxygen containing intermediate.

Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

181

Molecular Models of Volatile Organic Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's Featured Molecules come from the Report from Other Journals column, Nature: Our Atmosphere in the Year of Planet Earth, and the summary found there of the paper by Lelieveld et al. (1, 2) Added to the collection are several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by a variety of plants. The term VOCs is a common one in environmental chemistry, and is interpreted quite broadly, typically referring to any organic molecule with a vapor pressure sufficiently high to allow for part-per-billion levels in the atmosphere. Common VOCs include methane (the most prevalent VOC), benzene and benzene derivatives, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and many others. The source may be natural, as in the case of the plant emissions, or anthropogenic, as in the case of a molecule such as the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).The oxidation of isoprene in the atmosphere has been a source of interest for many years. Several primary oxidation products are included in the molecule collection, although a number of isomeric forms are also possible (3).The area of VOCs provides innumerable topics for students research papers and projects at all levels of the curriculum from high-school chemistry through the undergraduate courses in chemistry and environmental science. Along the way students have the opportunity for exposure to fields such as epidemiology and toxicology, that may be new to them, but are of increasing importance in the environmental sciences. The MTBE story is an interesting one for students to discover, as it once again emphasizes the role that unintended consequences play in life. An exploration of the sources, structures, reactivity, health and environmental effects and ultimate fate of various VOCs reinforces in students minds just how interconnected the chemistry of the environment is, a lesson that bears repeating frequently.

182

Simultaneous determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, triclosan and bisphenol A in wastewater and sewage sludge by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An integrated analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in wastewater (dissolved and particulate phase) and sewage sludge was developed based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chromatographic analysis was achieved after derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Extraction from water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The optimization of SPE procedure included the type of sorbent and the type of the organic solvent used for the elution. Referred to solid samples, the target compounds were extracted by sonication. In this case the optimization of the extraction procedure included the variation of the amount of the extracted biomass, the duration and the temperature of sonication and the type of the extraction organic solvent. The developed extraction procedures resulted in good repeatability and reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 13% for all the tested compounds for both types of samples. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained (>60%) for all the compounds in both liquid and solid samples, except for 4-n-NP, which gave recoveries up to 35% in wastewater samples and up to 63% in sludge samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of the target compounds varied from 0.03 (4-n-NP) to 0.41 microg l(-1) (NP2EO) and from 0.04 (4-n-NP) to 0.96 microg kg(-1) (NP2EO) for liquid and solid samples, respectively. The developed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of the target compounds in real samples. PMID:17070818

Gatidou, Georgia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Lekkas, Themistokles D

2007-01-01

183

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more

Dana W Kolpin; Mary Skopec; Michael T Meyer; Edward T Furlong; Steven D Zaugg

2004-01-01

184

OCCURRENCE OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTHER ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONSTITUENTS IN SELECTED STREAMS IN NORTHERN ARKANSAS, 2004.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data was collected in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many chemicals that are an emerging concern. Samples were collected at17 sites upstream or downstream from municipal effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkans...

185

Electricity generation from model organic wastewater in a cassette-electrode microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

A new highly scalable microbial fuel cell (MFC) design, consisting of a series of cassette electrodes (CE), was examined for increasing power production from organic matter in wastewater. Each CE chamber was composed of a box-shaped flat cathode (two air cathodes on both sides) sandwiched in between two proton-exchange membranes and two graphite-felt anodes. Due to the simple design of the CE-MFC, multiple cassettes can be combined to form a single unit and inserted into a tank to treat wastewater. A 12-chamber CE-MFC was tested using a synthetic wastewater containing starch, peptone, and fish extract. Stable performance was obtained after 15 days of operation in fed-batch mode, with an organic removal efficiency of 95% at an organic loading rate of 2.9 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic meter per day and an efficiency of 93% at 5.8 kg COD per cubic meter per day. Power production was stable during this period, reaching maximum power densities of 129 W m(-3) (anode volume) and 899 mW m(-2) (anode projected area). The internal resistance of CE-MFC decreased from 2.9 (day 4) to 0.64 Omega (day 25). These results demonstrate the usefulness of the CE-MFC design for energy production and organic wastewater treatment. PMID:18581110

Shimoyama, Takefumi; Komukai, Shoko; Yamazawa, Akira; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Logan, Bruce E; Watanabe, Kazuya

2008-08-01

186

EMISSION OF METALS AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS - VOLUME I: SUMMARY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne site incorpo...

187

Color and chlorinated organics removal from pulp mills wastewater using activated petroleum coke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed petroleum coke, a waste by-product from the oil sand industry, was utilized in the production of activated carbon. The activated carbon was then evaluated for color and chlorinated organics reduction from pulp mill wastewater. The activation of the petroleum coke was evaluated using a fixed bed reactor involving carbonization and activation steps at temperature of 850°C and using steam

Ayman R Shawwa; Daniel W Smith; David C Sego

2001-01-01

188

ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN CONSENT DECREE SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to a need of the Effluent Guidelines Division of the U.S. EPA Office of Water Regulations and Standards, industrial wastewater survey sample extracts were analyzed for organic pollutants other than the Priority Pollutants. Chromatographic analyses were performed on ca...

189

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

190

Developing organic fouling indices of microfiltration and nanofiltration membranes for wastewater reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater reclamation processes, including membrane bio reactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane, have been built, and those processes were independently operated, under recycling conditions, to compare the performances, with respect to contaminants removal and fouling minimization. The hydrophilic fractions of organic matter were more effectively removed than the hydrophobic fraction through the system due to microbial activities in the MBR,

Kangmin Chon; Sungyun Lee; Kyongmi Chon; Ahamad Altaf Hussain; Jaewoon Cho

2010-01-01

191

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Agricultural Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) participate in ozone and aerosol formation, and comprise a substantial fraction of reactive VOC emission inventories. In the agriculturally intensive Central Valley of California, emissions from crops may substantially influence regional air quality, but emission potentials have not been extensively studied with advanced instrumentation for many important crops. Because crop emissions may vary according to the species, and California emission inventories are constructed via a bottom-up approach, a better knowledge of the emission rate at the species-specific level is critical for reducing uncertainties in emission inventories and evaluating emission model performance. In the present study we identified and quantified the BVOCs released by dominant agricultural crops in California. A screening study to investigate both volatile and semivolatile BVOC fractions (oxygenated VOCs, isoprene, monoterepenes, sesquiterpenes, etc.) was performed for 25 crop species (at least 3 replicates plants each), including branch enclosures of woody species (e.g. peach, mandarin, grape, pistachio) and whole plant enclosures for herbaceous species (e.g. onion, alfalfa, carrot), through a dynamic cuvette system with detection by PTRMS, in-situ GCMS/FID, and collection on carbon-based adsorbents followed by extraction and GCMS analysis. Emission data obtained in this study will allow inclusion of these crops in BVOC emission inventories and air quality simulations.

Ormeno, E.; Farres, S.; Gentner, D.; Park, J.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A.

2008-12-01

192

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2002-06-01

193

Volatile organic compound remedial action project  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1991-12-01

194

A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewaters using ultra-high-performace liquid chromatography with DAD detection.  

PubMed

A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction (DLLMME) method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using Diode Array Detector (DAD) detector was developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical compounds of different nature in wastewaters. A micellar solution of a surfactant, polidocanol, as extraction solvent (100??L) and chloroform as dispersive solvent (200??L) were used to extract and preconcentrate the target analytes. Samples were heated above critical temperature and the cloudy solution was centrifuged. After removing the chloroform, the reduced volume of surfactant was then injected in the UHPLC system. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the liquid-phase microextraction, such as time and temperature extraction, ionic strength and surfactant and organic solvent volume, were optimized using an experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, this procedure allows enrichment factors of up to 47-fold. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.1 to 2.0?µg/L for the different pharmaceuticals. Relative standard deviations were <26% for all compounds. The procedure was applied to samples from final effluent collected from wastewater treatment plants in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain), and two compounds were measured at 67 and 113?µg/L in one of them. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25056775

Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

2015-03-01

195

Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen during co-composting of olive mill wastewater with solid organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four olive mill wastewater (OMW) composts, prepared with three N-rich organic wastes and two different bulking agents, were\\u000a studied in a pilot plant using the Rutgers system. Organic matter (OM) losses during composting followed a first-order kinetic\\u000a equation in all the piles, the slowest being the OM mineralisation rate in the pile using maize straw (MS). The highest N\\u000a losses

C. Paredes; A. Roig; M. P. Bernal; M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; J. Cegarra

2000-01-01

196

Lysis of cyanobacteria with volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

One of bacteria collected from Lake Sagami, Japan, Brevibacillus sp., was found to have a lytic activity of cyanobacteria, but did not produce active compounds. Instead, the co-culturing of Microcystis with the Brevibacillus sp. enhanced the production of two volatile compounds, beta-cyclocitral and 3-methyl-1-butanol, and the former had a characteristic lytic activity. It was confirmed that these volatile compounds were derived from the cyanobacteria themselves. beta-Ionone, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol derived from cyanobacteria and similar volatile compounds, terpenoids, produced by plants also had a lytic activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the cyanobacterial metabolites were estimated to be higher than those of compounds from plants except for a few compounds. Among them, beta-cyclocitral only produced a characteristic color change of culture broth from green to blue. This color change is similar to the phenomenon observed when a sudden decline in growth of cyanobacteria begins in a natural environment. PMID:18179811

Ozaki, Keiko; Ohta, Akemi; Iwata, Chieko; Horikawa, Aki; Tsuji, Kiyomi; Ito, Emiko; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Harada, Ken-Ichi

2008-04-01

197

High-resolution mass spectrometric identification and quantification of glucocorticoid compounds in various wastewaters in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

In the past two decades much research effort has focused on the occurrence, effects, and risks of estrogenic compounds. However, increasing emissions of new emerging compounds may also affect the action of hormonal pathways other than the estrogenic hormonal axis. Recently, a suite of novel CALUX bioassays has become available that enables looking further than estrogenic effects only. By employing these bioassays, we recently showed high glucocorticogenic activity in wastewaters collected at various sites in The Netherlands. However, since bioassays provide an integrated biological response, the identity of the responsible biological compounds remained unknown. Therefore, our current objective was to elucidate the chemical composition of the wastewater extracts used in our previous study by means of LC-high-resolution Orbitrap MS/MS and to determine if the compounds quantified could account for the observed glucocorticoid responsive (GR) CALUX bioassay response. The mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of various glucocorticoids in the range of 13-1900 ng/L. In extracts of hospital wastewater-collected prior to sewage treatment-several glucocorticoids were identified (cortisol 275-301 ng/L, cortisone 381-472 ng/L, prednisone 117-545 ng/L, prednisolone 315-1918 ng/L, and triamcinolone acetonide 14-41 ng/L) which are used to treat a great number of human pathologies. A potency balance calculation based on the instrumental analyses and relative potencies (REPs) of the individual glucocorticoids supports the conclusion that triamcinolone acetonide (REP = 1.3), dexamethasone (REP = 1), and prednisolone (REP = 0.2) are the main contributors to the glucocorticogenic activity in the investigated wastewater extracts. The action of these compounds is concentration additive and the overall glucocorticogenic activity can be explained to a fairly large extent by their contribution. PMID:20507090

Schriks, Merijn; van Leerdam, Jan A; van der Linden, Sander C; van der Burg, Bart; van Wezel, Annemarie P; de Voogt, Pim

2010-06-15

198

Effect of Fenton's oxidation on the particle size distribution of organic carbon in olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the effect of Fenton's oxidation on the particle size distribution (PSD) of significant parameters reflecting the organic carbon content of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW). The organic carbon content of the studied OMW was characterized by a COD level of around 40,000mg\\/L, with 13,500mg\\/L of TOC and 1670mg\\/L of total phenols. The corresponding antioxidant activity (AOA) was

S. Dogruel; T. Olmez-Hanci; Z. Kartal; I. Arslan-Alaton; D. Orhon

2009-01-01

199

High Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation participate in oxidative reactions, affecting the tropospheric ozone concentration and the lifetimes of greenhouse gasses such as methane. Also, they affect the formation of secondary organic aerosols. BVOCs thus provide a strong link between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the climate. Global models of BVOC emissions have assumed minimal emissions from the high latitudes due to low temperatures, short growing seasons and sparse vegetation cover. However, measurements from this region of the world are lacking and emissions from the High Arctic have not been published yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the first estimates for BVOC emissions from the High Arctic. Hereby, we wish to add new knowledge to the understanding of global BVOC emissions. Measurements were conducted in NE Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' W) in four vegetation communities in the study area. These four vegetation communities were dominated by Cassiope tetragona, Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum and Kobresia myosuroides/Dryas octopetela/Salix arctica, respectively. Emissions were measured by enclosure technique and collection of volatiles into adsorbent cartridges in August 2009. The volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following thermal desorption. Isoprene showed highest emissions in S. arctica-dominated heath, where it was the dominant single BVOC. However, isoprene emission decreased below detection limit in the end of August when the temperature was at or below 10°C. According to a principal component analysis, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions were especially associated with C. tetragona-dominated heath. Especially S. arctica and C. tetragona dominated heaths showed distinct patterns of emitted BVOCs. Emissions of BVOC from the studied high arctic heaths were clearly lower than the emissions observed previously in subarctic heaths with more dense vegetation and higher ambient temperature. However, high arctic BVOC emissions are expected to increase in the future as a result of the predicted pronounced climate warming effects in the High Arctic. Therefore, we suggest that further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of climate changes in the region in order to gain new knowledge and understanding of future global BVOC emissions.

Schollert, Michelle; Buchard, Sebrina; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

2013-04-01

200

REACTIVITY OF NITROGENOUS AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH AQUEOUS CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

A protocol for determining the chlorine demand of organic compounds was developed and tested. Organics were reacted with chlorine at mole ratios of 1:05, 1:1, and 1:3 at pH values of 6, 7, and 8 over a one week period. Compounds tested were drawn mainly from the EPA Register of O...

201

A Systematic Presentation of Organic Phosphorus and Sulfur Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the names, interrelations, and oxidation levels of the organic compounds of phosphorus and sulfur tend to confuse students, a simple way to organize these compounds has been developed. The system consists of grouping them by oxidation state and extent of carbon substitution. (JN)

Hendrickson, James B.

1985-01-01

202

40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.542 Section 60.542 Protection of Environment...Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the initial...

2011-07-01

203

40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment...Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the...

2011-07-01

204

40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment...Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

205

40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment...Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which § 60.8...

2011-07-01

206

40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment...Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which the performance test...

2011-07-01

207

40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment...and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the...

2011-07-01

208

40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment...Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the performance test required...

2010-07-01

209

40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment...Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the...

2010-07-01

210

Study of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater in an Urban Agglomeration in Romania  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the level of wastewater pollution by analyzing its chemical characteristics at five wastewater collectors. Samples are collected before they discharge into the Danube during a monitoring campaign of two weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and it greatly depends on the origin of the wastewater. Correlation analysis was used in order to identify possible relationships between concentrations of various analyzed parameters, which could be used in selecting the appropriate method for wastewater treatment to be implemented at wastewater plants. PMID:22919336

Popa, Paula; Timofti, Mihaela; Voiculescu, Mirela; Dragan, Silvia; Trif, Catalin; Georgescu, Lucian P.

2012-01-01

211

BEHAVIOR OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS DURING RAPID-INFILTRATION OF WASTEWATER INTO SOIL: 1. PROCESSES, DEFINITION, AND CHARACTERIZATION USING A MICROCOSM  

EPA Science Inventory

A microcosm was constructed to study the behavior of organic pollutants during rapid infiltration of municipal wastewater into soil. The microcosm permitted a direct measure of the amount of volatilization and allowed calculation of the amount that degraded. The wastewater was am...

212

Fluorescent components of organic matter in wastewater: efficacy and selectivity of the water treatment.  

PubMed

Characterization of organic matter (OM) present in treated wastewater (TWW) after various treatment stages is important for optimizing wastewater recycling. The general aim of this research was to carry out a long-term examination of OM in wastewater along the treatment, by applying excitation-emission matrices (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fluorescent OM was examined in water samples obtained from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Israel for 20 months. The PARAFAC analysis of EEMs of water samples from the four WWTPs yielded six components. The fluorescent components included proteinaceous tryptophan-like matter (C1), three humic-like components (C2-C4), a component (C5) that was characterized by excitation and emission with a distinct vibrational structure similar to that of pyrene and a component (C6) that was characterized by the excitation and emission spectra demonstrating two peaks where the appearance of two emission peaks was suggested to reflect the formation of an intra-molecular exyplex. The biological treatment strongly reduced the concentration of component C1 thus increasing the overall fraction of humic-like OM over the proteinaceous OM in the treated water. The fluorescence of component C1 could therefore be used as an indicator of the biological treatment efficacy. The concentration of the humic-like component C2 characterized by excitation and emission maxima at <240,305/422 nm, respectively, was also sensitive to biological treatment. The soil aquifer treatment was not effective in completely eliminating the fingerprints of the initial wastewater. The concentrations of the fluorescent components in wastewater after the biological treatment were only slightly affected by filtration (0.45 ?m) of the samples. For water sampled prior to the biological treatment, the 0.45 ?m filtration had the most pronounced effect on concentrations of the proteinaceous matter and component C6. Strong positive correlations were found between concentrations of component C1 and total carbon (TC) in wastewater samples from the WWTPs thus suggesting the proteinaceous fluorescence in wastewater as an indicator for TC reduction. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity (a measure for the total microbial activity) were strongly positively correlated with the concentrations of components C1-C3 thus suggesting the fluorescence of these components as indicators for reduction in COD and the total microbial activity in wastewater. PMID:24636841

Cohen, Elinatan; Levy, Guy J; Borisover, Mikhail

2014-05-15

213

Accumulation and Transformation of Sulfonated Aromatic Compounds by Higher Plants –Toward the Phytotreatment of Wastewater from Dye and Textile Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfonated anthraquinones are precursors of many synthetic dyes and pigments, recalcitrant to biodegradation and thus not\\u000a eliminated by classical wastewater treatments. In the development of a phytoremediation process to remove sulfonated aromatic\\u000a compounds from industrial effluents, the most promising results have been obtained with Rheum rabarbarum (rhubarb), a plant species producing natural anthraquinones. Rhubarb is not only able to accumulate,

Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel; Stéphanie Braillard; Valérie Page; Sylvie Aubert

214

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2003-07-01

215

An assessment of the concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater treatment plants on the island of Gran Canaria (Spain).  

PubMed

An assessment of the concentrations of thirteen different therapeutic pharmaceutical compounds was conducted on water samples obtained from different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using solid phase extraction and high- and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-MS/MS and UHPLC-MS/MS), was carried out. The target compounds included ketoprofen and naproxen (anti-inflammatories), bezafibrate (lipid-regulating), carbamazepine (anticonvulsant), metamizole (analgesic), atenolol (?-blocker), paraxanthine (stimulant), fluoxetine (antidepressant), and levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and sarafloxacin (fluoroquinolone antibiotics). The relative standard deviations obtained in method were below 11%, while the detection and quantification limits were in the range of 0.3 - 97.4 ng·L(-1) and 1.1 - 324.7 ng·L(-1), respectively. The water samples were collected from two different WWTPs located on the island of Gran Canaria in Spain over a period of one year. The first WWTP (denoted as WWTP1) used conventional activated sludge for the treatment of wastewater, while the other plant (WWTP2) employed a membrane bioreactor system for wastewater treatment. Most of the pharmaceutical compounds detected in this study during the sampling periods were found to have concentrations ranging between 0.02 and 34.81 ?g·L(-1). PMID:23483812

Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

2013-12-01

216

Bioavailability of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Originating From Natural Sources and Wastewater Effluent in the Truckee River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that implementation of the Clean Water Act might be further refined to recognize differences in biological availability of Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N, and Dissolved Organic-N (DON) in the regulation of Total Nitrogen (TN) Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). This study was conducted to assess whether wastewater DON has a different bioavailable fraction than natural DON and how the bioavailable fraction of DON in river water varies seasonally across an urban gradient. Since the variety of constituents in DON have not been thoroughly identified and may vary based on source, 67 day bioassays were performed to measure the fraction of DON that is mineralized or converted to particulate matter. To assess the importance of N additions to the Truckee River, algal nutrient limitation assays were performed across the urban gradient. Seasonal bioassays in 2007 demonstrated that wastewater derived DON consistently had a higher bioavailable fraction (23-51 %) than naturally derived DON (~ 0 %). However during summer 2007 the fraction of bioavailable DON was similar for wastewater and natural sources (40 % and 43 %, respectively). DON derived from urban runoff had the highest degree of variation in bioavailability (3-70 %) as opposed to the more consistent bioavailability of wastewater DON. Downstream from the wastewater infall, the bioavailable fraction of DON varied seasonally (0-42 %). Algal nutrient limitation assays demonstrated significant N+P limitation across the urban gradient during the spring and summer but no limitation was observed for winter. A significant N limitation was seen for sites below the urban gradient during the summer season. It appears that wastewater DON consistently has a bioavailable fraction and a recalcitrant fraction (minimum 48 %) which suggests TMDLs could be altered to regulate the bioavailable fraction of TN. The occurrence of N limitation for in-river algal production during the summer season suggests that appropriate N TMDLs are important for this river system. DON bioavailability varies both seasonally and across the urban gradient.

Bertrando, N.; Qualls, R. G.; Dean, K. L.; Springer, M.; Brisbin, M.

2008-12-01

217

[Variation characteristics and removal rate of fluorescence organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater treatment process].  

PubMed

Petrochemical wastewater is of huge quantity released during the production and complicated contaminants of petrochemical wastewater will have immense negative impact on ecology environment. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence(3D-EEM) was used to investigate the characteristic fluorescence of influent and effluent from each processing unit of Hydrolysis-acidification +A/O+ Contact-oxidation Process in a typical petrochemical wastewater treatment plant . The results showed that there were 4 fluorescence peaks named Peak A, Peak B, Peak D, Peak E in the spectrum chart of influent, they are around lambda(ex/lambda(em) = 220/300, 225/340, 270/300, 275/340 nm, the primary source of fluorescence organic matter(FOM) is industrial wastewater. The fluorescence intensity of each fluorescence peak was decreased, while location was unchanged in the effluent of Hydrolysis-acidification. Peak C appeared from the effluent of anaerobic tank at lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 250/425 nm, then the fluorescence intensity of Peak C was enhanced in the effluent of aerobic tank. Peak A disappeared from the effluent of secondary sedimentation tank. The spectrum chart of the wastewater had no obvious variation after secondary sedimentation tank. The removal rate of FOM was expressed with the degradation percentage of the fluorescence intensity, the total FOM was reduced by 92.0% after processing, and the removal rate of the FOM fluoresce around Peak A, Peak B, Peak D, Peak E were 100.0%, 91.2%, 80.3%, 92.0% respectively. A volatile I(Peak B)/I(Peak E) value of influent but a relatively stable value of effluent demonstrated that the wastewater treatment plant operated steadily and the process has higher capacity in resistance to shock loading. PMID:25208396

Zhou, Jing-Ling; Xi, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Xu, Ji-Xian; Song, Guang-Qing

2014-03-01

218

[Characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in subsurface wastewater infiltration system].  

PubMed

In the present study, the soil column with radius of 30 cm and height of 200 cm was used to simulate a subsurface wastewater infiltration system. Under the hydraulic loading of 4 cm x d(-1), composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different depths were analyzed in a subsurface wastewater infiltration system for treatment of septic tank effluent using three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM) with regional integration analysis (FRI). The results indicate that: (1) from different depth, the composition of DOM was also different; influent with the depth of 0.5 m was mainly composed of protein-like substances, and that at other depths was mainly composed of humic- and fulvic-like substances. (2) DOM stability gradually increased and part of the nonbiodegradable organic matter can be removed during organic pollutants degradation process. (3) Not only the organic pollutants concentration was reduced effectively, but also the stability of the DOM improved in subsurface wastewater infiltration system. PMID:24159860

Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Lie-Yu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xia, Xun-Feng; Liu, Ya-Ru

2013-08-01

219

Copper complexation by dissolved organic matter from surface water and wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Organic matter from wastewater treatment plants (wastewater organic matter, WWOM) has not been extensively studied with respect to complexation with copper, unlike natural organic matter (NOM). Acid-base and copper titrations were conducted on both types of organic matter. Experimental copper complexation data were compared to predictions from the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) Version VI. We found that NOM and WWOM have ligands with similar proton binding, but the copper binding of WWOM is not well predicted by WHAM especially at low copper concentrations because the concentrations of ligands that are most important at the low copper concentrations (below 10(-6) M) were found to be about 15 times higher in the WWOM. Consideration of sulfide present in the wastewater effluent does not fully explain this deviation. Due to the possibility that there exist nonhumics like biological macromolecules in WWOM, it may need to be considered as an alternative ligand to humics in toxicity and speciation predicting models like the biotic ligand model (BLM). PMID:15922799

Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Allen, Herbert E

2005-07-01

220

Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatments of high-strength semiconductor wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a high-strength semiconductor wastewater was experimentally investigated in this study. The wastewater is characterized by a strong dark color, high chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, presence of refractory volatile organic compound and low biodegradability. Treatment of this wastewater by traditional activated sludge method is essentially impossible. In the present work, combined physical, chemical and biological methods were synergistically

Sheng H. Lin; Chang D. Jiang

2003-01-01

221

Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Sediment and Soil by Pressurized Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction, and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 61 compounds in environmental sediment and soil samples is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater and wastewater-impacted sediment on aquatic organisms. This method also may be used to evaluate the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water and sediment quality of urban streams. Method development focused on the determination of compounds that were chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from interfering matrix components by high-pressure water/isopropyl alcohol extraction. The compounds were isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing chemically modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. The cartridges were dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds were eluted with methylene chloride (80 percent)-diethyl ether (20 percent) through Florisil/sodium sulfate SPE cartridge, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-sand samples fortified at 4 to 72 micrograms averaged 76 percent ?13 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method reporting levels for single-component compounds ranged from 50 to 500 micrograms per kilogram. The concentrations of 20 out of 61 compounds initially will be reported as estimated with the 'E' remark code for one of three reasons: (1) unacceptably low-biased recovery (less than 60 percent) or highly variable method performance (greater than 25 percent relative standard deviation), (2) reference standards prepared from technical mixtures, or (3) potential blank contamination. Samples were preserved by freezing to -20 degrees Celsius. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory has established a 1-year sample-holding time limit (prior to sample extraction) from the date of sample collection (if the sample is kept at -20?C) until a statistically accepted method can be used to determine the effectiveness of the sample-freezing procedure.

Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

2006-01-01

222

A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States--I) groundwater.  

PubMed

As part of the continuing effort to collect baseline information on the environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals, and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in the Nation's water resources, water samples were collected from a network of 47 groundwater sites across 18 states in 2000. All samples collected were analyzed for 65 OWCs representing a wide variety of uses and origins. Site selection focused on areas suspected to be susceptible to contamination from either animal or human wastewaters (i.e. down gradient of a landfill, unsewered residential development, or animal feedlot). Thus, sites sampled were not necessarily used as a source of drinking water but provide a variety of geohydrologic environments with potential sources of OWCs. OWCs were detected in 81% of the sites sampled, with 35 of the 65 OWCs being found at least once. The most frequently detected compounds include N,N-diethyltoluamide (35%, insect repellant), bisphenol A (30%, plasticizer), tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (30%, fire retardant), sulfamethoxazole (23%, veterinary and human antibiotic), and 4-octylphenol monoethoxylate (19%, detergent metabolite). Although sampling procedures were intended to ensure that all groundwater samples analyzed were indicative of aquifer conditions it is possible that detections of some OWCs could have resulted from leaching of well-construction materials and/or other site-specific conditions related to well construction and materials. Future research will be needed to identify those factors that are most important in determining the occurrence and concentrations of OWCs in groundwater. PMID:18556047

Barnes, Kimberlee K; Kolpin, Dana W; Furlong, Edward T; Zaugg, Steven D; Meyer, Michael T; Barber, Larry B

2008-09-01

223

Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the laboratory using standard BTEX gases. The LODs for the Tenax TA sampling tubes (determined with a sample volume of 1,000 standard cubic centimeters which is close to the approximate commuter sample volumes collected) were orders of magnitude lower (0.04 to 0.7 parts per billion (ppb) for individual compounds of BTEX) compared to the PIDs' LODs (9.3 to 15 ppb of a BTEX mixture), which makes the Tenax TA sampling method more suitable to measure BTEX concentrations in the sub-parts per billion (ppb) range. PID and Tenax TA data for commuter exposures were inversely related. The concentrations of VOCs measured by the PID were substantially higher than BTEX concentrations measured by collocated Tenax TA samplers. The inverse trend and the large difference in magnitude between PID responses and Tenax TA BTEX measurements indicates the two methods may have been measuring different air pollutants that are negatively correlated. Drivers in Fort Collins, Colorado with closed windows experienced greater time-weighted average BTEX exposures than cyclists (p: 0.04). Commuter BTEX exposures measured in Fort Collins were lower than commuter exposures measured in prior studies that occurred in larger cities (Boston and Copenhagen). Although route and intake may affect a commuter's BTEX dose, these variables are outside of the scope of this study. Within the limitations of this study (including: small sample size, small representative area of Fort Collins, and respiration rates not taken into account), it appears health risks associated with traffic-induced BTEX exposures may be reduced by commuting via cycling instead of driving with windows closed and living in a less populous area that has less vehicle traffic. Although the PID did not reliably measure low-level commuter BTEX exposures, the Tenax TA sampling method did. The PID measured BTEX concentrations reliably in a controlled environment, at high concentrations (300-800 ppb), and in the absence of other air pollutants. In environments where there could be multiple chemicals present that may produce a PID signal (such a

Kayne, Ashleigh

224

NONVOLATILE ORGANICS IN DISINFECTED WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS: CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MUTAGENICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Principal objectives of this research program were to examine the effects of disinfection by chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light irradiation on nonvolatile organic constituents in secondary effluents relative to chemical effects and formation of mutagenic substances. In a comp...

225

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT: MODEL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods are presented for simulating the transfer of volatile organic contaminants to the atmosphere during surface and bubble aeration. Suitable values of the input parameters for conditions representative of activated sludge treatment are suggested, and model calculations are p...

226

Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (?80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and <20% of compounds showing high removal (defined as >70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment. PMID:24503280

Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

2014-04-15

227

Volatile organic compounds and some very volatile organic compounds in new and recently renovated buildings in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor air in new of recently renovated buildings was analysed by using different sorbents and analytical methods. Increased values of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were found on Tenax TA (1.6-31.7 mg m -3). Compared to older buildings, the amount of oxygen-containing compounds (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols) especially was elevated. High hexanal concentrations were measured in a significant amount of the houses. Differences of compound patterns were found from building to building. Complaints about discomfort and negative health effects are expected due to volatile organic compounds (VOC) and very volatile organic compounds (VVOC), as well as from low natural ventilation rates in some newly occupied buildings. Odorous compounds (naphthalene, higher aldehydes and alcohols, capronic acid, etc.) were found mainly, but some irritants and suspected sensitizing agents were also found. At the present state of our investigation chemicals causing other known toxic effects do not seem to increase the toxic risk substantially.

Rothweiler, Heinz; Wäger, Patrick A.; Schlatter, Christian

228

Characterization of dissolved organic matter in effluents from wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from sewage and human-wastes treatment plants (STPEs and HWTPEs) was fractionated using resin adsorbents into six classes: aquatic humic substances (AHS), hydrophobic bases (HoB), hydrophobic neutrals (HoN), hydrophilic acids (HiA), hydrophilic bases (HiB), and hydrophilic neutrals (HiN).DOM-fraction distribution varied substantially depending on the kind of wastewater and the type of treatment process. AHS and

Akio Imai; Takehiko Fukushima; Kazuo Matsushige; Yong-Hwan Kim; Kwangsoon Choi

2002-01-01

229

Organics removal of combined wastewater through shallow soil infiltration treatment: A field and laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) was proved to be an effective and low-cost treatment technique for decentralized effluents in the areas without perfect sewage systems. Field-scale experiments were conducted under several conditions to assess organics removals through a shallow soil infiltration treatment (SSIT, with effective depth 0.3m) of combined wastewater (discharge from toilets, restaurants and a gas station), while bench-scale soil

Zhiyin Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Zhenya Zhang; Norio Sugiura; Xiaotian Xu; Didi Yin

2007-01-01

230

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION KINETICS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

One process determining the fate of xenobiotics (organics not natural to a system) in environmental waters is bacterial transformation. Bacteria are one of the most metabolically active groups of organisms in the environment. They can degrade and derive energy from a variety of o...

231

Evaluating the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing a pharmaceutical and personal care product chemical cocktail: compound removal efficiency and effects on juvenile rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) can evade degradation in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and can be chronically discharged into the environment, causing concern for aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans that may be exposed to these bioactive chemicals. The ability of a common STP process, conventional activated sludge (CAS), to remove PPCPs (caffeine, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, estrone, 17?-ethinylestradiol, ibuprofen, naproxen, 4-nonylphenol, tonalide, triclocarban and triclosan) from a synthetic wastewater was evaluated in the present study. The removal of individual PPCPs by the laboratory-scale CAS treatment plant ranged from 40 to 99.6%. While the efficiency of removal for some compounds was high, remaining quantities have the potential to affect aquatic organisms even at low concentrations. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to influent recreated model wastewater with methanol (IM, solvent control) or with PPCP cocktail (IC), or CAS-treated effluent wastewater with methanol (EM, treated control) or with PPCP cocktail (EC). Alterations in hepatic gene expression (evaluated using a quantitative nuclease protection plex assay) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) protein concentrations occurred in exposed fish. Although there was partial PPCP removal by CAS treatment, the 20% lower VTG transcript levels and 83% lower plasma VTG protein concentration found in EC-exposed fish compared to IC-exposed fish were not statistically significant. Thus, estrogenic activity found in the influent was retained in the effluent even though typical percent removal levels were achieved raising the issue that greater reduction in contaminant load is required to address hormone active agents. PMID:24963889

Osachoff, Heather L; Mohammadali, Mehrnoush; Skirrow, Rachel C; Hall, Eric R; Brown, Lorraine L Y; van Aggelen, Graham C; Kennedy, Christopher J; Helbing, Caren C

2014-10-01

232

A laboratory batch reactor test for assessing nonspeciated volatile organic compound biodegradation in activated sludge.  

PubMed

The relative rates of biodegradation and stripping and volatilization of nonspeciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in wastewater treated with aerobic activated-sludge processes can be quantified using a newly developed procedure. This method was adapted from the original aerated draft tube reactor test that was developed to measure biodegradation rate constants for specific volatile pollutants of interest. The original batch test has been modified to include solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers for sampling in the gas phase. The experimental procedure using SPME fibers does not require specific identification and quantitation of individual pollutants and can be used to evaluate wastewater with multiple VOCs. To illustrate use of this procedure, laboratory experiments were conducted using biomass and wastewater or effluent from three activated-sludge treatment systems. Each experiment consisted of two trials: a stripping-only trial without biomass and a stripping plus biodegradation trial using biomass from the activated-sludge unit of interest. Data from the two trials were used to quantify the rates of biodegradation by difference. The activated-sludge systems tested were a laboratory diffused-air reactor treating refinery wastewater, a full-scale surface aerated reactor treating a petrochemical wastewater, and a full-scale diffused-air reactor treating a variety of industrial effluents. The biodegradation rate constant data from each laboratory batch experiment were used in model calculations to quantify the fraction emitted (fe) and the fraction biodegraded (fbio) for each system. The fe values ranged from a maximum of 0.01 to a maximum of 0.32, whereas fbio values ranged from a minimum of 0.40 to a minimum 0.95. Two of these systems had been previously tested using a more complicated experimental approach, and the current results were in good agreement with previous results. These results indicate that biodegradation rate constant data from this laboratory method can be successfully used to predict the fate of VOCs in field-scale treatment units, and thus could potentially be used for demonstration of compliance with wastewater VOC emission regulations. PMID:12934828

Cano, M L; Saterbak, A; van Compernolle, R; Williams, M P; Huot, M E; Rhodes, I A; Allen, C C

2003-01-01

233

Enantiomeric and Isotopic Analysis of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. The Murchison and Murray meteorites contain numerous compounds of interest in the study of early solar system organic chemistry and organic compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. These include: amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, and polyols. This talk will focus on the enantiomeric and isotopic analysis of individual meteoritic compounds - primarily polyol acids. The analyses will determine if, in addition to certain amino acids from Murchison, another potentially important class of prebiotic compounds also contains enantiomeric excesses, i.e., excesses that could have contributed to the current homochirality of life. Preliminary enantiomeric and isotopic (C- 13) measurements of Murchison glyceric acid show that it is indeed extraterrestrial. C-13 and D isotope analysis of meteoritic sugar alcohols (glycerol, threitol, ribitol, etc.) has shown that they are also indigenous to the meteorite.

Cooper, George

2004-01-01

234

Organic pollutants in the effluents of large wastewater treatment plants in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from the three largest WWTPs in Sweden were analysed for the presence of organic pollutants by GC-MS. From a total of 137 identified compounds only 10 were priority pollutants. A broad spectrum of non-regulated organic pollutants found in the effluents included aromatic hydrocarbons, food and household related compounds, solvents, plasticisers, flame retardants, preservatives, antioxidants and washing and cleaning related

Nicklas Paxéus

1996-01-01

235

Biodegradation technology for volatile organic compound removal from airstreams. Phase 1: Performance verification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic air pollutants are emitted in significant quantities from wastewater treatment plants (POTWs, or publicly owned treatment works). However, the concentrations are low, presenting a challenge for emissions control. Laboratory and field studies verified the potential application of microbial packed bed systems (biofilters) for the removal of VOCs from off-gases resulting from wastewater treatment. The contractor built a pilot scale biofilter designed to treat about 200 cfm of air, consisting of a reactor chamber, gas intake system, humidification chamber, a gas flow measurement system, and a filter bed. The filter medium consisted of compost obtained from a POTW, with perlite and crushed oyster shells added. The biofilter was installed at a headworks for incoming sewage at a POTW. After an acclimation period of several days, appreciable removal of VOCs was observed. In the field, removals of benzene, toluene, and hydrogen sulfide were generally over 90 percent. However, removals of chlorinated compounds were varied, and generally were below 40 percent of the inlet concentrations. Hydrogen sulfide removal was consistently greater than 99 percent, and the resulting odors were not unpleasant.

Ergas, S.J.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

1992-05-01

236

GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...

237

40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metal Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which §...

2010-07-01

238

SEPARATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS BY PERVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervaporation is gradually becoming an accepted and practical method for the recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous process and waste streams. As the technolog has matured, new applications for pervaporation have emerged. One such application is the separati...

239

40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

240

40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the performance test required to be...

2011-07-01

241

40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the performance test required to be...

2014-07-01

242

40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the performance test required to be...

2013-07-01

243

40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On and...

2013-07-01

244

SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TIO2  

EPA Science Inventory

High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic hydrocarbons, by photocatalytic oxidation using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxgenated in both liquid and gaseous phase reactors usi...

245

ESTIMATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SPARC  

EPA Science Inventory

The computer program SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) has been under development for several years to estimate physical properties and chemical reactivity parameters of organic compounds strictly from molecular structure. SPARC uses computational algorithms...

246

40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On and...

2014-07-01

247

IMPROVEMENT IN AIR TOXICS METHODS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative and customized monitoring methods for air toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being developed for applications in exposure and trends monitoring. This task addresses the following applications of specific interest: o Contributions to EPA Regional Monit...

248

Is there a risk for the aquatic environment due to the existence of emerging organic contaminants in treated domestic wastewater? Greece as a case-study.  

PubMed

The ecological threat associated with emerging pollutants detected in wastewater was estimated in country level. Treated wastewater was analyzed for pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs; whereas the concentrations of all emerging contaminants determined in Greek Sewage Treatment Plants were recorded through literature review. Toxicity data was collected after literature review or using ECOSAR and risk quotients (RQs) were calculated for treated wastewater and 25 Greek rivers, for 3 different aquatic organisms (fish, daphnia magna, algae). According to the results, monitoring data was available for 207 micropollutants belonging to 8 different classes. RQ>1 was calculated for 30 compounds in secondary treated wastewater. Triclosan presented RQ>1 (in algae) for all studied rivers; decamethylcyclopentasilane (in daphnia magna), caffeine (in algae) and nonylphenol (in fish) presented RQ>1 in rivers with dilution factors (DF) equal or lower to 1910, 913 and 824, respectively. The class of emerging contaminants that present the greatest threat due to single or mixture toxicity was endocrine disrupters. The mixture of microcontaminants seems to pose significant ecological risk, even in rivers with DF equal to 2388. Future national monitoring programs should include specific microcontaminants that seem to possess environment risk to surface water. PMID:25464317

Thomaidi, Vasiliki S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Borova, Viola L; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

2015-02-11

249

Organic micropollutants in rivers downstream of the megacity Beijing: sources and mass fluxes in a large-scale wastewater irrigation system.  

PubMed

The Haihe River System (HRS) drains the Chinese megacities Beijing and Tianjin, forming a large-scale irrigation system severely impacted by wastewater-borne pollution. The origin, temporal magnitudes, and annual mass fluxes of a wide range of pharmaceuticals, household chemicals, and pesticides were investigated in the HRS, which drains 70% of the wastewater discharged by 20 million people living in Beijing. Based on Chinese consumption statistics and our initial screening for 268 micropollutants using high-resolution mass spectrometry, 62 compounds were examined in space and time (2009-2010). The median concentrations ranged from 3 ng/L for metolachlor to 1100 ng/L for benzotriazole and sucralose. Concentrations of carbendazim, clarithromycin, diclofenac, and diuron exceed levels of ecotoxicological concern. Mass-flux analyses revealed that pharmaceuticals (5930 kg/year) and most household chemicals (5660 kg/year) originated from urban wastewaters, while the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole entered the rivers through other pathways. Total pesticide residues amounted to 1550 kg/year. Per capita loads of pharmaceuticals in wastewater were lower than those in Europe, but are expected to increase in the near future. As 95% of the river water is diverted to irrigate agricultural soil, the loads of polar organic micropollutants transported with the water might pose a serious threat to food safety and groundwater quality. PMID:22845779

Heeb, Florian; Singer, Heinz; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Longrée, Philipp; Müller, Beat; Berg, Michael

2012-08-21

250

CHARACTERIZATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIRBORNE DUST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three methods of extracting volatile organic compounds (VOC's) adsorbed on the airborne dust in a swine finishing building were investigated. Airborne dust was collected in pre-baked glass fiber filters (GFF's) and the compounds were extracted by solvent extraction using dichloromethane, solid phas...

251

INDOOR AIR QUALITY DATA BASE FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the compilation of a data base for concentrations of organic compounds measured indoors. ased on a review of the literature from 1979 through 1990, the data base contains information on over 220 compounds ranging in molecular weight from 30 to 446. he ...

252

Sorption Dynamics of Organic and Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus retention in soils is influenced by the form of P added. The potential impact of one P compound on the sorption of other P compounds in soils has not been widely reported. Sorption isotherms were utilized to quantify P retention by benchmark soils from Indiana, Missouri, and North Carolina when P was added as inorganic P (Pi) or organic

A. S. Berg; B. C. Joern

2006-01-01

253

Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol  

DOEpatents

Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

1985-08-06

254

Reconnaissance of selected organic contaminants in effluent and ground water at fifteen municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida, 1983- 84  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results of a 1983-84 reconnaissance of 15 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida indicated that effluent from most of the plants contains trace concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Chloroform was detected in the effluent at 11 of the 15 plants and its common occurrence was likely the result of chlorination. The maximum concentration of chloroform detected in the effluent sampled was 120 micrograms/L. Detectable concentrations of selected organophosphorus insecticides were also common. For example, diazinon was detected in the effluent at 12 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.5 micrograms/L. Organochlorine insecticides, primarily lindane, were detected in the effluent at 8 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.0 micrograms/L. Volatile compounds, primarily chloroform, were detected in water from monitor wells at four plants and organophosphorus insecticides, primarily diazinon, were present in the groundwater at three treatment plants. Organochlorine insecticides were not detected in any samples from monitor wells. Based on the limited data available, this cursory reconaissance suggests that the organic contaminants commonly occurring in the effluent of many of the treatment plants are not transported into the local groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

Pruitt, J.B.; Troutman, D.E.; Irwin, G.A.

1985-01-01

255

A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8??million people. Sixty-three of the 100 targeted chemicals were detected in at least one water sample. Interestingly, in spite of the low detection levels 60% of the 36 pharmaceuticals (including prescription drugs and antibiotics) analyzed were not detected in any water sample. The five most frequently detected chemicals targeted in surface water were: cholesterol (59%, natural sterol), metolachlor (53%, herbicide), cotinine (51%, nicotine metabolite), ??-sitosterol (37%, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27%, caffeine metabolite); and in ground water: tetrachloroethylene (24%, solvent), carbamazepine (20%, pharmaceutical), bisphenol-A (20%, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16%, caffeine metabolite), and tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12%, fire retardant). A median of 4 compounds were detected per site indicating that the targeted chemicals generally occur in mixtures (commonly near detection levels) in the environment and likely originate from a variety of animal and human uses and waste sources. These data will help prioritize and determine the need, if any, for future occurrence, fate and transport, and health-effects research for subsets of these chemicals and their degradates most likely to be found in water resources used for drinking water in the United States.

Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

2008-01-01

256

Biodegradation of toxic organic compounds using electrolytic respirometry  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that may affect the concentration of a chemical in an aquatic system. Of all these mechanisms, biodegradation is the most important because it can mineralize toxic pollutants and render them harmless. Experiments have been conducted using an electrolytic respirometer to collect oxygen uptake data of 56 toxic compounds. Biokinetic parameters; maximum specific rate constant, {mu}m, half saturation constant, K{sub s} and yield coefficient, Y were determined for 27 compounds which degraded under experimental conditions. The effect of different factors; temperature, compound concentration, biomass concentration and biomass source, on kinetic constant have been studied for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, phenol, 2,4-dimethyl phenol, resorcinol and dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl and butyl benzyl phthalates. The results obtained will help in design of wastewater treatment plant and in determining the fate of these toxic compounds in natural and engineered environments. A method based on group contribution, to predict first-order biodegradation rate constant and Monod constants is developed and validated. More kinetic data is required to further extend this prediction method.

Desai, S.M.

1991-01-01

257

Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds with chemical and physical properties that allow the compounds to move freely between the water and air phases of the environment. VOCs are widespread in the environment because of this mobility. Many VOCs have properties making them suspected or known hazards to the health of humans and aquatic organisms. Consequently, understanding the processes affecting the concentration and distribution VOCs in the environment is necessary. The U.S. Geological Survey selected 55 VOCs for study. This report reviews the characteristics of the various process that could affect the transport, behavior, and fate of these VOCs in streams.

Rathbun, R.E.

1998-01-01

258

Volatile Organic Compound Detection Using Nanostructured Copolymers  

E-print Network

such as SnO2 and ZnO, have been widely used in commercial chemical vapor sensors. A big drawback crystalline nanostructures are shown to hold considerable promise as the active layer in volatile organic tested analytes. Conductive polymers with alternating single and double carbon-carbon bonds have recently

Weiss, Lee E.

259

Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

1994-07-01

260

Prevention of marine biofouling using natural compounds from marine organisms.  

PubMed

All surfaces that are submerged in the sea rapidly become covered by a biofilm. This process, called biofouling, has substantial economic consequences. Paints containing tri-butyl-tin (TBT) and copper compounds are used to protect marine structures by reducing biofouling. However, these compounds have damaging effects on the marine environment, as they are not biodegradable. It has been noted that many seaweeds and invertebrates found in the sea are not covered by a mature biofilm. This is due to the release of compounds into the surrounding seawater that deter the settlement of fouling organisms. In addition, seaweeds and invertebrates have bacteria on their surfaces that produce compounds to deter settling organisms. The production of compounds by bacteria and their living hosts work in concert to protect the hosts' surfaces. All of these compounds can be collected so they may be natural alternatives to TBT and copper compounds. However, the benefits associated with the use of bacteria as sources of these compounds means that bacteria are the organisms of choice for obtaining natural products for antifouling coatings. PMID:11193296

Armstrong, E; Boyd, K G; Burgess, J G

2000-01-01

261

Survey of organic wastewater contaminants in biosolids destined for land application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, the presence, composition, and concentrations of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were determined in solid materials produced during wastewater treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of these solids, collectively referred to as biosolids, as a source of OWCs to soil and water in contact with soil. Nine different biosolid products, produced by municipal wastewater treatment plants in seven different states, were analyzed for 87 different OWCs. Fifty-five of the OWCs were detected in at least one biosolid product. The 87 different OWCs represent a diverse cross section of emerging organic contaminants that enter wastewater treatment plants and may be discharged without being completely metabolized or degraded. A minimum of 30 and a maximum of 45 OWCs were detected in any one biosolid. The biosolids used in this study are produced by several production methods, and the plants they originate from have differing population demographics, yet the percent composition of total OWC content, and of the most common OWCs, typically did not vary greatly between the biosolids tested. The summed OWC content ranged from 64 to 1811 mg/kg dry weight. Six biosolids were collected twice, 3-18 months apart, and the total OWC content of each biosolid varied by less than a factor of 2. These results indicate that the biosolids investigated in this study have OWC compositions and concentrations that are more similar than different and that biosolids are highly enriched in OWCs (as mass-normalized concentrations) when compared to effluents or effluent-impacted water. These results demonstrate the need to better describe the composition and fate of OWCs in biosolids since about 50% of biosolids are land applied and thus become a potentially ubiquitous nonpoint source of OWCs into the environment. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Werner, S.L.; Cahill, J.D.; Jorgensen, G.R.

2006-01-01

262

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced from tank trucks...

2011-07-01

263

BIOCONCENTRATION FACTORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN VEGETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of air and leaves were taken at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas campus and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The data were used to estimate the bioconcentration of volatile organic compo...

264

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of 63 effluent and 22 intake waters were collected from a wide range of chemical manufacturers in areas across the United States. The samples were analyzed for organic compounds in an effort to identify previously unknown and potentially hazardous organic pollutants. Each...

265

COMPARISON OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of fourteen experimental sampling runs were carried out at a field site to collect data from several ambient air monitoring methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ambient air was drawn through a sampling manifold and was continuously spiked with volatile organic ...

266

Students' Understanding of Molecular Structure and Properties of Organic Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate senior high school students' difficulties predicting the existence of hydrogen bridge bonds between organic molecules, investigate students' difficulties predicting the relative boiling points of simple organic compounds, and develop test questions that enable teachers to quickly get information about…

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

267

Evaluation of rapid methods for in-situ characterization of organic contaminant load and biodegradation rates in winery wastewater.  

PubMed

Rapid methods for the in-situ evaluation of the organic load have recently been developed and successfully implemented in municipal wastewater treatment systems. Their direct application to winery wastewater treatment is questionable due to substantial differences between municipal and winery wastewater. We critically evaluate the use of UV-VIS spectrometry, buffer capacity testing (BCT), and respirometry as rapid methods to determine organic load and biodegradation rates of winery wastewater. We tested three types of samples: actual and treated winery wastewater, synthetic winery wastewater, and samples from a biological batch reactor. Not surprisingly, respirometry gave a good estimation of biodegradation rates for substrate of different complexities, whereas UV-VIS and BCT did not provide a quantitative measure of the easily degradable sugars and ethanol, typically the main components of the COD in the influent. However, our results strongly suggest that UV-VIS and BCT can be used to identify and estimate the concentration of complex substrates in the influent and soluble microbial products (SMP) in biological reactors and their effluent. Furthermore, the integration of UV-VIS spectrometry, BCT, and mathematical modeling was able to differentiate between the two components of SMPs: substrate utilization associated products (UAP) and biomass associated products (BAP). Since the effluent COD in biologically treated wastewaters is composed primarily by SMPs, the quantitative information given by these techniques may be used for plant control and optimization. PMID:17849987

Carvallo, M J; Vargas, I; Vega, A; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

2007-01-01

268

Highly stable meteoritic organic compounds as markers of asteroidal delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple missions to search for water-soluble organic compounds on the surfaces of Solar System bodies are either current or planned and, if such compounds were found, it would be desirable to determine their origin(s). Asteroid or comet material is likely to have been components of all surface environments throughout Solar System history. To simulate the survival of meteoritic compounds both during impacts with planetary surfaces and under subsequent (possibly) harsh ambient conditions, we subjected known meteoritic compounds to comparatively high impact-shock pressures (>30 GPa) and/or to extremely oxidizing/corrosive acid solution. Consistent with past impact experiments, ?-amino acids survived only at trace levels above ?18 GPa. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) survived at levels of 4-8% at a shock pressure of 36 GPa. Lower molecular weight sulfonic and phosphonic acids (S&P) had the highest degree of impact survival of all tested compounds at higher pressures. Oxidation of compounds was done with a 3:1 mixture of HCl:HNO3, a solution that generates additional strong oxidants such as Cl2 and NOCl. Upon oxidation, keto acids and ?-amino acids were the most labile compounds with proline as a significant exception. Some fraction of the other compounds, including non-? amino acids and dicarboxylic acids, were stable during 16-18 hours of oxidation. However, S&P quantitatively survived several months (at least) under the same conditions. Such results begin to build a profile of the more robust meteoritic compounds: those that may have survived, i.e., may be found in, the more hostile Solar System environments. In the search for organic compounds, one current mission, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), will use analytical procedures similar to those of this study and those employed previously on Earth to identify many of the compounds described in this work. The current results may thus prove to be directly relevant to potential findings of MSL and other missions designed for extraterrestrial organic analysis.

Cooper, George; Horz, Friedrich; Spees, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood

2014-01-01

269

Microalgae and wastewater treatment  

PubMed Central

Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

2012-01-01

270

Microalgae and wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

2012-07-01

271

Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?  

PubMed

Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt. PMID:25236204

Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

2015-02-15

272

Effects of the organic matter from swine wastewater on the adsorption and desorption of alachlor in soil.  

PubMed

The application of swine wastewater to the soil for agricultural purposes results in the addition of total and dissolved organic matter to the soil, which may interfere with the dynamics of pesticides in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of total and dissolved organic matter from a biodigester and a treatment lagoon of swine wastewater in the adsorption and desorption of alachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N(methoxymethyl acetamide)]. The assay was performed by the batch equilibrium method, and the results were fitted to the Freundlich model. The curve comparison test revealed a greater adsorption of alachlor in the soil treated with swine wastewater from the biodigester. The adsorption and desorption of alachlor increased in the soils where swine wastewater was added, and hysteresis was observed in all of the treatments. PMID:22494371

Dal Bosco, Tatiane C; Sampaio, Silvio C; Coelho, Silvia R M; Cosmann, Natássia J; Smanhotto, Adriana

2012-01-01

273

Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD5\\/COD) increased at a 1.0kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jae-Kwang Lee; Myun-Joo Lee

2007-01-01

274

Measurements of bromine containing organic compounds at the tropical tropopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of bromine entering the stratosphere from organic source gases is a primary factor involved in determining the magnitude of bromine catalyzed loss of ozone. Thirty two whole air samples were collected at the tropical tropopause during the NASA STRAT Campaign in Feb., Aug., and Dec., 1996 and were analyzed for brominated organic compounds. Total organic bromine was 17.4+\\/-0.9ppt

S. M. Schauffler; E. L. Atlas; F. Flocke; R. A. Lueb; V. Stroud; W. Travnicek

1998-01-01

275

Geosynthesis of organic compounds: I. Alkylphenols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylation, isopropylation, and sec-butylation are proposed as geosynthetic processes to account for the alkylphenol compositions of crude oils with phenol distributions dominated by ortho and para substituted compounds. Phenol distributions in eleven crude oils and four kerogen pyrolysates were analysed using GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Ten of the crude oils show high relative abundances of ortho and para substituted phenol isomers and some were also enriched in C 3-C 5 alkylphenols compared to the kerogen pyrolysates. Because the distributions of products obtained from the laboratory alkylation of cresols closely resemble those of phenols in these crude oils, we propose that similar alkylation processes occur in source rocks. Alkylation ratios reflecting the degree of methylation, isopropylation, and sec-butylation, which were based on the relative abundance of the dominant alkylation products compared to their likely precursor ortho-cresol, indicate that high levels of methylation occurred in crude oils over a wide range of maturities, whereas high levels of isopropylation and sec-butylation were observed only in mature samples. Dissolution of the phenols in crude oils by water contact was discounted as an explanation for the observed phenol distributions based on the relative distribution coefficients of phenols between a hydrocarbon phase and water.

Ioppolo-Armanios, Marisa; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.

1995-07-01

276

Emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere in the solvent sublation process. II. Volatile chlorinated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The mass of trichloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and 1,3-dichlorobenzene removed from an aqueous solution and emitted to the atmosphere during solvent sublation was determined experimentally. It was shown that the emission of these compounds in solvent sublation was reduced by 30 to 85% over air stripping under the same experimental conditions. The efficiency of removal of these compounds from water was also studied. The reduction of emissions over air stripping was more effective for the more hydrophobic and less volatile compounds. Emissions are reduced as the thickness of organic layer on the top of the column is increased. The use of decyl alcohol as the layer compound decreases emissions to a greater extent than does paraffin oil. Removal of these chlorinated volatile organic compounds from water by solvent sublation at an elevated temperature of 45{degrees}C is significantly faster than at room temperature. However, the emissions to the atmosphere are also increased.

Ososkov, V.; Kebbekus, B.; Chou, C.C. [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States)

1996-06-01

277

Heavy metals removal from wastewaters using organic solid waste-rice husk.  

PubMed

In this study, the removal of Cr(III) and Cu(II) from contaminated wastewaters by rice husk, as an organic solid waste, was investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of wastewater initial concentration, pH of solution, and contact time on the efficiency of Cr(III) and Cu(II) removal. The results indicated that the maximum removal of Cr(III) and Cu(II) occurred at pH 5-6 by rice husk and removal rate increased by increased pH from 1 to 6. It could be concluded that the removal efficiency was enhanced by increasing wastewater initial concentration in the first percentage of adsorption and then decreased due to saturation of rice husk particles. Also according to achieved results, calculated saturation capacity in per gram rice husk for Cr(III) and Cu(II) were 30 and 22.5 mg?g(-1), respectively. The amounts of Cr(III) and Cu(II) adsorbed increased with increase in their contact time. The rate of reaction was fast. So that 15-20 min after the start of the reaction, between 50 and 60 % of metal ions were removed. Finally, contact time of 60 min as the optimum contact time was proposed. PMID:23381799

Sobhanardakani, S; Parvizimosaed, H; Olyaie, E

2013-08-01

278

Usefulness of Organic Acid Produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on Neutralization of Alkaline Wastewater  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry. PMID:22666107

Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

2012-01-01

279

GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil columns were investigated. Three compounds (naphthalene, phenanthrene and DDT) that spanned three orders of magnitude in water solubility were used. Instead of humic matter, mo...

280

GROUND WATER TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil columns were investigated. hree compounds (naphthalene, phenathrene, and DDT) that spanned three orders of magnitude in water solubility were used. nstead of humic matter, mole...

281

Removal and transformation of effluent organic matter (EfOM) in biotreated textile wastewater by GAC/O3 pre-oxidation and enhanced coagulation.  

PubMed

GAC/O3 (ozonation in the presence of granular activated carbon) combined with enhanced coagulation was employed to process biotreated textile wastewater for possible reuse. The doses of ozone, GAC and coagulant were the variables studied for optimization. The effects of different treatment processes on effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics, including biodegradability, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature, and apparent molecular weight (AMW) distribution were also investigated. Compared with ozonation, GAC/O3 not only presented a higher pre-oxidation efficiency, but also improved the treatability of hydrophobic and high molecular weight compounds by enhanced coagulation. After treatment by GAC/O3 pre-oxidation (0.6 mg O3 x mg(-1) COD and 20 g x L(-1) GAC) and enhanced coagulation (25 mg x L(-1) Al3+ at pH 5.5), the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour were higher than those for coagulation alone by 17.3%, 12.0% and 25.6%, respectively. Residual organic matter consisted mainly of hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic compounds of AMW < 1 kDa, which were colourless and of limited biological availability. The combination of GAC/O3 and enhanced coagulation was proved to be a simple and effective treatment strategy for removing EfOM from biotreated textile wastewater. PMID:24191486

Qian, Feiyue; Sun, Xianbo; Liu, Yongdi; Xu, Hongyong

2013-01-01

282

The Role of Lipids on Sorption Characteristics of Freshwater and Wastewater-Irrigated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil lipid fraction can play an important role in the sorption of organic compounds. In this study, the impact of the lipid fraction of freshwater- and wastewater-irrigated soils on the sorption of non- and relatively polar compounds was assessed. Lipid analyses revealed a clear difference between the two lipid fractions. The lipid extract from the wastewater-irrigated soil was consistent

Yaron Drori; Buuan Lam; Andre Simpson; Zeev Aizenshtat; Benny Chefetz

2006-01-01

283

Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations  

SciTech Connect

Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

1981-02-01

284

Microbial Removal of the Pharmaceutical Compounds Ibuprofen and Diclofenac from Wastewater  

PubMed Central

Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals show that the widely used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac are present in relevant concentrations in the environment. A pilot plant treating hospital wastewater with relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals was evaluated for its performance to reduce the concentration of the pharmaceuticals. Ibuprofen was completely removed, whereas diclofenac yielded a residual concentration, showing the necessity of posttreatment to remove diclofenac, for example, activated carbon. Successively, detailed laboratory experiments with activated sludge from the same wastewater treatment plant showed bioremediation potential in the treatment plant. The biological degradation pathway was studied and showed a mineralisation of ibuprofen and degradation of diclofenac. The present microbes were further studied in laboratory experiments, and DGGE analyses showed the enrichment and isolation of highly purified cultures that degraded either ibuprofen or diclofenac. This research illuminates the importance of the involved bacteria for the effectiveness of the removal of pharmaceuticals in a wastewater treatment plant. A complete removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater will stimulate water reuse, addressing the worldwide increasing demand for clean and safe fresh water. PMID:24350260

Inderfurth, Nadia; Schraa, Gosse; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; Rijnaarts, Huub

2013-01-01

285

SDBS: Integrated Spectral Data Base System for Organic Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Japan, the Integrated Spectral Data Base System for Organic Compounds is a database of mass spectral, NMR (proton and carbon), and infrared spectra data. As of March 1999, the database contains 19,600 spectra of MS, 11,000 spectra of ^13 C NMR, 13,500 spectra of ^1 H NMR, 2,000 spectra of ESR, 47,500 spectra of IR, 3,500 spectra of Raman, and 30,000 compounds in the Compound Dictionary. A search engine (Frames) for the database allows the following fields to be specified: Compound Name, Molecular Formula, Number of Atoms (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen), Molecular Weight, CAS Registry Number, and SDBS Number. Access is free; however, no more than 50 spectra and/or compound files may be downloaded in one day.

286

Method development for measuring biodegradable organic carbon in reclaimed and treated wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Analyses that measure oxygen demand, such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses, have long been used as indicators of contamination and wastewater treatment plant efficiency. They measure the tendency of pollutants to react with oxygen, which is generally a good indicator of the stability or level of treatment. Both parameters include reactions with organic as well as inorganic substances and suffer from a lack of precision and accuracy at low concentrations, which are becoming increasingly more important. Biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) analysis is a relatively new procedure that has advantages over both BOD and COD analyses, including insensitivity to inorganic oxidations. A modified BDOC procedure was developed to characterize the performance of advanced treatment methods, such as those used in municipal water reclamation and secondary-treated wastewaters, where moderately low dissolved organic carbon concentrations (4 to 15 mg/L) are routinely encountered. The development of the modified BDOC procedure was based on a combination of the existing batch BDOC protocol and BOD techniques. Various aspects and incubation conditions were investigated to finalize the procedure. Nitrification does not interfere with the procedure. It is possible to simultaneously determine the soluble BOD (SBOD) under certain conditions. The procedure has reduced variability and increased precision as compared to BOD and COD analyses.

Khan, E.; Babcock, R.W. Jr.; Suffet, I.H.; Stenstrom, M.K.

1998-07-01

287

Sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds onto organic modified surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of five chlorinated benzenes and sixteen other organic solutes was investigated by determining the extent and rate of sorption in a series of 40 batch and 139 column experiments using surface-modified silica of known chemical composition. These surfaces represented important functional groups in soil and consisted of porous silica with patchy surface coatings of aliphatic chains (Câ, Câ,

Szecsoedy

1988-01-01

288

Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  

DOEpatents

A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1987-07-14

289

Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  

DOEpatents

A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

1987-01-01

290

Toxicity and organic content characterization of olive oil mill wastewater undergoing a sequential treatment with fungi and photo-Fenton oxidation.  

PubMed

Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) is responsible for serious environmental problems. In this study, the efficiency of two treatments involving fungi and photo-Fenton oxidation, sequentially applied to OOMW was analyzed for organic compounds degradation and toxicity mitigation. The treatment with fungi (especially Pleurotus sajor caju) of diluted OOMW samples promoted a reduction of their acute toxicity to Daphnia longispina. Although this fungi species have not induced significant color reduction it was responsible for 72,91 and 77% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolic and organic compound contents. After biological treatment, photo-Fenton oxidation seemed to be an interesting solution, especially for color reduction. However, the OOMWs remained highly toxic after photo-Fenton oxidation. Considering the second sequence of treatments, namely photo-Fenton oxidation followed by biological treatment, the former revealed, once more, a great potential because it can be applied to non-diluted OOMW, with significant reductions in COD (53-76%), total phenolic content (81-92%) and organic compounds content (100%). Despite fungal species still have demonstrated a high capacity for bioaccumulation of organic compounds, resulting from photo-Fenton oxidation, the biological treatment did not cause substantial benefits in terms of COD, total phenolic content and toxicity reduction. PMID:19740604

Justino, Celine I; Duarte, Katia; Loureiro, Filipe; Pereira, Ruth; Antunes, Sara C; Marques, Sérgio M; Gonçalves, Fernando; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Freitas, Ana C

2009-12-30

291

Treatment of organic pollutants in coke plant wastewater by the method of ultrasonic irradiation, catalytic oxidation and activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the degradation of the organic pollutants in coke plant wastewater by the combination process of ultrasonic irradiation, catalytic oxidation and activated sludge. The effect factors of ultrasonic irradiation on the degradation of the organic pollutants such as saturating gas, initial pollutant concentration, ultrasonic power density, the category and consumption of catalyst were investigated. The results indicate

Ping Ning; Hans-Jörg Bart; Yijiao Jiang; A. de Haan; C. Tien

2005-01-01

292

Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

Despite the success of adsorption and thermal incineration of (C)VOC emissions, there is still a need for research on techniques which are both economically more favorable and actually destroy the pollutants rather than merely remove them for recycling elsewhere in the biosphere. The catalytic destruction of (C)VOC to CO2, H2O and HCl/Cl2 appears very promising in this context and is the subject of the present paper. The experiments mainly investigate the catalytic combustion of eight target compounds, all of which are commonly encountered in (C)VOC emissions and/or act as precursors for the formation of PCDD/F. Available literature on the different catalysts active in the oxidation of (C)VOC is reviewed and the transition metal oxide complex V2O5-WO3/TiO2 appears most suitable for the current application. Different reactor geometries (e.g. fixed pellet beds, honeycombs, etc.) are also described. In this research a novel catalyst type is introduced, consisting of a V2O5-WO3/TiO2 coated metal fiber fleece. The conversion of (C)VOC by thermo-catalytic reactions is governed by both reaction kinetics and reaction equilibrium. Full conversion of all investigated VOC to CO2, Cl2, HCl and H2O is thermodynamically feasible within the range of experimental conditions used in this work (260-340 degrees C, feed concentrations 30-60 ppm). A first-order rate equation is proposed for the (C)VOC oxidation reactions. The apparent rate constant is a combination of reaction kinetics and mass transfer effects. The oxidation efficiencies were measured with various (C)VOC in the temperature range of 260-340 degrees C. Literature data for oxidation reactions in fixed beds and honeycomb reactors are included in the assessment. Mass transfer resistances are calculated and are generally negligible for fleece reactors and fixed pellet beds, but can be of importance for honeycomb monoliths. The experimental investigations demonstrate: (i) that the conversion of the hydrocarbons is independent of the oxygen concentration, corresponding to a zero-order dependency of the reaction rate; (ii) that the conversion of the hydrocarbons is a first-order reaction in the (C)VOC; (iii) that the oxidation of the (C)VOC proceeds to a higher extent with increasing temperature, with multiple chlorine substitution enhancing the reactivity; (iv) that the reaction rate constant follows an Arrhenius dependency. The reaction rate constant kr (s(-1)) and the activation energy E (kJ/mol) are determined from the experimental results. The activation energy is related to the characteristics of the (C)VOC under scrutiny and correlated in terms of the molecular weight. The kr-values are system-dependent and hence limited in design application to the specific VOC-catalyst combination being studied. To achieve system-independency, kr-values are transformed into an alternative kinetic constant K (m3/(m2u)) expressed per unit of catalyst surface and thus independent of the amount of catalyst present in the reactor. Largely different experimental data can be fitted in terms of this approach. Results are thereafter used to define the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor A*, itself expressed in terms of the activation entropy. Destruction efficiencies for any given reactor set-up can be predicted from E- and A*-correlations. The excellent comparison of predicted and measured destruction efficiencies for a group of chlorinated aromatics stresses the validity of the design approach. Since laboratory-scale experiments using PCDD/F are impossible, pilot and full-scale tests of PCDD/F oxidation undertaken in Flemish MSWIs and obtained from literature are reported. From the data it is clear that: (i) destruction efficiencies are normally excellent; (ii) the efficiencies increase with increasing operating temperature; (iii) the higher degree of chlorination does not markedly affect the destruction efficiency. Finally, all experimental findings are used in design recommendations for the catalytic oxidation of (C)VOC and PCDD/F. Predicted values of the a)VOC and PCDD/F. Predicted values of the a

Everaert, K; Baeyens, J

2004-06-18

293

Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be detected at some agricultural fields by SOC measurements (Jüschke 2009). Therefore attention has to be drawn especially on the carbon content and quality of the used TWW for irrigation purposes.

Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

2010-05-01

294

Efficiency dependence on alkali metal compound/Al bilayer cathode in organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of alkali metal compound/Al bilayer cathodes of LiF/Al and Liq/Al caused a dramatic luminous efficiency change of one order of magnitude in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) comprising 2-methyl-9,10-bis(naphthalene-2-yl)anthracene (MADN) as an electron-transporting layer (ETL). In contrast, the use of the same two electrodes yielded similar efficiency in OLEDs comprising of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(III) (Alq3) as an ETL. The dramatic change is attributed to different behaviors of LiF/Al and Liq/Al cathodes toward the ETL. It is revealed that organic alkali metal complex/Al, such as Liq/Al, is superior to inorganic alkali metal compound/Al, such as LiF/Al, as a standard bilayer cathode to investigate the effectiveness of electron-transporting materials for high-efficiency OLEDs.

Zhou, D. Y.; Cai, S. D.; Gu, W.; Liao, L. S.; Lee, S. T.

2010-11-01

295

Identifying changes in dissolved organic matter content and characteristics by fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with self-organizing map and classification and regression tree analysis during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The stabilization of latent tracers of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of wastewater was analyzed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with self-organizing map and classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in wastewater treatment performance. DOM of water samples collected from primary sedimentation, anaerobic, anoxic, oxic and secondary sedimentation tanks in a large-scale wastewater treatment plant contained four fluorescence components: tryptophan-like (C1), tyrosine-like (C2), microbial humic-like (C3) and fulvic-like (C4) materials extracted by self-organizing map. These components showed good positive linear correlations with dissolved organic carbon of DOM. C1 and C2 were representative components in the wastewater, and they were removed to a higher extent than those of C3 and C4 in the treatment process. C2 was a latent parameter determined by CART to differentiate water samples of oxic and secondary sedimentation tanks from the successive treatment units, indirectly proving that most of tyrosine-like material was degraded by anaerobic microorganisms. C1 was an accurate parameter to comprehensively separate the samples of the five treatment units from each other, indirectly indicating that tryptophan-like material was decomposed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. EEM fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with self-organizing map and CART analysis can be a nondestructive effective method for characterizing structural component of DOM fractions and monitoring organic matter removal in wastewater treatment process. PMID:25065793

Yu, Huibin; Song, Yonghui; Liu, Ruixia; Pan, Hongwei; Xiang, Liancheng; Qian, Feng

2014-10-01

296

The fate of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in aeration basins using recirculated aeration: a pilot-plant evaluation.  

PubMed

The fate of chloroform, which was chosen to represent chlorinated volatile organic compounds sometimes found in publicly owned wastewater treatment works, has been followed in a pilot aeration basin utilizing aeration recirculation. Tests were conducted using real wastewaters spiked with two different concentration levels of chloroform and operated at conditions similar to those of a large-scale aeration basin of the Mill Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant in Cincinnati, Ohio. Aeration recirculation levels of 0, 25, 50, and 75% were used to evaluate the concept that aeration recirculation can be an effective method of reducing the release of these toxic compounds to the atmosphere. Data obtained demonstrated that the concentration of chloroform in the off-gas increased as the recirculation ratio increased, but that the total mass emission rate to the atmosphere decreased due to the decreased off-gas volumetric flow rate. Biodegradation in the pilot plant increased by 183% for the 75% recirculation level compared to 0% recirculation. Mass balance analysis results indicated that 60% of chloroform emissions could be reduced with 75% recirculation ratio with little or no effect of dissolved oxygen concentration. PMID:16865916

Sundrup, J; Jung, K Sook; Keener, T C; Khang, S J; Siddiqui, K

2006-06-01

297

Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Wastewater Compounds by Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene Solid-Phase Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 67 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater on aquatic organisms. This method also may be useful for evaluating the impact of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are an indicator of wastewater or that have been chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are extracted by vacuum through disposable solid-phase cartridges that contain polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. Cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted with dichloromethane-diethyl ether (4:1) and determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 4 micrograms per liter averaged 74 percent ? 7 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds (excluding hormones and sterols) averaged 0.15 microgram per liter. Samples are preserved by filtration, the addition of 60 grams NaCl, and storage at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory has established a sample-holding time (prior to sample extraction) of 14 days from the date of sample collection until a statistically accepted method can be used to determine the effectiveness of these sample-preservation procedures.

Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Barber, Larry B.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

2002-01-01

298

Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.  

PubMed

The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from "negative removal" to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological risk to algae. Therefore, further control of PhACs in effluent and sludge is required before their discharge and application to prevent their introduction into the environment. PMID:24176710

Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

2014-02-01

299

Analysis of Organic Compounds in Mars Analog Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed characterization of organic compounds that might be preserved in rocks, ices, or sedimentary layers on Mars would be a significant step toward resolving the question of the habitability and potential for life on that planet. The fact that the Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) did not detect organic compounds should not discourage further investigations since (a) an oxidizing environment in the near surface fines analyzed by Viking is likely to have destroyed many reduced carbon species; (b) there are classes of refractory or partially oxidized species such as carboxylic acids that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS; and (c) the Viking landing sites are not representative of Mars overall. These factors motivate the development of advanced in situ analytical protocols to carry out a comprehensive survey of organic compounds in martian regolith, ices, and rocks. We combine pyrolysis GCMS for analysis of volatile species, chemical derivatization for transformation of less volatile organics, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) for analysis of elements and more refractory, higher-mass organics. To evaluate this approach and enable a comparison with other measurement techniques we analyze organics in Mars simulant samples.

Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Demick, J.; Glavin, D. P.

2004-01-01

300

Key volatile organic compounds emitted from swine nursery house  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to quantify the concentration and emission levels of key volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - sulfides, indolics, phenolics and volatile fatty acids (VFA) - emitted from swine nursery house, and assess the effect of microclimate (including temperature, relative humidity and air speed) on the key odorous compounds. Samples were collected from the Experimental Farm of Seoul National University in Suwon, South Korea. And the collection took place for four seasons and the sampling time was fixed at 10:30 in the morning. The application of one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t analyses revealed that, most of the odorous compound concentrations, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), indole, p-cresol and all the volatile fatty acids were lowest during the summer ( P < 0.01). Meanwhile, negative correlations were observed between temperature and odorants, as well as air speed and odorants. A possible reason was that high ventilation transferred most of the odors out of the house during the summer. From the whole year data, non-linear multiple regressions were conducted and the equations were proposed depending upon the relationships between microclimate parameters and odorous compounds. The equations were applied in hope of easily calculating the concentrations of the odorous compounds in the commercial farms. The results obtained in this study should be used for reducing the volatile organic compounds by controlling microclimate parameters and also could be helpful in setting a guideline for good management practices in nursery house.

Yao, H. Q.; Choi, H. L.; Zhu, K.; Lee, J. H.

2011-05-01

301

[Treatment effect of constructed wetlands on organic matter in wastewater from pig farm].  

PubMed

Using plant species Vetiveria zizanioides and Cyperus alternifolius respectively, two constructed wetlands (CWS) with size of 1.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.8 m were established. The purifying function and its change pattern with season, influent concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the constructed wetlands on the organic matters in wastewater from a pig farm were studied throughout four seasons in the year. The results showed that the two CWS had very stable effects on the removal of COD and BOD, while the organic matters in wastewater changed. The removal rate of COD and BOD was 70% and 80% respectively by HRT 1-2 d in spring. The removal rate of COD reached 90% with the influent of COD 1000-1400 mg.L-1 in summer. The removal rate of COD and BOD was 50-60% and 50% respectively by HRT 1-2 d in autumn. The removal rate of COD reached 70% with the influent of COD 1003 mg.L-1 in winter. There was no significant difference between two CWS in the removal of COD, BOD and SS. The rule of contaminants decreased with the HRT in CWS followed exponential function: Yt = Y0.exp(-kt). The relation between the concentration of contaminants in influent (x) and outflow (y) at the same HRT followed linear relation: y = a + bx. PMID:11962308

Liao, Xindi; Luo, Shiming

2002-01-01

302

Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents  

PubMed Central

Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

2013-01-01

303

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MODEL (VERSION 1.8) (FOR MICROCOMPUTERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Future emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and costs of their control can be estimated by applying growth factors, emission constraints, control cost functions, and capacity retirement rates to the base line estimates of VOC emissions and industrial VOC source capacity...

304

The Survival of Meteorite Organic Compounds with Increasing Impact Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of carbonaceous meteorites studied today are thought to originate in the asteroid belt. Impacts among asteroidal objects generate heat and pressure that may have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. Very little is known about the shock related chemical evolution of organic matter relevant to this stage of the cosmic history of biogenic elements and compounds. The present work continues our study of the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach was to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in a matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to a simulated hypervelocity impact. The molecular compositions of products were then analyzed to determine the degree of survival of the original compounds. Insofar as results associated with velocities < 8 km/sec may be relevant to impacts on planetary surfaces (e.g., oblique impacts, impacts on small outer planet satellites) or grain-grain collisions in the interstellar medium, then our experiments will be applicable to these environments as well.

Cooper, George; Horz, Friedrich; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

305

NATIONAL AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) DATA BASE UPDATE, DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Data on the observed concentrations of three hundred twenty (320) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compiled, critically evaluated, and assembled into a relational data base. Ambient (i.e., outdoor) measurements, indoor data, and data collected with personal monitors are inc...

306

Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of  

E-print Network

Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995 P A U L, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 µg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known

307

Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Photochemical smog is a major air pollution problem and a significant cause of premature death in the U.S. Smog forms in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted primarily from industry and motor vehicles in the U.S. However, dairy farms may be an important source in so...

308

A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical assessments of global air quality and potential changes in atmospheric chemical constituents require estimates of the surface fluxes of a variety of trace gas species. We have developed a global model to estimate emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural sources (NVOC). Methane is not considered here and has been reviewed in detail elsewhere. The model has a highly

Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; David Erickson; Ray Fall; Chris Geron; Tom Graedel; Peter Harley; Lee Klinger; Manuel Lerdau; W. A. McKay; Tom Pierce; Bob Scholes; Rainer Steinbrecher; Raja Tallamraju; John Taylor; Pat Zimmerman

1995-01-01

309

Who Took Jerell's iPod? -- An Organic Compound Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn how to test for triglycerides, glucose, starch, and protein and then use these tests to solve a mystery. The activity reinforces students understanding of the biological functions and food sources of these different types of organic compounds.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

310

MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plate...

311

ABSORPTION OF SOME ORGANIC COMPOUNDS THROUGH THE SKIN IN MAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the percutaneous penetration of 21 organic chemicals. The experimental method consisted of the application of the chemical to the human forearm and quantitating its penetration through the skin by its appearance in urine.There was a great diversity in the ability of the chemicals to penetrate human skin. Compounds such as hippuric acid, nicotinic acid, and nitrobenzene support the

Robert J. Feldmann; Howard I. Maibach

1970-01-01

312

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and  

E-print Network

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste as Measured by Proton California dairies house approximately 1.8 million lactating and 1.5 million dry cows and heifers. State air from lactating and dry dairy cowsandtheirwasteusinganenvironmentalchamber.Carbon dioxide and methane

Goldstein, Allen

313

PHOTOTHERMAL DESTRUCTION OF THE VAPOR OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of thermal and photothermal destruction of the vapors of organic compounds were compared by conducting tests in a photothermal detoxification unit. enon are lamp was used as the irradiation source. he tests were conducted on trichlorethylene (TCE), 1,2-dichlorobenzene...

314

FIELD-DEPLOYABLE MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compounds in ambient air are usually estimated by trapping them from air or collecting whole air samples and returning them to a laboratory for analysis by gas chromatography using selective detection. ata do not appear for several days, during which sample integ...

315

AERATION TO REMOVE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The interim report presents general information on the use of aeration to remove volatile organic compounds from drinking water for public health reasons. The report illustrates the types of aerators, shows where they are being used, presents a means of estimating aeration perfor...

316

Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measured and analysed individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total hydrocarbon and total VOCs at an oil refinery. Measurements were taken at various workplace locations, of the ambient air and at some off?site facilities such as its gantry terminals, ETP and tank farms. The study also identified certain pollutants that are difficult to measure routinely but could give an

G. H. Pandya; A. G. Gavane; A. D. Bhanarkar; V. K. Kondawar

2006-01-01

317

MEASUREMENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS USING SMALL TEST CHAMBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic compounds emitted from a variety of indoor materials have been measured using small (166 L) environmental test chambers. The paper discusses: a) factors to be considered in small chamber testing; b) parameters to be controlled; c) the types of results obtained. The follow...

318

Problems in determining the water solubility of organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been concerned for some time about the reliability of published water solubility data for organic compounds with low solubility. The problem was illustrated by the results of our studies on the solubility of the liquid trichlorobenzene (TCB). We found that the apparent solubility is strongly dependent on the method of introducing the solute into the water (Orr 1980).

A. Bharath; C. Mallard; D. Orr; G. Ozburn; A. Smith

1984-01-01

319

Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: Types, sources, and characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples are given of occupant activities and consumer and construction products inside residences that cause transient and persistent emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Transient emissions arise from window cleaning, carpet laying, smoking, and automobile operations. Persistent VOC emitters include gasoline, mothballs and pressed-wood products containing urea-formaldehyde resins. Simple screening methods are given for making indoor measurements of VOC. Detailed

R. B. Gammage; T. G. Matthews

1987-01-01

320

Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.  

PubMed

Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system. PMID:19422541

Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

2009-01-01

321

Application of Ultrasonic Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic technology as an innovative technology may be used for water and wastewater treatment for pollution removal. This technology acts as an advanced oxidation process. Application of this technology leads to the decomposition of many complex organic compounds to much simpler compounds during physical and chemical compounds during cavitation proc- ess. In this article review, some applications of this valuable

AH Mahvi

2009-01-01

322

Thermodynamic equilibrium and the inorganic origin of organic compounds.  

PubMed

Theoretical and experimental support is presented for the hypothesis that many organic compounds may form under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium. This possibility must be considered along with special effects of selective catalysts, radiation, and degradation from biological matter, in explaining the origin of organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites. Similar considerations may apply to solar nebulas and planetary atmospheres. The equilibrium distribution of organic compounds at temperatures between 300 degrees K and 1000 degrees K and pressures of 10-(6) to 50 atm for the C-H-O system have been computed. At moderate temperatures and low pressures, conditions where graphite production is inhibited, aromatic compounds may form even in the presence of large excesses of hydrogen. Such conditions exist in the solar nebula and in the atmospheres of some of the major planets. Equilibrium concentrations of a large number of compounds at 1000 degrees K with nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine added to the system have also been determined. In some cases, a limited equilibrium method is employed in which those few compounds which form with the most difficulty are excluded from the computations, while representatives of all other families of compounds are included. This approach is shown to be useful in the interpretation of certain experimental data in which complete equilibrium has not been attained. We have also found that gases, activated to the plasma state by a high-energy radio frequency field, recombine on cooling to yield product mixtures which are in qualitative agreement with those predicted by the equilibrium computations. We believe that such products can be profitably studied as if at a metastable limited equilibrium. PMID:17757236

Eck, R V; Lippincott, E R; Dayhoff, M O; Pratt, Y T

1966-08-01

323

Organic Compounds in Elm Fork Trinity River Water Used for Public Supply near Carrollton, Texas, 2002-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, refrigerants, and propellants. A total of 103 of 277 compounds were detected at least once among the 30 samples of source water for a community water system on the Elm Fork Trinity River near Carrollton, Texas, collected approximately monthly during 2002-05. The diversity of compounds detected indicates a variety of different sources and uses (including wastewater discharge, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others) and different pathways (including overland runoff and groundwater discharge) to drinking-water supplies. Nine compounds were detected year-round in source-water samples, including chloroform, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and selected herbicide compounds commonly used in the Trinity River Basin and in other urban areas across the United States. About 90 percent of the 42 compounds detected most frequently in source water (in at least 20 percent of the samples) also were detected most frequently in finished water (after treatment but before distribution). Concentrations for all detected compounds in source and finished water generally were less than 0.1 microgram per liter and always less than human-health benchmarks, which are available for about one-half of the detected compounds.

Ging, Patricia B.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

2009-01-01

324

Composition of volatile organic compounds in flowers of Astragalus sahendi.  

PubMed

A hydrodistillation sampling method, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was used in monitoring the volatile organic compounds in flowers of Astragalus sahendi. Accordingly, a total of 48 compounds were recognised, which were united by their terpenoid or aliphatic skeletons and low molecular weight. Above all, the significant presence of some insect-favoured terpenoid compounds, such as farnesol, cis- and trans-geraniol, alpha-bisabolol, nerolidol isomer, alpha-terpineol, alpha-terpinolene and thymol was significant. These findings confer a better understanding of pollination processes in the giant genus Astragalus. Furthermore, the results add to an increasing quantity of data corroborating the ecologic and evolutionary correlation between the floral bioactive compounds of plant species and their special types of pollinators. PMID:20803377

Movafeghi, A; Delazar, A; Amini, M; Asnaashari, S; Nazifi, E

2010-09-01

325

Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To provide the first nationwide reconnaissance of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey used five newly developed analytical methods to measure concentrations of 95 OWCs in water samples from a network of 139 streams across 30 states during 1999 and 2000. The selection of sampling sites was biased toward streams susceptible to contamination (i.e. downstream of intense urbanization and livestock production). OWCs were prevalent during this study, being found in 80% of the streams sampled. The compounds detected represent a wide range of residential, industrial, and agricultural origins and uses with 82 of the 95 OWCs being found during this study. The most frequently detected compounds were coprostanol (fecal steroid), cholesterol (plant and animal steroid), N,N-diethyltoluamide (insect repellant), caffeine (stimulant), triclosan (antimicrobial disinfectant), tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (fire retardant), and 4-nonylphenol (nonionic detergent metabolite). Measured concentrations for this study were generally low and rarely exceeded drinking-water guidelines, drinking-water health advisories, or aquatic-life criteria. Many compounds, however, do not have such guidelines established. The detection of multiple OWCs was common for this study, with a median of seven and as many as 38 OWCs being found in a given water sample. Little is known about the potential interactive effects (such as synergistic or antagonistic toxicity) that may occur from complex mixtures of OWCs in the environment. In addition, results of this study demonstrate the importance of obtaining data on metabolites to fully understand not only the fate and transport of OWCs in the hydrologic system but also their ultimate overall effect on human health and the environment.

Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Thurman, E.M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Buxton, H.T.

2002-01-01

326

Measurements of halogenated organic compounds near the tropical tropopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of organic chlorine and bromine entering the stratosphere have a direct influence on the magnitude of chlorine and bromine catalyzed ozone losses. Twelve organic chlorine species and five organic bromine species were measured from 12 samples collected near the tropopause between 23.8 deg N and 25.3 deg N during AASE 2. The average mixing ratios of total organic chlorine and total organic bromine were 3.50 +/- 0.06 ppbv and 21.1 +/- 0.8 pptv, respectively. CH3Cl represented 15.1% of the total organic chlorine, with CFC 11 (CCl3F) and CFC 12 (CCl2F2) accounting for 22.6% and 28.2%, respectively, with the remaining 34.1% primarily from CCl4, CH3CCl3, and CFC 113 (CCl2FCClF2). CH3Br represented 54% of the total organic bromine. The 95% confidence intervals of the mixing ratios of all but four of the individual compounds were within the range observed in low and mid-latitude mid-troposphere samples. The four compounds with significantly lower mixing ratios at the tropopause were CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, and CH3CCl3. The lower mixing ratios may be due to entrainment of southern hemisphere air during vertical transport in the tropical region and/or to exchange of air across the tropopause between the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere.

Schauffler, S. M.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gilpin, T. M.; Vedder, J. F.; Solomon, S.; Lueb, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.

1993-01-01

327

Measurements of Halogenated Organic Compounds near the Tropical Tropopause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of organic chlorine and bromine entering the stratosphere have a direct influence on the magnitude of chlorine and bromine catalyzed ozone losses. Twelve organic chlorine species and five organic bromine species were measured from 12 samples collected near the tropopause between 23.8 deg N and 25.3 deg N during AASE 2. The average mixing ratios of total organic chlorine and total organic bromine were 3.50 +/- 0.06 ppbv and 21.1 +/- 0.8 pptv, respectively. CH3Cl represented 15.1% of the total organic chlorine, with CFC 11 (CCl3F) and CFC 12 (CCl2F2) accounting for 22.6% and 28.2%, respectively, with the remaining 34.1% primarily from CCl4, CH3CCl3, and CFC 113 (CCl2FCClF2). CH3Br represented 54% of the total organic bromine. The 95% confidence intervals of the mixing ratios of all but four of the individual compounds were within the range observed in low and mid-latitude midtroposphere samples. The four compounds with significantly lower mixing ratios at the tropopause were CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, and CH3CCl3. The lower mixing ratios may be due to entrainment of southern hemisphere air during vertical transport in the tropical region and/or to exchange of air across the tropopause between the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere.

Schauffler, S. M.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gilpin, T. M.; Vedder, J. F.; Solomon, S.; Leub, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.

1993-01-01

328

Evaluation of 4-nitrophenol ELISA kit for assessing the origin of organic pollution in wastewater treatment works  

SciTech Connect

A cost-effective strategy based on a recently developed ELISA for 4-nitrophenol was used for the characterization of wastewater samples (industrial and/or urban) of the primary sewage effluent and secondary sewage effluent, also called influent and effluent, respectively, of wastewater treatment works (WWTW) using either biological treatment with secondary settlement and/or physicochemical treatment. Two of the WWTW received only domestic wastewaters, whereas three of them received 60--70% of industrial effluents that were mixed with domestic wastewaters before entering WWTW. The 4-nitrophenol ELISA kit was used as a parameter to evaluate the performance of the treatment plants by comparing the ELISA measurements with those routinely used in WWTW, such as total organic carbon and total phenols content using 4-aminoantipyrine. The 4-nitrophenol ELISA gave a positive response to different wastewaters being a useful measurement for the estimation of the performance of the WWTW. The response obtained with 4-nitrophenol ELISA can differentiate the wastewater pollution discharged into WWTW, either from domestic or industrial sources.

La Farre, M.; Oubina, A.; Marco, M.P.; Ginebreda, A.; Tirapu, L.; Barcelo, D.

1999-11-01

329

Coke plant wastewater treatment by fixed biofilm system for COD and NH 3-N removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coke plant and coal gasification wastewater have similar characteristics. There are high concentrations of ammonia and organic compounds especially refractory and inhibitory organics in them. Coal is the main energy resource in China hence pollution caused by coke plant and coal gasification wastewater has been severe for decades. The anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A1-A2-O) fixed biofilm system was used for coke plant wastewater

Min Zhang; Joo Hwa Tay; Yi Qian; Xia Sheng Gu

1998-01-01

330

A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...

331

Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.  

PubMed

Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles. PMID:21121267

Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

2010-10-01

332

Biological organisms as volatile compound detectors: a review.  

PubMed

The detection and identification of volatile compounds is essential to the successful undertaking of numerous forensic analyses. Biological olfactory systems possess the extraordinary ability to not only detect many thousands of distinct volatile compounds (odors) but also to discriminate between them. Whole-organism biological sensors, such as detection canines, have been employed in forensic science as volatile compound detectors for many years. A variety of insects including bees, wasps, and moths, which have also been shown to detect volatile compounds of forensic significance, have been investigated for their potential application in field-based detection systems. While the fundamental aim for many developers of portable instruments is to replicate the remarkable ability of biological olfactory systems, such analytical equipment is yet to possess the detection and discriminatory powers achieved by biological sensors. Recent literature reveals an increasing interest in olfactory receptors - the biological components that impart olfactory ability - for detecting volatile compounds associated with forensically significant substances such as explosives and illicit drugs. This paper reviews the literature regarding the current, and potential future, use of biological organisms as sensors for forensic science applications. PMID:24053870

Leitch, Olivia; Anderson, Alisha; Kirkbride, K Paul; Lennard, Chris

2013-10-10

333

DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROPHOBIC IONOGENIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BETWEEN OCTANOL AND WATER: ORGANIC ACIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally significant organic acid compounds were determined as a function of aqueous-phase salt concentration (0.05-0.2 M LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, or MgCl2) and pH. he compounds were pentachlorophenol 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, (2,4,5-t...

334

78 FR 24990 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control Measures for...Implementation Plan (SIP), several volatile organic compound (VOC) rules that were submitted...stationary sources, storage of volatile organic liquids, industrial cleaning...

2013-04-29

335

Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.  

PubMed

Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment. PMID:23774187

Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

2013-09-01

336

40 CFR Table 15 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Information on Table 8 and/or Table 9 Compounds To Be Submitted With Notification of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Wastewater-Information on Table 8 and/or Table 9 Compounds To Be Submitted With Notification of Compliance Status for Process Units at New and/or Existing Sources a,b 15 Table 15 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

2010-07-01

337

Group extraction of organic compounds present in liquid samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extraction device is disclosed comprising a tube containing a substantially inert, chemically non-reactive packing material with a large surface area to volume ratio. A sample which consists of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid, is introduced into the tube. As the sample passes through the packing material it spreads over the material's large surface area to form a thin liquid film which is held on the packing material in a stationary state. A particular group or family of compounds is extractable from the sample by passing a particular solvent system consisting of a solvent and selected reagents through the packing material. The reagents cause optimum conditions to exist for the compounds of the particular family to pass through the phase boundary between the sample liquid and the solvent of the solvent system. Thus, the compounds of the particular family are separated from the sample liquid and become dissolved in the solvent of the solvent system. The particular family of compounds dissolved in the solvent, representing an extract, exits the tube together with the solvent through the tube's nozzle, while the rest of the sample remains on the packing material in a stationary state. Subsequently, a different solvent system may be passed through the packing material to extract another family of compounds from the remaining sample on the packing material.

Jahnsen, Vilhelm J. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

338

Respirometric evaluation of biodegradation characteristics of dairy wastewater for organic carbon removal.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the biodegradation kinetics of an integrated dairy wastewater, with the main purpose of defining the experimental basis for modelling of the activated sludge process. Besides conventional characterization, the experiments involved detailed chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation and assessment of major kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients, by using respirometric methods. A multi-component model based on the endogenous decay concept was used for the kinetic interpretation. The results of conventional analyses and respirometric evaluations together with the assessment of residual components showed that the organic carbon content of the dairy wastewater was mostly soluble and biodegradable. The soluble, slowly biodegradable COD was the major COD fraction, representing around 50% of the total COD. Model calibration of the oxygen uptake rate profiles were consistent and revealed the existence of dual hydrolysis kinetics for soluble and particulate COD components. The hydrolysis rate associated with the main COD component--the soluble, slowly biodegradable COD fraction--was found to be 1.2 d(-1), which is quite low and underlines the role of this COD fraction as the rate-limiting factor for effluent quality. Simulation of process efficiency by the adopted model, calibrated with the experimentally determined parameters, indicated that effective control of the biodegradation of the soluble biodegradable COD components could be done by selection of appropriate values for the sludge age and hydraulic retention time. In this way, the total effluent soluble COD level could be lowered to 30-40 mg L(-1) range, in conformity with effluent limitations. PMID:19947147

Ubay Cokgör, E; Sözen, S; Insel, G; Orhon, D

2009-10-01

339

Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-08-01

340

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze forthese bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 ??g/L at the reference location to 97.7 ??g/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01-1.0 ??g/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5-38 ??g/L The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend: they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

2005-01-01

341

Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

2012-10-01

342

Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study.  

PubMed

Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. PMID:23026644

Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L

2012-10-01

343

Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1-3kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6±57.2?g4-NQOL(-1) and 2.19±0.05mgTAML(-1), respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9±94.8?g4-NQOL(-1). The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3±0.17mgTAML(-1). PMID:25277967

Sun, Ying-Xue; Gao, Yue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Tang, Fang; Yang, Zhe

2014-12-01

344

Identification and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Dairy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Livestock operations in the United States are an escalating environmental concern. The increasing density of livestock within a farm results in an increased emission of odorous gases, which have gained considerable attention by the public in recent years (National Research Council (NRC), 2002). Odorous compounds such as ammonia (NH3), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were reported to have a major effect on the quality of life of local residents living near livestock facilities (NRC, 2002). There has been little data collected related to identification and quantification of gaseous compounds collected from open stall dairy operations in the United States. The research to be presented identifies and quantifies VOCs produced from a dairy operation that contribute to odor and other air quality problems. Many different VOCs were identified in the air downwind of an open lactating cow stall area and near a waste lagoon at the Washington State University dairy using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis techniques. Identified compounds were very diverse and included many alcohols, aldehydes, amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, a fixed gas, halogenated hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons, ketones, other nitrogen containing compounds, sulfur containing compounds, and terpenes. The VOCs directly associated with cattle waste were dependent on ambient temperature, with the highest emissions produced during the summer months. Low to moderate wind speeds were ideal for VOC collection. Concentrations of quantified compounds were mostly below odor detection thresholds found in the literature, however the combined odor magnitude of the large number of compounds detected was most likely above any minimum detection threshold.

Filipy, J.; Mount, G.; Westberg, H.; Rumburg, B.

2003-12-01

345

The role of organic vs. inorganic fertilizers in reducing phytoavailability of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term use of industrial and domestic wastewater for irrigation leads to accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and consequently in the edible portion of the plants. This study examined the role of fertilizers in reducing the heavy metal availability in the soil, and subsequent uptake in Beta vulgaris L. (var. All green). The effects of organic fertilizer as farmyard

Anita Singh; Madhoolika Agrawal; Fiona M. Marshall

2010-01-01

346

Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculated solid fraction of olive mill wastewaters, obtained from two different olive oil extraction systems (FOMW1 and FOMW2) was composted, with olive leaves (OL) as bulking agent, by the static pile system (Rutgers). The dynamic of organic matter (OM) degradation during composting and its relationship with the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, as indicators of biological

A Garc??a-Gómez; A Roig; M. P Bernal

2003-01-01

347

Identification of volatile organic compounds in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides.  

PubMed

Composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides was studied using a hydrodistillation extraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses allowed the identification of a number of 25 compounds, among which the presence of several bioactive aromatic derivatives such as guaiacol, eugenol, linalool, ?- and 4-terpineol as well as nerol was attention-grabbing. Moreover, some other compounds like cyclohexane, 2-bromoethyl with repellent function also appeared to be present in the flower. As a result, the floral VOCs profile of A. lagopoides might reflect an adaptation to attract specialised pollinator insects. These findings provide important information for advances in understanding the ecological and evolutionary perspectives of pollination biology of the giant genus Astragalus. PMID:21878004

Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Amini, Majid; Asnaashari, Solmaz

2012-01-01

348

Simultaneous removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds by combining a membrane bioreactor and a membrane biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

Hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactors (MBfR) have been applied to the denitrification of nitrate-containing water and wastewater. Adding an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) to a MBfR provides significant nitrification and organic oxidation because most wastewater also contains a significant concentration of organic material and ammonium nitrogen. This study describes experiments that investigate the removal of organic and nitrogenous compounds in the combined MBR/MBfR system. The experiments demonstrate that the MBR/MBfR combination successfully performs COD oxidation and nitrogen removal for organic and ammonium loads in the ranges of 1000-4300gCOD/m(3)-d and 200-230gN/m(3)-d, respectively. Total-nitrogen removal was controlled by nitrification in the MBR, because the MBfR denitrified all of the NO(3)(-) provided by the MBR. The nitrate flux in the MBfR was in the range of 4-8gN/m(2)-d for cases of almost complete denitrification (>99 %); the H(2) flux was varied from 1.4 to 2.8gH(2)/m(2)-d. PMID:19186053

Hasar, Halil

2009-05-01

349

Optical D-fiber-based volatile organic compound sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber-optic sensor used to detect volatile organic compounds is described. The sensor consists of a single-mode D-fiber with a 2.5 ?m polydimethylsiloxane layer. The layer is applied to the fiber flat after removal of a section of the fiber's cladding to increase evanescent interaction of the light with the layer. Absorption of volatile organic compounds into the polymer alters the refractive index of the layer, resulting in a birefringent change of the fiber. This change is observed as a shift in polarization of the light carried by the fiber. The sensor has a short length of 3 cm and a response time of around 1 s. The sensor is naturally reversible and gives an exponential response for gas and liquid concentrations of dichloromethane and acetone, respectively.

Gordon, John D.; Lowder, Tyson L.; Selfridge, Richard H.; Schultz, Stephen M.

2007-11-01

350

Sugar-Related Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sugars and related polyols are critical components of all organisms and may have been necessary for the origin of life. To date, this class of organic compounds had not been definitively identified in meteorites. This study was undertaken to determine if polyols were present in the early Solar System as constituents of carbonaceous meteorites. Results of analyses of the Murchison and Murray meteorites indicate that formaldehyde and sugar chemistry may be responsible for the presence of a variety of polyols. We conclude that polyols were present on the early Earth through delivery by asteroids and possibly comets.

Cooper, G.; Kimmich, N.; Belisle, W.; Sarinana, J.; Brabham, K.; Garrel, L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

351

Trees and VOCs: Measuring volatile organic compounds from urban forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site describes a research project to measure volatile organic compounds emitted from species of trees and shrubs found in urban areas. Topics include a description of the project and a section on trees and air quality. A page updated each month or so reports field and lab work on the project. There is also a glossary, profiles of community partners, and profiles of the scientists and students involved in the project.

Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado-Boulder

352

Control of spider mites on cotton by organic sulphur compounds  

E-print Network

COMTBOL OF SPIDER MITES ON COTTON BY ORGANIC SULPHUR COMPOUNDS A Dissertation Bor CHARLES EDWARD KING Approved as to style and content lay* (Chairman of Committee) 10 (Head of Dwpartaent or Student Advisor) CONTROL OF SPIDER MITES ON COTTON... of two species of spider mites using 8 gallons of spray per acre. . 57 10. Results of laboratory ovicidal tests for control of two species of spider mites using 100 gallons of spray per acre.................................................. 59 11...

King, Charles Edward

2013-10-04

353

Artificial Neural Network Electronic Nose for Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced microsystems that include, sensors, interface-circuits, and pattern-recognition integrated monolithically or in a hybrid module are needed for civilian, military, and space applications. These include: automotive, medical applications, environmental engineering, and manufacturing automation. ASICs with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are considered in this paper, with the objective of recognizing air-borne volatile organic compounds, especially alcohols, ethers, esters, halocarbons, NH3, NO2,

Hoda S. Abdel-aty-zohdy

1998-01-01

354

DEVELOPMENT OF OZONE REACTIVITY SCALES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for ranking photochemical ozone formation reactivities of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are discussed. Photochemical mechanisms for the atmospheric reactions of 118 VOCs were usedto calculate their effects on ozone formation under various NO x conditions in model scenarios representing39 different urban areas. Their effects on ozone were used to derive 18 different ozone reactivity scales,one of which is the Maximum

William P. L. Carter

1994-01-01

355

Antarctic macroalgae — Sources of volatile halogenated organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight different species of Antarctic macroalgae were collected from December 1991 to February 1992 at King George Island, South Shetlands, and investigated for their release of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs). Dibromomethane, bromoform, dibromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, diiodomethane and chloroiodomethane were identified and their rates of release determined. For the first time the release of 1,2-dibromoethane from macroalgae is reported. Of all

Frank Laturnus; Christian Wiencke; Heinz Klöser

1996-01-01

356

Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent and treatability of the degradation of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the EPA SW-846 Method 8260B with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Data on the degradation of the 59 VOCs (in mixture) reacted with sodium persulfate in concentrations of 1gl?1 and 5gl?1 and at temperatures of 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C were obtained. The results

Kun-Chang Huang; Zhiqiang Zhao; George E. Hoag; Amine Dahmani; Philip A. Block

2005-01-01

357

Removal of volatile organic compound by activated carbon fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to study adsorption\\/desorption of volatile organic compound (VOC) on the activated carbon fiber (ACF) under dynamic conditions. The primary objective was to experimentally demonstrate the suitability of ACF in effectively adsorbing VOCs from inert gaseous stream under varying operating conditions, and compare its performance vis-à-vis that of the other commercially available adsorbents, such as granular activated

Debasish Das; Vivekanand Gaur; Nishith Verma

2004-01-01

358

Airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds in neonatal incubators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To identify and quantify airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside neonatal incubators during various modes of operation within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment.Study Design:Air samples were taken from 10 unoccupied incubators in four operational settings along with ambient air samples using air sampling canisters. The samples were analyzed following EPA TO-15 using a Tekmar AutoCan interfaced to Agilent

P Prazad; D R Cortes; B L Puppala; R Donovan; S Kumar; A Gulati

2008-01-01

359

Water Pollution: Organic Compounds in the Charles River, Boston  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major lipophilic organic compounds present in water collected during November and December 1971 from the Charles River Basin (Boston) are as follows: normal alkanes (C15 to C31), alkyl naphthalenes, alkyl anthracenes or phenanthrenes, pyrene, fluoranthene, dibutyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The concentration of the naphthalenes (determined by liquid chromatography) correlates with the effective storm-water runoff content of the river.

Ronald A. Hites; K. Biemann

1972-01-01

360

Solubility of volatile organic compounds in aqueous ammonia solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ostwald solubility coefficient, L of 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase into water and dilute aqueous ammonia solutions was determined by the equilibrium partitioning in closed system-solid phase micro extraction (EPICS-SPME) method at 303K and at 0–2.5moldm?3 ammonia concentrations. Ammonia increased the solubility of all VOCs nearly linearly, but to a different extent. The difference in

Miklós Görgényi; Jo Dewulf; Herman Van Langenhove; Zoltán Király

2005-01-01

361

Volatile organic sulfur compounds in anaerobic sludge and sediments: biodegradation and toxicity.  

PubMed

A variety of environmental samples was screened for anaerobic degradation of methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide. All sludge and sediment samples degraded methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide anaerobically. In contrast, ethanethiol and propanethiol were not degraded by the samples investigated under any of the conditions tested. Methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide were mainly degraded by methanogenic archaea. In the presence of sulfate and the methanogenic inhibitor bromoethane sulfonate, degradation of these compounds coupled to sulfate reduction occurred as well, but at much lower rates. Besides their biodegradability, also the toxicity of methanethiol, ethanethiol, and propanethiol to methanogenesis with methanol, acetate, and H2/CO2 as the substrates was assessed. The 50% inhibition concentration of methanethiol on the methane production from these substrates ranged between 7 and 10 mM. The 50% inhibition concentration values of ethanethiol and propanethiol for the degradation of methanol and acetate were between 6 and 8 mM, whereas hydrogen consumers were less affected by ethanethiol and propanethiol, as indicated by their higher 50% inhibition concentration (14 mM). Sulfide inhibited methanethiol degradation already at relatively low concentrations: methanethiol degradation was almost completely inhibited at an initial sulfide concentration of 8 mM. These results define the operational limits of anaerobic technologies for the treatment of volatile organic sulfur compounds in sulfide-containing wastewater streams. PMID:17220077

van Leerdam, Robin C; de Bok, Frank A M; Lomans, Bart P; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L; Janssen, Albert J H

2006-12-01

362

Methods for the determination of organic compounds in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen analytical methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in drinking water are described in detail. Six of the methods are for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and certain disinfection by-products. These methods were cited in the Federal Register of July 8, 1987, under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. The other seven methods are designed for the determination of a variety of synthetic organic compounds and pesticides, and these methods were cited in proposed drinking-water regulations in the Federal Register of May 22, 1989. Five of the methods utilize the inert gas purge-and-trap extraction procedure for VOCs, six methods employ a classical liquid-liquid extraction, one method uses a new liquid-solid extraction technique, and one method is for direct aqueous analysis. Of the 13 methods, 12 use either packed or capillary gas-chromatography column separations followed by detection with mass spectrometry or a selective gas-chromatography detector. One method is based on a high-performance liquid-chromatography separation.

Not Available

1988-12-01

363

HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of the research involved identification and semi-quantitative determination of unknown volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted to air by sewage sludge formed in the process of municipal wastewater treatment in a sewage treatment plant. Samples taken directly after completion of the technological process as well as the sludge stored on the premise of the sewage treatment plant were analyzed. A simple method using off-line headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed for extraction and detection of organic pollutants. For reliable identification of compounds, combination of two independent parameters: mass spectra and linear temperature programmed retention indices were employed. Over 170 compounds of different structure were identified including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, carbonyls, as well as sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine containing compounds. The prevailing substances included: ethyl ether, n-hexane, p-xylene, o-xylene, mesitylene, m-ethylbenzene, limonene, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. A few compounds such as methanetiol, dimethyl polisulfide, octaatomic sulfur, phthalic anhydride, and indoles were identified in the sludge for the first time. PMID:21688031

Kotowska, Urszula; ?alikowski, Maciej; Isidorov, Valery A

2012-05-01

364

Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from poultry production are leading source of air quality problems. However, little is known about the speciation and levels of VOCs from poultry production. The objective of this study was the speciation of VOCs from a poultry facility using evacuated canisters and sorbent tubes. Samples were taken during active poultry production cycle and between production cycles. Levels of VOCs were highest in areas with birds and the compounds in those areas had a higher percentage of polar compounds (89%) compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons (2.2%). In areas without birds, levels of VOCs were 1/3 those with birds present and compounds had a higher total percentage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (25%). Of the VOCs quantified in this study, no single sampling method was capable of quantifying more than 55% of compounds and in several sections of the building each sampling method quantified less than 50% of the quantifiable VOCs. Key classes of chemicals quantified using evacuated canisters included both alcohols and ketones, while sorbent tube samples included volatile fatty acids and ketones. The top five compounds made up close to 70% of VOCs and included: 1) acetic acid (830.1 ?g m -3); 2) 2,3-butanedione (680.6 ?g m -3); 3) methanol (195.8 ?g m -3); 4) acetone (104.6 ?g m -3); and 5) ethanol (101.9 ?g m -3). Location variations for top five compounds averaged 49.5% in each section of the building and averaged 87% for the entire building.

Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei; Hatfield, Jerry

2010-09-01

365

Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.  

PubMed

Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

2013-08-01

366

Organic matter composition, microbial biomass and microbial activity in gravel-bed constructed wetlands treating farm dairy wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter (OM) composition, microbial biomass and microbial activity in a planted (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani), gravel-bed wetland receiving cumulative OM (determined as volatile suspended solids) loadings over 5 years from farm dairy wastewater (8.2 kg OM m?2) and in situ plant residues (8.4 kg OM m?2) were investigated. Organic deposits above and within the gravel stratum (0–100- and 100–400 mm depths)

Long M. Nguyen

2000-01-01

367

Emissions of volatile organic compounds and carbonyl compounds from residential coal combustion in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls from residential coal combustion of five coals with different\\u000a maturities were studied in a simulated room. The coals were burned in form of honeycomb briquettes in a domestic coal stove,\\u000a one of the most common fuel\\/stove combinations in China. Through a dilution system, VOCs and carbonyls samples were collected\\u000a by canisters and

Yan-li Feng; Bin Xiong; Cui-cui Mu; Ying-jun Chen

2010-01-01

368

Dissolved organic compounds in reused process water for steam-assisted gravity drainage oil sands extraction.  

PubMed

The in situ oil sands production method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) reuses process wastewater following treatment. However, the treatment and reuse processes concentrate contaminants in the process water. To determine the concentration and dynamics of inorganic and organic contaminants, makeup water and process water from six process steps were sampled at a facility employing the SAGD process in Alberta, Canada. In the groundwater used for the makeup water, the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was 4 mg/L. This significantly increased to 508 mg/L in the produced water, followed by a gradual increase with successive steps in subsequent water treatments. The concentrations and dynamics of DOC constituents in the process water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the produced water, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone (33.1 mg/L) and 2-butanone (13.4 mg/L) predominated, and there were significant amounts of phenolic compounds (total 9.8 mg/L) and organic acids including naphthenic acids (NAs) corresponding to the formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(X) for combinations of n = 4 to 18, Z = 0 and -2, and X = 2 to 4 (53 mg/L) with trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene and phenanthrene. No organic contaminants, except for saturated fatty acids, were detected in the groundwater. The concentration of DOC in the recycled water was 4.4-fold higher than that in the produced water. Likewise, the total concentrations of phenols and organic acids in the recycled water were 1.7- and 4.5-fold higher than in the produced water, whereas the total concentrations of VOCs and PAHs in the recycled water were reduced by over 80%, suggesting that phenols and organic acids are selectively concentrated in the process water treatment. This comprehensive chemical analysis thus identified organic constituents that were concentrated in the process water and which interfere with subsequent water treatments in the SAGD process. PMID:22901407

Kawaguchi, Hideo; Li, Zhengguo; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kozo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

2012-11-01

369

Characterisation of polar organic compounds in fog water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the results of a systematic liquid chromatographic investigation are described to characterise water-soluble organic compounds in fog. A diode array detector is used to record the UV spectrum of the components during separation and a mass spectrometer is applied to obtain information on the ion masses of the constituents. The combination of UV and mass spectra reveal that the organic carbon content of fog water is distributed among a great number of acidic compounds which have polar functional groups and polyconjugated systems absorbing up to 500 nm. Due to the complexity of the organic fraction in fog water an unresolved hump of ions was recorded by the mass spectrometer from m/ z=100-600 the most intense peaks being detected around m/ z=200-250. Tannin and fulvic acid were also examined under the same conditions. In terms of complexity and ion distribution the mass spectrum of the organic fraction was similar to that of a fulvic acid reference material rather than to that of tannin.

Kiss, Gyula; Varga, Bálint; Gelencsér, András; Krivácsy, Zoltán; Molnár, Ágnes; Alsberg, Tomas; Persson, Linn; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Cristina Facchini, Maria

370

Simulation of Comet Impact and Survivability of Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Comets have long been proposed as a potential means for the transport of complex organic compounds to early Earth. For this to be a viable mechanism, a significant fraction of organic compounds must survive the high temperatures due to impact. We have undertaken three-dimensional numerical simulations to track the thermodynamic state of a comet during oblique impacts. The comet was modeled as a 1-km water-ice sphere impacting a basalt plane at 11.2 km/s; impact angles of 15{sup o} (from horizontal), 30{sup o}, 45{sup o}, 65{sup o}, and 90{sup o} (normal impact) were examined. The survival of organic cometary material, modeled as water ice for simplicity, was calculated using three criteria: (1) peak temperatures, (2) the thermodynamic phase of H{sub 2}O, and (3) final temperature upon isentropic unloading. For impact angles greater than or equal to 30{sup o}, no organic material is expected to survive the impact. For the 15{sup o} impact, most of the material survives the initial impact and significant fractions (55%, 25%, and 44%, respectively) satisfy each survival criterion at 1 second. Heating due to deceleration, in addition to shock heating, plays a role in the heating of the cometary material for nonnormal impacts. This effect is more noticeable for more oblique impacts, resulting in significant deviations from estimates using scaling of normal impacts. The deceleration heating of the material at late times requires further modeling of breakup and mixing.

Liu, B T; Lomov, I N; Blank, J G; Antoun, T H

2007-07-18

371

Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site  

SciTech Connect

The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

1991-10-01

372

Biodegradable material for the absorption of organic compounds and nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Contaminants in water streams, in the form of oily/organic phases or nanoparticles, affect a large variety of activities, from laboratory practice up to environmental systems. To date, a large number of materials for the absorption and retention of these pollutants have been developed. Such materials, however, rarely conjugate high oil uptake, nanoparticle sequestration, biodegradability, and cost effectiveness simultaneously. In this work, we exploited the structural properties of dermal collagen networks and simple chemical manipulations to fabricate an original material that proved effective in separating water from organic and nanoparticulated contaminants. Our material is reusable, biodegradable, safe, and cost-effective and shows a high absorptive capacity of a large variety of organic compounds; it is also able to capture metallic nanoparticles. These features allow our material to effectively separate water from oily/nanoparticulate phases, thus making it an appropriate absorber for chemical processes and environmental protection. PMID:25054655

Ortega, Francisco J; Ventre, Maurizio; Netti, Paolo A

2014-09-01

373

Development of pervaporation to recover and reuse volatile organic compounds from industrial waste streams. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to demonstrate use of pervaporation, a new membrane technology, as an efficient, low-cost method of recovering dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water and to commercialize this technology. MTR`s industrial commercialization partner, Hoechst Celanese, allowed the project to move rapidly with both demonstration work and precommercial business planning. However, in Dec. 1996 the technology was returned to MT. To date, two systems were sold: one for a wastewater application, the other for removing off flavors from soup stock. Two other customers did extensive field tests and are expected to purchase systems in 1997. This report describes the development of pervaporation membranes and modules at MT. A study was performed with these membrane modules to determine the parameters governing membrane performance. Laboratory data were integrated into the design of several pervaporation demonstration systems, which were operated in the laboratory and at field sites. Results of two of these field trials (benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylenes removal from evaporator condensate water produced by a natural gas glycol dehydration unit at a PG&E gas processing plant, and chlorinated solvent removal from contaminated groundwater at Pinellas) are reported. Economic analysis shows that pervaporation is cheaper than steam stripping for treating water containing highly VOCs such as toluene or TCE up to flow rates of 100-200 gpm. For moderately VOCs such as acetone or methylene chloride, pervaporation is cheaper for streams < 10-20 gpm. Market studies suggest that by 2010 pervaporation will realize energy savings of 81x10{sup 12} Btu and waste reduction of 0.54x10{sup 6} tons VOCs; benefits include lower CO{sub 2} emissions because of less destruction of VOCs by incineration. Also, raw material costs for the chemical industry will be reduced with the recovered VOCs. Industries will be less likely to move overseas due to increased wastewater regulation in US.

Baker, R.W.; Athayde, A.L.; Daniels, R.; Le, M.; Pinnau, I.; Ly, J.H.; Wijmans, J.G.; Kaschemekat, J.H.; Helm, V.D.

1997-03-01

374

Wastewater treatment of pulp and paper industry: a review.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper industries generate varieties of complex organic and inorganic pollutants depending upon the type of the pulping process. A state-of-art of treatment processes and efficiencies of various wastewater treatment is presented and critically reviewed in this paper. Process description, source of wastewater and their treatment is discussed in detail. Main emphasis is given to aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment. In pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment aerobic treatment includes activated sludge process, aerated lagoons and aerobic biological reactors. UASB, fluidized bed, anaerobic lagoon and anaerobic contact reactors are the main technologies for anaerobic wastewater treatment. It is found that the combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment processes is much efficient in the removal of soluble biodegradable organic pollutants. Color can be removed effectively by fungal treatment, coagulation, chemical oxidation, and ozonation. Chlorinated phenolic compounds and adsorable organic halides (AOX) can be efficiently reduced by adsorption, ozonation and membrane filtration techniques. PMID:23033705

Kansal, Ankur; Siddiqui, Nihalanwar; Gautam, Ashutosh

2011-04-01

375

Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.  

PubMed

Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

2015-02-11

376

Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds with chemical and physical properties that allow the compounds to move freely between the water and air phases of the environment. VOCs are widespread in the environment because of this mobility. Many VOCs have properties that make them suspected or known hazards to the health of humans and aquatic organisms. Consequently, understanding the processes affecting the concentration and distribution of VOCs in the environment is necessary. The transport, behavior, and fate of VOCs in streams are determined by combinations of chemical, physical, and biological processes. These processes are volatilization, absorption, wet and dry deposition, microbial degradation, sorption, hydrolysis, aquatic photolysis, oxidation, chemical reaction, biocon-centration, advection, and dispersion. The relative importance of each of these processes depends on the characteristics of the VOC and the stream. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program selected 55 VOCs for study. This article reviews the characteristics of the various processes that could affect the transport, behavior, and fate of these VOCs in streams.

Rathbun, R.E.

2000-01-01

377

Antioxidant combinations of molybdenum complexes and organic sulfur compounds for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

An antioxidant additive combination for lubricating oils is prepared by combining (a) a sulfur containing molybdenum compound prepared by reacting an ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and a basic nitrogen compound, with (b) an organic sulfur compound.

deVries, L.; King, J.M.

1983-09-06

378

Volatile organic compounds from a Tuber melanosporum fermentation system.  

PubMed

A total of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from Tuber melanosporum fermentation: 53 from its fermented mycelia and 32 from the fermentation broth. Alcohol-derived compounds were predominant in both the fermentation mycelia and the broth, although long chain fatty acids and isoprenoids were, for the first time, also found in the mycelia. The intense wine bouquet properties of the broth arose from several specific flavor substances, including sulfur compounds, pyrazines, furans and jasmones. Comparing the VOCs identified in this work with those previously reported, our results are more similar to the composition of the Tuber fruiting-body than previous Tuber fermentations. The composition and accumulation of flavor volatiles (e.g., pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and esters) and major constituents (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) in this fermentation were significantly influenced by the sucrose concentration in the medium. The obtained information could therefore be useful in applications to convert the flavors of truffle mycelia similar to those of the fruiting-body by optimising the fermentation process. PMID:22980851

Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Guan; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-12-15

379

Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method.  

PubMed

The treatment of biologically treated wastewater of coffee-curing industry by the electrochemical oxidation using steel anode was investigated. Bench-scale experiments were conducted for activated sludge process on raw wastewater and the treated effluents were further treated by electrochemical oxidation method for its colour and organic content removal. The efficiency of the process was determined in terms of removal percentage of COD, BOD and colour during the course of reaction. Several operating parameters like time, pH and current density were examined to ascertain their effects on the treatment efficiency. Steel anode was found to be effective for the COD and colour removal with anode efficiency of 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) and energy consumption 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD at pH 9. The decrease in pH from 9 to 3 found to increase the anode efficiency from 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) to 0.144 kWh x kg(-1) of COD while decrease the energy consumption from 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD to 12.86 kWh x kg(-1) of COD. The pH of 5 was considered an ideal from the present treatment process as it avoids the addition of chemicals for neutralization of treated effluents and also economical with respect to energy consumption. An empirical relation developed for relationship between applied current density and COD removal efficiency showed strong predictive capability with coefficient of determination of 96.5%. PMID:12938980

Bejankiwar, Rajesh S; Lokesh, K S; Gowda, T P Halappa

2003-05-01

380

Characterization of polar organic compounds in the organic film on indoor and outdoor glass windows.  

PubMed

Organic films on an impervious surface (window glass) were sampled at paired indoor-outdoor sites in July 2000 and characterized for their paraffinic and polar organic compositions along an urban-rural transect. Four classes of polar compounds (C11-C31 aliphatic monocarboxylic, C6-C14 dicarboxylic, nine aromatic polycarboxylic, and five terpenoid acids) constituted between 81 and 95% (w/w) of the total organic fraction analyzed comprising n-alkanes (C10-C36), 46 PAH, 97 PCBs, and 18 OC pesticides. Concentrations of the polar compounds plus their precursors, n-alkanes, ranged from 8 to 124 microg m(-20 and were dominated by monocarboxylic acids (67-89%, w/w). On outdoor windows, n-alkanes, aromatic acids, and terpenoid acids decreased in concentration along the urban-rural transect. The carbon preference index values and the interpretations of individual compounds indicate that the main sources of n-alkanes were plant waxes followed by petrogenic sources; monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids were from plant waxes and animal fats. Results of principal component analysis showed closer correspondence between outdoor and indoor signatures than among locations. In outdoor films, these compounds are suggested to play an important role in mediating chemical fate in urban areas by air-film exchange and facilitating "wash-off" due to their surfactant-like properties. In indoor films, these compounds provide a medium for the accumulation of more toxic compounds. PMID:12831015

Liu, Qin-Tao; Chen, Rachel; McCarry, Brian E; Diamond, Miriam L; Bahavar, Bagher

2003-06-01

381

75 FR 24404 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Automobile Refinishing Rules for Indiana AGENCY...Plan (SIP) amendments to Indiana's automobile refinishing rule. These rule revisions...approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile refinishing rules to all persons...

2010-05-05

382

75 FR 2090 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Automobile Refinishing Rules for Indiana AGENCY...submitted amendments to Indiana's automobile refinishing rule for approval into its...approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile refinishing rules to all persons...

2010-01-14

383

EVALUATION OF CRYOGENIC TRAPPING AS A MEANS FOR COLLECTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The methodology used in reduced temperature preconcentration of volatile organic compounds has been tested using a prototype automated gas chromatographic system. Mixtures of sixteen volatile organic compounds in humidified zero air were passed through a Nafion tube dryer and the...

384

Odors and volatile organic compounds released from ventilation filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Used supply air filters were studied by sensory and chemical methods. In addition, filter dust was examined by thermodesorption/cold trap (TCT) and headspace (HS) devices connected to a GC-MS. The prefilter was the main odor source in the ventilation unit, but when humidifier was turned on odor was released mainly from the fine filter. However, the effect of the relative humidity (RH) was only temporary. At the same time, there was an increase in the concentration of aldehydes after the filters. Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds were the main emission products in the thermodesorption analyses of the filter dust. Many of these compounds have low odor threshold values and, therefore, contribute to the odor released from the filters. Especially, the role of aldehydes seems to be important in the odor formation.

Hyttinen, Marko; Pasanen, Pertti; Björkroth, Marko; Kalliokoski, Pentti

385

Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molar extinction coefficients of aqueous solutions of some organic compounds, viz. formamide (CH_{3}NO), N-methylformamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO), NN-dimethylformamide (C_{3}H_{7}NO), NN-dimethylacetamide (C_{4}H_{9}NO), 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}), succinimide (C_{4}H_{5}NO_{2}) and solutions of acetamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO) and benzoic acid (C_{7}H_{6}O_{2}) in 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}) have been determined by narrow beam gamma-ray transmission method at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity rule earlier used for aqueous solution has been extended to non-aqueous (1,4-dioxane) solutions.

Singh, Kulwant; Sandhu, G. K.; Lark, B. S.

2004-05-01

386

Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 ?g/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 ?g/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 ?g/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 ?g/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 ?g/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 ?g/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17?-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non-effect concentration, were lower than 1 for all the pharmaceutically active compounds so no significant risks are expected to occur due to the application of sewage sludge onto soils, except for 17?-ethinylestradiol when chronic toxicity was considered. PMID:24909712

Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

2015-01-15

387

Heterogeneous reactions of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of central importance in the atmosphere because of their close relation to air quality and climate change. As a significant sink for VOCs, the fate of VOCs via heterogeneous reactions may explain the big gap between field and model studies. These reactions play as yet unclear but potentially crucial role in atmospheric processes. In order to better evaluate this reaction pathway, we present the first specific review for the progress of heterogeneous reaction studies on VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, organic acids, alcohols, and so on. Our review focuses on the processes for heterogeneous reactions of VOCs under varying experimental conditions, as well as their implications for trace gas and HOx budget, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, physicochemical properties of aerosols, and human health. Finally, we propose the future direction for laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs that should be carried out under more atmospherically relevant conditions, with a special emphasis on the effects of relative humidity and illumination, the multicomponent reaction systems, and reactivity of aged and authentic particles. In particular, more reliable uptake coefficients, based on the abundant elaborate laboratory studies, appropriate calibration, and logical choice criterion, are urgently required in atmospheric models.

Shen, Xiaoli; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Zhongming; Huang, Dao

2013-04-01

388

Toward energy-neutral wastewater treatment: A high-rate contact stabilization process to maximally recover sewage organics.  

PubMed

The conventional activated sludge process is widely used for wastewater treatment, but to progress toward energy self-sufficiency, the wastewater treatment scheme needs to radically improve energy balances. We developed a high-rate contact stabilization (HiCS) reactor system at high sludge-specific loading rates (>2kgbCODkg(-1)TSSd(-1)) and low sludge retention times (<1.2d) and demonstrate that it is able to recover more chemical energy from wastewater organics than high-rate conventional activated sludge (HiCAS) and the low-rate variants of HiCS and HiCAS. The best HiCS system recovered 36% of the influent chemical energy as methane, due to the combined effects of low production of CO2, high sludge yield, and high methane yield of the produced sludge. The HiCS system imposed a feast-famine cycle and a putative selection pressure on the sludge micro-organisms toward substrate adsorption and storage. Given further optimization, it is a promising process for energy recovery from wastewater. PMID:25553568

Meerburg, Francis A; Boon, Nico; Van Winckel, Tim; Vercamer, Jensen A R; Nopens, Ingmar; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

2015-03-01

389

Successful application of nitritation/anammox to wastewater with elevated organic carbon to ammonia ratios.  

PubMed

The nitritation/anammox process has been mainly applied to high-strength nitrogenous wastewaters with very low biodegradable organic carbon content (<0.5 g COD?g N(-1)). However, several wastewaters have biodegradable organic carbon to nitrogen (COD/N) ratios between 0.5 and 1.7 g COD?g N(-1) and thus, contain elevated amounts of organic carbon but not enough for heterotrophic denitrification. In this study, the influence of elevated COD/N ratios was studied on a nitritation/anammox process with suspended sludge. In a step-wise manner, the influent COD/N ratio was increased to 1.4 g COD?g N(-1) by supplementing digester supernatant with acetate. The increasing availability of COD led to an increase of the nitrogen removal efficiency from around 85% with pure digester supernatant to >95% with added acetate while the nitrogen elimination rate stayed constant (275 ± 40 mg N?L(-1)?d(-1)). Anammox activity and abundance of anammox bacteria (AMX) were strongly correlated, and with increasing influent COD/N ratio both decreased steadily. At the same time, heterotrophic denitrification with nitrite and the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) gradually increased. Simultaneously, the sludge retention time (SRT) decreased significantly with increasing COD loading to about 15 d and reached critical values for the slowly growing AMX. When the SRT was increased by reducing biomass loss with the effluent, AMX activity and abundance started to rise again, while the AOB activity remained unaltered. Fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that the initial AMX community shifted within only 40 d from a mixed AMX community to "Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" as the dominant AMX type with an influent COD/N ratio of 0.8 g COD?g N(-1) and higher. "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" is known to oxidise acetate, and its ability to outcompete other types of AMX indicates that AMX participated in acetate oxidation. In a later phase, glucose was added to the influent instead of acetate. The new substrate composition did not significantly influence the nitrogen removal nor the AMX activity, and "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" remained the dominant type of AMX. Overall, this study showed that AMX can coexist with heterotrophic bacteria at elevated influent COD/N ratios if a sufficiently high SRT is maintained. PMID:24355291

Jenni, Sarina; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

2014-02-01

390

Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0-2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m yr. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere. PMID:22751077

Baker, Ronald J; Andraski, Brian J; Stonestrom, David A; Luo, Wentai

2012-01-01

391

DETERMINATION OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN THE RECEIVING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high usage and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. The U.S. EPA (Las Vegas) developed surface water monitoring me...

392

LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high use and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. We analyzed water samples from the confluence of three municipal...

393

Influence of wastewater particles on ozone degradation of trace organic contaminants.  

PubMed

In this Article, we demonstrate the influence of effluent particles (in the range of <50 ?m) on ozone degradation of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and effluent-quality parameters. Secondary effluent was filtered through different pore-size filters and ozonated at various ozone doses. Degradation of both ozone-reactive and ozone-refractory contaminants improved following ozonation of effluent filtered with smaller pore size filters, indicating that particles in this range may adversely affect ozonation. The inhibitory effect of particles was attributed to their reaction with ozone, reducing available ozone and HO(•) radicals. In addition, increasing filtration level decreased the effluent's (instantaneous) ozone demand and increased removal of effluent UV absorbance (UVA254), further establishing that ozone reacts with effluent particles, in competition with dissolved matter. Moreover, ozone was shown to react with particles even during the first seconds of the process, suggesting a high rate of some ozone-particle reactions, comparable to ozone reaction with highly reactive dissolved organic matter moieties. Particle image analysis revealed that particle formation/aggregation and particle disintegration occurs simultaneously during wastewater (WW) ozonation. Our study implies that particles could affect the efficiency of WW ozonation, by increasing the effluent's ozone demand and decreasing contaminant degradation. PMID:25471841

Zucker, Ines; Lester, Yaal; Avisar, Dror; Hübner, Uwe; Jekel, Martin; Weinberger, Yigal; Mamane, Hadas

2015-01-01

394

Thermodynamics of Aqueous Organic Sulfur Compounds: A Key to the Organic Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Systems?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal environments are locations of varied geochemistry due to the disequilibrium between vent fluids and seawater. The disequilibrium geochemistry has been hypothesized to include reactions to synthesize organic compounds. Observations of the organic geochemistry of hydrothermal vent sites has received little attention. Experimental simulations of these environments, however, indicate that organic compounds may have difficulty forming in a purely aqueous environment. On the other hand, thiols. thioesters and disulfides have been implicated as reaction intermediates between CO or CO2 in experiments of carbon reduction in hydrothermal environments as well as in a variety of biological processes and other abiotic reactions (Wachtershauser, 1990, OLEB 20, 173; Heinen and Lauwers, 1996, OLEB 26, 13 1, Huber and Wachtershauser, 1997, Science 276, 245; Russell et al., 1998, in Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life?). The reduction of CO2 to thiols, for example, is observed using the FeS-H2S/FeS2 couple to provide the reducing power (see Schoonen et al., 1999, OLEB 29, 5). In addition, the enzyme involved in final stage of methanogenesis, coenzyme-M, is itself a thiol. Thus, organic sulfur compounds may hold the key to the organic chemistry leading to the origin of life at high temperatures. Understanding the biochemical processes of microorganisms that can live to temperatures at least as high as 113 C (Blochl et al., 1996, Extremophiles 1, 14) requires knowledge of the properties of the chemical reactions involved. In order to assess the role of aqueous organic sulfur compounds in hydrothermal organic geochemistry, we have been attempting to determine their thermodynamic properties. We have culled the literature to obtain the properties of organic sulfur compounds. We are able to calculate a number of essential properties, such as free energies of formation, from solubility data available in the literature together with standard properties of organic sulfur gases. However, a number of the properties for aqueous organic sulfur compounds have not been experimentally determined. Furthermore, most of thermodynamic data that are available are for 25 C and 1 bar. In order to determine reaction properties to temperatures and pressures appropriate to the hydrothermal conditions in which thermophilic organisms actually live, we use equations of state developed by Helgeson and co-workers (Helgeson et al., 1981, AJS 281, 1249). A key piece of information needed to go up in temperature is the partial molal heat capacity, which is one of the properties for which experimental data are unavailable for nearly all organic sulfur compounds. We have used correlation methods to determine the partial molal heat capacities and volumes of many organic solutes. These estimates allow us to asses the role of organic sulfur compounds during the reduction of carbon in hydrothermal settings. We will present these data, along with examples of the thermodynamic properties of reactions involving aqueous organic sulfur compounds.

Schulte, Mitchell; Rogers, Karyn L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

395

Validation of HPLC and CE methods for determination of organic acids in sour cassava starch wastewater.  

PubMed

Fast and efficient analytical methods to determine the concentrations of lactic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in sour cassava starch wastewater using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), were developed and validated. Good linearity (R(2) > 0.999) and significance with F > 25,000 for all acids was showed. The matrix effect was not detected. The coefficient of variation values indicated good repeatability. The limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 1.0 to 3.7 and 2.0 to 3.0, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) from 3.1 to 12.2, and 8.0 to 12.5mg/L for HPLC and CE, respectively. The quantification of the samples did not reveal significant differences between the methods for all compounds analyzed. However, the benefits of CE in relation to HPLC, such as lower costs and less waste generation, along with shorter analysis times, need to be taken into consideration. PMID:25442614

de Sena Aquino, Ana Carolina Moura; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Ribeiro, Deise Helena Baggio; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Amante, Edna Regina

2015-04-01

396

The synthesis of organic and inorganic compounds in evolved stars.  

PubMed

Recent isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust has identified solid-state materials of pre-solar origin. We can now trace the origin of these inorganic grains to the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. Moreover, organic (aromatic and aliphatic) compounds have been detected in proto-planetary nebulae and planetary nebulae, which are the descendants of carbon stars. This implies that molecular synthesis is actively happening in the circumstellar environment on timescales as short as several hundred years. The detection of stellar grains in the Solar System suggests that they can survive their journey through the interstellar medium and that they are a major contributor of interstellar grains. PMID:15329712

Kwok, Sun

2004-08-26

397

Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells.  

PubMed

A detailed analysis is reported of the organic composition of produced water samples from typical shale gas wells in the Marcellus (PA), Eagle Ford (TX), and Barnett (NM) formations. The quality of shale gas produced (and frac flowback) waters is a current environmental concern and disposal problem for producers. Re-use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing is being encouraged; however, knowledge of the organic impurities is important in determining the method of treatment. The metal content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Mineral elements are expected depending on the reservoir geology and salts used in hydraulic fracturing; however, significant levels of other transition metals and heavier main group elements are observed. The presence of scaling elements (Ca and Ba) is related to the pH of the water rather than total dissolved solids (TDS). Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the chloroform extracts of the produced water samples, a plethora of organic compounds were identified. In each water sample, the majority of organics are saturated (aliphatic), and only a small fraction comes under aromatic, resin, and asphaltene categories. Unlike coalbed methane produced water it appears that shale oil/gas produced water does not contain significant quantities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons reducing the potential health hazard. Marcellus and Barnett produced waters contain predominantly C6-C16 hydrocarbons, while the Eagle Ford produced water shows the highest concentration in the C17-C30 range. The structures of the saturated hydrocarbons identified generally follows the trend of linear > branched > cyclic. Heterocyclic compounds are identified with the largest fraction being fatty alcohols, esters, and ethers. However, the presence of various fatty acid phthalate esters in the Barnett and Marcellus produced waters can be related to their use in drilling fluids and breaker additives rather than their presence in connate fluids. Halogen containing compounds are found in each of the water samples, and although the fluorocarbon compounds identified are used as tracers, the presence of chlorocarbons and organobromides formed as a consequence of using chlorine containing oxidants (to remove bacteria from source water), suggests that industry should concentrate on non-chemical treatments of frac and produced waters. PMID:25162586

Maguire-Boyle, Samuel J; Barron, Andrew R

2014-10-01

398

ORGANIC CATION EFFECTS ON THE SORPTION OF METALS AND NEUTRAL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON AQUIFER MATERIAL (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sorption of ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium (EHDDMA+), a large organic cation, and three neutral organic compounds (NOC's) on two low organic carbon aquifer materials was studied using a soil batch equilibration technique. EHDDMA+ competed effectively with metals for exchange site...

399

Organic Compounds in Running Gutter Brook Water Used for Public Supply near Hatfield, Massachusetts, 2003-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 258 organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, and pavement and combustion-derived compounds. Of these 258 compounds, 26 (about 10 percent) were detected at least once among the 31 samples collected approximately monthly during 2003-05 at the intake of a flowthrough reservoir on Running Gutter Brook in Massachusetts, one of several community water systems on tributaries of the Connecticut River. About 81 percent of the watershed is forested, 14 percent is agricultural land, and 5 percent is urban land. In most source-water samples collected at Running Gutter Brook, fewer compounds were detected and their concentrations were low (less than 0.1 micrograms per liter) when compared with compounds detected at other stream sites across the country that drain watersheds that have a larger percentage of agricultural and urban areas. The relatively few compounds detected at low concentrations reflect the largely undeveloped land use at Running Gutter Brook. Despite the absence of wastewater discharge points on the stream, however, the compounds that were detected could indicate different sources and uses (point sources, precipitation, domestic, and agricultural) and different pathways to drinking-water supplies (overland runoff, groundwater discharge, leaking of treated water from distribution lines, and formation during treatment). Six of the 10 compounds detected most commonly (in at least 20 percent of the samples) in source water also were detected commonly in finished water (after treatment but prior to distribution). Concentrations in source and finished water generally were below 0.1 micrograms per liter and always less than humanhealth benchmarks, which are available for about one-half of the compounds detected. On the basis of this screening-level assessment, adverse effects to human health are expected to be negligible (subject to limitations of available humanhealth benchmarks).

Brown, Craig J.; Trombley, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

400

Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical mass balance receptor model based on organic compounds has been developed that relates sours; contributions to airborne fine particle mass concentrations. Source contributions to the concentrations of specific organic compounds are revealed as well. The model is applied to four air quality monitoring sites in southern California using atmospheric organic compound concentration data and source test data collected

Bernd R. T. Simoneit; WOLFGANG F. ROGGE; LYNN M. HILDEMANN; MONICA A. MAZUREK; GLEN R. CASS

1996-01-01

401

Biological degradation of some organic compounds involved in the paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the biodegradation by aerobic microorganisms was investigated for some organic compounds occurring in paper manufacturing technology. Lines of biodegradation for nine organic compounds, as a percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), were detected over seven days incubation. The results of the biodegradability test clearly revealed that some of the organic compounds under investigation were highly biodegradable

Rifaat Abdel Wahaab

2002-01-01

402

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...collection system designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced from tank...

2010-07-01

403

Cyclodextrin-based microsensors for volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Host-guest chemistry and self-assembly techniques are being explored to develop species selective thin-films for real-time sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Cyclodextrin (CD) and calixarene (CA) molecules are known to form guest-host inclusion complexes with a variety of organic molecules. Through the control of the cavity size and chemical functionality on the rims of these bucket-like molecules, the binding affinities for formation of inclusion complexes can be controlled and optimized for specific agents. Self-assembly techniques are used to covalently bond these reagent molecules to the surface of acoustic transducers to create dense, highly oriented, and stable thin films. Self-assembly techniques have also been used to fabricate multilayer thin film containing molecular recognition reagents through alternating adsorption of charged species in aqueous solutions. Self-assembly of polymeric molecules of the SAW device was also explored for fabricating species selective interfaces.

Swanson, B.; Johnson, S.; Shi, J.; Yang, Xiaoguang

1997-10-01

404

Volatilization modeling of semivolatile organic compounds during solidification processes  

SciTech Connect

Technical information is provided on the effects of temperature elevation on increasing the volatility of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in stabilization media. A chemical diffusion model was developed (1) to establish a technical basis for determining maximum treatment temperatures above which SVOCs should not be exposed during solidification processes to reduce the potential for unacceptable releases; and (2) to prescribe types of binders with sufficiently low heat output to stabilize organics that have potential for volatilizing with moderate heating, and to recommend against use of others that may not maintain the mixture at sufficiently low temperatures. A non-steady-state model for linear diffusion in the aqueous and vapor phase was used because the SVOC dynamics of diffusion are controlled by resistances in both pore water and air. The results of volatilization calculations performed are presented.

Sass, B.M.; Smith, L.A. Huang, W.M.C.; Rosansky, S.H.; Drescher, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (BMI), Columbus, OH (United States). Environmental Technology Dept.

1996-12-31

405

Laboratory Studies of Organic Compounds With Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to properly interpret reflectance spectra of any solar system surface from the earth to the Oort cloud, laboratory spectra of candidate materials for comparative analysis are needed. Although the common cosmochemical species (H2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4) are well represented in the spectroscopic literature, comparatively little reflectance work has been done on organics from room to cryogenic temperatures at visible to near infrared wavelengths. Reflectance spectra not only enhance weak or unseen transmission features, they are also more analogous to spectra obtained by spacecraft that are imaging such bodies as giant planet moons, kuiper belt objects, centaurs, comets and asteroids, as well as remote sensing of the earth. The USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory is measuring reflectance spectra of organic compounds from room to cryogenic temperatures over the spectral range of 0.35 to 15.5 microns. This region encompasses the fundamental absorptions and many overtones and combinations of C, H, O, and N molecular bonds. Because most organic compounds belong to families whose members have similar structure and composition, individual species identification within a narrow wavelength range may be ambiguous. By measuring spectral reflectance of the pure laboratory samples from the visible through the near and mid-infrared, absorption bands unique to each can be observed, cataloged, and compared to planetary reflectance data. We present here spectra of organic compounds belonging to five families: the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and cyanides. Common to all of these are the deep C-H stretch fundamental absorptions, which shift shortward from 3.35+ microns in alkanes to 3.25+ microns in aromatics, to 3.2+ microns in alkenes, and down to 3.0+ microns in alkynes. Mid-IR absorptions due to C-H bending deformations at 6.8+ and 7.2+ microns are also identified. In the near infrared these stretching and bending fundamentals yield a diagnostic set of combination absorptions at approximately 2.3 microns, as well as the first C-H stretching overtones at 1.6 to 1.7 microns, and even the second stretching overtones at 1.2+ microns. Additionally, the spectral properties of these organic materials have applications to remote sensing of terrestrial environments, including hazardous waste and disaster site characterization.

Curchin, J. M.; Clark, R. N.; Hoefen, T. M.

2007-12-01

406

Emissions and Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Semivolatile and Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosols are a highly-dynamic system dominated by both variable gas-particle partitioning and chemical evolution. Important classes of organics include semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC, respectively). SVOCs are compounds that exist in both the gas and particle phases at typical atmospheric conditions while IVOC are low-volatility vapors that exist exclusively in the gas phase. Both classes have saturation concentrations that are orders of magnitude lower than volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are the traditional subjects of atmosphere chemistry, such as monoterpenes, alkyl benzenes, etc. The SVOC and IVOC are poorly represented for in current atmospheric chemistry models. Source testing indicates that SVOC and IVOC emissions from biomass combustion, diesel engines and other sources exceed the primary organic aerosol emissions; thus the oxidation of these vapors could serve as a significant source of organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the reactions between OH radicals and SVOCs and IVOCs was investigated in the Carnegie Mellon University smog chamber. Experiments were conducted with n-alkanes and emission surrogates (diesel fuel and lubricating oil). SVOC oxidation produces oxidized organic aerosol but little new organic aerosol mass. This behavior can be explained by the coupled effects of partitioning and aging. Oxidation of SVOC vapors creates low volatility species that partition into the condensed phase; this oxidation also reduces the SVOC vapor concentration which, in turn, requires particle-phase SVOC to evaporate to maintain phase equilibrium. In contrast, oxidation of IVOC results in sustained production of SOA consistent with a reaction with relatively slow kinetics and high mass yield. Aerosol Mass Spectrometer data indicates that the SOA formed from IVOC has a mass spectrum that is quite similar to the oxygenated organic aerosol factor observed in field studies.

Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.; Miracolo, M. A.; Donahue, N. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.

2008-12-01

407

Mixtures of quaternary ammonium compounds and anionic organic compounds in the aquatic environment: Elimination and biodegradability in the closed bottle test monitored by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as disinfectants, detergents and fabric softeners. Anionic detergents are one of the most widely used chemical substances. QACs and anionic surfactants can form ionic pairs. In the present study we investigated the biodegradability of QACs in the presence of different anionic surfactants. The biodegradability of three QACs, namely benzalkonium chloride (BAC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC) and ethacridine lactate (EL), when applied as single substances and in combination with anionic surfactants such as benzene sulfonic acid (BSA), LAS, naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) was studied applying the closed bottle test (CBT) [OECD 301D, 1992. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Closed bottle test. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris] at a ratio of 1:1 (mol:mol). Biodegradation was monitored by measuring oxygen concentration in the test vessels with an oxygen electrode in accordance with international standard methods [ISO 5414, 1990. Water quality - determination of dissolved oxygen. In: German Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Wastewater and Sludge. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, New York, Basel Cambridge]. Primary elimination of the QACs and of LAS was monitored by LC-MS/MS. There was little biodegradability of the QACs as either single compounds or in the presence of organic counter ions. The biodegradability of the organic counter ions was lower in the presence of QACs as compared to the single substances. Primary elimination of the QACs by sorption took place. PMID:18439651

Sütterlin, H; Alexy, R; Coker, A; Kümmerer, K

2008-06-01

408

Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussing chemical and geochemical aspects of biogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of entering ecosystems, and their physical chemical forms are discussed. Important factors that influence bioavailability and disposition (e.g., organism-water partitioning, uptake via food, food web transfer) are reviewed. These factors include solubilities of chemicals; partitioning of chemicals between solid surfaces, colloids, and soluble phases; variables rates of sorption, desorption; and physiological status of organism. It appears that more emphasis on considering food as a source of uptake and bioaccumulation is important in benthic and epibenthic ecosystems when sediment-associated pollutants are a significant source of input to an aquatic ecosystem. Progress with mathematical models for exposure and uptake of contaminant chemicals is discussed briefly. PMID:1904812

Farrington, J W

1991-01-01

409

FATE OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN A WASTEWATER LAND TREATMENT SYSTEM USING LAGOON IMPOUNDMENT AND SPRAY IRRIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Muskegon County Wastewater Management System (MCWMS) is one of the largest facilities of its kind treating on the average of 125 thousand cubic meters of wastewater by extended aeration, lagoon impoundment and spray irrigation. Over 70% of the influent originates from industrial ...

410

Biofiltration for control of volatile organic compounds (VOCS)  

SciTech Connect

Air biofiltration is a promising technology for control of air emissions of biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In conjunction with vacuum extraction of soils or air stripping of ground water, it can be used to mineralize VOCs removed from contaminated soil or groundwater. The literature describes three major biological systems for treating contaminated air bioscrubbers, biotrickling filters and biofilters. Filter media can be classified as: bioactive fine or irregular particulates, such as soil, peat, compost or mixtures of these materials; pelletized, which are randomly packed in a bed; and structured, such as monoliths with defined or variable passage size and geometry. The media can be made of sorbing and non-absorbing materials. Non-bioactive pelletized and structured media require recycled solutions of nutrients and buffer for efficient microbial activity and are thus called biotrickling filters. Extensive work has been conducted to improve biofiltration by EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Cincinnati in biofilters using pelletized and structured media and improved operational approaches. Representative VOCs in these studies included compounds with a range of aqueous solubilities and octanol-water partition coefficients. The compounds include iso-pentane, toluene, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), ethyl benzene, chlorobenzene and perchloroethylene (PCE) and alpha ({alpha}-) pinene. Comparative studies were conducted with peat/compost biofilters using isopentane and {alpha}-pinene. Control studies were also conducted to investigate adsorption/desorption of contaminants on various media using mercuric chloride solution to insure the absence of bioactivity.

Bishop, D.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Govind, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

411

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

CICCIOLI, PAOLO; CENTRITTO, MAURO; LORETO, FRANCESCO

2014-01-01

412

Evaluation of various liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry operation modes applied to the analysis of organic pollutants in wastewaters.  

PubMed

The LC-MS/MS analysis of a group of 14 organic pollutants in wastewater--including pharmaceuticals (analgesics/anti-inflammatories, lipid regulators and diuretics), pesticides (diuron) and disinfectants (chlorophene)--has been carried out using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). In order to take advantage of the capabilities of the QqLIT system, two methods have been developed and compared, based on the application of different operation modes. One of them uses selected reaction monitoring (SRM), which is the standard mode for quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. The other is based on the use of an information dependent acquisition scan function (IDA), which allows the combination of a SRM acting as the survey scan and an enhanced product ion scan (EPI) as dependent scan within the same analysis. Performance of both methods was compared, especially in terms of their limits of detection and identification capability. The advantages and limitations of both techniques are discussed. Finally, the two methodologies developed were applied to real samples for evaluation of effluent wastewater in a treatment plant on the south-eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain. The presence of most of the target compounds was detected at mean concentrations ranging from 50 ng/L (mefenamic acid) to 3373 ng/L (hydrochlorothiazide). PMID:19576589

Bueno, María Jesús Martínez; Agüera, Ana; Hernando, María Dolores; Gómez, María José; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2009-08-01

413

Determination of selenium and its compounds in marine organisms.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate the type and quantity of selenium compounds in fish and marine organisms, using ion-pair reversed phase LC–ICP-MS, developed and applied for the analysis of Atlantic cod, Atlantic salmon, Greenland halibut, Atlantic herring, blue mussel, common crab, scallop, calanus, and Euphasia super. Of the samples examined, the lowest level of selenium was found in farmed Atlantic salmon (0.17 mg Se kg(?1) dm). The total selenium extraction efficiency by phosphate buffer was 2.5 times higher in sea plankton and shellfish samples than in fish samples. Analysis of Se species in each hydrolysate obtained by proteolysis showed the presence of selenomethionine, which constituted 41.5% of the selenium compounds detected in hydrolysates of Atlantic herring and 98.4% of those in extracts of Atlantic salmon. Inorganic compounds, such as selenates and selenites, were detected mainly in sea plankton and shellfish samples (<0.13 mg Se kg(?1) wm), although no correlation was found between the presence of inorganic compounds and total selenium concentration. The accuracy of the total selenium determination was validated using a certified reference material (oyster tissue (NIST 1566b)). A lyophilised powder of cod (Gadus morhua) was used to validate speciation analysis, enzymatic hydrolysis of lyophilised powder of cod recovered 54 ± 6% of total selenium, and SeMet constituted 83.5 ± 5.28% of selenium detected in hydrolysates. The chromatographic detection limits were, respectively, 0.30 ng mL(?1), 0.43 ng mL(?1), 0.54 ng mL(?1), 0.55 ng mL(?1), 0.57 ng mL(?1) and 0.72 ng mL(?1) for selenate, selenomethionine, selenite, Se-methyl-selenocysteine, selenocystine and selenomethionine selenoxide.The data on selenium concentrations and speciation presented here could be useful in estimating levels of selenium intake by seafood consumption. PMID:25468190

Bryszewska, Ma?gorzata Anita; Måge, Amund

2015-01-01

414

Electrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current density (100 and 150A\\/m2). Dissolved organic carbon removal ranged between 24% and 46%, and chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 32% and 68%. UV–visible spectroscopy showed a reduction of

Salim Zodi; Jean-Noël Louvet; Clémence Michon; Olivier Potier; Marie-Noëlle Pons; François Lapicque; Jean-Pierre Leclerc

2011-01-01

415

Estimating the removal efficiency of refractory dissolved organic matter in wastewater treatment plants using a fluorescence technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectroscopic characteristics and relative distribution of refractory dissolved organic matter (R–DOM) in sewage have been investigated using the influent and the effluent samples collected from 15 large-scale biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Correlation between the characteristics of the influent and the final removal efficiency was also examined. Enhancement of specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and a higher R–DOM distribution ratio

Jin Hur; Tae-Hwan Lee; Bo-Mi Lee

2011-01-01

416

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt...Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating...

2010-07-01

417

Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen during biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes.  

PubMed

Due to its potential to form toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is considered as one of the most important parameters in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This study describes a comprehensive investigation of variations in DON levels in orbal oxidation ditches. The results showed that DON increased gradually from 0.71 to 1.14 mg I(-1) along anaerobic zone, anoxic zone, aerobic zone 1 and aerobic 2. Molecular weight fractionation of DON in one anaerobic zone and one aerobic zone (aerobic zone 2) was performed. We found that the proportion of small molecular weight (<6 kDa) decreased and large molecular weight (> 20 kDa) showed opposite trend. This variation may have been caused due to the release of different types of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during biological processes. These SMPs contained both tryptophan protein-like and aromatic protein-like substances, which were confirmed by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis. PMID:24620601

Liu, Bing; Lin, Huirong; Yu, Guozhong; Zhang, Shenghua; Zhao, Chengmei

2013-04-01

418

Rejection of organic compounds by ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis (ULPRO) membrane has widened the horizon of reverse osmosis (RO) in purification of surface water and wastewater as well as desalination of brackish water. The ULPRO membrane chemistry can provide a high water flux at low operating pressure, while maintaining a very good salt and organics rejection. This paper deals with the investigation

Hiroaki Ozaki; Huafang Li

2002-01-01

419

Evaluation of second-generation multistage wastewater treatment system for the removal of malodorous compounds from liquid swine waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reductions in wastewater malodor that were effected by a second generation implementation of Environmentally Superior Technology (EST) were monitored over a 15 month period that encompassed three cycles of pig production. The wastewater treatment system consisted of three modules: solids separation,...

420

Removal of gasoline volatile organic compounds via air biofiltration  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by vapor extraction and air-stripping systems can be biologically treated in an air biofiltration unit. An air biofilter consists of one or more beds of packing material inoculated with heterotrophic microorganisms capable of degrading the organic contaminant of concern. Waste gases and oxygen are passed through the inoculated packing material, where the microorganisms will degrade the contaminant and release CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. Based on data obtained from a treatability study, a full-scale unit was designed and constructed to be used for treating gasoline vapors generated by a vapor-extraction and groundwater-treatment system at a site in California. The unit is composed of two cylindrical reactors with a total packing volume of 3 m{sup 3}. Both reactors are packed with sphagnum moss and inoculated with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms of Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter spp. The two reactors are connected in series for air-flow passage. Parallel lines are used for injection of water, nutrients, and buffer to each reactor. Data collected during the startup program have demonstrated an air biofiltration unit with high organic-vapor-removal efficiency.

Miller, R.S.; Saberiyan, A.G.; Esler, C.T. [AGRA Earth and Environmental, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); DeSantis, P. [BP Oil Co., Renton, WA (United States); Andrilenas, J.S. [AGRA Earth and Environmental, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-12-31