Sample records for wastewater organic compounds

  1. Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater,

    E-print Network

    Presence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Wastewater, Surface, Ground.W., Meyer, M.T., and Zaugg, S.D., 2004, Presence and distri- bution of organic wastewater compounds in wastewater, surface, ground, and drinking waters, Minnesota, 2000-02: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific

  2. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary survey information on the organophosphorus pesticide industry wastewater streams and analytical methods to monitor levels of organic compounds present in these streams are presented. The identification and quantification of organophosphorus compounds was emphasized, b...

  3. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-10-29

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13) C and (1) H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25354334

  4. Sorption of emerging trace organic compounds onto wastewater sludge solids.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Garmon, John; Drewes, Jörg E; Khan, Stuart J; McDonald, James A; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2011-05-01

    This work examined the sorption potential to wastewater primary- and activated-sludge solids for 34 emerging trace organic chemicals at environmentally relevant concentrations. These compounds represent a diverse range of physical and chemical properties, such as hydrophobicity and charge state, and a diverse range of classes, including steroidal hormones, pharmaceutically-active compounds, personal care products, and household chemicals. Solid-water partitioning coefficients (K(d)) were measured where 19 chemicals did not have previously reported values. Sludge solids were inactivated by a nonchemical lyophilization and dry-heat technique, which provided similar sorption behavior for recalcitrant compounds as compared to fresh activated-sludge. Sorption behavior was similar between primary- and activated-sludge solids from the same plant and between activated-sludge solids from two nitrified processes from different wastewater treatment systems. Positively-charged pharmaceutically-active compounds, amitriptyline, clozapine, verapamil, risperidone, and hydroxyzine, had the highest sorption potential, log K(d)=2.8-3.8 as compared to the neutral and negatively-charged chemicals. Sorption potentials correlated with a compound's hydrophobicity, however the higher sorption potentials observed for positively-charged compounds for a given log D(ow) indicate additional sorption mechanisms, such as electrostatic interactions, are important for these compounds. Previously published soil-based one-parameter models for predicting sorption from hydrophobicity (log K(ow)>2) can be used to predict sorption for emerging nonionic compounds to wastewater sludge solids. PMID:21536314

  5. Partition of Volatile Organic Compounds in Activated Sludge and Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Hong Lin; Ming-Shean Chou

    2006-01-01

    The Henry’s law constant is important in the gas-liquid mass transfer process. Apparent dimensionless Henry’s law constant, or the gas-liquid partition coefficient (K’H), for both hydrophilic (methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone) and hydrophobic (toluene and p-xylene) organic compounds in deionized (DI) water, a wastewater with a maximum total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of 700 mg\\/L, and DI water mixed

  6. Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

  7. Odor-causing volatile organic compounds in wastewater treatment plant units and sludge management areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faruk Dincer; Aysen Muezzinoglu

    2008-01-01

    Odors due to malodorous gas and vapor emissions from units of Izmir Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) were studied and evaluated with respect to chemical composition. Altogether 29 target compounds consisting of 4 different groups of chemicals were identified and quantified in the odorous gas samples from wastewater and sludges. Total volatile malodorous organic compounds (VMOC) consisted of reduced sulfur compounds

  8. Sorption of toxic organic compounds on wastewater solids: Mechanism and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Govind, R.; Dobbs, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sorption of toxic organic compounds on wastewater solids is an important process in conventional biological wastewater treatment systems. The extent of accumulation of toxic organic compounds by sorption onto wastewater solids not only affects the efficiency of the treatment system, but also impacts the management of wastewater solids. The study is an attempt to propose a mechanism for understanding the sorption phenomenon and to develop a model for sorption on wastewater solids based on the proposed mechanism. It was postulated that sorption was a combination of two processes: adsorption and partitioning. A sorption model was developed for both single component and multicomponent systems. The model was tested using single component experimental isotherm data of eight toxic organic compounds.

  9. Stripping of organic compounds from wastewater as an auxiliary fuel of regenerative thermal oxidizer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2009-08-15

    Organic solvents with different volatilities are widely used in various processes and generate air and water pollution problems. In the cleaning processes of electronics industries, most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are vented to air pollution control devices while most non-volatile organic solvents dissolve in the cleaning water and become the major sources of COD in wastewater. Discharging a high-COD wastewater stream to wastewater treatment facility often disturbs the treatment performance. A pretreatment of the high-COD wastewater is therefore highly desirable. This study used a packed-bed stripping tower in combination with a regenerative thermal oxidizer to remove the COD in the wastewater from a printed circuit board manufacturing process and to utilize the stripped organic compounds as the auxiliary fuel of the RTO. The experimental results showed that up to 45% of the COD could be removed and 66% of the RTO fuel could be saved by the combined treatment system. PMID:19195779

  10. Removal of dioxins, PCB's and other halogenated organic compounds from wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Ying; S. A. Sojka

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes the combination of physicochemical and biological treatment processes for removing dioxins, PCB's, and other halogenated organic compounds from raw wastewater, in a pretreatment zone to produce pretreated wastewater still containing minor proportions, of dioxins and PCB's and then in a reaction zone wherein final effluent is produced. This comprises the physiocochemical process consisting of subjecting the raw

  11. GC\\/MS analysis of chlorinated organic compounds in municipal wastewater after chlorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A study has been conducted for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated organic compounds in water. The study included the adaptation of Amberlite XAD macroreticular resin techniques for the concentration of municipal wastewater samples, followed by GC\\/MS analysis. A new analytical method was developed for the determination of volatile halogenated organics using liquid-liquid extraction and electron capture gas chromatography.

  12. ANAEROBIC INHIBITION OF TRACE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL DURING RAPID INFILTRATION OF WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    When soil columns were operated aerobically on a flooding-drying schedule in a previous study, good removals were observed for several organic compounds at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1,000 micrograms/l per liter in primary wastewater. In this study, fractional breakthrough ...

  13. Industrial waste-water volatile organic compound emissions. Background information for BACT\\/LAER determinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Elliott; S. Watkins

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Control Technology Center (CTC) is to provide technical information to States on estimating and controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from the collection and treatment of industrial wastewaters for Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) determinations. Technical guidance projects, focus on topics of national or regional interest that are identified through

  14. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

  15. Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemen?i?, A Krivograd

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds. PMID:24434982

  16. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ouellette

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which

  17. GC/MS analysis of chlorinated organic compounds in municipal wastewater after chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been conducted for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated organic compounds in water. The study included the adaptation of Amberlite XAD macroreticular resin techniques for the concentration of municipal wastewater samples, followed by GC/MS analysis. A new analytical method was developed for the determination of volatile halogenated organics using liquid-liquid extraction and electron capture gas chromatography. And, a computer program was written which searches raw GC/MS computer files for halogen-containing organic compounds.

  18. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ouellette, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

  19. Organic compounds in olive mill wastewater and in solutions resulting from hydrothermal carbonization of the wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Baskyr, I

    2013-09-01

    Organic components in olive mill wastewater (OMW) were analyzed by exhaustive solvent extraction of the lyophilisate followed by pre-chromatographic derivatization techniques and GC/MS-analysis of the extracts. Simple biophenols including tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr) and homovanillic alcohol as well as complex biophenols including decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon proved most abundant analytes. Hydroxylated benzoic and cinnamic acids are less abundant, which may indicate a humification process to have occurred. The pattern of organic components obtained from native OMW was compared with that obtained from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of the waste product. Former results provided strong evidence that HTC of OMW at 220°C for 14h results in an almost complete hydrolysis of complex aglycons. However, simple biophenols were not decomposed on hydrothermal treatment any further. Phenol and benzenediols as well as low molecular weight organic acids proved most abundant analytes which were generated due to HTC. Similarly to aglycons, lipids including most abundant acylglycerines and less abundant wax esters were subjected almost quantitatively to hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions. Fatty acids (FAs) released from lipids were further decomposed. The pathways of volatile analytes in both native OMW and aqueous HTC solutions were studied by solventless headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction. Basically, a wide array low molecular alcohols and ketones occurring in native OMW survived the HTC process. PMID:23648325

  20. Simultaneous removal of inorganic and organic compounds in wastewater by freshwater green microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Jie; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Fu-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Batch experiments were carried out for 7 days to investigate the simultaneous removal of various organic and inorganic contaminants including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), metals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and estrogenic activity in wastewater by four freshwater green microalgae species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris. After treatment for 7 days, 76.7-92.3% of TN, and 67.5-82.2% of TP were removed by these four algae species. The removal of metals from wastewater by the four algae species varied among the metal species. These four algae species could remove most of the metals efficiently (>40% removal), but showed low efficiencies in removing Pb, Ni and Co. The four algae species were also found to be efficient in removing most of the selected organic compounds with >50% removal, and the estrogenic activity with removal efficiencies ranging from 46.2 to 81.1% from the wastewater. Therefore, algae could be harnessed to simultaneously remove various contaminants in wastewater. PMID:24953257

  1. Bioremediation of trace organic compounds found in precious metals refineries’ wastewaters: A review of potential options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Barbosa; R. Tandlich; J. E. Burgess

    2007-01-01

    Platinum group metal (PGM) refining processes produce large quantities of wastewater, which is contaminated with the compounds that make up the solvents\\/extractants mixtures used in the process. These compounds often include solvesso, ?-hydroxyxime, amines, amides and methyl isobutyl ketone. A process to clean up PGM refinery wastewaters so that they could be re-used in the refining process would greatly contribute

  2. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic). The occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds varied considerably among sampling sites, but at least one compound was detected at every location. The most organic wastewater compounds (19) were detected at the Neuse River above U.S. 70 at Smithfield, where two-thirds of the total number of samples were collected. The fewest organic wastewater compounds (1) were detected at the Eno River at Hillsborough. The detection of multiple organic wastewater compounds was common, with a median of 3.5 and as many as 12 compounds observed in individual samples. Some compounds, including acetaminophen, cotinine, tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and metolachlor, were detected at numerous sites and in numerous samples, indicating that they are widely distributed in the environment. Other organic wastewater compounds, including acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran, were detected in numerous samples but at only one location, indicating that sources of these compounds are more site specific. Results indicate that municipal wastewater may be a source of antibiotics and synthetic musks; however, the three sites in this study that are located downstream from wastewater discharges also receive runoff from agricultural, urban, and rural residential lands. Source identification was not an objective of this study. Concentrations of individual compounds generally were less than 0.5 microgram per liter. No concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards or health advisories, nor water-quality criteria established by the State of North Carolina; however, such criteria are available for only a few of the compounds that were studied. Compared with other surface waters that have been sampled across the United States, the Triangle Area water-supply sites had fewer detections of organic wastewater compounds; however, differences in study design and analytical methods used among studies must be considered when mak

  3. The effect of mean cell residence time on the adsorbability of dissolved organic compounds found in petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Timothy Loring

    1979-01-01

    -adsorbable organic com- pounds found in the wastewater and a decrease in the dosage of acti- vated carbon needed to produce effluents wi th equal COD value. DEDICATION The author wishes to dedicate this thesis to the many individuals who aided the author... remove certain toxic organic compounds or be used as a tertiary treatment following biological treatment. Carbon treatment will reduce COD, BOD, color, taste, and odor through organic compound removal. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate...

  4. Empirical Model for Predicting Concentrations of Refractory Hydrophobic Organic Compounds in Digested Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Randhir P.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    An empirical model is presented allowing for the prediction of concentrations of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) prone to accumulate and persist in digested sludge (biosolids) generated during conventional municipal wastewater treatment. The sole input requirements of the model are the concentrations of the individual HOCs entering the wastewater treatment plant in raw sewage, the compound’s respective pH-dependent octanol-water partitioning coefficient (DOW), and an empirically determined fitting parameter (pfit) that reflects persistence of compounds in biosolids after accounting for all potential removal mechanisms during wastewater treatment. The accuracy of the model was successfully confirmed at the 99% confidence level in a paired t test that compared predicted concentrations in biosolids to empirical measurements reported in the literature. After successful validation, the resultant model was applied to predict levels of various HOCs for which occurrence data in biosolids thus far are lacking. PMID:20161626

  5. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  6. Analysis of pharmaceutical and other organic wastewater compounds in filtered and unfiltered water samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Smith, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effects of exposure of stream biota to complex mixtures of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds associated with wastewater requires the development of additional analytical capabilities for these compounds in water samples. Two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analytical methods used at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to analyze organic compounds associated with wastewater were adapted to include additional pharmaceutical and other organic compounds beginning in 2009. This report includes a description of method performance for 42 additional compounds for the filtered-water method (hereafter referred to as the filtered method) and 46 additional compounds for the unfiltered-water method (hereafter referred to as the unfiltered method). The method performance for the filtered method described in this report has been published for seven of these compounds; however, the addition of several other compounds to the filtered method and the addition of the compounds to the unfiltered method resulted in the need to document method performance for both of the modified methods. Most of these added compounds are pharmaceuticals or pharmaceutical degradates, although two nonpharmaceutical compounds are included in each method. The main pharmaceutical compound classes added to the two modified methods include muscle relaxants, opiates, analgesics, and sedatives. These types of compounds were added to the original filtered and unfiltered methods largely in response to the tentative identification of a wide range of pharmaceutical and other organic compounds in samples collected from wastewater-treatment plants. Filtered water samples are extracted by vacuum through disposable solid-phase cartridges that contain modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. Unfiltered samples are extracted by using continuous liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The compounds of interest for filtered and unfiltered sample types were determined by use of the capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The performance of each method was assessed by using data on recoveries of compounds in fortified surface-water, wastewater, and reagent-water samples. These experiments (referred to as spike experiments) consist of fortifying (or spiking) samples with known amounts of target analytes. Surface-water-spike experiments were performed by using samples obtained from a stream in Colorado (unfiltered method) and a stream in New York (filtered method). Wastewater spike experiments for both the filtered and unfiltered methods were performed by using a treated wastewater obtained from a single wastewater treatment plant in New York. Surface water and wastewater spike experiments were fortified at both low and high concentrations and termed low- and high-level spikes, respectively. Reagent water spikes were assessed in three ways: (1) set spikes, (2) a low-concentration fortification experiment, and (3) a high-concentration fortification experiment. Set spike samples have been determined since 2009, and consist of analysis of fortified reagent water for target compounds included for each group of 10 to18 environmental samples analyzed at the NWQL. The low-concentration and high-concentration reagent spike experiments, by contrast, represent a one-time assessment of method performance. For each spike experiment, mean recoveries ranging from 60 to 130 percent indicate low bias, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than ( Of the compounds included in the filtered method, 21 had mean recoveries ranging from 63 to 129 percent for the low-level and high-level surface-water spikes, and had low ()132 percent]. For wastewater spikes, 24 of the compounds included in the filtered method had recoveries ranging from 61 to 130 percent for the low-level and high-level spikes. RSDs were 130 percent) or variable recoveries (RSDs >30 percent) for low-level wastewater spikes, or low recoveries ( Of the compounds included in the unfiltered method, 17 had mean spike recoveries ranging from 74

  7. Reconnaissance of Organic Wastewater Compounds at a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Water-quality and hydrologic data were collected during 2008 to examine the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds at a concentrated swine feeding operation located in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Continuous groundwater level and stream-stage data were collected at one monitoring well and one stream site, respectively, throughout 2008. One round of environmental and quality-control samples was collected in September 2008 following a period of below-normal precipitation and when swine waste was not being applied to the spray fields. Samples were collected at one lagoon site, seven shallow groundwater sites, and one surface-water site for analysis of 111 organic wastewater compounds, including household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and antibiotics. Analytical data for environmental samples collected during the study provide preliminary information on the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in the lagoon-waste source material, groundwater beneath fields that receive spray applications of the lagoon wastes, and surface water in the tributary adjacent to the site. Overall, 28 organic wastewater compounds were detected in the collected samples, including 11 household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds; 3 sterols; 2 pharmaceutical compounds; 5 hormones; and 7 antibiotics. The lagoon sample had the greatest number (20) and highest concentrations of compounds compared to groundwater and surface-water samples. The antibiotic lincomycin had the maximum detected concentration (393 micrograms per liter) in the lagoon sample. Of the 11 compounds identified in the groundwater and surface-water samples, all with reported concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter, only lincomycin identified in groundwater at 1 well and 3-methyl-1H-indole and indole identified in surface water at 1 site also were identified in the lagoon waste material.

  8. Volatile organic compound emissions from wastewater treatment plants in Taiwan: legal regulations and costs of control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Hsu, Shu-Kang; Chou, Ming-Shean

    2008-09-01

    This study assessed volatile organic compound (VOC) emission characteristics from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in five Taiwanese industrial districts engaged in numerous manufacturing processes, including petrochemical, science-based industry (primarily semiconductors, photo-electronics, electronic products and biological technology), as well as multiple manufacturing processes (primarily pharmaceuticals and paint manufacturing). The most aqueous hydrocarbons dissolved in the wastewater of Taiwanese WWTPs were acetone, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride, and chloroform for the petrochemical districts; acetone, chloroform, and toluene for the science-based districts; and chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons for the multiple industrial districts. The aqueous pollutants in the united WWTPs were closely related to the characteristics of the manufacturing plants in the districts. To effectively prevent VOC emissions from the primary treatment section of petrochemical WWTPs, the updated regulations governing VOC emissions were issued by the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration in September 2005, legally mandating a seal cover system incorporating venting and air purification equipment. Cost analysis indicates that incinerators with regenerative heat recovery are optimal for treating high VOC concentrations, exceeding 10,000 ppm as CH(4), from the oil separation basins. However, the emission concentrations, ranging from 100 to 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from the other primary treatment facilities and bio-treatment stages, should be collected and then injected into the biological oxidation basins via existing or new blowers. The additional capital and operating costs required to treat the VOC emissions of 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from primary treatment facilities are less than USD 0.1 for per m(3) wastewater treatment capacity. PMID:17825475

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Remediation for wastewater. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater contamination by volatile organic materials and the technology for reclamation. Remediation techniques discussed include use of activated carbon, activated sludge, oxidation, scrubbing, vapor stripping, biodegradation, and other degradative treatments. Articles include remediation of soils contaminated by volatile wastes. The citations examine a variety of compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum wastes, chlorinated organics, and other volatile materials. (Contains a minimum of 215 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in the Tinkers Creek Watershed and Two Other Tributaries to the Cuyahoga River, Northeast Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tertuliani, J.S.; Alvarez, D.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey - in cooperation with the Ohio Water Development Authority; National Park Service; Cities of Aurora, Bedford, Bedford Heights, Solon, and Twinsburg; and Portage and Summit Counties - and in collaboration with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, did a study to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the Tinkers Creek watershed in northeastern Ohio. In the context of this report, OWCs refer to a wide range of compounds such as antibiotics, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, household and industrial compounds (for example, antimicrobials, fragrances, surfactants, fire retardants, and so forth) and a variety of other chemicals. Canisters containing polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) media were deployed instream for a 28-day period in Mayand June 2006 at locations upstream and downstream from seven wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) outfalls in the Tinkers Creek watershed, at a site on Tinkers Creek downstream from all WWTP discharges, and at one reference site each in two nearby watersheds (Yellow Creek and Furnace Run) that drain to the Cuyahoga River. Streambed-sediment samples also were collected at each site when the canisters were retrieved. POCIS and SPMDs are referred to as 'passive samplers' because they sample compounds that they are exposed to without use of mechanical or moving parts. OWCs detected in POCIS and SPMD extracts are referred to in this report as 'detections in water' because both POCIS and SPMDs provided time-weighted measures of concentration in the stream over the exposure period. Streambed sediments also reflect exposure to OWCs in the stream over a long period of time and provide another OWC exposure pathway for aquatic organisms. Four separate laboratory methods were used to analyze for 32 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 57 to 66 wastewater, and 33 hydrophobic compounds. POCIS and streambed-sediment extracts were analyzed by both the pharmaceutical and wastewater methods. POCIS extracts also were analyzed by the antibiotic method, and SPMD extracts were analyzed by the hydrophobic-compound method. Analytes associated with a given laboratory method are referred to in aggregate by the method name (for example, antibiotic-method analytes are referred to as 'antibiotic compounds') even though some analytes associated with the method may not be strictly classified as such. In addition, some compounds were included in the analyte list for more than one laboratory method. For a given sample matrix, individual compounds detected by more than one analytical method are included independently in counts for each method. A total of 12 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 41 wastewater, and 22 hydrophobic compounds were detected in water at one or more sites. Eight pharmaceutical and 37 wastewater compounds were detected in streambed sediments. The numbers of detections at reference sites tended to be in the low range of detection counts observed in the Tinkers Creek watershed for a given analytical method. Also, the total numbers of compounds detected in water and sediment at the reference sites were less than the total numbers of compounds detected at sites in the Tinkers Creek watershed. With the exception of hydrophobic compounds, it was common at most sites to have more compounds detected in samples collected downstream from WWTP outfalls than in corresponding samples collected upstream from the outfalls. This was particularly true for antibiotic, pharmaceutical, and wastewater compounds in water. In contrast, it was common to have more hydrophobic compounds detected in samples collected upstream from WWTP outfalls than downstream. Caffeine, fluoranthene, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), phenanthrene, and pyrene were detected in water at all sites in the Tinkers Creek watershed, irrespective of whether the site was upstream or downs

  11. AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER

    E-print Network

    #12;AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER DOE FRAP 1997-15 Prepared for in both domestic and industrial wastewater. The release of these compounds during wastewater treatment to predict the mass of the VOCs in the wastewater treated by biotransformation and the mass stripped

  12. Decolourization and removal of some organic compounds from olive mill wastewater by advanced oxidation processes and lime treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet U?urlu; ?brahim Kula

    2007-01-01

    Background  Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated by the olive oil extracting industry is a major pollutant, because of its high organic\\u000a load and phytotoxic and antibacterial phenolic compounds which resist biological degradation. Mediterranean countries are\\u000a mostly affected by this serious environmental problem since they are responsible for 95% of the worldwide oliveoil production.\\u000a There are many methods used for OMW treatment,

  13. NON-THERMAL PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER CONTROL: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsu-Hui Cheng; Shiao-Shing Chen; Yu-Chi Wu; Din-Lit Ho

    Non-thermal plasma is an emerging technique in environmental pollution control technology, produced by the high-voltage discharge processes and therefore a large amount of high energy electrons and active species are generated. The degradation of difficult-degraded organic pollutions will be greatly enhanced by the active species generated from non-thermal plasma process. However, research on non-thermal plasma technology on organic wastewater cleaning

  14. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 ?g/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated. PMID:23410859

  15. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Walker; Nicholas V. Paretti; Gail Cordy; Timothy S. Gross; Steven D. Zaugg; Edward T. Furlong; Dana W. Kolpin; William J. Matter; Jessica Gwinn; Dennis McIntosh

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance

  16. Treatment of coke-plant wastewater by biofilm systems for removal of organic compounds and nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Li; G. W. Gu; J. F. Zhao; H. Q. Yu; Y. L. Qiu; Y. Z. Peng

    2003-01-01

    Coke-plant wastewater was treated by an anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic (A1–A2–O) biofilm system and an anoxic–aerobic (A\\/O) biofilm system, respectively. At same or similar levels of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the two systems had almost identical chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3 removals, but a different organic-N removal. Set-up of an acidogenic stage benefited for the removal of organic-N and the A1–A2–O system

  17. Fast online emission monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater and product streams (using stripping with direct steam injection).

    PubMed

    Schocker, Alexander; Lissner, Bert

    2012-03-01

    Open-loop stripping analysis (also referred to as dynamic headspace) is a very flexible and robust technology for online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in wastewater or coolant. However, the quality and reliability of the analytical results depend strongly on the temperature during the stripping process. Hence, the careful and constant heating of the liquid phase inside the stripping column is a critical parameter. In addition, this stripping at high temperatures extends the spectrum of traceable organics to less volatile and more polar compounds with detection limits down to the ppm-level. This paper presents a novel and promising approach for fast, efficient, and constant heating by the direct injection of process steam into the strip medium. The performance of the system is demonstrated for temperatures up to 75 °C and traces of various hydrocarbons in water (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, ethylbenzene). PMID:22186871

  18. Organic wastewater compounds in water and sediment in and near restored wetlands, Great Marsh, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, 2009–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Egler, Amanda L.; Risch, Martin R.; Alvarez, David A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative investigation between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service was completed from 2009 through 2011 to understand the occurrence, distribution, and environmental processes affecting concentrations of organic wastewater compounds in water and sediment in and near Great Marsh at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Beverly Shores, Indiana. Sampling sites were selected to represent hydrologic inputs to the restored wetlands from adjacent upstream residential and less developed areas and to represent discharge points of cascading cells within the restored wetland. A multiphase approach was used for the investigation. Discrete water samples and time-integrated passive samples were analyzed for 69 organic wastewater compounds. Continuous water-level information and periodic streamflow measurements characterized flow conditions at discharge points from restored wetland cells. Wetland sediments were collected and analyzed for sorptive losses of organic wastewater compounds and to evaluate of the potential for wetland sediments to biotransform organic wastewater compounds. A total of 52 organic wastewater compounds were detected in discrete water samples at 1 or more sites. Detections of organic wastewater compounds were widespread, but concentrations were generally low and 95 percent were less than 2.1 micrograms per liter. Six compounds were detected at concentrations greater than 2.1 micrograms per liter—four fecal sterols (beta-sitosterol, cholesterol, beta-stigmastanol, and 2-beta coprostanol), one plasticizer (bis-2-ethylhex ylphthalate), and a non-ionic detergent (4-nonylphenol diethoxylate). Two 1-month deployments of time-integrative passive samplers, called polar organic chemical integrative samplers, detected organic wastewater compounds at lower concentrations than were possible with discrete water samples. Isopropyl benzene (solvent), caffeine (plant alkaloid, stimulant), and hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (fragrance) were detected in more than half of the extracts from passive samplers, but they were not detected in any discrete water sample. The Yeast Estrogen Screen assay identified measurable estrogenicity in one passive sampler extract from the most downstream wetland site in both the April and November–December 2011 deployments and in passive sampler extracts from one residential and one upstream site in the November–December 2011 deployment only. Surface-water levels in the restored wetland cells were monitored continuously using submersible pressure transducers in hand-driven well points screened in the surface water. Surface-water levels in the wetland cells responded quickly to precipitation and substantially receded within 2 days following the largest rainfall events. Seasonal patterns in water levels generally showed higher and more variable surface-water levels in the wetland cells during spring and early summer. Water levels in the wetland cells fell below the elevation of the control structures and ceased to flow over the spillways during extended dry periods (primarily late summer and early fall). Daily loads of seven organic wastewater compounds, as indicators of septic system effluent, were estimated for samples collected at wetland outlet spillways when flow measurements could be made. Median daily loads of the indicator organic wastewater compounds increased in downstream order, and the largest median loads were measured at the most downstream site. Median daily loads were higher for samples collected in spring and summer than those collected in fall, as the higher seasonal water levels increased streamflow at the wetland outlet spillways. Wetland sediment samples were analyzed for 84 organic wastewater compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and semivolatile organic compounds to investigate the fate of contaminants in Great Marsh. The top five detected compounds by total mass in wetland sediment samples were beta-sitosterol, beta-stigmastanol, cholesterol, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and phenol. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons also were freq

  19. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Stackelberg, Paul E; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Henderson, Alden K; Reissman, Dori B

    2004-08-15

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. PMID:15262161

  1. THE EFFECT OF OZONATION OF ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of ozone treatment of domestic wastewater and various model compounds has been determined with respect to trace organic components. Organic constituents were identified in wastewater that was treated with ozone at the Upper Thompson Sanitation District Treatment Plant,...

  2. Summary of Organic Wastewater Compounds and Other Water-Quality Data in Charles County, Maryland, October 2007 through August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Soeder, Daniel J.; Teunis, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the government of Charles County, Maryland, and the Port Tobacco River Conservancy, Inc., conducted a water-quality reconnaissance and sampling investigation of the Port Tobacco River and Nanjemoy Creek watersheds in Charles County during October 2007 and June-August 2008. Samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, organic wastewater compounds, and other selected constituents from 17 surface-water sites and 11 well sites (5 of which were screened in streambed sediments to obtain porewater samples). Most of the surface-water sites were relatively widely spaced throughout the Port Tobacco River and Nanjemoy Creek watersheds, although the well sites and some associated surface-water sites were concentrated in one residential community along the Port Tobacco River that has domestic septic systems. Sampling for enterococci bacteria was conducted by the Port Tobacco River Conservancy, Inc., at each site to coordinate with the sampling for chemical constituents. The purpose of the coordinated sampling was to determine correlations between historically high, in-stream bacteria counts and human wastewater inputs. Chemical data for the groundwater, porewater, and surface-water samples are presented in this report.

  3. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 ?g L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 ?g L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 ?g L(-1) with maximum level of 112 ?g L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater. PMID:23160750

  4. MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR (MBR) FOR TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER CONTAMINATED BY PETROLEUM ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wiszniowski; A. Ziembi?ska; S. Ciesielski

    Nowadays, increasingly stringent environmental legislation relating to freshwater conservation and pollution abatement requires the application and development of reliable technologies for wastewater treatment. Submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) is a technology which is able to fulfill those specific purposes. In the present studies lab scale MBR performance was monitored during five months in order to investigate a long-term operational stability in

  5. Predicting concentrations of trace organic compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge and biosolids using the PhATE™ model.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Virginia L; D'Aco, Vincent J; Pfeiffer, Danielle; Anderson, Paul D; Buzby, Mary E; Hannah, Robert E; Jahnke, James; Parke, Neil J

    2012-07-01

    This article presents the capability expansion of the PhATE™ (pharmaceutical assessment and transport evaluation) model to predict concentrations of trace organics in sludges and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PhATE was originally developed as an empirical model to estimate potential concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in US surface and drinking waters that could result from patient use of medicines. However, many compounds, including pharmaceuticals, are not completely transformed in WWTPs and remain in biosolids that may be applied to land as a soil amendment. This practice leads to concerns about potential exposures of people who may come into contact with amended soils and also about potential effects to plants and animals living in or contacting such soils. The model estimates the mass of API in WWTP influent based on the population served, the API per capita use, and the potential loss of the compound associated with human use (e.g., metabolism). The mass of API on the treated biosolids is then estimated based on partitioning to primary and secondary solids, potential loss due to biodegradation in secondary treatment (e.g., activated sludge), and potential loss during sludge treatment (e.g., aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting). Simulations using 2 surrogate compounds show that predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated by PhATE are in very good agreement with measured concentrations, i.e., well within 1 order of magnitude. Model simulations were then carried out for 18 APIs representing a broad range of chemical and use characteristics. These simulations yielded 4 categories of results: 1) PECs are in good agreement with measured data for 9 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, 2) PECs are greater than measured data for 3 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, possibly as a result of as yet unidentified depletion mechanisms, 3) PECs are less than analytical reporting limits for 5 compounds with low analytical detection frequencies, and 4) the PEC is greater than the analytical method reporting limit for 1 compound with a low analytical detection frequency, possibly again as a result of insufficient depletion data. Overall, these results demonstrate that PhATE has the potential to be a very useful tool in the evaluation of APIs in biosolids. Possible applications include: prioritizing APIs for assessment even in the absence of analytical methods; evaluating sludge processing scenarios to explore potential mitigation approaches; using in risk assessments; and developing realistic nationwide concentrations, because PECs can be represented as a cumulative probability distribution. Finally, comparison of PECs to measured concentrations can also be used to identify the need for fate studies of compounds of interest in biosolids. PMID:22162313

  6. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  7. Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceutical and Organic Wastewater Compounds in Effluent and Water Samples from Municipal Wastewater and Drinking-Water Treatment Facilities in the Tar and Cape Fear River Basins, North Carolina, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrell, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of treated effluent and treated and untreated water were collected at 20 municipal wastewater and drinkingwater treatment facilities in the Tar and Cape Fear River basins of North Carolina during 2003 and 2005. The samples were analyzed for a variety of prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical compounds and a suite of organic compounds considered indicative of wastewater. Concentrations of these compounds generally were less than or near the detection limits of the analytical methods used during this investigation. None of these compounds were detected at concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Bromoform, a disinfection byproduct, was the only compound detected at a concentration that exceeded regulatory guidelines. The concentration of bromoform in one finished drinking-water sample, 26 micrograms per liter, exceeded North Carolina water-quality criteria. Drinking-water treatment practices were effective at removing many of the compounds detected in untreated water. Disinfection processes used in wastewater treatment - chlorination or irradiation with ultraviolet light - did not seem to substantially degrade the organic compounds evaluated during this study.

  8. Agricultural reuse of reclaimed water and uptake of organic compounds: pilot study at Mutah University wastewater treatment plant, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Nasir, Farah; Batarseh, Mufeed I

    2008-07-01

    The residues of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs) and phenols were investigated for soil, wastewater, groundwater and plants. The uptake concentration of these compounds was comparatively determined using various plant types: Zea mays L., Helianthus annus L., Capsicum annum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L., Solanum melongena L. and Lycopersicon esculentum L. which were grown in a pilot site established at Mutah University wastewater treatment plant, Jordan. Soil, wastewater, groundwater and various plant parts (roots, leaves and fruits) samples were extracted in duplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analyzed by a multi-residue analytical methods using gas chromatography equipped with either mass selective detector (GC/MS), electron capture detector (GC/ECD), or flame ionization detector (FID). Environmentally relevant concentrations of targeted compounds were detected for wastewater much higher than for groundwater. The overall distribution profiles of PAHs and PCBs appeared similar for groundwater and wastewater indicating common potential pollution sources. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and phenols for different soils ranged from 169.34 to 673.20 microg kg(-1), 0.04 to 73.86 microg kg(-1) and 73.83 to 8724.42 microg kg(-1), respectively. However, much lower concentrations were detected for reference soil. CBs were detected in very low concentrations. Furthermore, it was found that different plants have different uptake and translocation behavior. As a consequence, there are some difficulties in evaluating the translocation of PAHs, CBs, PCBs and phenols from soil-roots-plant system. The uptake concentrations of various compounds from soil, in which plants grown, were dependent on plant variety and plant part, and they showed different uptake concentrations. Among the different plant parts, roots were found to be the most contaminated and fruits the least contaminated. PMID:18471853

  9. Occurrence and potential transport of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds from wastewater-treatment plant influent and effluent to groundwater and canal systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Adam L.; Katz, Brian G.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    An increased demand for fresh groundwater resources in South Florida has prompted Miami-Dade County to expand its water reclamation program and actively pursue reuse plans for aquifer recharge, irrigation, and wetland rehydration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), initiated a study in 2008 to assess the presence of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in the influent and effluent at three regional wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) operated by the WASD and at one WWTP operated by the City of Homestead, Florida (HSWWTP).

  10. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Stackelberg; Edward T. Furlong; Michael T. Meyer; Steven D. Zaugg; Alden K. Henderson; Dori B. Reissman

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples

  11. Emissions of volatile and potentially toxic organic compounds from waste-water treatment plants and collection systems (Phase 2). Volume 1. Project summaries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D.P.Y.; Schroeder, E.D.; Corsi, R.L.; Guensler, R.; Meyerhofer, J.A.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of the Phase II research project on emission of potentially toxic organic compounds (PTOCs) from wastewater treatment plants were fivefold: (1) assessment of the importance of gaseous emissions from municipal wastewater collection systems; (2) resolution of the discrepancy between the measured and estimated emissions (Phase I), from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP) operated by the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (CSDLAC); (3) determination of airborne concentrations of PTOCS immediately downwind of an activated sludge aeration process at the City of Los Angeles' Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP); (4) a modeling assessment of the effects of transient loading on emissions during preliminary and primary treatment at a typical municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP); (5) a preliminary investigation of effects of chlorination practices on haloform production. Volume 1, for which the abstract was prepared, contains a summary of results from each project; Volume 2 contains the discussion regarding the modeling of collection system emissions; Volume 3 addresses methods development and field sampling efforts at the JWPCP and HTP, data on emissions from a mechanically ventilated sewer and results of some preliminary haloform formation studies in wastewaters; and Volume 4 discusses aspects of the emissions modeling problem.

  12. [Chlorination characteristic and disinfection by-product formation potential of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Yu, Xin; Yu, Guo-Zhong; Gu, Li; Zhao, Cheng-Mei; Zhai, Hui-Min; Li, Qing-Fei

    2013-08-01

    In order to explore the chlorinated disinfection by-product formation potential and chemical structure of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater, the water quality parameters, such as DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N and UV254 etc, were determined in the secondary effluent and the molecular weight distribution of the DON was investigated before and after the reaction with chlorine. DBPs were determined by gas chromatography, and the changes of DON were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy before and after the reaction with chlorine. The results showed that DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N and UV254 were 2.47 mg x L(-1), 14.45 mg x L(-1), 5.42 mg x L(-1) and 15.88 m(-1), and m(DOC)/m(DON) and SUVA were 5.85 mg x mg(-1) and 1.09 L x (m x mg)(-1) in the secondary effluent. After the reaction with chlorine, the proportion of small molecular weight (M(r) < 6 000) DON increased from 78% to 70% , and the proportion of large molecular weight (M(r) > 20 000) DON decreased from 21% to 14%. The medium molecular weight (M(r)6000-20000) DON accounted for a small proportion and was unchanged. Among the DBPs, the concentration of bromochloroacetonitrile was the highest, which was 6.887 microg x L(-1), and the concentration of trichloroacetonitrile was the lowest, which was only 0.217 microg x L(-1). In FTIR spectrum, the dominating bands were at 3 500-3 400, 2 260-2 200, 1 700-1 640, 1 500-1 450, 1 150-1 100 and 850-800 cm(-1) respectively before the reaction, and the 1 380-1 350 cm(-1) and 600-550 cm(-1) bands were the dominating bands in addition to the original absorbing regions after the reaction. 3DEEM revealed that the variation of DON depends intimately on tryptophan protein-like substances, aromatic protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances. PMID:24191563

  13. Design and evaluation of a field study on the contamination of selected volatile organic compounds and wastewater-indicator compounds in blanks and groundwater samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bender, David A.; Mueller, David K.; Rose, Donna L.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Bernard, Bruce; Zogorski, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The Field Contamination Study (FCS) was designed to determine the field processes that tend to result in clean field blanks and to identify potential sources of contamination to blanks collected in the field from selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and wastewater-indicator compounds (WICs). The VOCs and WICs analyzed in the FCS were detected in blanks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1996-2008 and 2002-08, respectively. To minimize the number of variables, the study required ordering of supplies just before sampling, storage of supplies and equipment in clean areas, and use of adequate amounts of purge-and-trap volatile-grade methanol and volatile pesticide-grade blank water (VPBW) to clean sampling equipment and to collect field blanks. Blanks and groundwater samples were collected during 2008-09 at 16 sites, which were a mix of water-supply and monitoring wells, located in 9 States. Five different sample types were collected for the FCS at each site: (1) a source-solution blank collected at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) using laboratory-purged VPBW, (2) source-solution blanks collected in the field using laboratory-purged VPBW, (3) source-solution blanks collected in the field using field-purged VPBW, (4) a field blank collected using field-purged VPBW, and (5) a groundwater sample collected from a well. The source-solution blank and field-blank analyses were used to identify, quantify, and document extrinsic contamination and to help determine the sources and causes of data-quality problems that can affect groundwater samples. Concentrations of compounds detected in FCS analyses were quantified and results were stored in the USGS National Water Information System database after meeting rigorous identification and quantification criteria. The study also utilized information provided by laboratory analysts about evidence indicating the presence of selected compounds, using less rigorous identification criteria than is required for reporting data to the National Water Information System database. For the FCS, these data are considered adequate to indicate 'evidence of presence,' and were used only for diagnostic purposes. Evidence of VOCs and WICs at low concentrations near or less than the long-term method detection level can indicate a contamination problem that could affect future datasets if method detection levels were ever to be lowered. None of the 13 VOCs and 16 WICs included in this study were quantified in the VPBW collected and analyzed at the NWQL. This finding indicates that the VPBW was 'contaminant free' when it was shipped from the laboratory to each of the field offices, although some compounds were present in some of the samples at concentrations less than minimum detection levels based on evidence-of-presence data. Toluene, m- and p-xylene, benzene, and carbon disulfide were each quantified in an FCS field-blank analysis, but not in the associated groundwater sample. The native-water rinse of the sampling equipment conducted just before collection of the groundwater sample likely reduced low-level contamination with respect to these compounds. VOCs had lower detection frequencies in source-solution blanks and field blanks collected during the FCS than in the historical dataset collected by the NAWQA Program during 1996-2008. The detection frequency of toluene in field blanks was reduced about an order of magnitude from about 38 percent in the historical NAWQA dataset to 3.1 percent in the FCS dataset. Other VOCs quantified in 5 percent or more of the field blanks in the NAWQA dataset, but not quantified in the FCS field-blank analyses, were ethylbenzene, o-xylene, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, chloroform, dichloromethane, acetone, 2-butanone, and tetrahydrofuran. The lower detection frequencies of most VOCs for the FCS, compared to historical NAWQA data, can most likely be attributed to the use

  14. Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceuticals, Personal-Care Products, Organic Wastewater Compounds, and Pesticides in the Lower Tallapoosa River Watershed near Montgomery, Alabama, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oblinger, Carolyn J.; Gill, Amy C.; McPherson, Ann K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and natural organic compounds derived from agricultural operations, residential development, and treated and untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater discharges can contribute contaminants to surface and ground waters. To determine the occurrence of these compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed, Alabama, new laboratory methods were used that can detect human and veterinary antibiotics; pharmaceuticals; and compounds found in personal-care products, food additives, detergents and their metabolites, plasticizers, and other industrial and household products in the environment. Well-established methods for detecting 47 pesticides and 19 pesticide degradates also were used. In all, 186 different compounds were analyzed by using four analytical methods. The lower Tallapoosa River serves as the water-supply source for more than 100,000 customers of the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board. Source-water protection is a high priority for the Board, which is responsible for providing safe drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board, conducted this study to provide baseline data that could be used to assess the effects of agriculture and residential development on the occurrence of selected organic compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Twenty samples were collected at 10 sites on the Tallapoosa River and its tributaries. Ten samples were collected in April 2005 during high base streamflow, and 10 samples were collected in October 2005 when base streamflow was low. Thirty-two of 186 compounds were detected in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Thirteen compounds, including atrazine, 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), hexazinone, metalaxyl, metolachlor, prometryn, prometon, simazine, azithromycin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and tylosin, had measurable concentrations above their laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations were estimated for an additional 19 compounds that were detected below their laboratory reporting levels. The two most frequently detected compounds were the pesticides atrazine (19 of 20 samples) and simazine (13 of 20 samples). Tylosin, a veterinary antibiotic, was detected in 8 of 20 samples. Other compounds frequently detected at very low concentrations included CIAT and hexazinone (a degradate of atrazine and a pesticide, respectively); camphor (derived from personal-care products or flavorants), para-cresol (various uses including solvent, wood preservative, and in household cleaning products), and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET, an insect repellent).

  15. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Walker, David B; Paretti, Nicholas V; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S; Zaugg, Steven D; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Matter, William J; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-11-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 microg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p=0.021) yet higher levels of 17beta-estradiol (p=0.002) and vitellogenin (p=0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17beta-estradiol than control females (p=0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r=0.00) versus control (r=-0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r=-0.45) and control (r=-0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed. PMID:19748687

  16. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, David B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Matter, William J.; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 ?g/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17?-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = ?0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = ?0.45) and control (r = ?0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  17. Controlling chlorinated benzene compounds in plant wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wroniewicz

    1978-01-01

    Four treatment schemes were studied for secondary treatment of the wastewaters from a plant producing chlorinated benzene compounds: a biological system; air stripping; steam distillation; and activated carbon preceded by sand filtration. Laboratory tests of the sand filter\\/activated carbon approach showed that it would meet the final limitations set by the regulatory agency. The system would also be capable of

  18. BIODEGRADATION AND CARBON ADSORPTION CARCINOGENIC AND HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was conducted to determine the capability of biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption to remove chemical carcinogens and other hazardous organic compounds from water and wastewater. Compounds studied were benzidine, 4-nitrobiphenyl, 3,3'-dichloro...

  19. Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater

    E-print Network

    this study. The most frequently detected compounds were coprostanol (fecal steroid), cholesterol (plant and animal steroid), N,N-diethyltoluamide (insectrepellant),caffeine processes (via wastewater treatment plants, or domestic septic systems), which often are not designed

  20. Widespread detection of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in U.S. streams: Comparison with concentrations of pesticides, personal care products, and other organic wastewater compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, M.W.; Kolpin, D.W.; Thurman, E.M.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most frequently detected organic chemicals in a nationwide study concerning the effects of wastewater on stream water quality conducted in the year 2000 was the widely used insect repellant N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). It was detected at levels of 0.02 ??g/L or greater in 73% of the stream sites sampled, with the selection of sampling sites being biased toward streams thought to be subject to wastewater contamination (i.e., downstream from intense urbanization and livestock production). Although DEET frequently was detected at all sites, the median concentration was low (0.05 ??g/L). The highest concentrations of DEET were found in streams from the urban areas (maximum concentration, 1.1 ??g/L). The results of the present study suggest that the movement of DEET to streams through wastewater-treatment systems is an important mechanism that might lead to the exposure of aquatic organisms to this chemical. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  1. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. SORPTION OF ORGANICS ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: CORRELATION WITH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of toxic organic compounds on primary, mixed-liquor, and digested solids from municipal wastewater treatment plants has been correlated with octanol/water partition coefficients arid with modified Randic indexes. he correlations developed are useful for assessing the rol...

  3. Organic Compounds Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bell, Harold M.

    2000-01-01

    The Colby College Department of Chemistry offers the Organic Compounds Database, which was compiled by Harold Bell of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Visitors can search by the compounds melting point, boiling point, index of refraction, molecular weight, formula, absorption wavelength, mass spectral peak, chemical type, and by partial name. Once entered, results are returned with basically the same type of information that can be searched, plus any other critical information. References are provided for the close to 2500 organic compounds included in the database; yet, because the site was last modified in 1995, varying the data may be required to fully authenticate its accuracy.

  4. Transformation of molecular weight distributions of dissolved organic carbon and UV-absorbing compounds at full-scale wastewater-treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, Mario; Fox, Peter; Westerhoff, Paul

    2006-03-01

    The molecular-weight distribution (MWD) of wastewater dissolved-organic carbon (DOC) was determined in samples from seven full-scale wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) that use different biological treatments (air activated sludge [air-AS], pure-oxygen AS [O2-AS], and trickling filters). The research objective was to determine how different biological treatments influenced the MWD of wastewater DOC. Primary sedimentation effluent DOC from most of the WWTPs exhibited a skewed distribution toward the low-molecular-weight fraction (MWF) (40 to 50%, < 0.5 K Daltons [KDa]). The Air-AS effluent DOC exhibited a centrally clustered distribution, with the majority of DOC in the intermediate MWF (0.5 to 3 KDa). The O2-AS effluent DOC exhibited a skewed distribution toward the high MWF (> 3 KDa). The removal of DOC by air- and O2-AS bacteria followed trends predicted by a macromolecule degradation model. Trickling-filter effluent DOC exhibited a skewed distribution toward the high MWF (50% DOC, > 3 KDa). PMID:16629265

  5. Characterization and treatment of organic compounds and trace elements in oil shale waste waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conditt

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of treatment techniques to remove organic compounds and trace elements from oil shale wastewater was investigated. Emphasis was placed on the removal of nitrogen-containing organic compounds and arsenic. Reductions in contaminants following treatment by steam stripping, sorption on spent shale, ozonation, ultraviolet irradiation, wet air oxidation, and biological degradation were studied. The organic content of the wastewaters was

  6. EMISSIONS OF METALS, CHROMIUM AND NICKEL SPECIES, AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide data to support regulations on municipal wastewater sludge incineration, emissions of metals, hexavalent chromium, nickel subsulfide, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs), semivolatile and volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO)...

  7. Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Contreras López, M Concepción

    2003-03-01

    Organic chlorine compounds can be persistent environmental contaminants and may be accumulated through the food chain to the aquatic organisms, to fish and humans, depending basically on their hydrophobic properties. Consequently, there is an interest to measure these organic compounds from both the scientific and regulatory communities. The analytical essays have been improved for measuring specific organic chlorine compounds that present the most toxicological potential (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], certain pesticides and dioxins), although they are tedious and time-consuming procedures. The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter. The intention of this paper is to make a review of the existing methods to measure the potentially bioaccumulating organochlorine compounds (OCs) from wastewater and propose a methodology to a standardisation procedure for complex mixtures of OCs in wastewater, such as pulp mill effluents. A new method has been proposed for determining the most hydrophobic part of the extractable organic halogens (EOX(fob)), the lowest reported value is 0.6 microg/l, expressed as chloride, and the relative standard deviation at 20 microg/l is 7% on laboratory samples and 30% on real effluents. This new procedure could be a valuable tool to complement environmental risk assessment studies of wastewater discharges. PMID:12605924

  8. Applications of Electrochemical Technique for Organic Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangjuan Ma; Zucheng Wu; Feng Yu; Fan Luo; Yanqing Cong

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarized the application of electrochemical technique for wastewater treatment, including wastewater disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants, especially for toxic and biorefractory organic pollutants, such as phenolic pollutants.

  9. Ecological removal of recalcitrant phenolic compounds of treated olive mill wastewater by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, N; Ayed, L; Assas, N; Kachouri, F; Hammami, M; Hamdi, M

    2008-05-01

    Treatment of olive mill wastewater by different biological process led to an important decrease of organic compounds but the black coloration due to the recalcitrant phenolic compounds persists. Experimental design using fractional factorial plan showed that, among the seven studied factors, yeast extract, dilution and glucose exhibited a positive effect on Pediococcus pentosaceus growth and treated olive mill wastewater (TOMW) decolourisation. Optimization of influent factors showed that 2.5 and 1g/l are the suitable concentrations of glucose and yeast extract, respectively. Optimum TOMW decolourisation was reached when TOMW was diluted to 2.5 initial OD390 value. The growth of P. pentosaceus on TOMW led to high molecular weight phenolic compounds removal as shown by the sephadex G-50 chromatogram. Simple phenolic compound removal was also observed. Bacterial growth on TOMW induced an ecological removal of recalcitrant phenolic compounds without chemical sludge production. PMID:17686628

  10. Pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater: wetland treatment as a potential solution.

    PubMed

    White, John R; Belmont, Marco A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates. PMID:17195871

  11. Volatile organic compound stripping at clarifier weirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zytner, R.G.; Rahme, Z.G.; Corsi, R.L.; Labocha, M.; Parker, W.

    1999-10-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) stripping at clarifier weirs was investigated for both clean water and primary wastewater using a pilot-scale model with a cross-sectional geometry similar to clarifier weirs. Drop height, type of flow regime over the weir, and weir shape were identified as important parameters influencing mass transfer. It was also observed that VOC stripping from free-fall flow could be correlated with Henry's law constant. A model that accounts for liquid- and gas-phase mass transfer was developed to predict VOC stripping from clean water. The relatively low and consistent gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficients used in the model suggest that a representative value may apply for all weir conditions. Incorporating a transition coefficient between clean water and wastewater made it possible to predict VOC transfer in primary wastewater based on clean water data. Experimental results and modeling efforts described in this paper could serve as a first step in estimating VOC emissions for flows over clarifiers at wastewater treatment plants.

  12. Study on mutagenicity and identification of organic pollutants in wastewater of industrial area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tang Fei; Huang Zheng; Ouyang Dong-qin; Lu You-lian; Wang Jia-ling

    1991-01-01

    Summary  In this study, wastewater samples from three industrial wastewater channels and 12 related factories were collected. Nonvolatile\\u000a organic chemicals were concentrated on H-103 resin and analysed by GC\\/MS\\/DS techniques. The mutagenicity of organic extracts\\u000a from the samples was examined by using S. typhimurium assay (Ames test). The results of both Ames test and chemical analysis\\u000a showed that the mutagenic compounds

  13. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.

  14. Removal of Xenobiotic Compounds from Water and Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Despo Fatta-Kassinos; Evroula Hapeshi; Sixto Malato; Dionisis Mantzavinos; Luigi Rizzo; Nikos P. Xekoukoulotakis

    \\u000a Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute a family of redox technologies that have been involved in various environmental\\u000a applications, including, amongst others, the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater contaminated by various organic\\u000a and inorganic compounds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This chapter focuses on the science and engineering of water and wastewater treatment in relation to AOPs applications. The\\u000a chapter gives a short but necessary

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation from model organic wastewater

    E-print Network

    ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation from model organic wastewater in a cassette-008-1516-0 T. Shimoyama :S. Komukai :K. Watanabe Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Marine Biotechnology

  16. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS Number a Fm Fe...a CAS numbers refer to the Chemical Abstracts Service...

  17. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS Number a Fm Fe...a CAS numbers refer to the Chemical Abstracts Service...

  18. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS Number a Fm Fe...a CAS numbers refer to the Chemical Abstracts Service...

  19. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS Number a Fm Fe...a CAS numbers refer to the Chemical Abstracts Service...

  20. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage...Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS Number a Fm Fe...a CAS numbers refer to the Chemical Abstracts Service...

  1. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  2. Evaluation of the fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Sim, Won-Jin; Lee, Eung-Sun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a significant source of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in natural water. In this study, 10 PFCs were analyzed in influent and effluent wastewater and sludge samples in 15 municipal, 4 livestock and 3 industrial WWTPs in Korea. The observed distribution pattern of PFCs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was dominant in the sludge samples with a concentration ranging from 3.3 to 54.1 ng/g, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was dominant in wastewater and ranged from 2.3 to 615 ng/L and 3.4 to 591 ng/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) results provided an explanation for this variation in PFC distribution patterns in the aqueous and sludge samples. The fates of PFCs in the WWTPs were related with the functional groups. The PFOS concentrations tended to decrease after treatment in most WWTPs, whereas PFOA increased. The different fates of PFOA and PFOS in WWTPs were attributed to the higher organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficient of perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFASs) than that of the carboxylate analog, indicating the preference of PFASs to partition to sludge. Although industrial WWTPs contained high concentration of PFCs, they are not the main source of PFCs in Korean water environment because of their small release amount. WWTPs located in big cities discharged more PFCs, suggesting household sewage is one of the significant sources of PFCs contamination in the environment. PMID:20417541

  3. APPLICATION OF AN ANALYSIS PROTOCOL TO IDENTIFY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS NOT IDENTIFIED BY SPECTRUM MATCHING. PART 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial wastewater survey samples were analyzed for organic compounds not identified by spectrum matching. Analysis of the samples proceeded from an initial packed column GC/MS analysis for Priority Pollutants, through computerized spectrum matching for other compounds, to the...

  4. APPLICATION OF AN ANALYSIS PROTOCOL TO IDENTIFY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS NOT IDENTIFIED BY SPECTRUM MATCHING. PART 1: TEXT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial wastewater survey samples were analyzed for organic compounds not identified by spectrum matching. Analysis of the samples proceeded from an initial packed column GC/MS analysis for Priority Pollutants, through computerized spectrum matching for other compounds, to the...

  5. Identification of toxic compounds in wastewater treatment plants during a field experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marinella Farré; Gerhard Klöter; Mira Petrovic; Mari Carmen Alonso; Maria José López de Alda; Damià Barceló

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analysis and toxicity bioassays were used in conjunction to determine the toxic compounds present in wastewater. This combined methodology was applied to wastewater samples collected at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) from the area of Barcelona (Spain), during a field experiment carried out from 1–4 April 2000. The efficiency of the WWTP was evaluated by collecting and analyzing samples

  6. Evaluation of the fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds in wastewater treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Guo; Won-Jin Sim; Eung-Sun Lee; Ji-Hyun Lee; Jeong-Eun Oh

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a significant source of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in natural water. In this study, 10 PFCs were analyzed in influent and effluent wastewater and sludge samples in 15 municipal, 4 livestock and 3 industrial WWTPs in Korea. The observed distribution pattern of PFCs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples.

  7. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. INTEGRATED MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE FATE OF ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Integrated Fate Model has been developed for predicting the fate of organics in a wastewater treatment plant. he Fate Model has been validated using experimental data from a pilot-scale facility. The biodegradation kinetic constants for some compounds in the Fate Model were es...

  9. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLIVER BOTTAand; Jeffrey L. Bada

    2002-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursorsfound in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellarmedium and were later incorporated intoplanetesimals during the formation of thesolar system. There they either survivedintact or underwent further processing tosynthesize secondary products on themeteorite parent body.The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceouschondrites, two typesof stony meteorites, is their high carbon content(up to 3% of

  10. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Tafesh, Ahmed; Najami, Naim; Jadoun, Jeries; Halahlih, Fares; Riepl, Herbert; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW). Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000??g?mL?1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400??g?mL?1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400??g?mL?1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%), verbascoside (7.4%), and tyrosol (2.6%). The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100??g?mL?1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria. PMID:21647315

  11. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 ?g/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 ?g/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17?-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17?-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17?-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

  12. Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295?gL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater. PMID:24997902

  13. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

  14. Removal of sulfur-organic polar micropollutants in a membrane bioreactor treating industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Zywicki, Britta; Stueber, Markus; Kloepfer, Achim; Jekel, Martin

    2002-03-01

    While membrane bioreactors (MBR) have proven their large potential to remove bulk organic matter from municipal as well as industrial wastewater, their suitability to remove poorly degradable polar wastewater contaminants is yet unknown. However, this is an important aspect for the achievable effluent quality and in terms of wastewater reuse. We have analyzed two classes of polar sulfur-organic compounds, naphthalene sulfonates and benzothiazoles, by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) over a period of 3 weeks in the influent and effluent of a full-scale MBR with external ultrafiltration that treats tannery wastewater. While naphthalene monosulfonates were completely removed, total naphthalene disulfonate removal was limited to about 40%, and total benzothiazoles concentration decreased for 87%. Quantitative as well as qualitative data did not indicate an adaptation to or a more complete removal of these polar aromatic compounds by the MBR as compared to literature data on conventional activated sludge treatment. While quality improvements in receiving waters for bulk organic matter are documented and the same can be anticipated for apolar particle-associated contaminants, these data provide no indication that MBR will improve the removal of polar poorly biodegradable organic pollutants. PMID:11917997

  15. Natural and contaminant organic compounds 103 Chapter 5 Natural and Contaminant Organic Compounds in the

    E-print Network

    increased from the upper to the lower watershed with the greatest increase in chemical loading occurring downstream of the Boulder 75th Street Wastewater Treatment Plant. INTRODUCTION The presence of organic, and microorganisms) and anthropogenic (wastewater and industrial discharges, agricultural and urban runoff) factors

  16. Adsorptive Partitioning of an Organic Compound onto

    E-print Network

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Adsorptive Partitioning of an Organic Compound onto Polyelectrolyte-Immobilized Micelles on Porous of the environment by organic compounds is a ubiquitous and costly environmental concern requiring nearly $109 /yr manufacturingorbyleakagefromundergroundstoragetanks. Release in the subsurface can result in a "plume" of dissolved and pure phase organic compounds

  17. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  18. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Laramie, WY); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY)

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  19. Sulfate reduction at low pH in organic wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. C. Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to investigate the operational window of dissimilatory sulfate reduction at low pH (6, 5 and 4) during the acidification of organic wastewaters. High sulfate reduction efficiencies at low pH are desirable for a more sustainable operation of acidification reactors in a two-phase wastewater treatment system, as pH control requires less

  20. Transfer of organic matter between wastewater and activated sludge flocs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Guellil; F Thomas; J.-C Block; J.-L Bersillon; P Ginestet

    2001-01-01

    The organic matter of wastewater was fractionated into settleable (i.e., particulate) and non-settleable (i.e., colloidal+soluble) fractions by settling followed by 0.22 ?m filtration. Particulate, colloidal and soluble proportions were found to be relatively constant (45, 31 and 24% of the total COD, respectively). Transfer of soluble fraction always occurred from the wastewater to the activated sludge flocs, whereas bidirectional transfer occurred

  1. Biotreatment of Industrial Wastewaters under Transient-State Conditions: Process Stability with Fluctuations of Organic Load, Substrates, Toxicants, and Environmental Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Sipma; M. Begoña Osuna; Maria A. E. Emanuelsson; Paula M. L. Castro

    2010-01-01

    Biotreatment of industrial wastewater is often challenged by operation under transient states with respect to organic loads, pollutants, and physical characteristics. Furthermore, the potential presence of inhibitory compounds requires careful monitoring and adequate process design. This review describes difficulties encountered in biological treatment of wastewater with highly variable influent characteristics. Typical design aspects of biological processes are presented and discussed

  2. Occurrence of organic contaminants in sewage sludges from eleven wastewater treatment plants, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan-Ying Cai; Ce-Hui Mo; Qi-Tang Wu; Qiao-Yun Zeng; Athanasios Katsoyiannis

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the occurrence of 43 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) listed as priority pollutants by both China and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, in sewage sludges collected from eleven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of mainland and Hong Kong, China. Thirty-six SVOCs were detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC–MS) and at least 14 in each sample.

  3. Organic compounds in municipal landfill leachates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Paxéus

    2000-01-01

    Leachates from three municipal landfills in the Göteborg area of western Sweden were characterised in terms of their content of individual organic compounds. Two of the investigated landfills were still in use during the time of this study. The third landfill was closed down in the mid-seventies. More than 200 individual organic compounds and classes of compounds were identified in

  4. Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavroula V. Leivadara; Anastasia D. Nikolaou; Themistokles D. Lekkas

    2008-01-01

    The presence of organic compounds in bottled waters available in the Greek market and their fate when the representative samples exposed at different conditions were the main purposes of this study. The determination of the organic compounds was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. Disinfection by-products compounds, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), were detected at low concentrations

  5. The ability of biologically based wastewater treatment systems to remove emerging organic contaminants--a review.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rodríguez, Aida; Matamoros, Víctor; Fontàs, Clàudia; Salvadó, Victòria

    2014-10-01

    Biologically based wastewater treatment systems are considered a sustainable, cost-effective alternative to conventional wastewater treatment systems. These systems have been used and studied for the treatment of urban sewage from small communities, and recently, it has been reported that they can also effectively remove emerging organic contaminants (EOCs). EOCs are a new group of unregulated contaminants which include pharmaceutical and personal care products, some pesticides, veterinary products, and industrial compounds among others that are thought to have long-term adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. This review is focused on reporting the ability of biologically based wastewater treatment systems to remove EOCs and the main elimination mechanisms and degradation processes (i.e., biodegradation, photodegradation, phytoremediation, and sorption) taking place in constructed wetlands, ponds, and Daphnia and fungal reactors. PMID:24414147

  6. Bioassay-directed identification of novel antiandrogenic compounds in bile of fish exposed to wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Rostkowski, Pawel; Horwood, Julia; Shears, Janice A; Lange, Anke; Oladapo, Francis O; Besselink, Harrie T; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2011-12-15

    The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some UK Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTWs) has been associated with exposure to estrogenic and potentially antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in the effluents. In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in WwTW effluents and fish was conducted using HPLC in combination with in vitro androgen receptor transcription screens. Analysis of extracts of wastewater effluents revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 21-53 HPLC fractions. Structures of bioavailable antiandrogens were identified by exposing rainbow trout to a WwTW effluent and profiling the bile for AA activity using yeast (anti-YAS) and mammalian-based (AR-CALUX) androgen receptor transcription screens. The predominant fractions with AA activity in both androgen receptor screens contained the germicides chlorophene and triclosan, and together these contaminants accounted for 51% of the total anti-YAS activity in the fish bile. Other AA compounds identified in bile included chloroxylenol, dichlorophene, resin acids, napthols, oxybenzone, 4-nonylphenol, and bisphenol A. Pure standards of these compounds were active in the androgen receptor screens at potencies relative to flutamide of between 0.1 and 13.0. Thus, we have identified, for the first time, a diverse range of AA chemicals in WwTWs that are bioavailable to fish and which need to be assessed for their risk to the reproductive health of these organisms and other aquatic biota. PMID:22047186

  7. Rejection of organic micropollutants (disinfection by-products, endocrine disrupting compounds, and pharmaceutically active compounds) by NF\\/RO membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuki Kimura; Gary Amy; Jörg E. Drewes; Thomas Heberer; Tae-Uk Kim; Yoshimasa Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    The growing demand on water resources has increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse, in which rejection of organic micropollutants such as disinfection by-products (DBPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) is of great concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the rejection of DBPs, EDCs, and PhACs by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis

  8. Removal of organic wastewater contaminants in septic systems using advanced treatment technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bahr, J.M.; Hedman, C.J.; Hemming, J.D.C.; Barman, M.A.E.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in ground water and surface-water bodies has raised concerns about the possible ecological impacts of these compounds on nontarget organisms. On-site wastewater treatment systems represent a potentially significant route of entry for organic contaminants to the environment. In this study, effluent samples were collected and analyzed from conventional septic systems and from systems using advanced treatment technologies. Six of 13 target compounds were detected in effluent from at least one septic system. Caffeine, paraxanthine, and acetaminophen were the most frequently detected compounds, and estrogenic activity was detected in 14 of 15 systems. The OWC concentrations were significantly lower in effluent after sand filtration (p < 0.01) or aerobic treatment (p < 0.05) as compared with effluent that had not undergone advanced treatment. In general, concentrations in conventional systems were comparable to those measured in previous studies of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent, and concentrations in systems after advanced treatment were comparable to previously measured concentrations in WWTP effluent. These data indicate that septic systems using advanced treatment can reduce OWCs in treated effluent to similar concentrations as municipal WWTPs. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of organic chemical wastewater using packed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Mijaylova-Nacheva, P; Peña-Loera, B; Cuevas-Velasco, S

    2006-01-01

    The studied organic chemical wastewater had a high COD, 20-45g/L, and low TSS, less than 200 mg/L, making anaerobic bio-filtration a suitable treatment method. The organic matter consisted of alcohols, amines, ketones and aromatic compounds, such as toluene and phenol. Granulated activated carbon (GAC) and a porous stone called tezontle, widely available in Mexico, were used as a bio-film support. Once inoculated, the mesophilic reactors with granulated activated carbon (GAC-BFs) reached stability with 80% COD removal in 40 days, while the reactors with tezontle material (tezontle-BF) required 145 days. Biodegradation of more than 95% was obtained with both support media: at organic loads less than 1.7 kg m(-3) d (-1) in tezontle-BF and with loads of up to 13.3 kg m(-3) d(-1) in GAC-BFs. The bio-filters with GAC allowed COD removal efficiency of 80% at a load as high as 26.3 kg m (-3) d(-1), while the same efficiency with tezontle was obtained at loads up to 4.45 kgm (-3d) (-1). The use of GAC as support material allows greater biodegradation rates than tezontle and it makes the bio-filters more resistant to organic increases, inhibition effects and toxicity. Methanogenic activity was inhibited at loads higher than 1.7 kg m(-3) d(-1) in bio-filters with tezontle and 22.8 kg m(-3) d(-1 ) in bio-filters with GAC. At loads lower than the previously mentioned, high methane production yield was obtained, 0.32-0.35 m(3) CH4/kg COD removed. The biomass growth rates were low in the bio-filters with both kinds of material; however, a sufficiently high biomass holdup was obtained. PMID:17165449

  10. Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen gas

    E-print Network

    MSNBC.com Winery waste makes fuel Electricity, bacteria break organics in wastewater into hydrogen method for generating hydrogen fuel from wastewater is now operating at a California winery material in the wastewater into hydrogen gas. There is a lot more energy locked in the wastewater than

  11. Process for removing an organic compound from water

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Kamaruddin, Henky D. (San Francisco, CA)

    1993-12-28

    A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

  12. Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Michael, C; Duan, X; He, X; Dionysiou, D D; Mills, M A; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-06-15

    Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology. PMID:25917290

  13. Fate of organic bases during biooxidation of coal carbonization wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.A.; Handa, B.K. [National Environmental Engineering Resarch Inst., Nagpur (India)

    1997-01-01

    Low temperature and high temperature coal carbonization processes generate wastewaters containing ammonia, phenols, organic bases, viz. pyridine, alpha picolines, beta picolines, lutidine, quinoline and aniline. Most of the biological treatment processes employed for the treatment of the coal carbonization wastewater are evaluated and monitored for the removal of ammonia and phenols. The organic bases being pollutants of environmental concern, their status in the treatment units should be monitored. In the present investigation the fate of the organic bases has been evaluated in two stage activated sludge process employed for the treatment of coal carbonization wastewater. In the first stages of the activated sludge process, the bases, viz. pyridine, picolines, and lutidine do not get effectively removed even at high sludge retention time (SRT) of 10.9 days. The poor removal of bases in the first stage of activated sludge process unit may be attributed to the residual phenol concentration of more than 5 mg/L in the first stage of bioreactor and preferential utilization of phenols over organic bases. In the second stage of the activated sludge process most of the bases get removed effectively at SRT of 12 days. On employing a two stage activated sludge process, the bases from coal carbonization wastewaters could be removed effectively by operating the first stage at SRT of 2.18 days and the second stage of the process at 12 days SRT, respectively. 15 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Biodegradation of organic pollutants in saline wastewater by halophilic microorganisms: a review.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Carvajal, Laura C; Sanz-Martín, José Luis; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E

    2014-08-01

    Agro-food, petroleum, textile, and leather industries generate saline wastewater with a high content of organic pollutants such as aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes. Halophilic microorganisms are of increasing interest in industrial waste treatment, due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances efficiently under high salt conditions. However, their full potential remains unexplored. The isolation and identification of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms from geographically unrelated and geologically diverse hypersaline sites supports their application in bioremediation processes. Past investigations in this field have mainly focused on the elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols, whereas few studies have investigated N-aromatic compounds, such as nitro-substituted compounds, amines, and azo dyes, in saline wastewater. Information regarding the growth conditions and degradation mechanisms of halophilic microorganisms is also limited. In this review, we discuss recent research on the removal of organic pollutants such as organic matter, in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dyes, hydrocarbons, N-aliphatic and N-aromatic compounds, and phenols, in conditions of high salinity. In addition, some proposal pathways for the degradation of aromatic compounds are presented. PMID:24859702

  15. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke. PMID:26114284

  16. Bioaugmentation as a tool to enhance the removal of refractory compound in coke plant wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Jianlong; Quan Xiangchun; Wu Libo; Qian Yi; Werner Hegemann

    2002-01-01

    Pollution caused by coal conversion wastewater has been a severe problem for decades in China due to the use of coal as the main energy source. An aerobic–anoxic–oxic (A1–A2–O) system was developed for treating coke plant wastewater and good results were obtained. GC\\/MS analysis indicated that the main ingredients of the effluent were aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, alkanes and phthalic

  17. Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek,

    E-print Network

    Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer...................................................................................................................... 5 Acidic Organic Wastewater Compounds

  18. Effect of biological and chemical oxidation on the removal of estrogenic compounds (NP and BPA) from wastewater: An integrated assessment procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Bertanza; Roberta Pedrazzani; Mario Dal Grande; Matteo Papa; Valerio Zambarda; Claudia Montani; Nathalie Steimberg; Giovanna Mazzoleni; Diego Di Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    A major source of the wide presence of EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Compounds) in water bodies is represented by direct\\/indirect discharge of sewage. Recent scientific literature reports data about their trace concentration in water, sediments and aquatic organisms, as well as removal efficiencies of different wastewater treatment schemes. Despite the availability of a huge amount of data, some doubts still persist

  19. Reduction of pharmaceutically active compounds by a lagoon wetland wastewater treatment system in Southeast Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Conkle, Jeremy L; White, John R; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-12-01

    A number of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in the aquatic environment as a result of discharges of municipal wastewater. In the state of Louisiana, USA, many municipalities treat wastewater using natural systems, such as lagoons and wetlands, rather than conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Nearly all research to date has focused on the fate of PhACs in conventional treatment plants, not constructed and natural wetlands. In the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for Mandeville, Louisiana, USA, wastewater flows of 7600 m(3)d(-1) are treated in a series of aeration lagoons (basins), followed by a constructed wetland and UV disinfection, before being discharged into a natural forested wetland (i.e. Bayou Chinchuba) and eventually, Lake Pontchartrain. Thirteen out of the 15PhACs investigated were detected in the wastewater inflow to the treatment plant. Only 9 of the 13 compounds were above the detection limits at the treatment plant effluent. The concentrations of most compounds were reduced by greater than 90% within the plant, while carbamazepine and sotalol were only reduced by 51% and 82%, respectively. The percent reductions observed in the Mandeville system were greater than reduction rates reported for conventional WWTPs; perhaps due to the longer treatment time ( approximately 30 days). Most target PhACs were not completely removed before discharge into Lake Pontchartrain, although their collective annual loading was reduced to less than 1kg and down to ppb with significant potential for dilution in the large lake. PMID:18977010

  20. The occurrence and fate of phenolic compounds in a coking wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Feng, Chunhua; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun; Yan, Bo; Wu, Chaofei

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 phenolic compounds (PCs) was assessed in the raw, treated wastewater, dewatered sludge and gas samples from a coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China. It was found that 3-cresol was the dominant compound in the raw coking wastewater with a concentration of 183 mg L(-1), and that chlorophenols and nitrophenols were in the level of ?g L(-1). Phenol was the dominant compound in the gas samples, while 2,4,6-trichlorophenol predominated in the dewatered sludge sample. The anaerobic and aerobic tanks played key roles in the elimination of chlorophenols and phenols, respectively. Analysis of daily mass flows of PCs in WWTP showed that 89-98% of phenols and 83-89% of nitrophenols were biodegraded, and that 44-69% of chlorophenols were adsorbed to sludge, indicating that the fate of PCs was highly influenced by their biodegradability and physical-chemical property. PMID:23863439

  1. Volatile organic compound emission rate from diffused aeration systems. 1: Mass transfer modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, J.M.; Yu, C.F. [Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-08-01

    The activated sludge process is one of the most commonly used biochemical oxidation process for the secondary treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. The release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants has recently caused great concern. In wastewater treatment plants, many operation units such s equalization and aeration involve oxygen transfer between wastewater and air. While oxygen is transferred from air to wastewater, VOCs are stripped from wastewater to air. Due to increasingly stringent environmental regulations, wastewater treatment operators have to do VOC inventory of their facilities. A mass transfer model for VOCs is therefore called for to assess VOC emission rates from wastewater treatment processes. Almost all existing methods adopt an oxygen mass transfer model standardized by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) to evaluate VOC emission rates. A new and more fundamental oxygen mass transfer model for diffused aeration systems was developed to assess the VOC emission rates. The new model provides better insight of the VOC mass transfer process and requires only aeration performance data to predict the VOC emission rates. The results and implications of both models were discussed and compared.

  2. Emission of volatile organic compounds from composting of different solid wastes: Abatement by biofiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estela Pagans; Antoni Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of different organic wastes (source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW), raw sludge (RS) and anaerobically digested wastewater sludge (ADS) and animal by-products (AP)) and its subsequent biofiltration have been studied. Composting was performed in a laboratory scale composting plant (30l) and the exhaust gases generated were treated by means

  3. SORPTION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermodynamic and kinetic principles which govern the uptake of nonionic, hydrophobic organic chemicals by sediments in aqueous systems are summarized. Sorption onto organic-rich sediments can be modeled as a process where the hydrophobic compound partitions into the organic matt...

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR TOTAL ORGANIC HALIDE AND PURGEABLE ORGANIC HALIDE IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of studies involving the use of 'surrogate' methods for the determination of total organic halides (TOX), purgeable organic halides (POX), and solvent extractable organic halides (EOX), in wastewater and solid wastes. A pyrolysis/microcoulometric sy...

  5. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  6. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Whole Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 69 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on aquatic organisms in wastewater. This method also is useful for evaluating the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are indicators of wastewater or have endocrine-disrupting potential. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Wastewater compounds in whole-water samples were extracted using continuous liquid-liquid extractors and methylene chloride solvent, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 0.5 microgram per liter averaged 72 percent ? 8 percent relative standard deviation. The concentration of 21 compounds is always reported as estimated because method recovery was less than 60 percent, variability was greater than 25 percent relative standard deviation, or standard reference compounds were prepared from technical mixtures. Initial method detection limits averaged 0.18 microgram per liter. Samples were preserved by adding 60 grams of sodium chloride and stored at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory established a sample holding-time limit prior to sample extraction of 14 days from the date of collection.

  7. Occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in selected water supplies, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, June 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Marc J.

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment, sampled water from 14 wastewater sources and drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for the presence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. The geographic distribution of sampling locations does not represent the distribution of drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod. The environmental presence of the analyte compounds is mostly unregulated; many of the compounds are suspected of having adverse ecological and human health effects. Of the 85 different organic analyte compounds, 43 were detected, with 13 detected in low concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter) from drinking-water supplies thought to be affected by wastewater because of previously detected high nitrate concentrations. (Phenol and d-limonene, detected in equipment blanks at unacceptably high concentrations, are not included in counts of detections in this report.) Compounds detected in the drinking-water supplies included the solvent, tetrachloroethylene; the analgesic, acetaminophen; the antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole; and the antidepressant, carbamazapine. Nitrate nitrogen, an indicator of wastewater, was detected in water supplies in concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 8.8 milligrams per liter.

  8. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  9. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  10. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  11. Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers.

    PubMed

    Rudelle, E A; Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Nielsen, A H

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of aerobic chemical and biological oxidation of selected odorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by wastewater and biofilm from sewers. The VSCs included methyl mercaptan (MeSH), ethyl mercaptan (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and total inorganic sulfide, which have all been reported as the main constituents of foul sewer gas. Samples of wastewater and biofilm for the experiments were obtained from two locations that differed significantly with respect to the occurrence of VSCs. One location represented an odor hot-spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order of reactivity: total inorganic sulfide > EtSH ? MeSH > DMS. Except for total inorganic sulfide oxidation in wastewater, kinetic parameters for each VSC were of similar magnitude for the two locations. In the wastewater from the odor hot-spot, sulfide inorganic oxidation rates were approximately 12 times faster than in the aerobic wastewater. PMID:24334879

  12. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ggg of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams 8 Table 8 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection...Part 63—Fraction Measured (Fm ) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS No. a Fm Acetaldehyde...

  13. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ggg of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 true Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams 8 Table 8 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection...Part 63—Fraction Measured (Fm ) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS No. a Fm Acetaldehyde...

  14. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ggg of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams 8 Table 8 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection...Part 63—Fraction Measured (Fm ) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS No. a Fm Acetaldehyde...

  15. INVESTIGATIONS OF BIODEGRADABILITY AND TOXICITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of elaborate industrial societies has led to proliferation of a vast number of complex chemicals for industrial, agricultural and domestic use. Some portion of these compounds eventually find their way into municipal and industrial wastewater. Unless specifically ...

  16. Endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Pothitou, Paraskevi; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2008-12-01

    The occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a sewage treatment plant and two industrial wastewater treatment plants from textile and tannery factories were investigated. EDCs of interest are 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, their ethoxylate oligomers (mono- and di-ethoxylates of nonylphenol and octylphenol), bisphenol A, triclosan and steroid estrogens. Target compounds were determined in dissolved fraction, total suspended solids and sludge by employing solid phase extraction and ultrasonication followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonylphenols and oligomers with one or two ethoxy groups were the most abundant compounds in raw wastewater as well as in effluents from all the treatment stages of sewage treatment plant, followed by triclosan and bisphenol A. Steroids were found at very low concentrations. Almost all phenolic EDCs compounds were predominantly associated to suspended solids in influents whereas the dissolved fraction dominated the treated effluents. High removal rates, ranging from 86% to 99%, were observed throughout the whole treatment process. Biodegradation was the main removal pathway of EDCs. Tannery wastewaters exhibited high concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds. This type of wastewaters could pose a significant risk to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. PMID:18954890

  17. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined...

  18. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) CHAPTER 31.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term "volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) was originally coined to refer, as a class, to carbon-containing chemicals that participate in photochemical reactions in the ambient (outdoor) are. The regulatory definition of VOCs used by the U.S. EPA is: Any compound of carbon, ex...

  19. FREQUENCY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was initiated for the purpose of compiling a list of all organic compounds that have been found in water. This report contains the names of compounds found, their location or a reference to a published study, the type of water in which they are found, and the date of s...

  20. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  1. Boiling points of halogenated organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari L. Horvath

    2001-01-01

    The normal boiling points of a number of halogenated organic compounds have been compiled from experimental measurements over three decades. Some of these chemicals have not been reported in the literature. The substances listed are halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated aliphatic ethers, halogenated ring (cyclic) hydrocarbons and other related compounds.

  2. Fate of selected pharmaceuticals and synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during wastewater treatment and sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Vasilios G; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Mamais, Daniel; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Lekkas, Themistokles D

    2013-01-15

    The concentrations of nine emerging contaminants, including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (ibuprofen, IBF; naproxen, NPX; diclofenac, DCF; ketoprofen, KFN) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (triclosan, TCS; bisphenol, BPA; nonylphenol, NP; nonylphenol monoethoxylate, NP1EO; nonylphenol diethoxylate, NP2EO), were determined in wastewater and sludge samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Greece. Average concentrations in raw and treated wastewater ranged from 0.39 (KFN) to 12.52 ?g L(-1) (NP) and from wastewater was bound to the particulate phase, while PhACs and BPA were mainly detected in the aqueous phase. Removal of target compounds during wastewater treatment ranged between 39% (DCF) and 100% (IBF). Except of DCF and BPA, similar removal efficiencies were observed in both WWTPs and no effect of WWTP's size and operational conditions was noticed. Use of mass balances showed that accumulation on sludge was a significant removal mechanism for NPs and TCS, while biodegradation/biotransformation was the major mechanism for the other compounds. Sampling of raw and digested sludge demonstrated that IBF and NPX are significantly removed (>80%) during anaerobic digestion, whereas removal of EDCs was lower, ranging up to 55% for NP1EO. PMID:23257325

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  5. Identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds from a dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipy, Jenny; Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to odor and air quality problems have been identified from the Washington State University Knott Dairy Farm using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eighty-two VOCs were identified at a lactating cow open stall and 73 were detected from a slurry wastewater lagoon. These compounds included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, terpenes, other hydrocarbons, amines, other nitrogen containing compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds. The concentration of VOCs directly associated with cattle waste increased with ambient air temperature, with the highest concentrations present during the summer months. Concentrations of most detected compounds were below published odor detection thresholds. Emission rates of ethanol (1026±513 ?g cow -1 s -1) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) (13.8±10.3 ?g cow -1 s -1) were measured from the lactating stall area using an atmospheric tracer method and concentrations were plotted using data over a 2-year period. Emission rates of acetone (3.03±0.85 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-butanone (145±35 ng cow -1 s -1), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.46±1.11 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-methyl-3-pentanone (25.1±8.0 ng cow -1 s -1), DMS (2.19±0.92 ng cow -1 s -1), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (16.1±3.9 ng cow -1 s -1) were measured from the slurry waste lagoon using a laboratory emission chamber.

  6. Application of Ozone Involving Advanced Oxidation Processes to Remove Some Pharmaceutical Compounds from Urban Wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando J. Beltrán; Almudena Aguinaco; Juan F. García-Araya

    2012-01-01

    Different UVA radiation and advanced oxidation systems, most of them involving ozone, have been applied to remove mixtures of three contaminants of pharmaceutical type: diclofenac (DCF), sulfamethoxazole (SMT) and caffeine (CFF), both in ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater. The influence of the water matrix has been studied in terms of individual compound concentration and TOC removal. Also, biodegradability of the

  7. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Weschler; William W. Nazaroff

    2008-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic

  8. Hospital wastewater treatment by fungal bioreactor: removal efficiency for pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morató, Carles; Lucas, Daniel; Llorca, Marta; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Gorga, Marina; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Sarrà, Montserrat; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2014-09-15

    Hospital effluents contribute to the occurrence of emerging contaminants in the environment due to their high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) and some endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Nowadays, hospital wastewaters are co-treated with urban wastewater; however, the dilution factor and the inefficiency of wastewater treatment plants in the removal of PhACs and EDCs make inappropriate the co-treatment of both effluents. In this paper, a new alternative to pre-treat hospital wastewater concerning the removal of PhACs and EDCs is presented. The treatment was carried out in a batch fluidized bed bioreactor under sterile and non-sterile conditions with Trametes versicolor pellets. Results on non-sterile experiments pointed out that 46 out of the 51 detected PhACs and EDCs were partially to completely removed. The total initial PhAC amount into the bioreactor was 8185 ?g in sterile treatment and 8426 ?g in non-sterile treatment, and the overall load elimination was 83.2% and 53.3% in their respective treatments. In addition, the Microtox test showed reduction of wastewater toxicity after the treatment. Hence, the good efficiency of the fungal treatment regarding removal of the wide diversity of PhACs and EDCs detected in hospital effluents is demonstrated. PMID:24951894

  9. Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds during conventional wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kanda, R; Churchley, J

    2008-03-01

    There is evidence that aquatic organisms downstream of some sewage treatment works show endocrine disruption as a result of exposure to substances in the effluent. As a result, the Environment Agency of England and Wales, in collaboration with the UK Government and the water industry, has started an intensive programme to determine the fate and behaviour of endocrine disrupting compounds in sewage treatment works. Sampling sites for the endocrine disruption demonstration programme are located throughout England and Wales. This paper presents data from Nuneaton sewage treatment works (Warwickshire, England), a modem nitrifying activated sludge plant serving an equivalent population of 98,000 and one of the selected sites for the demonstration programme. Results for the 24-hour survey carried out in June 2006 in which manual grab samples were taken hourly show excellent removal of estrone, estradiol, nonyl-phenol and the nonylphenolethoxylates (3-5 EO units) at 97, 99, 94 and 98% respectively. They also show excellent removal (99%) of estrogenicity, measured by the YES bioassay. However the removal of ethynylestradiol was poor at only 3%. In November 2006, a further survey was carried out comprising grab samples taken at 4-hourly intervals across a continuous 7-day period. This monitoring confirmed the good removal of estrone and estradiol, at 97.8% and 96.3% respectively as well as an excellent reduction in estrogenicity (98.3%), but again showed poor removal of ethynylestradiol of 5.6%. There was evidence of a diurnal pattern for estrone and estradiol concentrations and to a lesser extent for ethynylestradiol in samples of crude sewage with works returns. Peak concentrations tended to occur at around midday. PMID:18610793

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  11. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidwell, J.R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics found in caves and surface-water sites included brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides (chlordane and nonachlor), and polychlorinated biphenyls. The placement of samplers in the caves (near the cave mouth compared to farther in the system) might have influenced the number of halogenated organics detected due to possible aerial transport of residues. Guano from cave-dwelling bats also might have been a source of some of these chlorinated organics. Seven-day survival and growth bioassays with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to samples of cave water indicated initial toxicity in water from two of the caves, but these effects were transient, with no toxicity observed in follow-up tests. ??Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  12. Analyzing method on biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. H.; Wang, M. X.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A. B.

    2002-02-01

    In order to analyze biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, an automated gas chromatography is developed and employed at the laboratory of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) during January to July, 2000. A small refrigerator was used so as to remove water in the air sample from gas line, and get accurate concentrations of volatile organic compounds. At 5degreesC, good water removing efficiency can be obtained at controlled flow rate. Air samples were collected around the building of Mesa Lab. of NCAR and analyzed by this gas chromatography system. This paper reports this gas chromatography system and results of air samples. The experimental results show that this gas chromatography system has a good reproducibility and stability, and main interesting volatile organic compounds such as isoprene, monoterpenes have an evident diurnal variation.

  13. Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  14. Removal of trace organic chemicals in onsite wastewater soil treatment units: a laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Teerlink, Jennifer; Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes; Higgins, Christopher P; Drewes, Jörg E

    2012-10-15

    Onsite wastewater treatment is used by 20% of residences in the United States. The ability of these systems, specifically soil treatment units (STUs), to attenuate trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) is not well understood. TOrCs released by STUs pose a potential risk to downstream groundwater and hydraulically-connected surface water that may be used as a drinking water source. A series of bench-scale experiments were conducted using sand columns to represent STUs and to evaluate the efficacy of TOrC attenuation as a function of hydraulic loading rate (1, 4, 8, 12, and 30 cm/day). Each hydraulic loading rate was examined using triplicate experimental columns. Columns were initially seeded with raw wastewater to establish a microbial community, after which they were fed with synthetic wastewater and spiked with 17 TOrCs, in four equal doses per day, to provide a consistent influent water quality. After an initial start-up phase, effluent from all columns consistently demonstrated >90% reductions in dissolved organic carbon and nearly complete (>85%) oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, comparable to the performance of field STUs. The results of this study suggest STUs are capable of attenuating many TOrCs present in domestic wastewater, but attenuation is compound-specific. A subset of TOrCs exhibited an inverse relationship with hydraulic loading rate and attenuation efficiency. Atenolol, cimetidine, and TCPP were more effectively attenuated over time in each experiment, suggesting that the microbial community evolved to a stage where these TOrCs were more effectively biotransformed. Aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic conditions resulted in more efficient attenuation of acetaminophen and cimetidine. PMID:22871318

  15. Estrogen-like and dioxin-like organic contaminants in reclaimed wastewater: transfer to irrigated soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, O; Escande, A; Rosain, D; Casellas, C; Gomez, E; Fenet, H

    2011-01-01

    In semi-arid regions, treated wastewater reuse for irrigation is a common practice since wastewater is considered as a non negligible water resource in these areas. However, treated wastewater contains traces of organic compounds which may contaminate the receiving environment i.e. soil and groundwater. Some of these organic compounds have the ability to bind to estrogen receptor (ER) or dioxin receptor (AhR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor). The fate of these compounds in effluent reused for irrigation, irrigated soils and groundwater is not well addressed yet. In the present study, estrogenic and dioxin-like activities were studied in three media: i) effluents reused for irrigation, ii) soils samples collected from the reclaimed water irrigated plot during six month irrigation, and iii) groundwater sampled before and after irrigation periods. Effluents reused for irrigation exhibited ER and AhR activities at 38.5 +/- 9.9 ng estradiol-equivalent/L (ng E2-EQ/L) and 113.3 +/- 27.7 ng dioxin-equivalent/L (ng TCDD-EQ/L), respectively. Soils showed ER activity (0.05 ng E2-EQ/g) only after 4 months of irrigation. AhR activities detected in all soil samples have not changed during irrigation. In groundwater, ER activities were detected in two piezometers indicating transfer of some estrogenic compounds. PMID:21866765

  16. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  17. Azodicarboxylates: synthesis and functionalization of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, A. M.; Aksenov, A. V.

    2014-06-01

    The data on transformations of dialkyl azodicarboxylates and their analogues involving various substrates are generalized. Nucleophilic addition and oxidation, pericyclic reactions and reactions occurring under the Mitsunobu reaction conditions are considered. Ample opportunities for application of these compounds in fine organic synthesis are shown. The bibliography includes 245 references. Dedicated to Academician B A Trofimov on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

  18. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  19. Emerging Control Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geeta Rani Parmar; N. N. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have provided the driving force for sustained fundamental and applied research in the area of environmental remediation. Conventional methods currently used to treat VOCs include incineration, condensation, adsorption, and absorption. Incineration and condensation are cost-effective only for moderate to high VOC concentrations. Adsorption and absorption do not destroy VOCs

  20. Ozone Production Potential of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Butler; M. G. Lawrence; J. Lelieveld

    2010-01-01

    Calculation of the ozone production potential of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) has traditionally been performed using so-called incremental reactivity techniques. Here were present a new approach to this problem using a photochemical box model with a tagged chemical mechanism. The results of our approach are consistent with previous work, but deliver much more detailed information about the VOC intermediate oxidation

  1. POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS FROM PERSISTENT ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGES USED FOR LAND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their fate on land, and available con...

  2. Compositing water samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Maluk, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Researchers are able to derive accurate values for the mean concentration of VOCs from a single VOC analysis using established techniques for the collection of representative, discrete water samples. Such samples are then composited with a gas-tight syringe. This methodology can be employed in conjunction with chemical assessment using a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. Estimates of mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm runoff can be generated using values for the flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations. Spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations are useful for the evaluation of drinking waters. Factors that influence the value for the total error are identified.

  3. Trace organics variation across the wastewater treatment system of a Class-B refinery and estimate of removal of refractory organics by add-on mixed-media filtration and granular activated carbon at pilot scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Raphaelian; W. Harrison

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater at SOHIO's Toledo refinery was sampled every four hours for four successive days in December 1976. Effluents from the full-scale system (dissolved-air-flotation (DAF) unit and final clarifier for the activated-sludge unit) and an add-on pilot-scale unit (mixed-media filter and activated-carbon columns) were sampled for analysis of common wastewater parameters and trace organic compounds. Grab samples taken every four hours

  4. Nonvolatile organic compounds in treated waters.

    PubMed Central

    Watts, C D; Crathorne, B; Fielding, M; Killops, S D

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade much information has been published on the analysis of organics extracted from treated water. Certain of these organics have been shown to be by-products of the chlorination disinfection process and to possess harmful effects at high concentrations. This has resulted in increased interest in alternative disinfection processes, particularly ozonation. The data on organics had been largely obtained by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is only capable of analyzing, at best, 20% of the organics present in treated water. Research in key areas such as mutagenicity testing of water and characterization of chlorination and ozonation by-products has emphasized the need for techniques suitable for analysis of the remaining nonvolatile organics. Several methods for the isolation of nonvolatile organics have been evaluated and, of these, freeze-drying followed by methanol extraction appears the most suitable. Reverse-phase HPLC was used for separation of the methanol extract, but increased resolution for separation of the complex mixtures present is desirable. In this context, high resolution size exclusion chromatography shows promise. Characterization of separated nonvolatiles is possible by the application of state-of-the-art mass spectrometric techniques. Results obtained by these techniques have shown that the nonvolatile organic fraction of chlorinated drinking water consists of many discrete compounds. Among these, some of the chlorinated compounds are almost certainly by-products of disinfection. Studies of the by-products of ozonation of fulvic and humic acids isolated from river waters have indicated a similar proportion of nonvolatile organics. Further, ozonation can result in the release of compounds that are trapped in the macromolecules. PMID:6759110

  5. Strategies to characterize polar organic contamination in wastewater: exploring the capability of high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Emma L; Singer, Heinz P; Longrée, Philipp; Loos, Martin; Ruff, Matthias; Stravs, Michael A; Ripollés Vidal, Cristina; Hollender, Juliane

    2014-02-01

    Wastewater effluents contain a multitude of organic contaminants and transformation products, which cannot be captured by target analysis alone. High accuracy, high resolution mass spectrometric data were explored with novel untargeted data processing approaches (enviMass, nontarget, and RMassBank) to complement an extensive target analysis in initial "all in one" measurements. On average 1.2% of the detected peaks from 10 Swiss wastewater treatment plant samples were assigned to target compounds, with 376 reference standards available. Corrosion inhibitors, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals exhibited the highest concentrations. After blank and noise subtraction, 70% of the peaks remained and were grouped into components; 20% of these components had adduct and/or isotope information available. An intensity-based prioritization revealed that only 4 targets were among the top 30 most intense peaks (negative mode), while 15 of these peaks contained sulfur. Of the 26 nontarget peaks, 7 were tentatively identified via suspect screening for sulfur-containing surfactants and one peak was identified and confirmed as 1,3-benzothiazole-2-sulfonate, an oxidation product of a vulcanization accelerator. High accuracy, high resolution data combined with tailor-made nontarget processing methods (all available online) provided vital information for the identification of a wider range of heteroatom-containing compounds in the environment. PMID:24417318

  6. Progress in the Halogenation of Organic Silicon Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Motsarev; K. A. Andrianov; V. I. Zetkin

    1971-01-01

    The Review deals mainly with the direct halogenation of organic silicon compounds by halogens and halogenated compounds as among the most important methods for the preparation of organosilicon compounds containing halogen in the organic radicals. With respect to preparative possibilities, experimental simplicity, and in individual cases the yields obtained, the direct chlorination and bromination of organic silicon compounds has no

  7. Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  8. Efficiency of Removal of Compounds with Estrogenic Activity During Wastewater Treatment: Effects of Various Removal Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Lamoree; J. G. M. Derksen; S. C. Linden; C. A. Uijterlinde; Voogt de P

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The effluents from wastewater treatment plants are known to contribute significantly to the total emission of estrogenic compounds,\\u000a both from natural and anthropogenic sources, into the aquatic environment. As a logical consequence, occurrence of these compounds\\u000a affects the quality of our surface waters in general, while they may be able to interfere with aquatic wildlife through endocrine\\u000a disruption.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In a

  9. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Development and evaluation of methods for total organic halide and purgeable organic halide in wastewater. Report for September 1980-October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Riggin, R.M.; Lucas, S.V.; Lathouse, J.; Jungclaus, G.A.; Wensky, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a series of studies involving the use of 'surrogate' methods for the determination of total organic halides (TOX), purgeable organic halides (POX), and solvent extractable organic halides (EOX), in wastewater and solid wastes. A pyrolysis/microcoulometric system was used as the analytical detection device for all studies. Method performance data are presented for the various surrogate methods. The results obtained using the surrogate methods were compared to those obtained using compound-specific methods based on gas chromatography (GC) or combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc/MS). The advantages and limitations of using the surrogate methods in place of more sophisticated procedures are discussed.

  11. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium. PMID:24091184

  12. Removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum re?nery wastewater through adsorption on modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ben Hariz, Ichrak; Al Ayni, Foued; Monser, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater on a chemically modified activated carbon (MAC) was investigated. The modification technique (nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and thermal modification) enhanced the removal capacity of carbon and therefore decreases cost-effective removal of sulfide from refinery wastewater. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data were determined for sulfur removal from real re?nery wastewater. The data were evaluated according to several adsorption isotherm and kinetics models. The Freundlich isotherm fitted well with the equilibrium data of sulfur on different adsorbents, whereas the kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. Insights of sulfide removal mechanisms indicated that the sorption was controlled through the intraparticle diffusion mechanism with a significant contribution of film diffusion. The MAC adsorbent was found to have an effective removal capacity of approximately 2.5 times that of non-modified carbon. Using different MAC, sulfides were eliminated with a removal capacity of 52 mg g(-1). Therefore, MAC can be utilized as an effective and less expensive adsorbent for the reduction of sulfur in refinery wastewater. PMID:25353943

  13. Photochemical reactions of organic compounds in seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    Eleven organic compounds (2-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrobenzoic acid, anthranilic acid, styrene, 4,5-dichloroguaiacol, 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol, tetrachloroguaiacol, dehydroabietic acid, isopimaric acid, and abietic acid) were selected as probes to identify the types of photochemical reactions occurring in seawater. Solutions of each probe in buffered (pH 8) distilled water, synthetic seawater, and natural seawater (NSW), were irradiated in a temperature-controlled photoreactor which simulated sunlight. Photolysis

  14. Emissions from sludge incinerators with venturi and tray scrubbers and wet electrostatic precipitators: Metals, chromium and nickel compounds, and organics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Bostian; W. G. DeWees; E. P. Crumpler; F. M. Lewis

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive test program was developed to determine the ratios of hexavalent to total chromium and nickel subsulfide to total nickel for a typical municipal wastewater sludge incinerator under normal combustion conditions and improved combustion conditions. Emissions of metals, hexavalent chromium, nickel subsulfide, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD\\/PCDFs), semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons (THCs)

  15. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in hospital effluents and their contribution to wastewater treatment works.

    PubMed

    Langford, Katherine H; Thomas, Kevin V

    2009-07-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of almost 40 pharmaceuticals; including antidepressants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, analgesics, hypolipidemics, alpha- and beta-blockers, an anti cancer drug, anti-fungal agents, an opiate, an antibiotic, an anti-coagulant, a diuretic, an anti-anginal and an anti-diabetic compound. This was used to assess the contribution of pharmaceuticals originating from hospital effluents to one of Oslo city's wastewater treatment works. Some pharmaceuticals were found to contribute to more of the wastewater loading than others. 11% of the propranolol entering the wastewater treatment works stems from hospital effluent, approximately 2% of the atenolol, carbemazepine, metaprolol and atorvastatin, and for several other compounds the contribution is less than 1%. This assessment shows that point sources discharges from hospitals typically make a small contribution to the overall pharmaceutical load when compared to municipal areas, however this varies from substance to substance and is not the case when a drug's use is primarily hospital based. PMID:19336268

  16. Direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater with chemically enhanced backwash for recovery of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Soh, Bing Zheng; Kimura, Katsuki

    2013-12-01

    Direct membrane filtration (DMF) of municipal wastewater using a microfiltration membrane was investigated to capture organic matter. In contrast to the expectation that membrane fouling cannot be controlled in DMF of domestic wastewater, it was possible to stably continue membrane filtration with relatively high membrane fluxes (?20 LMH) for >200 h by applying chemically enhanced backwash (CEB), whereas approximately 75% of the organic matter in wastewater could be recovered. Off-line chemical membrane cleaning could completely restore membrane permeability, indicating the possibility of a much longer operation of DMF. Selection of chemical reagents used for CEB was found to influence the amount of organic matter recovered by DMF. Based on the experimental results, feasibility of DMF was discussed by a comparison with a conventional wastewater treatment plant treating the same wastewater as studied in this study. PMID:24161553

  17. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Wijetunga, Somasiri; Li, Xiu-Fen; Jian, Chen

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10mg/L, 25mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ( approximately 1000 mg/L, approximately 2000 mg/L, approximately 3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:20074855

  18. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-ling Sun; Yan-zhi Qu; Qing Yu; Jin-ren Ni

    2008-01-01

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV–vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were

  19. Occurrence and Implication of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in tertiary wastewater Effluents Page 1 of 6

    E-print Network

    Brody, James P.

    GU, APRIL Occurrence and Implication of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in tertiary wastewater wastewater effluents L. Liu1 , D. S. Smith2 , M. Bracken3 , J.B. Neethling4 , H.D. Stensel5 and S. Murthy6 levels (e.g. TPwastewater treatment plants. A few previous studies (Benisch et al., 2007

  20. Influence of residual organic macromolecules produced in biological wastewater treatment processes on removal of pharmaceuticals by NF\\/RO membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuki Kimura; Tomonori Iwase; Shusuke Kita; Yoshimasa Watanabe

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given to pollution of the water environment by pharmaceutical compounds discharged from wastewater treatment plants. High-pressure driven membranes such as a nanofiltration (NF) membrane and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane are considered to be effective for control of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment. In practical applications of NF\\/RO membranes to municipal wastewater treatment, feed water for the

  1. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60...Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds On and after...

  2. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60...Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds On and after...

  3. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60...Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds On and after...

  4. Production of volatile organic compounds by mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Okolo, Phyllis Ifeoma; Turner, Claire

    2012-03-01

    The need for improved rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis disease has prompted interest in the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. We have investigated VOCs emitted by Mycobacterium bovis BCG grown on Lowenstein-Jensen media using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds observed included dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, butanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-phenylethanol and hydrogen sulphide. Changes in levels of acetaldehyde, methanol and ammonia were also observed. The compounds identified are not unique to M. bovis BCG, and further studies are needed to validate their diagnostic value. Investigations using an ultra-rapid gas chromatograph with a surface acoustic wave sensor (zNose) demonstrated the presence of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) in the headspace of cultures of M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis, when grown on Lowenstein-Jensen supplemented with glycerol. PEA is a reversible inhibitor of DNA synthesis. It is used during selective isolation of gram-positive bacteria and may also be used to inhibit mycobacterial growth. PEA production was observed to be dependent on growth of mycobacteria. Further study is required to elucidate the metabolic pathways involved and assess whether this compound is produced during in vivo growth of mycobacteria. PMID:22224870

  5. Ultrasonic process for remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater/wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.M.; Peters, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    A technology is being developed that employs ultrasonic-wave energy for remediation of groundwater/wastewater contaminated with volatile organic compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). This paper presents the updated results of a laboratory investigation of ultrasonic groundwater remediation using synthetic groundwaters prepared with laboratory deionized water. Key process parameters investigated included steady-state temperature, contaminant concentration, solution pH, sonication time, and intensity of the applied ultrasonics-wave energy. High destruction efficiencies of the target contaminants were achieved, and the sonication time required for a given degree of destruction decreased with increasing intensity of the applied ultrasonic energy. The sonication time can be further reduced by adding a chemical oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Biological treatment of mining wastewaters by fixed-bed bioreactors at high organic loading.

    PubMed

    Bratkova, Svetlana; Koumanova, Bogdana; Beschkov, Venko

    2013-06-01

    Acid wastewaters contaminated with Fe - 1000 mg L(-1) and Cu - 100 mg L(-1) were remediated by microbial sulfate-reduction at high organic loading (theoretical TOC/SO4(2-) ratio 1.1) in a laboratory installation. The installation design includes a fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor for sulfate-reduction, a chemical reactor, a settler and a three-sectional bioreactor for residual organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide removal. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are immobilized on saturated zeolite in the fixed-bed bioreactor. The source of carbon and energy for bacteria was concentrated solution, containing ethanol, glycerol, lactate and citrate. Heavy metals removal was achieved by produced H2S at sulfate loading rate 88 mg L(-1)h(-1). The effluent of the anaerobic bioreactor was characterized with high concentrations of acetate and ethanol. The design of the second bioreactor (presence of two aerobic and an anoxic zones) makes possible the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification as well as the efficiently removal of residual organic compounds and H2S. PMID:23611703

  7. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago); McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  8. Fractionation and characterization of organic matter in wastewater from a swine waste-retention basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Rostad, Colleen E.

    2004-01-01

    Organic matter in wastewater sampled from a swine waste-retention basin in Iowa was fractionated into 14 fractions on the basis of size (particulate, colloid, and dissolved); volatility; polarity (hydrophobic, transphilic, hydrophilic); acid, base, neutral characteristics; and precipitate or flocculates (floc) formation upon acidification. The compound-class composition of each of these fractions was determined by infrared and 13C-NMR spectral analyses. Volatile acids were the largest fraction with acetic acid being the major component of this fraction. The second most abundant fraction was fine particulate organic matter that consisted of bacterial cells that were subfractionated into extractable lipids consisting of straight chain fatty acids, peptidoglycans components of bacterial cell walls, and protein globulin components of cellular plasma. The large lipid content of the particulate fraction indicates that non-polar contaminants, such as certain pharmaceuticals added to swine feed, likely associate with the particulate fraction through partitioning interactions. Hydrocinnamic acid is a major component of the hydrophobic acid fraction, and its presence is an indication of anaerobic degradation of lignin originally present in swine feed. This is the first study to combine particulate organic matter with dissolved organic matter fractionation into a total organic matter fractionation and characterization.

  9. Simultaneous removal of perchlorate and energetic compounds in munitions wastewater by zero-valent iron and perchlorate-respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Se Chang; Hubbard, Brian; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's insensitive melt-pour explosive, PAX-21 in addition to RDX and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The objective of this study is to develop an innovative treatment process to remove both perchlorate and energetic compounds simultaneously from PAX-21 production wastewater. It was hypothesized that the pretreatment of PAX-21 wastewater with zero-valent iron (ZVI) would convert energetic compounds to products that are more amenable for biological oxidation and that these products serve as electron donors for perchlorate-reducing bacteria. Results of batch ZVI reduction experiments showed that DNAN was completely reduced to 2,4-diaminoanisole and RDX was completely reduced to formaldehyde. Anaerobic batch biodegradation experiments showed that perchlorate (30 mg L(-1)) in ZVI-treated PAX-21 wastewater was decreased to an undetectable level after 5 days. Batch biodegradation experiments also confirmed that formaldehyde in ZVI-treated wastewater was the primary electron donor for perchlorate-respiring bacteria. The integrated iron-anaerobic bioreactor system was effective in completely removing energetic compounds and perchlorate from the PAX-21 wastewater without adding an exogenous electron donor. This study demonstrated that ZVI pretreatment not only removed energetic compounds, but also transformed energetic compounds to products that can serve as the source of electrons for perchlorate-respiring bacteria. PMID:24410688

  10. Fouling and cleaning of RO membranes fouled by mixtures of organic foulants simulating wastewater effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wui Seng Ang; Alberto Tiraferri; Kai Loon Chen; Menachem Elimelech

    2011-01-01

    The fouling and subsequent cleaning of RO membranes fouled by a mixture of organic foulants simulating wastewater effluent has been systematically investigated. The organic foulants investigated included alginate, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Suwannee River natural organic matter, and octanoic acid, representing, respectively, polysaccharides, proteins, humic substances, and fatty acids, which are ubiquitous in effluent organic matter. After establishing the fouling

  11. DENSITY LEVELS OF PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a critical review of the literature from laboratory and full scale studies regarding density levels of indicator and pathogenic organisms in municipal wastewater sludges and septage. The effectiveness of conventional municipal sludge stabilization processes (...

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONTAMINANTS BETWEEN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants have been determined in the surface waters of Europe and the United States. A preliminary report of substantially higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sediment suggests that bottom sediment ...

  13. Polyphenolic compounds progress during olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure co-composting, and humic substances building (Southeastern Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Rigane, Hafedh; Chtourou, Mohamed; Ben Mahmoud, Imen; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, olive mill wastes pose a major environmental problem owing to their important production and their high polyphenolic compounds and organic acids concentrations. In this work, the evolution of polyphenolic compounds was studied during co-composting of olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure, based on qualitative (G-50 sephadex) and quantitative (Folin-Ciocalteu), as well as high pressure liquid chromatography analyses. Results showed a significant polyphenolic content decrease of 99% and a noticeable transformation of low to high molecular weight fraction during the compost maturation period. During this step, polyphenols disappearance suggested their assimilation by thermophilic bacteria as a carbon and energy source, and contributed to humic substances synthesis. Polyphenolic compounds, identified initially by high pressure liquid chromatography, disappeared by composting and only traces of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids were detected in the compost. In the soil, the produced compost application improved the chemical and physico-chemical soil properties, mainly fertilising elements such as calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Consequently, a higher potato production was harvested in comparison with manure amendment. PMID:25502693

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?apraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Co?kun, M.

    2012-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Ni?anta??, 34365, ?stanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Ka??thane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Ka??thane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of compounds. N-octane, 3-methylheptane, n-nonane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane and n-hexane parameters ranged between 3 ppbv and maximum value of 10 ppbv. The other VOC parameters are measured below 3 ppbv value. At participating urban locations for the year of data considered, levels of carbonyls were higher than the level of the other organic compound groups, suggesting that emissions from motor vehicles and photochemical reactions strongly in?uence ambient air concentrations of carbonyls. Of the most prevalent carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the dominant compounds, ranging from 1.5-7.4 ppbv for formaldehyde, to 0.8-2.7 ppbv for acetaldehyde. Keywords: Air quality, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), industry, meteorology, urban, Ka??thane, ?stanbul. Acknowledgment: This work was part of the TUJJB-TUMEHAP-01-10 and Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council Project No: 109Y132.

  15. Removal of Salmonella and indicator micro-organisms in integrated constructed wetlands treating agricultural wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gemma McCarthy; Peadar G. Lawlor; Montserrat Gutierrez; Gillian E. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of pathogenic and indicator micro-organisms in integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems treating agricultural wastewater. Nine ICW's treating piggery (3) or dairy (6) wastewaters were sampled and indicator micro-organisms were enumerated in the influent as well as the effluent from the first, mid- and final cells. The presence\\/absence of Salmonella was

  16. Removal of organic pollutants and nutrients from olive mill wastewater by a sand filter.

    PubMed

    Achak, M; Mandi, L; Ouazzani, N

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the performance of a sand filter in treating modern olive mill (OMW) effluents after dilution with domestic wastewater on a one-to-one basis. The experimental pilot consisted of a column of opaque PVC, and the sand filter was filled with 50 cm of sand and 10 cm of gravel in the top and the bottom of the filter. The alimentation (4 cm/day) was done sequentially following a 1 day wet/3 days dry cycle. The OMW effluent was very acidic with a pH of 4.12, and had high concentrations of phenolic compounds (7.2g/L) and total chemical oxygen demand (65 g/L). The percolation of the diluted OMW through the sand filters caused an increase in pH from 4.84 to 8.25 and a 90% removal of total suspended solids. The sand filter treatment also led to important reductions in organic matter (90% of total COD, 83% of dissolved COD and 92% of phenolic compounds) and nutrients (91% of Kjeldahl-nitrogen, 97% of ammonia-nitrogen, 99% of nitrate-nitrogen and 99% of phosphates). The flow rate became very low indicating clogging of the sand pores after 10 weeks. HPLC analysis of the diluted OMW before and after passage through the sand filter showed an important reduction in the toxic monomeric compounds after the treatment. PMID:19406561

  17. Effect of influent aeration on removal of organic matter from coffee processing wastewater in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Maike; Matos, Antonio Teixeira; Abreu, Edgar Carneiro; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Borges, Alisson Carraro

    2013-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of aeration and vegetation on the removal of organic matter in coffee processing wastewater (CPW) treated in 4 constructed wetlands (CWs), characterized as follows: (i) ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivated system operating with an aerated influent; (ii) non-cultivated system operating with an aerated influent, (iii) ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent; and (iv) non-cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. The lowest average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiencies of 87, 84 and 73%, respectively, were obtained in the ryegrass cultivated system operating with a non-aerated influent. However, ryegrass cultivation did not influence the removal efficiency of organic matter. Artificial aeration of the CPW, prior to its injection in the CW, did not improve the removal efficiencies of organic matter. On other hand it did contribute to increase the instantaneous rate at which the maximum COD removal efficiency was reached. Although aeration did not result in greater organic matter removal efficiencies, it is important to consider the benefits of aeration on the removal of the other compounds. PMID:23892132

  18. Investigation of hydrophobic organic carbon (HOC) partitioning to 1 kDa fractionated municipal wastewater colloids.

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Kerry N; Seth, Rajesh; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-03-19

    Natural organic matter from the aquatic environment passing a 1 kDa filter has been hypothesized to not contribute appreciably to hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) partitioning; however, to our knowledge this limit has not been verified experimentally for any sorbate/sorbent system. Presently, colloidal organic carbon (COC) < 1 kDa approached 70% of the total COC (<1.5 ?m) mass in primary effluent (PE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Partitioning of HOCs 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene to COC for both 1.5 ?m and 1 kDa filtrates of PE was investigated using the gas-stripping technique. Contrary to the hypothesis, significant HOC-COC partitioning to the 1 kDa filtrate was observed with organic carbon-normalized partitioning coefficients (logKCOC) of 4.30, 4.36, and 3.74 for 1,2,4,5-TeCB, PeCB, and HCB, respectively. Further, partitioning to COC < 1 kDa dominated the overall partitioning of the three chlorobenzenes in the 1.5 ?m filtrate, and the partitioning behavior did not follow the trend based on hydrophobicity (KOW). The results show that significant partitioning of HOC may occur to OC < 1 kDa and highlights the need for further experiments with other HOCs and COC characterization to better understand and explain the observed partitioning. PMID:23294454

  19. Volatile organic silicon compounds: the most undesirable contaminants in biogases.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Aurélie; Desjardin, Valérie; Chatain, Vincent; Germain, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Recently a lot of attention has been focused on volatile organic silicon compounds (VOSiC) present in biogases. They induce costly problems due to silicate formation during biogas combustion in valorisation engine. The cost of converting landfill gas and digester gas into electricity is adversely affected by this undesirable presence. VOSiC in biogases spark off formation of silicate deposits in combustion chambers. They engender abrasion of the inner surfaces leading to serious damage, which causes frequent service interruptions, thus reducing the economic benefit of biogases. It is already known that these VOSiC originate from polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) hydrolysis. PDMS (silicones) are used in a wide range of consumer and industrial applications. PDMS are released into the environment through landfills and wastewater treatment plants. There is a lack of knowledge concerning PDMS biodegradation during waste storage. Consequently, understanding PDMS behaviour in landfill cells and in sludge digester is particularly important. In this article, we focused on microbial degradation of PDMS through laboratory experiments. Preliminary test concerning anaerobic biodegradation of various PDMS have been investigated. Results demonstrate that the biotic step has an obvious influence on PDMS biodegradation. PMID:19029718

  20. CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DIGESTED, HEAT-CONDITIONED, AND PURIFAX-TREATED SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater sludges were stabilized by Purifax treatment, anaerobic digestion and heat conditioning. The processed sludges from the Purifax process at chlorine dosages normally used in processing wastewater sludges contained 2 to > 14 times the total organic chlorine content of th...

  1. A critical review on characterization strategies of organic matter for wastewater and water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Ngo, Huu Hao; Urase, Taro; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-10-01

    The presence of organic matter (OM) in raw wastewater, treated wastewater effluents, and natural water samples has been known to cause many problems in wastewater treatment and water reclamation processes, such as treatability, membrane fouling, and the formation of potentially toxic by-products during wastewater treatment. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the methods for characterization and quantification of OM in water samples in relation to wastewater and water treatment processes including: (i) characterization based on the biodegradability; (ii) characterization based on particle size distribution; (iii) fractionation based on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties; (iv) characterization based on the molecular weight (MW) size distribution; and (v) characterization based on fluorescence excitation emission matrix. In addition, the advantages, disadvantages and applications of these methods are discussed in detail. The establishment of correlations among biodegradability, hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions, MW size distribution of OM, membrane fouling and formation of toxic by-products potential is highly recommended for further studies. PMID:26141666

  2. Effect of Organic Loading on Membrane Fouling in Membrane Bioreactor for Berberine Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanglei Qiu; Yonghui Song; Peng Yuan; Ping Zeng; Liang Duan; Xiaoyou Feng

    2011-01-01

    In order to specify the effects of organic loading on membrane fouling, the relationships of organic loadings, activated sludge properties and membrane fouling rates were studied based on statistical analysis of the long-term operation data of a lab-scale MBR for berberine pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. Results showed that, the activated sludge properties were directly determined by organic loading rate (OLR) and

  3. Catalytic destruction of organic volatile nitrogen compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, G.R.; Homeyer, S.T. [Allied Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A family of catalysts has been identified for purification of industrial gas streams which are contaminated with odorous and/or toxic volatile nitrogen compounds (VNC). Temperature-conversion curves were measured for destruction of a series of organic VNC`s in moist air at 15,000 hr {sup {minus}1} gas hourly space velocity (STP), and the yields of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and total NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) were measured. The VNCs of interest included primary, secondary and tertiary amines, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, acetonitrile, dimethylfomamide, pyridine, piperidine and aniline. The ease of destruction of these compounds over a monolithic platinum VNC catalyst as reflected in the temperature required or 95% conversion, ranged from n-propylamine (234{degrees}C) to acetonitrile (343{degrees}C). Selectivity to N{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}O at the temperatures of 95% conversion decreased with increasing T-95 from 93% to 46%. Additional studies were done with triethylamine at several space velocities with the VNC catalyst and with some related PT catalysts. The results of these tests suggest that N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) are formed by at least three competitive reaction pathways.

  4. REDUCTION OF TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS BY INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The specific goal of this research was to conduct 24-hour static acute bioassays with 'untreated' influent and 'treated' effluent using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Daphnia magna) to biologically evaluate the effectiveness of industrial wastewater facilit...

  5. Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

  6. ACUTE TOXICITY OF SELECTED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static nonrenewal laboratory bioassays were conducted with 26 organic compounds commonly used by industry. The selected compounds represented the five following chemical classes: acids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, ketones and aldehydes, and phenols. Juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephal...

  7. Response surface modeling for optimization heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation of persistence organic pollution in high total dissolved solid containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Maharaja, P; Gupta, V K; Anandan, C

    2014-01-01

    The rice-husk-based mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) used in this study was precarbonized and activated using phosphoric acid. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, (29)Si-NMR spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to characterize the MAC. The tannery wastewater carrying high total dissolved solids (TDS) discharged from leather industry lacks biodegradability despite the presence of dissolved protein. This paper demonstrates the application of free electron-rich MAC as heterogeneous catalyst along with Fenton reagent for the oxidation of persistence organic compounds in high TDS wastewater. The heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of the pretreated wastewater at optimum pH (3.5), H2O2 (4 mmol/L), FeSO4[Symbol: see text]7H2O (0.2 mmol/L), and time (4 h) removed chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and dissolved protein by 86, 91, 83, and 90%, respectively. PMID:23925658

  8. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds onto organoclays.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Kim, S J; Chung, S Y; Jeong, C H

    2004-05-01

    The behavior and fate of nonionic hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in the environment are mainly controlled by their interactions with various components of soils and sediments. Due to their large surface area and abundance in many soils, smectites may greatly influence the fate and transport of the contaminants in the environment. In our experiments, HOC sorption by hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA)-modified smectite linearly increased with the amount of HDTMA added to the clay. However, tetramethylammonium (TMA)- and dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTMA)-modified smectites showed not only inferiority in their sorption of HOC compared with the HDTMA-smectite, but also a partially decreased HOC sorption at specific surfactant loading levels. This means that the sorption of organoclays for organic contaminants was significantly influenced by the amount and size of the surfactants added on the clay. In addition, it seems that the interlayer structure (e.g., pore size) formed at each surfactant loading level plays an important role to adsorb HOC in different amount. PMID:15013684

  9. Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Robarge, Wayne P; Xiao, Changhe; Heber, Albert J

    2012-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated aerial pollutants that have environmental and health concerns. Swine operations produce and emit a complex mixture of VOCs with a wide range of molecular weights and a variety of physicochemical properties. Significant progress has been made in this area since the first experiment on VOCs at a swine facility in the early 1960s. A total of 47 research institutions in 15 North American, European, and Asian countries contributed to an increasing number of scientific publications. Nearly half of the research papers were published by U.S. institutions. Investigated major VOC sources included air inside swine barns, in headspaces of manure storages and composts, in open atmosphere above swine wastewater, and surrounding swine farms. They also included liquid swine manure and wastewater, and dusts inside and outside swine barns. Most of the sample analyses have been focusing on identification of VOC compounds and their relationship with odors. More than 500 VOCs have been identified. About 60% and 10% of the studies contributed to the quantification of VOC concentrations and emissions, respectively. The largest numbers of VOC compounds with reported concentrations in a single experimental study were 82 in air, 36 in manure, and 34 in dust samples. The relatively abundant VOC compounds that were quantified in at least two independent studies included acetic acid, butanoic acid (butyric acid), dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, iso-valeric, p-cresol, propionic acid, skatole, trimethyl amine, and valeric acid in air. They included acetic acid, p-cresol, iso-butyric acid, butyric acid, indole, phenol, propionic acid, iso-valeric acid, and skatole in manure. In dust samples, they were acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, p-cresol, hexanal, and decanal. Swine facility VOCs were preferentially bound to smaller-size dusts. Identification and quantification of VOCs were restricted by using instruments based on gas Chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) with different detectors most of which require time-consuming procedures to obtain results. Various methodologies and technologies in sampling, sample preparation, and sample analysis have been used. Only four publications reported using GC based analyzers and PTR-MS (proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry) that allowed continuous VOC measurement. Because of this, the majority of experimental studies were only performed on limited numbers of air, manure, or dust samples. Many aerial VOCs had concentrations that were too low to be identified by the GC peaks. Although VOCs emitted from swine facilities have environmental concerns, only a few studies investigated VOC emission rates, which ranged from 3.0 to 176.5mgd(-1)kg(-1) pig at swine finishing barns and from 2.3 to 45.2gd(-1)m(-2) at manure storages. Similar to the other pollutants, spatial and temporal variations of aerial VOC concentrations and emissions existed and were significantly affected by manure management systems, barn structural designs, and ventilation rates. Scientific research in this area has been mainly driven by odor nuisance, instead of environment or health concerns. Compared with other aerial pollutants in animal agriculture, the current scientific knowledge about VOCs at swine facilities is still very limited and far from sufficient to develop reliable emission factors. PMID:22682363

  10. Recalcitrant organic matter removal from textile wastewater by an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonil; Han, Dukkyu; Cui, Fenghao; Bae, Wookeun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of textile wastewater is difficult because of its recalcitrant organic content. The biological removal of recalcitrant organics requires a long retention time for microbial growth. Activated sludge was immobilized in a polyethylene glycol pellet to allow for sufficient sludge retention time. The pellets were filled in an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column (CIPC) reactor in order to investigate the removal of recalcitrant organics from textile wastewater. A textile wastewater effluent treated by a conventional activated sludge reactor was used as a target wastewater. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the aerobic CIPC reactor at various empty bed contact times was in the range of 42.2-60.5%. Half of the input COD was removed in the lower part (bottom 25% of the reactor volume) of the reactor when the organic loading rate was less than 1.5 kg COD/(m(3)•d). About 15-30% of the input COD was removed in the remaining part of the column reactor. The COD removed in this region was limitedly biodegradable. The biodegradation of recalcitrant organics could be carried out by the interactional functions of the various bacteria consortia by using a cell-immobilization process. The CIPC process could effectively treat textile wastewater using a short retention time because the microorganisms that degrade limitedly biodegradable organics were dominant in the reactor. PMID:23656958

  11. Separation of Organic Compounds from Surfactant Solutions: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hefa Cheng; David A. Sabatini

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the recent development in separation of emulsified organic compounds from surfactant solutions for surfactant reuse and\\/or surfactant?contaminant disposal. Three major principles have been employed for separating organic compounds and\\/or surfactants from aqueous solutions, namely, organic compound inter?phase mass transfer, surfactant micelle removal, and manipulation of surfactant solution phase behavior. Details of these principles and their applications are

  12. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  13. Removal of phenol compounds from olive mill wastewater using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Geotrichum candidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Garc??a Garc??a; P. R. Jiménez Peña; J. L. Bonilla Venceslada; A. Mart??n Mart??n; M. A. Mart??n Santos; E. Ramos Gómez

    2000-01-01

    The manufacturing process of olive oil yields a liquid waste called ‘olive mill wastewater’ (OMW). This waste has a high polluting power as well as a high antibacterial activity exerted, among others, by various phenolic compounds. Among the methods for the purification of OMW, biological systems show some advantages that make these particularly suitable. However, the presence of phenolic inhibitors

  14. Occurrence and fate of antibiotic, analgesic/anti-inflammatory, and antifungal compounds in five wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Shah, A; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-03-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment as a result of wastewater effluent discharge is a concern in many countries. In order to expand our understanding on the occurrence and fate of PPCPs during wastewater treatment processes, 62 antibiotic, analgesic/anti-inflammatory, and antifungal compounds were analyzed in 72 liquid and 24 biosolid samples from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) during the summer and winter seasons of 2010-2012. This is the first scientific study to compare five different wastewater treatment processes: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically-enhanced primary treatment, secondary activated sludge, and advanced biological nutrient removal. PPCPs were detected in all WWTP influents at median concentrations of 1.5 to 92,000 ng/L, with no seasonal differences. PPCPs were also found in all final effluents at median levels ranging from 3.6 to 4,200 ng/L with higher values during winter (p<0.05). Removal efficiencies ranged between -450% and 120%, depending on the compound, WWTP type, and season. Mass balance showed that the fate of analgesic/anti-inflammatory compounds was predominantly biodegradation during biological treatment, while antibiotics and antifungal compounds were more likely to sorb to sludge. However, some PPCPs remained soluble and were detected in effluent samples. Overall, this study highlighted the occurrence and behavior of a large set of PPCPs and determined how their removal is affected by environmental/operational factors in different WWTPs. PMID:24370698

  15. Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.; Buckley, T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Reston, VA (United States); Pellizzari, E. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, S. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times, {tau}{sub i} in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. 81 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Simultaneous organic matter removal and disinfection of wastewater with enhanced power generation in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Dipak A; Ghadge, Anil N; Ghangrekar, Makarand M

    2014-07-01

    Presence of pathogenic microorganism in anodic effluent of microbial fuel cell (MFC) makes it unfit for reuse. In this study, performance of dual chamber MFC was evaluated in terms of organic matter removal, power generation and disinfection in cathodic chamber. Anodic effluent was treated further in cathodic chamber for achieving disinfection with different doses of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with available chlorine varying from 0.67, 1.32, 2, 3 and 4 g/L. Addition of different doses of NaOCl resulted in satisfactory disinfection along with removal of nitrogenous compounds. Power output of MFC improved up to 3g/L of available chlorine (6.5 W/m(3)); however, further increase in chlorine concentration decreased the power. Voltammetric and impedance analysis showed higher and faster electron reduction and decrease in polarization resistance at 3g/L dose. Higher organic matter removal from wastewater and complete elimination of microorganism, along with improved power output, demonstrates effectiveness of hypochlorite as catholyte. PMID:24835745

  17. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2002-06-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  18. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems

    E-print Network

    salinity-reduction electrolysis cells (MSCs) can treat saline wastewater. In MSCs, organic matter and salt separation Microbial electrolysis cells Ion-exchange membranes Bioelectrochemical systems A new, such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can be used to remove organic con

  19. GC/MS METHODOLOGY FOR PRIORITY ORGANICS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A state-of-the-art review is presented on the current GC/MS methodology for the analysis of priority toxic organics in municipal wastewater treatment. The review summarizes both recent published and unpublished literature on GC/MS methods for analysis of toxic organics in municip...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF REUSABLE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS AND CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main thrust of this project was to collect organic concentrates from operating advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) plants for use in health effects testing. A reverse osmosis process was employed in the first stage concentration; the organics were further concentrated and rec...

  1. Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...

  2. Tailored titanium dioxide photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater treatment: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Han; Venkata Subba Rao Kambala; Madapusi Srinivasan; Dharmarajan Rajarathnam; Ravi Naidu

    2009-01-01

    Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants released into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Because of potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of organic dyes have been a matter of considerable interest. A wide range of methods have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving titanium

  3. Comparison of the removal of phthalates and other organic pollutants from industrial wastewaters in membrane bioreactor and conventional activated sludge treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Llop, A; Borrull, F; Pocurull, E

    2009-01-01

    In recent years greater attention has been paid to the presence of pollutants in wastewater treatment plants, mainly because of strict environmental regulations and the possibility of reusing treated water in industrial processes. Since some organic pollutant compounds are not sufficiently removed in conventional activated sludge treatment (CAST) plants, new treatment processes have been developed, such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this study a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used to treat mixed industrial wastewaters in parallel with a CAST plant. Two hydraulic retention times (HRT) of wastewater were tested as one of the operational conditions of MBR and the quality of effluents of the two processes were studied and compared. Several general quality parameters were analysed in wastewaters: chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphate, suspended solids (SS) and turbidity. The two systems reduced COD by around 90%. SS was reduced by around 81% in the CAST plant and around 90% in the MBR plant. The results for the other general parameters were similar or better in the MBR process, which worked at a lower HRT. We also studied the removal of a group of six phthalates and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate ester by SPME/GC-MS in the two treatment plants. Most of these compounds were not completely removed in the two treatment plants and were identified at low microg l(-1) levels. We also tentatively identify some organic compounds in the wastewaters. Most of the compounds we found in the influent, MBR effluent and CAST effluent were benzene derivates, styrene, naphthalene and naphthalene derivates, and phenol derivates. PMID:19901476

  4. Benchmarking organic micropollutants in wastewater, recycled water and drinking water with in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Allinson, Mayumi; Altenburger, Rolf; Bain, Peter A; Balaguer, Patrick; Busch, Wibke; Crago, Jordan; Denslow, Nancy D; Dopp, Elke; Hilscherova, Klara; Humpage, Andrew R; Kumar, Anu; Grimaldi, Marina; Jayasinghe, B Sumith; Jarosova, Barbora; Jia, Ai; Makarov, Sergei; Maruya, Keith A; Medvedev, Alex; Mehinto, Alvine C; Mendez, Jamie E; Poulsen, Anita; Prochazka, Erik; Richard, Jessica; Schifferli, Andrea; Schlenk, Daniel; Scholz, Stefan; Shiraishi, Fujio; Snyder, Shane; Su, Guanyong; Tang, Janet Y M; van der Burg, Bart; van der Linden, Sander C; Werner, Inge; Westerheide, Sandy D; Wong, Chris K C; Yang, Min; Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Zhang, Xiaowei; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2014-02-01

    Thousands of organic micropollutants and their transformation products occur in water. Although often present at low concentrations, individual compounds contribute to mixture effects. Cell-based bioassays that target health-relevant biological endpoints may therefore complement chemical analysis for water quality assessment. The objective of this study was to evaluate cell-based bioassays for their suitability to benchmark water quality and to assess efficacy of water treatment processes. The selected bioassays cover relevant steps in the toxicity pathways including induction of xenobiotic metabolism, specific and reactive modes of toxic action, activation of adaptive stress response pathways and system responses. Twenty laboratories applied 103 unique in vitro bioassays to a common set of 10 water samples collected in Australia, including wastewater treatment plant effluent, two types of recycled water (reverse osmosis and ozonation/activated carbon filtration), stormwater, surface water, and drinking water. Sixty-five bioassays (63%) showed positive results in at least one sample, typically in wastewater treatment plant effluent, and only five (5%) were positive in the control (ultrapure water). Each water type had a characteristic bioanalytical profile with particular groups of toxicity pathways either consistently responsive or not responsive across test systems. The most responsive health-relevant endpoints were related to xenobiotic metabolism (pregnane X and aryl hydrocarbon receptors), hormone-mediated modes of action (mainly related to the estrogen, glucocorticoid, and antiandrogen activities), reactive modes of action (genotoxicity) and adaptive stress response pathway (oxidative stress response). This study has demonstrated that selected cell-based bioassays are suitable to benchmark water quality and it is recommended to use a purpose-tailored panel of bioassays for routine monitoring. PMID:24369993

  5. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  6. Rate of biodegradiation of toxic organic compounds while in contact with organics which are actively composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    Results are presented of a study to biodegrade toxic organic wastes and to determine the degree of breakdown of compounds while in contact with high-rate composting. An artificial compost mixture consisting of shredded newspaper, manure, wastewater treatment plant sludge, sawdust, peat moss, soil, powdered milk, and fertilizer was prepared. Toxic organic chemicals were mixed with this actively composting mixture to obtain a concentration of about 500 mg/kg. Samples were analyzed after seven days of composting and again after 30 days. Thirty-two of the 59 chemicals tested were found to be moderately to highly susceptible to biodegradation. The potential for success is shown to be very high for using high-rate composting to degrade organic wastes. The possibility of accelerating the decomposition of toxic wastes in soils is suggested.

  7. SORPTION OF ORGANIC ACID COMPOUNDS TO SEDIMENTS: INITIAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adsorption to sediments and soils of selected organic acid compounds was examined as a function of compound and sediment properties. ntrinsic compound properties examined included the dissociation constant (pKa) and hydrophobic character. roperties of the sediment examined in...

  8. Correlation of heat of formation data for organic sulfur compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. McCullough; W. D. Good

    1961-01-01

    The method of Allen was used to correlate unpublished and recently published Bureau of Mines results for the heats of formation of organic sulfur compounds. Six parameters were evaluated from data for 25 acyclic alkane thiols, sulfides and disulfides. With the inclusion of appropriate strain energies, the results for seven cyclic sulfur compounds also were correlated. For all 32 compounds,

  9. Supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of toxic organic wastewaters: a review.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck

    2007-01-01

    The destruction of toxic organic wastewaters from munitions demilitarization and complex industrial chemical clearly becomes an overwhelming problem if left to conventional treatment processes. Two options, incineration and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), exist for the complete destruction of toxic organic wastewaters. Incinerator has associated problems such as very high cost and public resentment; on the other hand, SCWO has proved to be a very promising method for the treatment of many different wastewaters with extremely efficient organic waste destruction 99.99% with none of the emissions associated with incineration. In this review, the concepts of SCWO, result and present perspectives of application, and industrial status of SCWO are critically examined and discussed. PMID:17915678

  10. Occurrence of cytostatic compounds in hospital effluents and wastewaters, determined by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Ventura, Francesc; Caixach, Josep; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The occurrence of 26 commonly used cytostatic compounds in wastewaters was evaluated using an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method with liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Detection was optimized using Oasis HLB SPE cartridges at pH 2. Two hospital effluents and their two receiving wastewater treatment plants were sampled over five days. In hospital effluents, eight cytostatics were detected at levels up to 86.2 ?g L(-1) for ifosfamide, 4.72 ?g L(-1) for cyclophosphamide, and 0.73 ?g L(-1) for irinotecan, the three most relevant compounds identified. Cyclophosphamide and megestrol acetate were found in wastewaters at concentrations up to 0.22 ?g L(-1) for the latter. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in sewage effluents of ifosfamide (2.4-4.3 ng L(-1)), capecitabine (11.5-14.2 ng L(-1)), and irinotecan (0.4-0.6 ng L(-1)), calculated from consumption data in each hospital, published excretion values for the target compounds, and wastewater elimination rates, were in agreement with experimental values. PMID:24825763

  11. HS-SPME\\/GC–MS analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urszula Kotowska; Maciej ?alikowski; Valery A. Isidorov

    The aim of the research involved identification and semi-quantitative determination of unknown volatile and semi-volatile\\u000a organic compounds emitted to air by sewage sludge formed in the process of municipal wastewater treatment in a sewage treatment\\u000a plant. Samples taken directly after completion of the technological process as well as the sludge stored on the premise of\\u000a the sewage treatment plant were

  12. REACTIVITY OF NITROGENOUS AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH AQUEOUS CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A protocol for determining the chlorine demand of organic compounds was developed and tested. Organics were reacted with chlorine at mole ratios of 1:05, 1:1, and 1:3 at pH values of 6, 7, and 8 over a one week period. Compounds tested were drawn mainly from the EPA Register of O...

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ZENOGEM? WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS - ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental Systems (Zenon) has developed the ZenoGem? process to remove organic compounds from wastewater by integrating biological treatment and membrane-based ultrafiltration. This innovative system combines biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compou...

  14. Removal of dissolved organic matter in water-hyacinth waste-water treatment lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Victoria-Rueda, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in water hyacinth lagoons was evaluated under experimental conditions to assess the role of the roots' bacterial biofilm in the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Research was conducted to (1) quantify removal rates by the biofilm as a function of bulk DOM concentration, (2) formulate an analytical model of DOM removal incorporating biofilm activity, and (3) test the model response to variable organic loads in a pilot-scale plant. Removal of DOM by the biofilm was quantified in continuous-flow water hyacinth tanks at ten concentrations ranging from 45 to 330 g COD m {sup {minus}3} . Total DOM removal in the denitrifying, acetate-based experimental system was measured and partitioned into two fractions associated with the activity of biofilm and suspended bacteria. Calculated DOM removal by the biofilm was adjusted for the release of organic compounds by debris decomposition. Values of DOM removal were used to calculate oxygen transfer rates from the water hyacinth roots. A model of DOM removal in water hyacinth lagoons was formulated. The model, composed of four differential equations, was solved at steady-state conditions and the validity of its simulation results was tested in pilot-scale tanks. Hydraulic detection times ranging from 2 to 28 days were evaluated using biofilm density and concentrations of DOM and particulate organics as monitoring parameters of the model response. The observed decrease of suspended bacterial biomass along the tank was correctly simulated by the model, but predictions of effluent concentrations were not always consistent. Predicted values of biofilm bacterial mass were similar to those measured in the tanks, except when large algal populations were present in the film.

  15. Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Renman, Gunno; Westholm, Lena Johansson; Renman, Agnieszka; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2013-10-15

    The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ~5.5 h), using wastewater with high (mean ~120 mg L(-1)) and low (mean ~20 mg L(-1)) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p < 0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p < 0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life. PMID:24001604

  16. Removal of total organic carbon from sewage wastewater using poly(ethylenimine)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita; Matutes-Aquino, Jose A; Wennmalm, Stefan; Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna

    2014-02-01

    The increased levels of organic carbon in sewage wastewater during recent years impose a great challenge to the existing wastewater treatment process (WWTP). Technological innovations are therefore sought that can reduce the release of organic carbon into lakes and seas. In the present study, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized, functionalized with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), and characterized using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), CCS (confocal correlation spectroscopy), SICS (scattering interference correlation spectroscopy), magnetism studies, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and other contaminants using PEI-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PEI-NPs) was tested in wastewater obtained from the Hammarby Sjöstadsverk sewage plant, Sweden. The synthesized NPs were about 12 nm in diameter and showed a homogeneous particle size distribution in dispersion by TEM and CCS analyses, respectively. The magnetization curve reveals superparamagnetic behavior, and the NPs do not reach saturation because of surface anisotropy effects. A 50% reduction in TOC was obtained in 60 min when using 20 mg/L PEI-NPs in 0.5 L of wastewater. Along with TOC, other contaminants such as turbidity (89%), color (86%), total nitrogen (24%), and microbial content (90%) were also removed without significant changes in the mineral ion composition of wastewater. We conclude that the application of PEI-NPs has the potential to reduce the processing time, complexity, sludge production, and use of additional chemicals in the WWTP. PMID:24428551

  17. Dissolved organic carbon transformations during laboratory-scale groundwater recharge using lagoon-treated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Westerhoff, P.; Pinney, M.

    2000-07-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater through groundwater recharge has emerged as an integral part of water and wastewater management in arid regions of the world. Aerated-lagoon wastewater treatment followed by surface infiltration offers a simple low-tech, low-cost treatment option for developing countries. This study investigated the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) soil columns over a 64-week period. Aerated-lagoon wastewater (average DOE = 17 mg/l) and two soils were collected near the USA/Mexico border near Nogales, AZ. Laboratory-scale SAT columns exhibited three phases of aging where infiltration rates and DOC removals were delineated. DOC removal ranged from 39% to greater than 70% during the study, with DOC levels averaging 3.7 and 5.8 mg/l for the SAT columns packed with different soils. Soil with a higher fraction of organic carbon content had higher effluent DOC levels, presumably due to leaching of soil organic matter. UV absorbance data indicated preferential biodegradation removal of low molecular weight, low aromatic DOC. Overall, SAT reduced the potential towards forming trihalomethanes (THMs) during disinfection, although the reactivity ({mu}g THM/mg DOC) increased. SAT and groundwater recharge would provide a high degree of DOC removal in an integrated low-tech wastewater reuse management strategy, especially for developing countries in arid regions of the world.

  18. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene

    PubMed Central

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest–host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1. PMID:25550739

  19. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  20. Extended structures and physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2011-07-19

    The ability of uranium to undergo nuclear fission has been exploited primarily to manufacture nuclear weapons and to generate nuclear power. Outside of its nuclear physics, uranium also exhibits rich chemistry, and it forms various compounds with other elements. Among the uranium-bearing compounds, those with a uranium oxidation state of +6 are most common and a particular structural unit, uranyl UO(2)(2+) is usually involved in these hexavalent uranium compounds. Apart from forming solids with inorganic ions, the uranyl unit also bonds to organic molecules to generate uranyl-organic coordination materials. If appropriate reaction conditions are employed, uranyl-organic extended structures (1-D chains, 2-D layers, and 3-D frameworks) can be obtained. Research on uranyl-organic compounds with extended structures allows for the exploration of their rich structural chemistry, and such studies also point to potential applications such as in materials that could facilitate nuclear waste disposal. In this Account, we describe the structural features of uranyl-organic compounds and efforts to synthesize uranyl-organic compounds with desired structures. We address strategies to construct 3-D uranyl-organic frameworks through rational selection of organic ligands and the incorporation of heteroatoms. The UO(2)(2+) species with inactive U?O double bonds usually form bipyramidal polyhedral structures with ligands coordinated at the equatorial positions, and these polyhedra act as primary building units (PBUs) for the construction of uranyl-organic compounds. The geometry of the uranyl ions and the steric arrangements and functionalities of organic ligands can be exploited in the the design of uranyl--organic extended structures, We also focus on the investigation of the promising physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds. Uranyl-organic materials with an extended structure may exhibit attractive properties, such as photoluminescence, photocatalysis, photocurrent, and photovoltaic responses. In particular, the intriguing, visible-light photocatalytic activities of uranyl-organic compounds are potentially applicable in decomposition of organic pollutants and in water-splitting with the irradiation of solar light. We ascribe the photochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds to the electronic transitions within the U?O bonds, which may be affected by the presence of organic ligands. PMID:21612214

  1. Health Risk Assessment of Organic Contaminants in a Typical Wastewater Irrigation Area, Northeastern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayun Li; Ying Zhang; Zhiping Fan; Qun Gao

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment of contaminated sites is crucial for quantifying adverse impacts on human health and the environment. The suitability of wastewater reuse for agricultural irrigation has to be considered for the health risk offered by the contamination of water and soil, as well as the food chain transfer. In this work, health risk assessment of multiple organic contaminants through the

  2. Developing organic fouling indices of microfiltration and nanofiltration membranes for wastewater reclamation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kangmin Chon; Sungyun Lee; Kyongmi Chon; Ahamad Altaf Hussain; Jaewoon Cho

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation processes, including membrane bio reactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane, have been built, and those processes were independently operated, under recycling conditions, to compare the performances, with respect to contaminants removal and fouling minimization. The hydrophilic fractions of organic matter were more effectively removed than the hydrophobic fraction through the system due to microbial activities in the MBR,

  3. Color and chlorinated organics removal from pulp mills wastewater using activated petroleum coke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman R Shawwa; Daniel W Smith; David C Sego

    2001-01-01

    Delayed petroleum coke, a waste by-product from the oil sand industry, was utilized in the production of activated carbon. The activated carbon was then evaluated for color and chlorinated organics reduction from pulp mill wastewater. The activation of the petroleum coke was evaluated using a fixed bed reactor involving carbonization and activation steps at temperature of 850°C and using steam

  4. Removal of phosphorus and organic matter removal by alum during wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. OMOIKE; G. W. VANLOON

    1999-01-01

    Ferron reagent and FTIR spectroscopy were used for the identification and characterization of the aluminum species formed during dephosphorization of simulated wastewater with and without organic matter. Evidence from FTIR spectroscopy showed the formation of aluminum hydroxyphosphate, hydroxy-Al–tannate and aluminum complexes containing both phosphorus and tannic acid. The surface reactivity of the solid products is proportional to the rate of

  5. Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana W Kolpin; Mary Skopec; Michael T Meyer; Edward T Furlong; Steven D Zaugg

    2004-01-01

    During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more

  6. Effects of Three Organic Wastewater Contaminants on American Toad, Bufo americanus , Tadpoles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey R Smith; Amber A Burgett

    2005-01-01

    Recent surveys of aquatic habitats suggest that organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) may be common in aquatic ecosystems. However, relatively little is known about the impacts of OWCs on amphibians. We studied the lethal and sublethal effects of three OWCs (acetaminophen, caffeine, and triclosan) on American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. High concentrations of triclosan increased activity, whereas acetaminophen had a significant

  7. TOXIC ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SYNFUELS AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the potential for toxic organic emissions from synfuels wastewater treatment systems. The synthetic fuels facilities examined were coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, shale oil, by-product coke, and associated pe...

  8. Application of Moving Bed Biofilm Process for Biological Organics and Nutrients Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kermani; B. Bina; H. Movahedian; M. M. Amin; M. Nikaein

    2008-01-01

    In this study, experiments have been conducted to evaluate the organics and nutrients removal from synthetic wastewater by a laboratory scale moving bed biofilm process. For nutrients removal, moving bed biofilm process has been applied in series with anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic units in four separate reactors. Moving bed biofilm reactors were operated continuously at different loading rates of nitrogen

  9. Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

  10. ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN CONSENT DECREE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a need of the Effluent Guidelines Division of the U.S. EPA Office of Water Regulations and Standards, industrial wastewater survey sample extracts were analyzed for organic pollutants other than the Priority Pollutants. Chromatographic analyses were performed on ca...

  11. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Souvik Banerjee; M. G. Dastidar

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made

  12. [Biodegradation characteristics of organic pollutants contained in tannery wastewater].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Li, Wei-Guang; Yang, Li; Su, Cheng-Yuan

    2013-02-01

    In the batch experiments inoculated with activated sludge from tannery wastewater treatment plant, biodegradation characteristics and kinetics of three tanning agents, naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium, tannic acid and bayberry tannin, were studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. And the aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation laws of real tannery wastewater with respect to COD change were also investigated using the same batch experiments. The results showed aerobic degradation was superior to anaerobic degradation for tanning agent removal and mineralization. The removal rates of naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium, tannic acid and bayberry tannin by aerobic biodegradation were >90% , >90% and 50% -75% , respectively whereas 10%-40%, >95% and 20% -30%, respectively by anaerobic degradation. In terms of COD removal about tannic acid biodegradation, the removal rates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were >75% and < 75% ,respectively. The first-order kinetic constants during aerobic biodegradation of tannic acid and bayberry tannin were slightly influenced by initial concentrations while initial concentration had a significant effect on the first-order kinetics rate in the case of naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium aerobic-biodegradation because naphthalene- 2-sulfonic sodium with initial concentration >or= 70 mg.L-1 was toxic to microorganism leading to a significant decline of kinetic constants. Biodegradation of real tannery wastewater under aerobic and anaerobic conditions represented obvious stage characteristics and the COD concentration had a good linear correlation with reaction time in the phases of fast degradation and slow degradation. The aerobic maximum specific degradation rate wqas 11.6 times higher of anaerobic degradation. PMID:23668129

  13. Occurrence of pharmaceutically active and non-steroidal estrogenic compounds in three different wastewater recycling schemes in Australia 

    E-print Network

    Al-Rifai, Jawad H.; Gabelish, Candace L.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    , the other applying ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration, have been studied for their ability to remove trace organic contaminants including 11 pharmaceutically active compounds and two non-steroidal estrogenic compounds. Contaminant...

  14. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the laboratory using standard BTEX gases. The LODs for the Tenax TA sampling tubes (determined with a sample volume of 1,000 standard cubic centimeters which is close to the approximate commuter sample volumes collected) were orders of magnitude lower (0.04 to 0.7 parts per billion (ppb) for individual compounds of BTEX) compared to the PIDs' LODs (9.3 to 15 ppb of a BTEX mixture), which makes the Tenax TA sampling method more suitable to measure BTEX concentrations in the sub-parts per billion (ppb) range. PID and Tenax TA data for commuter exposures were inversely related. The concentrations of VOCs measured by the PID were substantially higher than BTEX concentrations measured by collocated Tenax TA samplers. The inverse trend and the large difference in magnitude between PID responses and Tenax TA BTEX measurements indicates the two methods may have been measuring different air pollutants that are negatively correlated. Drivers in Fort Collins, Colorado with closed windows experienced greater time-weighted average BTEX exposures than cyclists (p: 0.04). Commuter BTEX exposures measured in Fort Collins were lower than commuter exposures measured in prior studies that occurred in larger cities (Boston and Copenhagen). Although route and intake may affect a commuter's BTEX dose, these variables are outside of the scope of this study. Within the limitations of this study (including: small sample size, small representative area of Fort Collins, and respiration rates not taken into account), it appears health risks associated with traffic-induced BTEX exposures may be reduced by commuting via cycling instead of driving with windows closed and living in a less populous area that has less vehicle traffic. Although the PID did not reliably measure low-level commuter BTEX exposures, the Tenax TA sampling method did. The PID measured BTEX concentrations reliably in a controlled environment, at high concentrations (300-800 ppb), and in the absence of other air pollutants. In environments where there could be multiple chemicals present that may produce a PID signal (such a

  15. Biotransformation of aromatic compounds from wastewaters containing N and\\/or S, by nitrification\\/denitrification: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Beristain-Cardoso; Anne-Claire Texier; Elías Razo-Flores; Ramón Méndez-Pampín; Jorge Gómez

    2009-01-01

    This review presents progress made over the last decades in the understanding of the metabolic capabilities of nitrifying\\u000a and denitrifying microorganisms for the biotransformation of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon compounds present in wastewaters.\\u000a There are nowadays still many discoveries to be made about the metabolism, phylogeny and ecological behavior of bacteria that\\u000a play an important role in the nitrogen cycle.

  16. Volatile Organic Compound Detection Using Nanostructured Copolymers

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Lee E.

    ,3-6 conductive poly- mers (CPs),7-12 and carbon black-polymer composites.13,14 Metal oxide materials compound (VOC) chemresistor sensors. While the regioregular polythiophene polymer chain provides a charge conductivity of these copolymers increased or decreased depending upon the polymer composition and the specific

  17. Organic Compounds in Circumstellar and Interstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth.

  18. Organic compounds in circumstellar and interstellar environments.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth. PMID:25720971

  19. Biodegradability of pharmaceutical compounds in agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grossberger, Amnon; Hadar, Yitzhak; Borch, Thomas; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are introduced into agricultural soils via irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Our data show that carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil are persistent in soils when introduced via TWW. However, other PCs, namely diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and naproxen were not detected in soils when introduced via TWW. This is likely due to rapid degradation as confirmed in our microcosm studies where they exhibited half-lives (t1/2) between 0.2-9.5 days when soils were spiked at 50 ng/g soil and between 3 and 68 days when soils were spiked at 5000 ng/g soil. The degradation rate and extent of PCs observed in microcosm studies were similar in soils that had been previously irrigated with TWW or fresh water. This suggests that pre-exposure of the soils to PCs via irrigation with TWW does not enhance their biodegradation. This suggests that PCs are probably degraded in soils via co-metabolism. PMID:24286691

  20. Pilot-scale study on nitrogen and aromatic compounds removal in printing and dyeing wastewater by reinforced hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process and its microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Erqin; Tang, Siyuan; Li, Yi; Cao, Jiashun

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to efficiently dispose printing and dyeing wastewater with "high organic nitrogen and aromatic compounds, but low carbon source quality", the reinforced anaerobic hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process, based on improved UASB reactors and segregated collection-disposition strategy, was designed and applied at the pilot scale. Results showed that the coupling process displayed efficient removal for these two kinds of pollutants (nitrogen and aromatics), since the concentration of NH3-N (shortened as ? (NH3-N))?compound-degrading potential, which demonstrates that the coupling process owns admirable applicability for this kind of wastewater treatment. PMID:25613804

  1. Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen during co-composting of olive mill wastewater with solid organic wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Paredes; A. Roig; M. P. Bernal; M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; J. Cegarra

    2000-01-01

    Four olive mill wastewater (OMW) composts, prepared with three N-rich organic wastes and two different bulking agents, were\\u000a studied in a pilot plant using the Rutgers system. Organic matter (OM) losses during composting followed a first-order kinetic\\u000a equation in all the piles, the slowest being the OM mineralisation rate in the pile using maize straw (MS). The highest N\\u000a losses

  2. Identification and separation of the organic compounds in coal-gasification condensate waters. [5,5 dimethyl hydantoin, dihydroxy benzenes, acetonitrile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Jr. Mohr; C. J. King

    1983-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the organic solutes in condensate waters from low-temperature coal-gasification processes are not identified by commonly employed analytical techniques, have low distriution coefficients (K\\/sub C\\/) into diisopropyl ether (DIPE) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and are resistant to biological oxidation. These compounds represent an important wastewater-treatment problem. Analytical techniques were developed to detect these polar compounds, and

  3. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the performance test required to be...

  4. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the performance test required to be...

  5. ODOR AND IRRITATION EFFECTS OF A VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MIXTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds elicits a variety ofsymptoms, many of which are thought to be mediated by the olfactoryand trigeminal systems. his report describes evidence indicatingthat perceived odor intensity diminishes during prolonged exposure,whearas irritatin...

  6. ESTIMATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computer program SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) has been under development for several years to estimate physical properties and chemical reactivity parameters of organic compounds strictly from molecular structure. SPARC uses computational algorithms...

  7. COMPACT, CONTINUOUS MONITORING FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved methods for onsite measurement of multiple volatile organic compounds are needed for process control, monitoring, and remediation. This Phase I SBIR project sets forth an optical measurement method that meets these needs. The proposed approach provides an instantaneous m...

  8. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with ...

  9. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On and...

  10. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the...

  11. Degradation of organic matter in olive-oil mill wastewater through homogeneous Fenton-like reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopoldo Martínez Nieto; Gassan Hodaifa; Salvador Rodríguez; José A. Giménez; Javier Ochando

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of organic matter present in olive-oil mill wastewater from two-phase olive-oil extraction process was carried out by chemical oxidation reaction. It was shown that organic matter is efficiently degraded through a Fenton-like reaction using FeCl3 as catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Oxidation was carried out in a batch reactor with controlled temperature. Operating at pH 3.0,

  12. Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The air consent agreement between EPA and large animal feeding operations (AFO) is designed to determine at what level compounds are being emitted from these facilities. However, the methodology used for quantifying total non-methane hydrocarbons and speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) n...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIRBORNE DUST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three methods of extracting volatile organic compounds (VOC's) adsorbed on the airborne dust in a swine finishing building were investigated. Airborne dust was collected in pre-baked glass fiber filters (GFF's) and the compounds were extracted by solvent extraction using dichloromethane, solid phas...

  14. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED IN DEARS PASSIVE SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored in personal exposures, indoors and outdoors of participant's residences, and at a central community site during the DEARS summer 2004 monitoring season. The list of VOCs focused on compounds typically associated with ...

  15. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Sediment and Soil by Pressurized Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction, and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 61 compounds in environmental sediment and soil samples is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater and wastewater-impacted sediment on aquatic organisms. This method also may be used to evaluate the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water and sediment quality of urban streams. Method development focused on the determination of compounds that were chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from interfering matrix components by high-pressure water/isopropyl alcohol extraction. The compounds were isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing chemically modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. The cartridges were dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds were eluted with methylene chloride (80 percent)-diethyl ether (20 percent) through Florisil/sodium sulfate SPE cartridge, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-sand samples fortified at 4 to 72 micrograms averaged 76 percent ?13 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method reporting levels for single-component compounds ranged from 50 to 500 micrograms per kilogram. The concentrations of 20 out of 61 compounds initially will be reported as estimated with the 'E' remark code for one of three reasons: (1) unacceptably low-biased recovery (less than 60 percent) or highly variable method performance (greater than 25 percent relative standard deviation), (2) reference standards prepared from technical mixtures, or (3) potential blank contamination. Samples were preserved by freezing to -20 degrees Celsius. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory has established a 1-year sample-holding time limit (prior to sample extraction) from the date of sample collection (if the sample is kept at -20?C) until a statistically accepted method can be used to determine the effectiveness of the sample-freezing procedure.

  16. Emission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds as observed at Chebogue Point,

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    organic compounds (VOC) are oxidized in the troposphere. There are three possible final stages or out] Oxidation products of primary VOC emissions tend to become less volatile and more soluble becauseEmission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds

  17. Composition and major sources of organic compounds in urban aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinhui Bi; Bernd R. T. Simoneit; Guoying Sheng; Shexia Ma; Jiamo Fu

    2008-01-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during June 2002 to July 2003 in Guangzhou, a typical economically developed city in South China, were analyzed for the organic compound compositions using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Over 140 organic compounds were detected in the aerosols and grouped into different classes including n-alkanes, hopanoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanols, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids excluding oxalic

  18. Sorption of Selected Organic Compounds in Two Black Carbon Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang-hsin Shih; Po-Hsin Su

    \\u000a Black carbons (BCs) have been reported to exhibit an extremely strong sorption of organic compounds in the environment. The\\u000a basic physicochemical properties of two selected black carbons characterized and showed mainly non-polar. The polarity of\\u000a BC1 was slightly higher than BC2. Sorption coefficients of selected organic compounds on two BCs were investigated by a reversed-phase\\u000a liquid chromatography (RP-LC) method. Sorption

  19. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  20. Bioavailability of organic compounds solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhilong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Whether direct availability of organic compound solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelles (bioavailability) in a bioremediation\\u000a or biotransformation process is uncertain to some extent, which is partially attributed to the difficulty by direct experimental\\u000a determination. In another point of view, it should be ascribed to the fuzzy concept about the solubilization of organic compound\\u000a in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

  1. Structure of Organic Oxygen Compounds of Sulphur

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu A. Kolesnik; V. V. Kozlov

    1968-01-01

    The nature of the sulphur-oxygen bond, the geometry of molecules of the types XYSO, XYSO2, XSOOH, and XSO2OH, and the character of the intramolecular interactions in these compounds are discussed. Apart from the sigma-bond between sulphur and oxygen, interaction obviously occurs by means of the 3d-orbital of sulphur and the 2p-orbital of oxygen (2p-3d hybridisation). The interaction of a sulphinyl

  2. A laboratory batch reactor test for assessing nonspeciated volatile organic compound biodegradation in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Cano, M L; Saterbak, A; van Compernolle, R; Williams, M P; Huot, M E; Rhodes, I A; Allen, C C

    2003-01-01

    The relative rates of biodegradation and stripping and volatilization of nonspeciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in wastewater treated with aerobic activated-sludge processes can be quantified using a newly developed procedure. This method was adapted from the original aerated draft tube reactor test that was developed to measure biodegradation rate constants for specific volatile pollutants of interest. The original batch test has been modified to include solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers for sampling in the gas phase. The experimental procedure using SPME fibers does not require specific identification and quantitation of individual pollutants and can be used to evaluate wastewater with multiple VOCs. To illustrate use of this procedure, laboratory experiments were conducted using biomass and wastewater or effluent from three activated-sludge treatment systems. Each experiment consisted of two trials: a stripping-only trial without biomass and a stripping plus biodegradation trial using biomass from the activated-sludge unit of interest. Data from the two trials were used to quantify the rates of biodegradation by difference. The activated-sludge systems tested were a laboratory diffused-air reactor treating refinery wastewater, a full-scale surface aerated reactor treating a petrochemical wastewater, and a full-scale diffused-air reactor treating a variety of industrial effluents. The biodegradation rate constant data from each laboratory batch experiment were used in model calculations to quantify the fraction emitted (fe) and the fraction biodegraded (fbio) for each system. The fe values ranged from a maximum of 0.01 to a maximum of 0.32, whereas fbio values ranged from a minimum of 0.40 to a minimum 0.95. Two of these systems had been previously tested using a more complicated experimental approach, and the current results were in good agreement with previous results. These results indicate that biodegradation rate constant data from this laboratory method can be successfully used to predict the fate of VOCs in field-scale treatment units, and thus could potentially be used for demonstration of compliance with wastewater VOC emission regulations. PMID:12934828

  3. Biodegradation technology for volatile organic compound removal from airstreams. Phase 1: Performance verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ergas, S.J.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1992-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic air pollutants are emitted in significant quantities from wastewater treatment plants (POTWs, or publicly owned treatment works). However, the concentrations are low, presenting a challenge for emissions control. Laboratory and field studies verified the potential application of microbial packed bed systems (biofilters) for the removal of VOCs from off-gases resulting from wastewater treatment. The contractor built a pilot scale biofilter designed to treat about 200 cfm of air, consisting of a reactor chamber, gas intake system, humidification chamber, a gas flow measurement system, and a filter bed. The filter medium consisted of compost obtained from a POTW, with perlite and crushed oyster shells added. The biofilter was installed at a headworks for incoming sewage at a POTW. After an acclimation period of several days, appreciable removal of VOCs was observed. In the field, removals of benzene, toluene, and hydrogen sulfide were generally over 90 percent. However, removals of chlorinated compounds were varied, and generally were below 40 percent of the inlet concentrations. Hydrogen sulfide removal was consistently greater than 99 percent, and the resulting odors were not unpleasant.

  4. Low cost biosorbent "banana peel" for the removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Achak, M; Hafidi, A; Ouazzani, N; Sayadi, S; Mandi, L

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the potential of application of banana peel as a biosorbent for removing phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters. The effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the increase in the banana peel dosage from 10 to 30 g/L significantly increased the phenolic compounds adsorption rates from 60 to 88%. Increase in the pH to above neutrality resulted in the increase in the phenolic compounds adsorption capacity. The adsorption process was fast, and it reached equilibrium in 3-h contact time. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium and it was found that experimental data fitted very well to both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion mechanism, showed that kinetic data follow closely the pseudo-second-order than the pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion. Desorption studies showed that low pH value was efficient for desorption of phenolic compounds. These results indicate clearly the efficiency of banana peel as a low-cost solution for olive mill wastewaters treatment and give some preliminary elements for the comprehension of the interactions between banana peel as a bioadsorbent and the very polluting compounds from the olive oil industry. PMID:19144464

  5. BEHAVIOR OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS DURING RAPID-INFILTRATION OF WASTEWATER INTO SOIL: 1. PROCESSES, DEFINITION, AND CHARACTERIZATION USING A MICROCOSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microcosm was constructed to study the behavior of organic pollutants during rapid infiltration of municipal wastewater into soil. The microcosm permitted a direct measure of the amount of volatilization and allowed calculation of the amount that degraded. The wastewater was am...

  6. Characterization and transformation of dissolved organic matter in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant in Harbin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangliang Wei; Kun Wang; Qingliang Zhao; Chunmei Xie

    2012-01-01

    The removal and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in different units of a full-scale A\\/O wastewater treatment plant (Harbin, China) were investigated both in summer and winter. DOM in the raw wastewater (RW) and the effluents of the grit chamber, primary sedimentation tank, anaerobic tank, oxidation tank (OT), and secondary sedimentation tank (SST) were fractionated and characterized. Hydrophilic fraction

  7. Electricity generation directly using human feces wastewater for life support system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Fangzhou; Li Zhenglong; Yang Shaoqiang; Xie Beizhen; Liu Hong

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater reuse and power regeneration are key issues in the research of bioregeneration life support system (BLSS). Microbial fuel cell (MFC) can generate electricity during the process of wastewater treatment, which might be promising to solve the two problems simultaneously. We used human feces wastewater containing abundant organic compounds as the substrate of MFC to generate electricity, and the factors

  8. ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    E-print Network

    ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH _______ ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT of biofilters for sequential removal of H2S and VOCs from wastewater treatment plant waste air. The biofilter volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic air pollutants emitted from wastewater and solids handling

  9. In situ measurements of gas/particle-phase transitions for atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    . Labora- tory studies typically measure the phase partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds by using atmosphere by using in situ observations of several hundred semivolatile organic compounds. Here we compare TAG measurementsto modeledpartitioningof select semivolatile organ- ic compounds. Although TAG

  10. Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-07-01

    Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

  11. Determination of dissolved organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstea, Elfrida M.; Bridgeman, John

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the removal efficiency of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in several wastewater treatment works, at different processing stages. The correlation between fluorescence values and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) has been examined. Fluorescence was measured for unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.20 ?m) samples of crude, settled and secondary treated wastewater (activated sludge), and final effluent. Moreover, the potential of using portable fluorimeters has been explored in a laboratory scale activated sludge process. Good correlations were observed for filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples between protein-like fluorescence intensity (excitation 280 nm, emission 350 nm) and BOD (r = 0.78), COD (r = 0.90) and TOC (r = 0.79). BOD displayed a higher correlation at the 0.20 ?m filtered samples compared to COD and TOC. Slightly better relation was seen between fluorescence and conventional parameters at the portable fluorimeters compared to laboratory-based instruments. The results indicated that fluorescence spectroscopy, in particular protein-like fluorescence, could be used for continuous, real-time assessment of DOM removal efficiency in wastewater treatment works.

  12. Highly stable meteoritic organic compounds as markers of asteroidal delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Friedrich; Spees, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood

    2014-01-01

    Multiple missions to search for water-soluble organic compounds on the surfaces of Solar System bodies are either current or planned and, if such compounds were found, it would be desirable to determine their origin(s). Asteroid or comet material is likely to have been components of all surface environments throughout Solar System history. To simulate the survival of meteoritic compounds both during impacts with planetary surfaces and under subsequent (possibly) harsh ambient conditions, we subjected known meteoritic compounds to comparatively high impact-shock pressures (>30 GPa) and/or to extremely oxidizing/corrosive acid solution. Consistent with past impact experiments, ?-amino acids survived only at trace levels above ?18 GPa. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) survived at levels of 4-8% at a shock pressure of 36 GPa. Lower molecular weight sulfonic and phosphonic acids (S&P) had the highest degree of impact survival of all tested compounds at higher pressures. Oxidation of compounds was done with a 3:1 mixture of HCl:HNO3, a solution that generates additional strong oxidants such as Cl2 and NOCl. Upon oxidation, keto acids and ?-amino acids were the most labile compounds with proline as a significant exception. Some fraction of the other compounds, including non-? amino acids and dicarboxylic acids, were stable during 16-18 hours of oxidation. However, S&P quantitatively survived several months (at least) under the same conditions. Such results begin to build a profile of the more robust meteoritic compounds: those that may have survived, i.e., may be found in, the more hostile Solar System environments. In the search for organic compounds, one current mission, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), will use analytical procedures similar to those of this study and those employed previously on Earth to identify many of the compounds described in this work. The current results may thus prove to be directly relevant to potential findings of MSL and other missions designed for extraterrestrial organic analysis.

  13. Biological aspects of constructing volatile organic compound emission inventories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Fall; Mt Lerdau; Td Sharkey

    1995-01-01

    The: emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation is subject to numerous biological controls. Past inventories have relied heavily on empirical models which are limited in their ability to simulate the response of organisms to short- and long-term changes in their growth environment. In this review we consider the principal biochemical, physiological and ecological controls over VOC emission with

  14. Emission of volatile organic compounds from coal combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K Chagger; J. M Jones; M Pourkashanian; A Williams; A Owen; G Fynes

    1999-01-01

    The combustion of coal leads to the formation of small but significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic organic micropollutants as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as CH4. The measurements of such trace emissions is difficult and expensive, consequently it is useful to examine these from a kinetic modelling and thermodynamic point of view in order to make

  15. Leveraging the beneficial compounds of organic and pasture milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much discussion has arisen over the possible benefits of organic food, including milk. Organic milk comes from cows that are on pasture during the growing season, and would be expected to contain some compounds that are not found in animals receiving conventional feed, or at higher concentrations. ...

  16. Students' Understanding of Molecular Structure and Properties of Organic Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this study was to investigate senior high school students' difficulties predicting the existence of hydrogen bridge bonds between organic molecules, investigate students' difficulties predicting the relative boiling points of simple organic compounds, and develop test questions that enable teachers to quickly get information about…

  17. Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Solution and

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    i Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Aqueous Solution and at the Air-water Interface ABSTRACT Isoprene (ISO), the most abundant non-methane VOC, is the major contributor to secondary organic. Current mechanisms, which are based on the oxidation of ISO in the gas-phase, underestimate SOA yields

  18. Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?

    PubMed

    Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2015-02-15

    Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt. PMID:25236204

  19. [Characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in subsurface wastewater infiltration system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Lie-Yu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xia, Xun-Feng; Liu, Ya-Ru

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the soil column with radius of 30 cm and height of 200 cm was used to simulate a subsurface wastewater infiltration system. Under the hydraulic loading of 4 cm x d(-1), composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different depths were analyzed in a subsurface wastewater infiltration system for treatment of septic tank effluent using three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM) with regional integration analysis (FRI). The results indicate that: (1) from different depth, the composition of DOM was also different; influent with the depth of 0.5 m was mainly composed of protein-like substances, and that at other depths was mainly composed of humic- and fulvic-like substances. (2) DOM stability gradually increased and part of the nonbiodegradable organic matter can be removed during organic pollutants degradation process. (3) Not only the organic pollutants concentration was reduced effectively, but also the stability of the DOM improved in subsurface wastewater infiltration system. PMID:24159860

  20. BEHAVIOR OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS DURING RAPID-INFILTRATION OF WASTEWATER INTO SOIL: 2. MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental screening model was developed to describe the movement of volatile and transformable organic chemicals in rapid-infiltration wastewater treatment systems. The first compartment describes losses of the chemical from the infiltration basin when the basin is flooded ...

  1. Organic pollutants in the effluents of large wastewater treatment plants in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicklas Paxéus

    1996-01-01

    Effluents from the three largest WWTPs in Sweden were analysed for the presence of organic pollutants by GC-MS. From a total of 137 identified compounds only 10 were priority pollutants. A broad spectrum of non-regulated organic pollutants found in the effluents included aromatic hydrocarbons, food and household related compounds, solvents, plasticisers, flame retardants, preservatives, antioxidants and washing and cleaning related

  2. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly. PMID:19710121

  3. GROUND WATER TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil columns were investigated. hree compounds (naphthalene, phenathrene, and DDT) that spanned three orders of magnitude in water solubility were used. nstead of humic matter, mole...

  4. Partitioning of nonionic organic compounds between multicomponent organic phase and water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojiang Wang; Shunnian Wu; Liansheng Wang

    1997-01-01

    The partitioning of nonionic organic compounds between multicomponent organic phase and water was investigated. It was found that the partition coefficients of chemicals between multi?component organic phase and water are approximately the linear combination of those between single?component organic phase and water based on the volume fraction of each component. The contribution of each component to the extracting capacity of

  5. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in effluents from wastewater treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Imai; Takehiko Fukushima; Kazuo Matsushige; Yong-Hwan Kim; Kwangsoon Choi

    2002-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from sewage and human-wastes treatment plants (STPEs and HWTPEs) was fractionated using resin adsorbents into six classes: aquatic humic substances (AHS), hydrophobic bases (HoB), hydrophobic neutrals (HoN), hydrophilic acids (HiA), hydrophilic bases (HiB), and hydrophilic neutrals (HiN).DOM-fraction distribution varied substantially depending on the kind of wastewater and the type of treatment process. AHS and

  6. Glycogen-accumulating organisms in laboratory-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory R. Crocetti; Jillian F. Banfield; J. Keller; P. L. Bond; L. L. Blackall

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) as models for wastewater treatment processes were used to identify glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are thought to be responsible for the deterioration of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The SBRs (called Q and T), operated under alternating anaerobic-aerobic conditions typical for EBPR, generated mixed microbial communities (sludges) demonstrating the GAO phenotype. Intracellular glycogen and poly-b-hydroxyalkanoate

  7. Fouling characteristics of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) isolates on NF and UF membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chalor Jarusutthirak; Gary Amy; Jean-Philippe Croué

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) was isolated into different fractions including colloids, and hydrophobic (HPO) and transphilic (TPI) fractions. The EfOM isolates were characterized by different techniques, for example, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with on-line UVA and DOC detectors, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), specific UVA (SUVA), and total sugars analysis. The colloidal fraction is primarily composed of polysaccharides, proteins, and\\/or

  8. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  9. Is there a risk for the aquatic environment due to the existence of emerging organic contaminants in treated domestic wastewater? Greece as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Thomaidi, Vasiliki S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Borova, Viola L; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-02-11

    The ecological threat associated with emerging pollutants detected in wastewater was estimated in country level. Treated wastewater was analyzed for pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs; whereas the concentrations of all emerging contaminants determined in Greek Sewage Treatment Plants were recorded through literature review. Toxicity data was collected after literature review or using ECOSAR and risk quotients (RQs) were calculated for treated wastewater and 25 Greek rivers, for 3 different aquatic organisms (fish, daphnia magna, algae). According to the results, monitoring data was available for 207 micropollutants belonging to 8 different classes. RQ>1 was calculated for 30 compounds in secondary treated wastewater. Triclosan presented RQ>1 (in algae) for all studied rivers; decamethylcyclopentasilane (in daphnia magna), caffeine (in algae) and nonylphenol (in fish) presented RQ>1 in rivers with dilution factors (DF) equal or lower to 1910, 913 and 824, respectively. The class of emerging contaminants that present the greatest threat due to single or mixture toxicity was endocrine disrupters. The mixture of microcontaminants seems to pose significant ecological risk, even in rivers with DF equal to 2388. Future national monitoring programs should include specific microcontaminants that seem to possess environment risk to surface water. PMID:25464317

  10. Volatile organic compounds in selected micro-environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Hinwood; Henry Berko; Drew Farrar; Ian Galbally

    2006-01-01

    A program of sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air was undertaken in selected locations and micro-environments in Perth, Western Australia to characterise concentrations of target VOCs and to determine the relative strength of the contributing sources to ambient air in different micro-environments in a major Australian city. Twenty-seven locations were sampled and, of the forty-one target compounds,

  11. Reconnaissance of selected organic contaminants in effluent and ground water at fifteen municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida, 1983- 84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Troutman, D.E.; Irwin, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a 1983-84 reconnaissance of 15 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida indicated that effluent from most of the plants contains trace concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Chloroform was detected in the effluent at 11 of the 15 plants and its common occurrence was likely the result of chlorination. The maximum concentration of chloroform detected in the effluent sampled was 120 micrograms/L. Detectable concentrations of selected organophosphorus insecticides were also common. For example, diazinon was detected in the effluent at 12 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.5 micrograms/L. Organochlorine insecticides, primarily lindane, were detected in the effluent at 8 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.0 micrograms/L. Volatile compounds, primarily chloroform, were detected in water from monitor wells at four plants and organophosphorus insecticides, primarily diazinon, were present in the groundwater at three treatment plants. Organochlorine insecticides were not detected in any samples from monitor wells. Based on the limited data available, this cursory reconaissance suggests that the organic contaminants commonly occurring in the effluent of many of the treatment plants are not transported into the local groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Solar photo-Fenton using peroxymonosulfate for organic micropollutants removal from domestic wastewater: comparison with heterogeneous TiO? photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Brienza, Monica; Goetz, Vincent; Chiron, Serge

    2014-12-01

    This work aims at decontaminating biologically treated domestic wastewater effluents from organic micropollutants by sulfate radical based (SO4(-)) homogeneous photo-Fenton involving peroxymonosulfate as an oxidant, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) as a catalyst and simulated solar irradiation as a light source. This oxidative system was evaluated by using several probe compounds belonging to pesticides (bifenthrin, mesotrione and clothianidin) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine) classes and its kinetic efficiency was compared to that to the well known UV-Vis/TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis. Except for carbamazepine, apparent kinetic rate constants were always 10 times higher in PMS/Fe(II)/UV-Vis than in TiO2/UV-Vis system and more than 70% of total organic carbon abatement was reached in less than one hour treatment. Hydroxyl radical (OH) and SO4(-) reactivity was investigated using mesotrione as a probe compound through by-products identification by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry and transformation pathways elucidation. In addition to two OH based transformation pathways, a specific SO4(-) transformation pathway which first involved degradation through one electron transfer oxidation processes followed by decarboxylation were probably responsible for mesotrione degradation kinetic improvement upon UV-Vis/PMS/Fe(II) system in comparison to UVVis/TiO2 system. PMID:25108605

  13. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  14. Thermal decomposition studies of halogenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.V.; Kumaran, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    Thermal decomposition results for CCl{sub 4}, CHCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}Cl, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}Cl, CFCl{sub 3}, CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CF{sub 3}Cl, CF{sub 2}HCl, CF{sub 3}I, CH{sub 3}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}I, and CCl{sub 2}O are presented. The results were obtained by shock tube techniques coupled with optical spectroscopic detection of transient species formed from dissociation. The method is illustrated with the CH{sub 3}I (+ Kr) {yields} CH{sub 3} + I (+ Kr) reaction where decomposition was monitored using I-atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS). Modern unimolecular rate theoretical analysis has been carried out on the present cases, and the conclusions from these calculations are discussed. Lastly, the possible destruction of halo-organics by incineration is considered and some implications are discussed.

  15. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  16. Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Smith; P. J. Witkowski; T. V. Fusillo

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic

  17. TREATMENT OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER FOR REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research demonstrated the quality of water produced by each step of a state-of-the-art, commercially available process sequence and determined the feasibility and economics of renovating organic chemical watewater for reuse as boiler feedwater or cycle cooling water. The 5-g...

  18. Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo

    2007-06-01

    Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process.

  19. Removal of organic pollutants by surfactant modified zeolite: comparison between ionizable phenolic compounds and non-ionizable organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Meng, Wenna; Wu, Deyi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Kong, Hainan

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption capability and mechanism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium modified zeolite, which was synthesized from coal fly ash, for the removal of ionizable phenolic compounds (phenol, p-chlorophenol and bisphenol A, with different pK(a)) and non-ionizable organic compounds (aniline, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene, with different hydrophobicity). The obtained zeolite was identified as type Na-P1 (Na(6)Al(6)Si(10)O(32)·12H(2)O, JCPDS code 39-0219), which is classified into the gismondine group with a pore size of 3.1 Å × 4.5 Å [100] and 2.8 Å × 4.8 Å [101]. The adsorption of the two kinds of organic compounds was due to loaded surfactant bilayer because modified zeolite showed great ability for the removal of organic chemicals while little adsorption by zeolite was observed. The isotherm data of ionizable compounds fitted well to the Langmuir model but those of non-ionizable chemicals followed a linear equation. Uptake of ionizable compounds depended greatly on pH, increasing at alkaline pH conditions. In contrary, adsorption of non-ionizable chemicals was essentially the same at all pH levels studied. The adsorption of both kinds of organic compounds correlated well to k(ow) value, suggesting that more hydrophobic organic contaminants are more easily retained by modified zeolite. Based on the different adsorption behavior, the uptake of non-ionizable pollutants was thought to be a single partitioning process into the surfactant bilayer. For ionizable compounds, however, interaction of the phenol group(s) with the positively charged "head" of surfactant additionally functions. PMID:22771348

  20. Chemical reactions of organic compounds on clay surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Y; Soma, M

    1989-01-01

    Chemical reactions of organic compounds including pesticides at the interlayer and exterior surfaces of clay minerals and with soil organic matter are reviewed. Representative reactions under moderate conditions possibly occurring in natural soils are described. Attempts have been made to clarify the importance of the chemical nature of molecules, their structures and their functional groups, and the Brönsted or Lewis acidity of clay minerals. PMID:2533556

  1. Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Wastewater by Pervaporation

    E-print Network

    Wijmans, J. G.; Kaschemekat, J.; Baker, R. W.; Simmons, V. L.

    of liquid separations. The biggest current application is the dehydration of 90% ethanol/water solutions to yield 99.5% pure ,3 This paper describes an emerging application for pervaporation, the removal of organic solvents from dilute aqueous streams... with an average concentration of 26%. Because benzene is relatively insoluble in water, permeate vapor of this concentration would phase separate on condensation to yield a pure benzene stream and a small benzene-saturated aqueous stream, which would...

  2. Degradation of organic matter from domestic wastewater with loofah sponge biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwei; Sun, Ken; Hu, Na

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory-scale oxic biofilm reactor using loofah sponge as support material was carried out to study its start-up characteristics and the optimum operation parameters in removing organic matter and nitrogen from domestic wastewater. It took no more than 10 days to complete microbiological cultivation and acclimation, indicating that the natural loofah sponge was a superior support material compared with some conventional ones. The influence parameter experiments showed that the hydraulic retention time (HRT) had a significant influence on the COD and NH(3)-N removal efficiencies, the average COD and NH(3)-N removal efficiencies were 83.7 and 96.9% respectively when the temperature was 25 ± 2 °C, the influent flow rate was 0.21 L/h and the HRT was 7.5 h. The loofah sponge biofilm system had a strong tolerance to organic shock loading in the present experiment. Additionally, it was found that domestic wastewater could be preferably treated with 88.9% of COD and 98.7% of NH(3)-N removal efficiencies with the corresponding influent concentrations of 260.0 and 26.8 mg/L, respectively. The observations obtained in the present study indicated that the loofah sponge was an excellent natural support material, potentially feasible for the present system for the treatment of the decentralized domestic wastewater. PMID:22173425

  3. Indicator pathogens, organic matter and LAS detergent removal from wastewater by constructed subsurface wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Constructed wetland is one of the natural methods of municipal and industrial wastewater treatments with low initial costs for construction and operation as well as easy maintenance. The main objective of this study is to determine the values of indicator bacteria removal, organic matter, TSS, ammonia and nitrate affecting the wetland removal efficiency. Results The average concentration of E. coli and total coliform in the input is 1.127?×?1014 and 4.41?×?1014 MPN/100 mL that reached 5.03?×?1012 and 1.13?×?1014 MPN/100 mL by reducing 95.5% and 74.4% in wetland 2. Fecal streptococcus reached from the average 5.88?×?1014 in raw wastewater to 9.69?×?1012 in the output of wetland 2. Wetland 2 could reduce 1.5 logarithmic units of E. coli. The removal efficiency of TSS for the wetlands is 68.87%, 71.4%, 57.3%, and 66% respectively. Conclusions The overall results show that wetlands in which herbs were planted had a high removal efficiency about the indicator pathogens, organic matter, LAS detergent in comparison to a control wetland (without canes) and could improve physicochemical parameters (DO, ammonia, nitrate, electrical conductivity, and pH) of wastewater. PMID:24581277

  4. Removal and retention of phosphorus by periphyton from wastewater with high organic load.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinxiang; Hong, Xiaoxing; Pei, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    The total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency from organic wastewater (pig farm and distillery wastewater) were estimated by using filamentous green algae (FGA) and benthic algal mats (BAM) treatment systems under laboratory conditions, and the contents of periphyton phosphorus fractions were determined by using a sequential extraction. The removal rates of TP reached 59-78% within the first 8 days of all treatment systems and could achieve average 80% during 30 day period, and the phosphorus removal rates by using BAM was higher than that of FGA. The ability of retention TP of periphyton enhanced gradually, the BAM TP contents were higher than that of FGA, the highest TP concentrations of BAM and FGA were 26.24 and 10.52 mg P g(-1)·dry weight. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) always exceeded 67.5% of TP, but the organic phosphorus fraction only made up less than 20% of TP. The calcium-binding phosphorus (Ca-P) was the dominant fraction and its relative contribution to TP was more than 40%. The TP was also strongly and positively correlated with the IP and Ca-P (p < 0.01) in periphyton. It showed that the periphyton had a potential ability of rapid phosphorus removing and remarkable retention from wastewater with high load phosphorus. PMID:25026580

  5. Advanced purification of carbonization wastewater by activated sludge treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Moerman; D. R. Bamelis; P. M. Van Holle; H. L. Vergote; W. H. Verstraete

    1995-01-01

    A full scale activated sludge plant has been developed treating 960 mof carbonization wastewater daily. Results and process parameters from the first three years of operation are described. In spite of intense physical?chemical pretreatment, the carbonization wastewater must still be diluted by 50% prior to biological processing due to the presence of inhibitory organic compounds. The activated sludge plant consists

  6. Analysis of Organic Compounds in Mars Analog Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Demick, J.; Glavin, D. P.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of organic compounds that might be preserved in rocks, ices, or sedimentary layers on Mars would be a significant step toward resolving the question of the habitability and potential for life on that planet. The fact that the Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) did not detect organic compounds should not discourage further investigations since (a) an oxidizing environment in the near surface fines analyzed by Viking is likely to have destroyed many reduced carbon species; (b) there are classes of refractory or partially oxidized species such as carboxylic acids that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS; and (c) the Viking landing sites are not representative of Mars overall. These factors motivate the development of advanced in situ analytical protocols to carry out a comprehensive survey of organic compounds in martian regolith, ices, and rocks. We combine pyrolysis GCMS for analysis of volatile species, chemical derivatization for transformation of less volatile organics, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) for analysis of elements and more refractory, higher-mass organics. To evaluate this approach and enable a comparison with other measurement techniques we analyze organics in Mars simulant samples.

  7. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  8. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  9. The current preference for the immuno-analytical ELISA method for quantitation of steroid hormones (endocrine disruptor compounds) in wastewater in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manickum, Thavrin; John, Wilson

    2015-07-01

    The availability of national test centers to offer a routine service for analysis and quantitation of some selected steroid hormones [natural estrogens (17-?-estradiol, E2; estrone, E1; estriol, E3), synthetic estrogen (17-?-ethinylestradiol, EE2), androgen (testosterone), and progestogen (progesterone)] in wastewater matrix was investigated; corresponding internationally used chemical- and immuno-analytical test methods were reviewed. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (immuno-analytical technique) was also assessed for its suitability as a routine test method to quantitate the levels of these hormones at a sewage/wastewater treatment plant (WTP) (Darvill, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa), over a 2-year period. The method performance and other relevant characteristics of the immuno-analytical ELISA method were compared to the conventional chemical-analytical methodology, like gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/LC-MS), and GC-LC/tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS), for quantitation of the steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental waters. The national immuno-analytical ELISA technique was found to be sensitive (LOQ 5 ng/L, LOD 0.2-5 ng/L), accurate (mean recovery 96 %), precise (RSD 7-10 %), and cost-effective for screening and quantitation of these steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental water matrix. A survey of the most current international literature indicates a fairly equal use of the LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS (chemical-analytical), and ELISA (immuno-analytical) test methods for screening and quantitation of the target steroid hormones in both water and wastewater matrix. Internationally, the observed sensitivity, based on LOQ (ng/L), for the steroid estrogens E1, E2, EE2, is, in decreasing order: LC-MSMS (0.08-9.54) > GC-MS (1) > ELISA (5) (chemical-analytical > immuno-analytical). At the national level, the routine, unoptimized chemical-analytical LC-MSMS method was found to lack the required sensitivity for meeting environmental requirements for steroid hormone quantitation. Further optimization of the sensitivity of the chemical-analytical LC-tandem mass spectrometry methods, especially for wastewater screening, in South Africa is required. Risk assessment studies showed that it was not practical to propose standards or allowable limits for the steroid estrogens E1, E2, EE2, and E3; the use of predicted-no-effect concentration values of the steroid estrogens appears to be appropriate for use in their risk assessment in relation to aquatic organisms. For raw water sources, drinking water, raw and treated wastewater, the use of bioassays, with trigger values, is a useful screening tool option to decide whether further examination of specific endocrine activity may be warranted, or whether concentrations of such activity are of low priority, with respect to health concerns in the human population. The achievement of improved quantitation limits for immuno-analytical methods, like ELISA, used for compound quantitation, and standardization of the method for measuring E2 equivalents (EEQs) used for biological activity (endocrine: e.g., estrogenic) are some areas for future EDC research. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:25845526

  10. Impacts of coagulation on the adsorption of organic micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon in treated domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Zietzschmann, Frederik; Geiling, Eva-Linde; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) as an advanced wastewater treatment step for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) necessitates complete separation of the PAC particles, e.g. by coagulation. In this study, potential positive or negative indirect or direct effects of coagulation on the adsorption of OMPs onto PAC in treated wastewater were investigated. Although the concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was significantly reduced by coagulation, the selective removal of mainly larger DOM components such as biopolymers and humic substances did not improve subsequent OMP adsorption onto PAC, demonstrating that coagulation has minor effects on DOM constituents that are relevant for direct competition or pore blocking. The combination of coagulation and adsorption yielded the sum of the individual removals, as adsorption predominantly affected smaller compounds. While the formation of flocs led to visible incorporation of PAC particles, no significant mass transfer limitations impeded the OMP adsorption. As a result, the dosing sequence of coagulant and PAC is not critical for efficient adsorption of OMPs onto PAC. The relationships between adsorptive OMP removal and corresponding reduction of UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA254) as a promising surrogate correlation for the real-time monitoring and PAC adjustment were affected by coagulation, leading to individual correlations depending on the water composition. Correcting for UVA254 reduction by coagulation produces adsorptive UVA254 removal, which correlates highly with OMP removal for different WWTP effluents and varying coagulant doses and can be applied in combined adsorption/coagulation processes to predict OMP removal and control PAC dosing. PMID:25582393

  11. AERATION TO REMOVE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim report presents general information on the use of aeration to remove volatile organic compounds from drinking water for public health reasons. The report illustrates the types of aerators, shows where they are being used, presents a means of estimating aeration perfor...

  12. Volatile organic compound emissions from dairy facilities in central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two central Califor...

  13. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Alleman; A. Leeson

    1999-01-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Most petroleum hydrocarbons are amenable to biodegradation, and a considerable body of experience has been built up over the past

  14. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Alleman; A. Leeson

    1999-01-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Moreover, the world`s rivers, estuaries, and oceans are threatened by contamination from petroleum leaks and spills. Fortunately, most petroleum hydrocarbons

  15. SORPTION OF IONIZABLE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO SEDIMENTS AND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of ionizable organic compounds to sediments and saturated soils is examined. he sorption of pentachlorophenol to two sediment silt-clay fractions as a function of pH is described. Sorption of both the neutral and the ionic species was shown to occur; results were qua...

  16. MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plate...

  17. Blue organic light emitting materials from ?-conjugated compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Zixing Wang; Ping Lu

    2004-01-01

    A series of ?-conjugated compounds with bright blue photoluminescence property were designed and synthesized. The main structure comprises of fluorene as electron acceptor and thiophene as electron donor in order to increase the electron mobility. All the products were confirmed by proton, and carbon NMR, MS and elemental analysis as well. They might be widely applied as luminescent in organic

  18. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Fluorescent Visible Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannick Chapuis; Danilo Klvana; Christophe Guy; Jitka Kirchnerova

    2002-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a highly attractive alternative technology for purification and deodorization of indoor air. The main objectives of this study were to demonstrate that a common fluorescent visible light (FVL) lamp can be used to effectively remove by PCO low concentrations of VOCs from slightly contaminated air and to provide some fundamental and

  19. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

  20. ABSORPTION OF SOME ORGANIC COMPOUNDS THROUGH THE SKIN IN MAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Feldmann; Howard I. Maibach

    1970-01-01

    We studied the percutaneous penetration of 21 organic chemicals. The experimental method consisted of the application of the chemical to the human forearm and quantitating its penetration through the skin by its appearance in urine.There was a great diversity in the ability of the chemicals to penetrate human skin. Compounds such as hippuric acid, nicotinic acid, and nitrobenzene support the

  1. A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; David Erickson; Ray Fall; Chris Geron; Tom Graedel; Peter Harley; Lee Klinger; Manuel Lerdau; W. A. McKay; Tom Pierce; Bob Scholes; Rainer Steinbrecher; Raja Tallamraju; John Taylor; Pat Zimmerman

    1995-01-01

    Numerical assessments of global air quality and potential changes in atmospheric chemical constituents require estimates of the surface fluxes of a variety of trace gas species. We have developed a global model to estimate emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural sources (NVOC). Methane is not considered here and has been reviewed in detail elsewhere. The model has a highly

  2. Who Took Jerell's iPod? -- An Organic Compound Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Doherty

    In this activity, students learn how to test for triglycerides, glucose, starch, and protein and then use these tests to solve a mystery. The activity reinforces students understanding of the biological functions and food sources of these different types of organic compounds.

  3. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from soil and litter samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan W. Leff; Noah Fierer

    2008-01-01

    The production of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by soil microbes is likely to have an important influence on soil ecology and terrestrial biogeochemistry. However, soil VOC production has received relatively little attention, and we do not know how the emissions of microbially-produced VOCs vary across soil and litter types. We collected 40 root-free soil and litter samples from a

  4. Influence of volatile organic compounds on Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in a diverse range of ecological interactions. Due to their low molecular weight, lipophilic nature, and high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, they can serve as airborne signaling molecules that are capable of mediating inter and intraspecies com...

  5. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  6. Characterization of polar organic compounds and source analysis of fine organic aerosols in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunchun Li

    2008-01-01

    Organic aerosols, as an important fraction of airborne particulate mass, significantly affect the environment, climate, and human health. Compared with inorganic species, characterization of individual organic compounds is much less complete and comprehensive because they number in thousands or more and are diverse in chemical structures. The source contributions of organic aerosols are far from being well understood because they

  7. Evaluation of rapid methods for in-situ characterization of organic contaminant load and biodegradation rates in winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, M J; Vargas, I; Vega, A; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

    2007-01-01

    Rapid methods for the in-situ evaluation of the organic load have recently been developed and successfully implemented in municipal wastewater treatment systems. Their direct application to winery wastewater treatment is questionable due to substantial differences between municipal and winery wastewater. We critically evaluate the use of UV-VIS spectrometry, buffer capacity testing (BCT), and respirometry as rapid methods to determine organic load and biodegradation rates of winery wastewater. We tested three types of samples: actual and treated winery wastewater, synthetic winery wastewater, and samples from a biological batch reactor. Not surprisingly, respirometry gave a good estimation of biodegradation rates for substrate of different complexities, whereas UV-VIS and BCT did not provide a quantitative measure of the easily degradable sugars and ethanol, typically the main components of the COD in the influent. However, our results strongly suggest that UV-VIS and BCT can be used to identify and estimate the concentration of complex substrates in the influent and soluble microbial products (SMP) in biological reactors and their effluent. Furthermore, the integration of UV-VIS spectrometry, BCT, and mathematical modeling was able to differentiate between the two components of SMPs: substrate utilization associated products (UAP) and biomass associated products (BAP). Since the effluent COD in biologically treated wastewaters is composed primarily by SMPs, the quantitative information given by these techniques may be used for plant control and optimization. PMID:17849987

  8. Fate of psychoactive compounds in wastewater treatment plant and the possibility of their degradation using aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Macku?ak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    In this study we analyzed and characterized 29 psychoactive remedies, illicit drugs and their metabolites in single stages of wastewater treatment plants in the capital city of Slovakia. Psychoactive compounds were present within all stages, and tramadol was detected at a very high concentration (706 ng/L). Significant decreases of codeine, THC-COOH, cocaine and buprenorphine concentration were observed in the biological stage. Consequently, we were interested in the possibility of alternative tertiary post-treatment of effluent water with the following aquatic plants: Cabomba caroliniana, Limnophila sessiliflora, Egeria najas and Iris pseudacorus. The most effective plant for tertiary cleansing was I. pseudacorus which demonstrated the best pharmaceutical removal capacity. After 48 h codeine and citalopram was removed with 87% efficiency. After 96 h were all analyzed compounds were eliminated with efficiencies above 58%. PMID:25818110

  9. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  10. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 ?m) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). PMID:25600300

  11. Plant uptake of pharmaceutical chemicals detected in recycled organic manure and reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Shinohara, Ryota; Nomiyama, Kei

    2012-10-17

    Land application of recycled manure produced from biosolids and reclaimed wastewater can transfer pharmaceutical chemicals to terrestrial environments, giving rise to potential accumulation of these residues in edible plants. In this study, the potential for plant uptake of 13 pharmaceutical chemicals, and the relation between the accumulation features within the plant and the physicochemical properties were examined by exposing pea and cucumber to an aqueous solution containing pharmaceutical chemicals. Ten of 13 compounds tested were detected in plant leaves and stems. Comparison of the plant uptake characteristics and the octanol-water partition coefficient of pharmaceutical chemicals showed that compounds with an intermediate polarity such as carbamazepine and crotamiton could be easily transported to plant shoots. Moreover, these results suggest the possibility of highly hydrophilic pharmaceutical chemicals such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides to be accumulated in plant roots owing to their low permeability in root cell membranes. PMID:23003104

  12. Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.

    PubMed

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles. PMID:21121267

  13. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...

  14. New graphene fiber coating for volatile organic compounds analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Guo, XiaoXi; Wang, ShuLing; Wang, XueLan; Zhou, YanPing; Xu, Hui

    2014-10-15

    In the work, a novel graphene-based solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of trace amount of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. The graphene fiber coating was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal reduction reaction. The fiber with porous and wrinkled structure exhibited excellent extraction efficiency toward eight studied volatile organic compounds (two n-alkanes, five n-aldehydes and one aromatic compound). Meanwhile, remarkable thermal and mechanical stability, long lifespan and low cost were also obtained for the fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method provided low limits of detection (1.0-4.5ngL(-1)), satisfactory reproducibility (3.8-13.8%) and acceptable recoveries (93-122%). The method was applied successfully to the analysis of breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy individuals. The unique advantage of this approach includes simple setup, non-invasive analysis, cost-efficient and sufficient sensitivity. The proposed method supply us a new possibility to monitor volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath samples. PMID:25171504

  15. Detection of volatile organic compounds using porphyrin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, A D F; Brittle, S; Richardson, T H; Hutchinson, J; Hunter, C A

    2010-09-16

    Seven different porphyrin compounds have been investigated as colorimetric gas sensors for a wide range of volatile organic compounds. The porphyrins examined were the free base and Mg, Sn, Zn, Au, Co, and Mn derivatives of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[3,4-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine. Chloroform solutions of these materials were prepared and changes in their absorption spectra induced by exposure to various organic compounds measured. The porphyrins that showed strong responses in solution were selected, and Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared and exposed to the corresponding analytes. This was done to determine whether they are useful materials for solid state thin film colorimetric vapor sensors. Porphyrins that readily coordinate extra ligands are shown to be suitable materials for colorimetric volatile organic compound detectors. However, porphyrins that already have bound axial ligands when synthesized only show a sensor response to those analytes that can substitute these axial ligands. The Co porphyrin displays a considerably larger response than the other porphyrins investigated which is attributed to a switch between Co(II) and Co(III) resulting in a large spectral change. PMID:20735119

  16. Oxidation of organics in retentates from reverse osmosis wastewater reuse facilities.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Moon, Hye; Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2009-09-01

    The use of membrane processes for wastewater treatment and reuse is rapidly expanding. Organic, inorganic, and biological constituents are effectively removed by reverse osmosis (RO) membrane processes, but concentrate in membrane retentates Disposal of membrane concentrates is a growing concern. Applying advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to RO retentate is logical because extensive treatment and energy inputs were expended to concentrate the organics, and it is cheaper to treat smaller flowstreams. AOPs (e.g., UV irradiation in the presence of titanium dioxide; UV/TiO(2)) can remove a high percentage of organic matter from RO retentates. The combination of AOPs and a simple biological system (e.g., sand filter) can remove higher levels of organic matter at lower UV dosages because AOPs produce biologically degradable material (e.g., organic acids) that have low hydroxyl radical rate constants, meaning that their oxidation, rather than that of the primary organic matter in the RO retentate, dictates the required UV energy inputs. At the highest applied UV dose (10 kWh m(-)3), the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the RO retentate decreased from approximately 40 to 8 mg L(-)1, of which approximately 6 mg L(-)1 were readily biologically degradable. Therefore, after combined UV treatment and biodegradation, the final DOC concentration was 2 mg L(-)1, representing a 91% removal. These results suggest that UV/TiO(2) plus biodegradation of RO retentates is feasible and would significantly reduce the organic pollutant loading into the environment from wastewater reuse facilities. PMID:19450863

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROPHOBIC IONOGENIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BETWEEN OCTANOL AND WATER: ORGANIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally significant organic acid compounds were determined as a function of aqueous-phase salt concentration (0.05-0.2 M LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, or MgCl2) and pH. he compounds were pentachlorophenol 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, (2,4,5-t...

  18. Catalytic hydrodesulfurization of an organic sulfur compound contained in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Nowack, G.P.

    1982-02-09

    The catalytic hydrodesulfurization of an organic sulfur compound contained in gasoline is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising catalytic grade alumina and a catalytic component at least one member of which is selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and tungsten. A catalytic promoter may also be present in the catalyst composition with at least one member of the catalytic promoter being selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt and nickel. A suitable nitrogen compound is also contacted with the catalyst composition to at least partially suppress the saturation of olefins in the gasoline during the hydrodesulfurization process.

  19. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be detected at some agricultural fields by SOC measurements (Jüschke 2009). Therefore attention has to be drawn especially on the carbon content and quality of the used TWW for irrigation purposes.

  20. Application of Ultrasonic Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AH Mahvi

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic technology as an innovative technology may be used for water and wastewater treatment for pollution removal. This technology acts as an advanced oxidation process. Application of this technology leads to the decomposition of many complex organic compounds to much simpler compounds during physical and chemical compounds during cavitation proc- ess. In this article review, some applications of this valuable

  1. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from "negative removal" to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological risk to algae. Therefore, further control of PhACs in effluent and sludge is required before their discharge and application to prevent their introduction into the environment. PMID:24176710

  2. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marincas, O.; Petrov, P.; Ternes, T.; Avram, V.; Moldovan, Z.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  3. Treatment of organic pollutants in coke plant wastewater by the method of ultrasonic irradiation, catalytic oxidation and activated sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Ning; Hans-Jörg Bart; Yijiao Jiang; A. de Haan; C. Tien

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the degradation of the organic pollutants in coke plant wastewater by the combination process of ultrasonic irradiation, catalytic oxidation and activated sludge. The effect factors of ultrasonic irradiation on the degradation of the organic pollutants such as saturating gas, initial pollutant concentration, ultrasonic power density, the category and consumption of catalyst were investigated. The results indicate

  4. Method development for measuring biodegradable organic carbon in reclaimed and treated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, E.; Babcock, R.W. Jr.; Suffet, I.H.; Stenstrom, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    Analyses that measure oxygen demand, such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses, have long been used as indicators of contamination and wastewater treatment plant efficiency. They measure the tendency of pollutants to react with oxygen, which is generally a good indicator of the stability or level of treatment. Both parameters include reactions with organic as well as inorganic substances and suffer from a lack of precision and accuracy at low concentrations, which are becoming increasingly more important. Biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) analysis is a relatively new procedure that has advantages over both BOD and COD analyses, including insensitivity to inorganic oxidations. A modified BDOC procedure was developed to characterize the performance of advanced treatment methods, such as those used in municipal water reclamation and secondary-treated wastewaters, where moderately low dissolved organic carbon concentrations (4 to 15 mg/L) are routinely encountered. The development of the modified BDOC procedure was based on a combination of the existing batch BDOC protocol and BOD techniques. Various aspects and incubation conditions were investigated to finalize the procedure. Nitrification does not interfere with the procedure. It is possible to simultaneously determine the soluble BOD (SBOD) under certain conditions. The procedure has reduced variability and increased precision as compared to BOD and COD analyses.

  5. Existence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Tertiary Treated Urban Wastewater that is Utilized for Reuse Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Despo Fatta-Kassinos; E. Hapeshi; A. Achilleos; S. Meric; M. Gros; M. Petrovic; D. Barcelo

    2011-01-01

    Research on the effects of chemical pollution in the environment that is related to urban wastewaters’ discharge and reuse\\u000a until recently was focused almost exclusively on conventional pollutants. During the last several years though there has been\\u000a a growing level of concern related to the hypothesis that various chemicals may exhibit endocrine disrupting effects. In addition,\\u000a thousands of tons of

  6. Optimisation of entrapped activated carbon conditions to remove coloured compounds from winery wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Devesa-Rey; G. Bustos; J. M. Cruz; A. B. Moldes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the entrapped conditions of activated carbon in calcium-alginate beads for the clarification of winery wastewaters. An incomplete 33 factorial design was carried out to study the efficiency of activated carbon (0.5–2%); sodium alginate (1–5%); and calcium chloride (0.050–0.900M), on the following dependent variables: colour reduction at 280, 465, 530 and 665nm. The

  7. Concentration stability of four volatile organic compounds in soil subsamples

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, A.D.

    1994-04-01

    This study assesses the short-term (14- to 20-day) concentration stability of benzene, toluene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene in soil matrices, in the absence of volatilization losses. Previously, holding time studies failed to eliminate volatilization as a variable, making them difficult to interpret. Here, vapor-fortified soil subsamples, sealed in glass ampoules for 16 days, experienced appreciable reductions in benzene, presumably attributable only to biodegradation. Treated soil subsamples, on the other hand, prepared without vapor losses for either aqueous extraction headspace or purge-and-trap analyses, showed appreciable reductions in toluene and lost all the benzene over a 14-day holding period at 4 deg C. These findings suggest that chemical preservatives are necessary to maintain volatile organic compound concentrations in soil when more than a couple of days pass between collection and analysis. Biodegradation, Soil samples, Holding time, Volatile-organic compounds.

  8. Structure and function of vanadium compounds in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Rehder

    1992-01-01

    Vanadium has been recognized as a metal of biological importance only recently. In this mini-review, its main functions uncovered during the past few years are addressed. These encompass (i) the regulation of phosphate metabolizing enzymes (which is exemplified for the inhibition of ribonucleases by vanadate), (ii) the halogenation of organic compounds by vanadate-dependent non-heme peroxidases from seaweeds, (iii) the reductive

  9. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rates and Exposure Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Menetrez; K. K. Foarde

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plates loaded with surface growth, ranging from 33.5 ?g·m–2 per 24 h (Cladosporium sphaerospermum) to 515 ?g·m–2 per 24 h

  10. Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-Chang Huang; Zhiqiang Zhao; George E. Hoag; Amine Dahmani; Philip A. Block

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the extent and treatability of the degradation of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the EPA SW-846 Method 8260B with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Data on the degradation of the 59 VOCs (in mixture) reacted with sodium persulfate in concentrations of 1gl?1 and 5gl?1 and at temperatures of 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C were obtained. The results

  11. Trees and VOCs: Measuring volatile organic compounds from urban forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado-Boulder

    This web site describes a research project to measure volatile organic compounds emitted from species of trees and shrubs found in urban areas. Topics include a description of the project and a section on trees and air quality. A page updated each month or so reports field and lab work on the project. There is also a glossary, profiles of community partners, and profiles of the scientists and students involved in the project.

  12. Gas–particle partitioning of organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihalis Lazaridis

    1999-01-01

    Gas–particle partitioning of condensable organic compounds in the atmosphere is described using two methods. The first method is based on the use of a comprehensive mechanistic model of adsorption\\/absorption processes. The second method is based on aerosol yields estimates. The model parameters in the adsorption\\/absorption model are evaluated from experimental data. The concepts of concentration of adsorbed molecules on the

  13. Soil-water partition coefficients for organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bockting GJM; Plassche EJ van de; Struijs J; Canton JH

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the project 'Setting environmental quality objectives',\\u000aorganic carbon normalized partition coefficients (KocS) describing the\\u000apartitioning of organic chemicals in soils and sediments were derived\\u000afor, among others, halogenated biphenyls and benzyltoluenes, chlorinated\\u000aanilines and nitrobenzenes, various pesticides, phthalate esters and\\u000aorganotin compounds. For that purpose a literature review with respect\\u000ato adsorption experiments with soils and

  14. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  15. Organic carbon, influent microbial diversity and temperature strongly influence algal diversity and biomass in raceway ponds treating raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae-Hyun; Ramanan, Rishiram; Heo, Jina; Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Algae based wastewater treatment coupled to biofuel production has financial benefits and practical difficulties. This study evaluated the factors influencing diversity and growth of indigenous algal consortium cultivated on untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP) for a period of 1year using multivariate statistics. Diversity analyses revealed the presence of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. Dominant microalgal genera by biovolume in various seasons were Scenedesmus sp., Microcystis sp., and Chlorella sp. Scenedesmus sp., persisted throughout the year but none of three strains co-dominated with the other. The most significant factors affecting genus dominance were temperature, inflow cyanophyta and organic carbon concentration. Cyanophyta concentration affected microalgal biomass and diversity, whereas temperature impacted biomass. Preferred diversity of microalgae is not sustained in wastewater systems but is obligatory for biofuel production. This study serves as a guideline to sustain desired microalgal consortium in wastewater treatment plants for biofuel production. PMID:25746593

  16. Simultaneous sorption of organic compounds and phosphate to inorganic–organic bentonites from water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizhong Zhu; Runliang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous sorption of organic compounds and phosphate from water by inorganic–organic bentonites (IOBs) was investigated, which would contribute to the treatment of contaminated water containing both of these contaminants. A series of IOBs were synthesized by intercalating bentonite with both cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) and hydroxy-aluminum at their various ratios, and the obtained materials had large basal spacing, low surface

  17. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Urszula; ?alikowski, Maciej; Isidorov, Valery A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the research involved identification and semi-quantitative determination of unknown volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted to air by sewage sludge formed in the process of municipal wastewater treatment in a sewage treatment plant. Samples taken directly after completion of the technological process as well as the sludge stored on the premise of the sewage treatment plant were analyzed. A simple method using off-line headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed for extraction and detection of organic pollutants. For reliable identification of compounds, combination of two independent parameters: mass spectra and linear temperature programmed retention indices were employed. Over 170 compounds of different structure were identified including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, carbonyls, as well as sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine containing compounds. The prevailing substances included: ethyl ether, n-hexane, p-xylene, o-xylene, mesitylene, m-ethylbenzene, limonene, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. A few compounds such as methanetiol, dimethyl polisulfide, octaatomic sulfur, phthalic anhydride, and indoles were identified in the sludge for the first time. PMID:21688031

  18. Coke plant wastewater treatment by fixed biofilm system for COD and NH 3-N removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhang; Joo Hwa Tay; Yi Qian; Xia Sheng Gu

    1998-01-01

    Coke plant and coal gasification wastewater have similar characteristics. There are high concentrations of ammonia and organic compounds especially refractory and inhibitory organics in them. Coal is the main energy resource in China hence pollution caused by coke plant and coal gasification wastewater has been severe for decades. The anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A1-A2-O) fixed biofilm system was used for coke plant wastewater

  19. Continuous electricity generation from domestic wastewater and organic substrates in a flat plate microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Min, Booki; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that converts organic matter to electricity using microorganisms as the biocatalyst. Most MFCs contain two electrodes separated into one or two chambers that are operated as a completely mixed reactor. In this study, a flat plate MFC (FPMFC) was designed to operate as a plug flow reactor (no mixing) using a combined electrode/proton exchange membrane (PEM) system. The reactor consisted of a single channel formed between two nonconductive plates that were separated into two halves by the electrode/PEM assembly. Each electrode was placed on an opposite side of the PEM, with the anode facing the chamber containing the liquid phase and the cathode facing a chamber containing only air. Electricity generation using the FPMFC was examined by continuously feeding a solution containing wastewater, or a specific substrate, into the anode chamber. The system was initially acclimated for 1 month using domestic wastewater orwastewater enriched with a specific substrate such as acetate. Average power density using only domestic wastewater was 72+/-1 mW/m2 at a liquid flow rate of 0.39 mL/min [42% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, 1.1 h HRT (hydraulic retention time)]. At a longer HRT = 4.0 h, there was 79% COD removal and an average power density of 43+/-1 mW/m2. Power output was found to be a function of wastewater strength according to a Monod-type relationship, with a half-saturation constant of Ks = 461 or 719 mg COD/L. Power generation was sustained at high rates with several organic substrates (all at approximately 1000 mg COD/L), including glucose (212+/-2 mW/ m2), acetate (286+/-3 mW/m2), butyrate (220+/-1 mW/ m2), dextran (150+/-1 mW/m2), and starch (242+/-3 mW/ m2). These results demonstrate the versatility of power generation in a MFC with a variety of organic substrates and show that power can be generated at a high rate in a continuous flow reactor system. PMID:15575304

  20. Simultaneous determination of selected endocrine disrupter compounds in wastewater samples in ultra trace levels using HPLC-ES-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Komesli, Okan Tar?k; Bak?rdere, Sezgin; Bayören, Ceren; Gökçay, Celal Ferdi

    2012-08-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of six selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs: diltiazem, progesterone, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), estrone, carbamazepine (Cbz), acetaminophen) was developed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS/MS). All of the parameters for HPLC and ES-MS/MS systems including mobile phase composition, flow rate, and sample injection volume were optimized to obtain not only the best separation of species interested but also low detection limits. Reverse phase chromatography coupled to ES-MS/MS was used for the separation and detection of EDCs. Formic acid (0.10% ) and 5.0 mM ammonium formate were selected as mobile phase composition in gradient elution. Detection limits for diltiazem, progesterone, BBP, estrone, Cbz, and acetaminophen were found to be 0.13, 0.12, 0.04, 0.13, 0.12, and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. Influent and effluents from three different wastewater treatment plants located in Ankara, i.e., rotating flat-sheet membrane unit, pilot type flat-sheet membrane unit located at METU Campus and samples from Ankara central wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for their EDCs contents under the optimum conditions. PMID:21912869

  1. Organic matter removal during pilot-scale soil aquifer treatment for domestic wastewater in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Ascúntar-Ríos, D; Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Varón, M R; Sharma, S K

    2014-01-01

    The potential of enhancing water uses using soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an interesting alternative for tropical regions, limited only by lack of knowledge on its performance in local conditions and the feasibility of adapting this technology. A SAT pilot study was conducted to analyze the phenomena associated with the transformation of organic matter (OM) from domestic wastewater. Chemically enhanced primary effluent collected at the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant (Cali, Colombia) was used to feed pilot-scale SAT units at a rate of 1.25 m.d?¹. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in a 5.0 m length and 0.1 m diameter column packed with sand was 64.4%, while a similar column packed with a Mollisol soil from Valle del Cauca region yielded 56.2%. Oxygen availability was an important factor in OM degradation, given that the sand column degraded OM aerobically and the soil column degraded OM under oxic as well as anoxic conditions. SAT acted as a reliable barrier for DOC in tropical conditions. Nevertheless, operational problems such as clogging indicated that probably Mollisol soil may not be the suitable for SAT or that this particular effluent requires further pre-treatment before SAT. PMID:25098874

  2. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

  3. Occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds at the wastewater treatment works in Pietermaritzburg (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Manickum, T; John, W

    2014-01-15

    Steroid hormone Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) (natural estrogens (17-?-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), synthetic estrogen (17-?-ethinylestradiol (EE2)), natural androgen (testosterone) (tes) and natural progestogen (progesterone) (pro)) at an activated sludge wastewater works (WWW), were quantitated using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The steroid hormone profile in the adjacent surface water was also determined. Pro was the most abundant (41%, 408 ng/L) in the influent, followed by tes (35%, 343 ng/L) and E2 (12%, 119 ng/L). E1 was the most abundant (35%, 23 ng/L) in effluent, followed by E2 (30%, 20 ng/L) and tes (17%, 11 ng/L). Chemical removal efficiencies of the steroid hormones by the WWW averaged 92%. High removal efficiency was observed for pro (98% ± 2) and tes (96% ± 1), compared to natural (72-100%) and synthetic estrogen (90% ± 3), with biodegradation being the major removal route for pro and tes. The lowest removal for E2 is in spring (65%), and maximum removal is in winter (95%). Natural (E2, E1) and synthetic estrogen (EE2) were major contributors to influent (E2 = 69%) and effluent (E2 = 73%) estrogenic potency. The estrogenic potency removal averaged 85% (range: 73-100). Risk assessment of the steroid hormones present in wastewater effluent, and surface water, indicated that EE2 and E2 pose the highest risk to human health and fish. EE2 was found to be much more resistant to biodegradation, compared to E2, in surface water. Estrone, as the breakdown product of E2 and EE2 in wastewater, appears to be suitable as an indicator of EDCs. The study suggests that a battery of tests: quantitative chemical assay, bioassay for estrogenic activity and risk assessment methods, collectively, are preferred in order to make meaningful, accurate conclusions regarding potential adverse effects of EDCs present in treated wastewater effluent or surface water, to the aquatic environment, human health, and wildlife systems. PMID:24056449

  4. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species.

    PubMed

    Qi, B; Moe, W M; Kinney, K A

    2002-04-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids ( n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxiiproduced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. PMID:11956756

  5. Simulation of Comet Impact and Survivability of Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B T; Lomov, I N; Blank, J G; Antoun, T H

    2007-07-18

    Comets have long been proposed as a potential means for the transport of complex organic compounds to early Earth. For this to be a viable mechanism, a significant fraction of organic compounds must survive the high temperatures due to impact. We have undertaken three-dimensional numerical simulations to track the thermodynamic state of a comet during oblique impacts. The comet was modeled as a 1-km water-ice sphere impacting a basalt plane at 11.2 km/s; impact angles of 15{sup o} (from horizontal), 30{sup o}, 45{sup o}, 65{sup o}, and 90{sup o} (normal impact) were examined. The survival of organic cometary material, modeled as water ice for simplicity, was calculated using three criteria: (1) peak temperatures, (2) the thermodynamic phase of H{sub 2}O, and (3) final temperature upon isentropic unloading. For impact angles greater than or equal to 30{sup o}, no organic material is expected to survive the impact. For the 15{sup o} impact, most of the material survives the initial impact and significant fractions (55%, 25%, and 44%, respectively) satisfy each survival criterion at 1 second. Heating due to deceleration, in addition to shock heating, plays a role in the heating of the cometary material for nonnormal impacts. This effect is more noticeable for more oblique impacts, resulting in significant deviations from estimates using scaling of normal impacts. The deceleration heating of the material at late times requires further modeling of breakup and mixing.

  6. Application of wastewater from paper and food seasoning industries with green manure to increase soil organic carbon: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Ching; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2008-09-01

    This laboratory scale experiment was designed to study the suitability of organic wastes from paper and food seasoning industries to improve the soil organic carbon for rice cultivation. Lignin-rich wastewater from paper industry and nitrogen-rich effluent from a food industry at suitably lower concentrations were used at two levels of green manure to enhance the soil organic carbon fraction over time. Both the groups of soils with or without Sesbania were incubated under submerged condition at 25 degrees C for 15 days. Wastewaters from paper industry (WP), food industry (WS), and a combination of WP+WS were added separately to both the treatment groups in flasks. After 103 days of incubation, from all the three treatments and control, total organic carbon and alkali-soluble organic carbon fractions were analyzed. Results indicated that in all the three treatments containing green manure amended with industrial wastewaters, the organic carbon content increased significantly. The alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction was increased by 59% in the soil amended with green manure containing WS and by 31% in the treatment without green manure compared to control. The paper mill waste water namely, WP, increased the organic carbon only in the soil containing green manure by 63%. The combined treatment of WP+WS with green manure increased alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction by 90% compared to control, while in the treatment without green manure, the organic carbon increase was 71%. Overall, the combined treatment WP+WS with green manure could increase the alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction more than all other treatments. Hence, wastewater rich in organics from paper and food industries can be efficiently used to temporarily increase the soil organic carbon content. PMID:18262409

  7. Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho-nitrophenols photolysis. The model results are compared with observations from different surface and aircraft campaigns in order to estimate the accuracy of the model.

  8. Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2013-09-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment. PMID:23774187

  9. Analyses of volatile organic compounds from human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, M.; Wysocki, C.J.; Leyden, J.J.; Spielman, A.I.; Sun, X.; Preti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Human skin emits a variety of volatile metabolites, many of them odorous. Much previous work has focused upon chemical structure and biogenesis of metabolites produced in the axillae (underarms), which are a primary source of human body odour. Nonaxillary skin also harbours volatile metabolites, possibly with different biological origins than axillary odorants. Objectives To take inventory of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the upper back and forearm skin, and assess their relative quantitative variation across 25 healthy subjects. Methods Two complementary sampling techniques were used to obtain comprehensive VOC profiles, viz., solid-phase micro extraction and solvent extraction. Analyses were performed using both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Results Nearly 100 compounds were identified, some of which varied with age. The VOC profiles of the upper back and forearm within a subject were, for the most part, similar, although there were notable differences. Conclusions The natural variation in nonaxillary skin odorants described in this study provides a baseline of compounds we have identified from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Although complex, the profiles of volatile constituents suggest that the two body locations share a considerable number of compounds, but both quantitative and qualitative differences are present. In addition, quantitative changes due to ageing are also present. These data may provide future investigators of skin VOCs with a baseline against which any abnormalities can be viewed in searching for biomarkers of skin diseases. PMID:18637798

  10. Microbial degradation of water-insoluble organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of solubilization on biodegradation of water-insoluble organic compounds was investigated. The effect of particle size on solubilization and degradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB) and naphthalene by a microbial mixture was determined. The concentration of soluble compound was determined using gas-liquid chromatography. The rates of solubilization were inversely related to particle size for both compounds. The rates of mineralization of /sup 14/C-labeled palmitic acid, octadecane, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and Sevin (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) by microbial mixtures were determined by trapping the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formed, and those rates were compared to solubilization rates determined by periodically filtering sterile MS amended with one of the compounds. Mineralization and colonization of the surface of 10 ..mu..g palmitic acid per 10 ml MS by Pseudomonas pseudoflava was determined by trapping /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and epifluorescence microscopy. Mineralization began before colonization and was initially exponential, but the rate then declined. The rate of mineralization at the end of the exponential phase approximated the rate of solubilization. The surface was completely covered about the time mineralization stopped. Unbound cells grew exponentially before colonization was detected; however, colonization of the surface was complete after the number of free cells stopped increasing. The data suggest that soluble palmitic acid is utilized before the insoluble phase but colonization is important in the mineralization of palmitic acid when solubilization becomes rate limiting.

  11. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in human blood.

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, D L; Bonin, M A; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V

    1996-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important public health problem throughout the developed world. Many important questions remain to be addressed in assessing exposure to these compounds. Because they are ubiquitous and highly volatile, special techniques must be applied in the analytical determination of VOCs. The analytical methodology chosen to measure toxicants in biological materials must be well validated and carefully carried out; poor quality assurance can lead to invalid results that can have a direct bearing on treating exposed persons. The pharmacokinetics of VOCs show that most of the internal dose of these compounds is quickly eliminated, but there is a fraction that is only slowly removed, and these compounds may bioaccumulate. VOCs are found in the general population at the high parts-per-trillion range, but some people with much higher levels have apparently been exposed to VOC sources away from the workplace. Smoking is the most significant confounder to internal dose levels of VOCs and must be considered when evaluating suspected cases of exposure. PMID:8933028

  12. Volatile organic compounds from a Tuber melanosporum fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Guan; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-12-15

    A total of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from Tuber melanosporum fermentation: 53 from its fermented mycelia and 32 from the fermentation broth. Alcohol-derived compounds were predominant in both the fermentation mycelia and the broth, although long chain fatty acids and isoprenoids were, for the first time, also found in the mycelia. The intense wine bouquet properties of the broth arose from several specific flavor substances, including sulfur compounds, pyrazines, furans and jasmones. Comparing the VOCs identified in this work with those previously reported, our results are more similar to the composition of the Tuber fruiting-body than previous Tuber fermentations. The composition and accumulation of flavor volatiles (e.g., pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and esters) and major constituents (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) in this fermentation were significantly influenced by the sucrose concentration in the medium. The obtained information could therefore be useful in applications to convert the flavors of truffle mycelia similar to those of the fruiting-body by optimising the fermentation process. PMID:22980851

  13. Evaluation of 4-nitrophenol ELISA kit for assessing the origin of organic pollution in wastewater treatment works

    SciTech Connect

    La Farre, M.; Oubina, A.; Marco, M.P.; Ginebreda, A.; Tirapu, L.; Barcelo, D.

    1999-11-01

    A cost-effective strategy based on a recently developed ELISA for 4-nitrophenol was used for the characterization of wastewater samples (industrial and/or urban) of the primary sewage effluent and secondary sewage effluent, also called influent and effluent, respectively, of wastewater treatment works (WWTW) using either biological treatment with secondary settlement and/or physicochemical treatment. Two of the WWTW received only domestic wastewaters, whereas three of them received 60--70% of industrial effluents that were mixed with domestic wastewaters before entering WWTW. The 4-nitrophenol ELISA kit was used as a parameter to evaluate the performance of the treatment plants by comparing the ELISA measurements with those routinely used in WWTW, such as total organic carbon and total phenols content using 4-aminoantipyrine. The 4-nitrophenol ELISA gave a positive response to different wastewaters being a useful measurement for the estimation of the performance of the WWTW. The response obtained with 4-nitrophenol ELISA can differentiate the wastewater pollution discharged into WWTW, either from domestic or industrial sources.

  14. Developments in wastewater treatment methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Sonune; Rupali Ghate

    2004-01-01

    Wastewaters are waterborne solids and liquids discharged into sewers that represent the wastes of community life. Wastewater includes dissolved and suspended organic solids, which are “putrescible” or biologically decomposable. Two general categories of wastewaters, not entirely separable, are recognized: domestic and industrial. Wastewater treatment is a process in which the solids in wastewater are partially removed and partially changed by

  15. Spatial Arrangment of Organic Compounds on a Model Mineral Surface: Implications for Soil Organic Matter Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Ambaye, Haile Arena [ORNL; Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Kilbey, S. Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Lauter, Valeria [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the mineral organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise

  16. Antioxidant properties of organic sulfur compounds and criteria for evaluating these properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Rubinshtein; E. P. Sobolev

    1965-01-01

    1.The antioxidant properties of organic sulfur compounds are well characterized by the proposed criteria for inhibitor evaluation. These criteria reflect the features of chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds.2.All of the organic sulfur compounds that were investigated do possess antioxidant properties.3.The antioxidant properties of organic sulfur compounds depend mainly on the nature of the bonds of the sulfur atoms;

  17. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008.

    PubMed

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A; Meyer, Michael T; Klapinski, Frank R; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 ?g/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 ?g/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 ?g/L), erythromycin (0.024 ?g/L), ofloxacin (0.92 ?g/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 ?g/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 ?g/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 ?g/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 ?g/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin. Generally, there was good agreement between the decreasing order of the pseudo-partition coefficients in this study and the order reported in the literature. PMID:23644564

  18. A method for on-line measurement of wastewater organic substrate oxidation level during aerobic heterotrophic respiration.

    PubMed

    Rudelle, E A; Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Nielsen, A H

    2013-01-01

    A method for on-line measurement of the organic carbon oxidation level (OXC) during aerobic heterotrophic respiration in domestic wastewater was developed and tested. The method is based on batch incubation of sewer wastewater in an intermittently aerated respirometric reactor. Between aeration cycles, measured pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) were used to calculate electron flow accepted by DO and the resulting production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The CO2 production was measured using a novel fiber-optic sensor based on luminescence quenching. The method was tested on domestic wastewater with a relatively high pH and alkalinity. From the DO and DIC measurements, it was possible to evaluate substrate oxidation levels with a temporal resolution of less than an hour. Addition of organic substrates during the experiments confirmed the method's applicability. The substrates tested included ethanol (OXC = -2), glucose (OXC = 0) and oxalic acid (OXC = 3). PMID:23579837

  19. Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

  20. Volatile organic compound (VOC) control in ethylene plants

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, R.; Gomaa, H.M. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are compounds of carbon that combine with nitrogen oxides and other airborne chemicals, in the presence of sunlight (photochemically), to form ozone, which is a primary component of smog. Some common VOC include: benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtha, ethylene oxide, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and 1,3-Butadiene. Pollution of the atmosphere by VOC has been a subject of major concern. Therefore, VOC emissions are attracting increasing concern from public and government agencies. Ethylene plants have many multiple sources of VOC emissions. These sources can be divided into point emission sources, both continuous and intermittent, and fugitive emission sources. This paper discusses VOC emissions and controls for ethylene plants. The impact of environmental regulations are discussed with respect to new and existing ethylene plants. Typical VOC emission rates are quantified. Commercially available and emerging control technologies are reviewed.

  1. Methods for characterization of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia

    2015-08-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles of primary or secondary, biogenic or anthropogenic origin are highly complex samples of changing composition in time and space. To assess their effects on climate or human health, the size-dependent chemical composition of these ubiquitous atmospheric constituents must be known. The development of novel analytical methods has enabled more detailed characterization of the organic composition of aerosols. This review gives an overview of the methods used in the chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles, with a focus on mass-spectrometry techniques for organic compounds, either alone or in combination with chromatographic separation. Off-line, on-site, and on-line methods are covered, and the advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed. The main emphasis is on methods used for detailed characterization of the composition of the organic compounds in aerosol particles. We address and summarize the current state of analytical methods used in aerosol research and discuss the importance of developing novel sampling strategies and analytical instrumentation. Graphical Abstract Challenges in the atmospheric aerosol analytics. PMID:25542579

  2. Heterogeneous reactions of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Zhongming; Huang, Dao

    2013-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of central importance in the atmosphere because of their close relation to air quality and climate change. As a significant sink for VOCs, the fate of VOCs via heterogeneous reactions may explain the big gap between field and model studies. These reactions play as yet unclear but potentially crucial role in atmospheric processes. In order to better evaluate this reaction pathway, we present the first specific review for the progress of heterogeneous reaction studies on VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, organic acids, alcohols, and so on. Our review focuses on the processes for heterogeneous reactions of VOCs under varying experimental conditions, as well as their implications for trace gas and HOx budget, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, physicochemical properties of aerosols, and human health. Finally, we propose the future direction for laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs that should be carried out under more atmospherically relevant conditions, with a special emphasis on the effects of relative humidity and illumination, the multicomponent reaction systems, and reactivity of aged and authentic particles. In particular, more reliable uptake coefficients, based on the abundant elaborate laboratory studies, appropriate calibration, and logical choice criterion, are urgently required in atmospheric models.

  3. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd R. T. Simoneit; WOLFGANG F. ROGGE; LYNN M. HILDEMANN; MONICA A. MAZUREK; GLEN R. CASS

    1996-01-01

    A chemical mass balance receptor model based on organic compounds has been developed that relates sours; contributions to airborne fine particle mass concentrations. Source contributions to the concentrations of specific organic compounds are revealed as well. The model is applied to four air quality monitoring sites in southern California using atmospheric organic compound concentration data and source test data collected

  4. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Schauer; Wolfgang F. Rogge; Lynn M. Hildemann; Monica A. Mazurek; Glen R. Cass; Bernd R. T. Simoneit

    2007-01-01

    A chemical mass balance receptor model based on organic compounds has been developed that relates source contributions to airborne fine particle mass concentrations. Source contributions to the concentrations of specific organic compounds are revealed as well. The model is applied to four air quality monitoring sites in southern California using atmospheric organic compound concentration data and source test data collected

  5. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  6. [Characteristics and chlorinated disinfection by-products formation potential of dissolved organic matter fractions in treated wastewater].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-xue; Wu, Qian-yuan; Tian, Jie; Wang, Li-sha; Hu, Hong-ying

    2009-08-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biological treated wastewater of municipal wastewater treated plant was isolated and fractionated using resin adsorption into four different fractions. These fractions are operationally categorized as hydrophilic substances (HIS), hydrophobic acids (HOA), hydrophobic neutrals (HON), and hydrophobic bases (HOB). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific UV absorbance, characteristics of three dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM) and disinfection byproducts formation potential of each fraction was investigated in this paper. The results showed that HIS and HOA were the main fractions and occupied 33% and 30% of DOC in the treated wastewater sample, respectively. The fraction of HIS contained more humus, which were predominately microbially derived, while the fraction of HOA contained more aromatic proteins and soluble microbial products by the analysis of 3DEEM. The chlorinated trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of HIS fraction was 630.4 microg x L(-1) and occupied 73.7% of that formed in wastewater sample. The chlorinated haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) of HIS and HOA fractions were 644.6 microg x L(-1) and 123.2 microg x L(-1), which was found to be the most reactive precursor in the fractions of treated wastewater to the disinfection by-products formation. PMID:19799288

  7. Volatile organic compounds in storm water from a parking lot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Rutherford, D.W.; Hiatt, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    A mass balance approach was used to determine the most important nonpoint source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in storm water from an asphalt parking lot without obvious point sources (e.g., gasoline stations). The parking lot surface and atmosphere are important nonpoint sources of VOCs, with each being important for different VOCs. The atmosphere is an important source of soluble, oxygenated VOCs (e.g., acetone), and the parking lot surface is an important source for the more hydrophobic VOCs (e.g., benzene). VOCs on the parking lot surface appear to be concentrated in oil and grease and organic material in urban particles (e.g., vehicle soot). Except in the case of spills, asphalt does not appear to be an important source of VOCs. The uptake isotherm of gaseous methyl tert-butyl ether on urban particles indicates a mechanism for dry deposition of VOCs from the atmosphere. This study demonstrated that a mass balance approach is a useful means of understanding non-point-source pollution, even for compounds such as VOCs, which are difficult to sample.A mass balance approach was used to determine the most important nonpoint source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in storm water from an asphalt parking lot without obvious point sources (e.g., gasoline stations). The parking lot surface and atmosphere are important nonpoint sources of VOCs, with each being important for different VOCs. The atmosphere is an important source of soluble, oxygenated VOCs (e.g., acetone), and the parking lot surface is an important source for the more hydrophobic VOCs (e.g., benzene). VOCs on the parking lot surface appear to be concentrated in oil and grease and organic material in urban particles (e.g., vehicle soot). Except in the case of spills, asphalt does not appear to be an important source of VOCs. The uptake isotherm of gaseous methyl tert-butyl ether on urban particles indicates a mechanism for dry deposition of VOCs from the atmosphere. This study demonstrated that a mass balance approach is a useful means of understanding non-point-source pollution, even for compounds such as VOCs, which are difficult to sample.

  8. Evanescent wave sensor for detecting volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Kisholoy; Prohaska, John D.; Menon, Anil; Mendoza, Edgar A.; Lieberman, Robert A.

    1999-02-01

    This work evaluates the usefulness of an intracore long period grating (LPG) structure on optical fiber for constructing a fiber-optic chemical sensor. The sensor response relies on the evanescent field interaction of core- guided light with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) surrounding the long period gratings. The LPGs were coated with proprietary chemical indicators having strong affinities for VOCs. The feasibility of this approach was tested by using representative hydrocarbons and halohydrocarbons in parts per thousand to parts per million concentrations. Test results demonstrate that LPGs offer the promise for sensitively detecting VOCs in air, water, and soil matrices.

  9. The synthesis of organic and inorganic compounds in evolved stars.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2004-08-26

    Recent isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust has identified solid-state materials of pre-solar origin. We can now trace the origin of these inorganic grains to the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. Moreover, organic (aromatic and aliphatic) compounds have been detected in proto-planetary nebulae and planetary nebulae, which are the descendants of carbon stars. This implies that molecular synthesis is actively happening in the circumstellar environment on timescales as short as several hundred years. The detection of stellar grains in the Solar System suggests that they can survive their journey through the interstellar medium and that they are a major contributor of interstellar grains. PMID:15329712

  10. Effects of organic pollutants from wastewater treatment plants on aquatic invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Kattwinkel, Mira; Liess, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Pesticides are a major stressor for stream ecosystem health. They enter surface waters from diffuse agricultural sources but also from point sources such as municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, to date, no studies have focused on the ecological effects of pesticide-contaminated WWTP effluent on macroinvertebrate communities. On the basis of governmental monitoring data of 328 sites in Hesse, Germany, we identified insecticidal long-term effects on the structure of the macroinvertebrate community up to 3 km downstream of WWTPs. The effects were quantified using the trait-based SPEAR(pesticides) index, which has been shown to be an effective tool for identifying community effects of pesticide contamination. In addition, based on the German Saprobic Index, we revealed that WWTPs are still an important source of oxygen-depleting organic pollution, despite the extensive technological improvements in wastewater management over several centuries. In general, our findings emphasize the need to take municipal WWTPs into consideration in the management of river basins under the EU Water Framework Directive to achieve good ecological and chemical status for European streams and rivers. PMID:23174534

  11. [Characteristics of sludge in treatment of high concentrated organic wastewater by swim-bed technology].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Yang, Jia-Li; Zhang, Yan; Furukawa, Kenji

    2009-02-15

    Based on the technology of conditional activated sludge process, swim-bed technology involving the novel biomass attachment material biofringe (BF) is one of the new and efficient advanced municipal wastewater treatments process. The process demonstrated effective treatment of high concentrated organic wastewater. When VLRs were from 1.7 kg/(m3 x d) to 4.5 kg/(m3 x d), 96% of average COD removal efficiencies and 80.7% of nitrification rate were achieved, respectively. The BF material allowed for attachment of large amounts of biomass. The mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations in the reactor reached 23 g/L at the highest during operation period, with holding 20-50 mL/g of SVI. An exponential law was found to be suitable to describe the variation of the viscosity as a function of MLSS. The granulation phenomenon of sludge was observed during the experiment. Protozoan and metazoans on the bio-film and suspended sludge were proved existing in the system by microscopic observation and DNA experiment. Observed sludge yields from 0.1046 to 0.1723 (MLSS/BOD) were obtained in swim-bed system. PMID:19402496

  12. Determination of four acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in wastewater samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beldean-Galea, Mihail Simion; Coman, Virginia; Thiébaut, Didier; Vial, Jérome

    2015-02-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet for the extraction of four acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) from wastewater samples subsequent by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was developed. The influence of extraction parameters such as pH, the effect of solution ionic strength, type of extraction solvent, disperser solvent, and extraction solvent volume were studied. High enrichment factors (283-302) were obtained through the developed method. The method provides good linearity (r > 0.999) in a concentration range of 1-100 ?g/L, good intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation < 7%) and low limits of quantification. The relative recoveries of the selected compounds were situated over 80% both in synthetic and real water samples. The developed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the selected compounds in wastewater samples. PMID:25487631

  13. Improvement of Biodegradability of Oil Field Drilling Wastewater Using Ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanming Wang; Min Yang; Jing Zhang; Yu Zhang; Mengchun Gao

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of improving the biodegradability of drilling wastewater using ozone was investigated following coagulation pretreatment. The biodegradability of wastewater was improved significantly following the start of ozonation, and the molecular weight of organic compounds decreased continuously with the progress of oxidation. It is interesting that minimum biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon (BOD\\/TOC) ratio (0.4 g\\/g) was observed when

  14. Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Wastewater: Constituents, Effects, and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Shon; S. Vigneswaran; S. A. Snyder

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater reuse is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for conservation of limited resources of freshwater and as a mean of safeguarding the aquatic environment due to contaminants present in wastewater. Although secondary and tertiary treated wastewater is often discharged into surface waters, it cannot be reused without further treatment. One of the parameters of concern for human and environmental

  15. Determination and assessment of estradiol-mimicking compounds in the dissolved and particulate phases of wastewater treatment plant samples.

    PubMed

    Vega-Morales, Tanausú; Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, a large number of publications have clearly shown that anthropogenic compounds that disrupt the endocrine system of wildlife species are a major cause for concern, and this concern has led to a demand for new screening methods. In this work, we have optimized and applied a new method to identify endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as nonylphenol, octylphenol, and their corresponding ethoxylates, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, bisphenol-A, 17beta-estradiol, and estriol, in sewage samples. For the extraction and preconcentration of all analytes from the dissolved and particulate phases, we used SPE and ultrasonic assisted extraction, respectively. Identification and quantification were achieved by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Satisfactory LODs (between 0.5 and 7.6 ng/L in the dissolved phase and 12.3 and 21.4 ng/g in the particulate phase) and analyte recoveries (between 67 and 102%) were achieved for the target compounds. The optimized method was applied to the determination of EDCs in liquid sewage samples collected from July 2009 to July 2010 from a wastewater treatment plant in Las Palmas de G.C. (Spain). Concentrations of EDCs ranged from <10 to nearly 1300 ng/L in the dissolved phase, and from 0.1 to 7.7 microg/g in the suspended particulate matter. PMID:22970591

  16. Cyclodextrin-based microsensors for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.; Johnson, S.; Shi, J.; Yang, Xiaoguang

    1997-10-01

    Host-guest chemistry and self-assembly techniques are being explored to develop species selective thin-films for real-time sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Cyclodextrin (CD) and calixarene (CA) molecules are known to form guest-host inclusion complexes with a variety of organic molecules. Through the control of the cavity size and chemical functionality on the rims of these bucket-like molecules, the binding affinities for formation of inclusion complexes can be controlled and optimized for specific agents. Self-assembly techniques are used to covalently bond these reagent molecules to the surface of acoustic transducers to create dense, highly oriented, and stable thin films. Self-assembly techniques have also been used to fabricate multilayer thin film containing molecular recognition reagents through alternating adsorption of charged species in aqueous solutions. Self-assembly of polymeric molecules of the SAW device was also explored for fabricating species selective interfaces.

  17. Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Garc??a-Gómez; A Roig; M. P Bernal

    2003-01-01

    The flocculated solid fraction of olive mill wastewaters, obtained from two different olive oil extraction systems (FOMW1 and FOMW2) was composted, with olive leaves (OL) as bulking agent, by the static pile system (Rutgers). The dynamic of organic matter (OM) degradation during composting and its relationship with the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, as indicators of biological

  18. EMISSION OF METALS AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS - VOLUME VIII: GC/MS TAPES REVIEW REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four municipal wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne si...

  19. Primary Research on the Disposal of Organic Wastewater of Low C\\/N Ratio with Electrode-Membrane Biological Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qun Yang; Yong Yin; Beiping Zhang; Changzhu Yang

    2009-01-01

    The paper gave a brief introduction to electrode- membrane biological reactor (EMBR) and its denitrogenation mechanism. A experimental EMBR device was used to treat organic wastewater of low C\\/N ratio taken from septic tank. 9 groups of experiments were carried out to investigate the performance of the device with the variations of COD concentration and the C\\/N ratio of the

  20. Treatment of hypersaline wastewater in the sequencing batch reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Woolard; R. L. Irvine

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline wastes are generated during industrial activities that include chemical manufacturing, oil and gas production and waste minimization practices. These wastes which contain organic compounds and high concentrations of salt (>3.5%), are difficult to treat using conventional microorganisms typically found in wastewater facilities. Biological treatment to remove organics without dilution will require the use of halophilic organisms which have special

  1. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-02-11

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

  2. Volatile organic compounds in selected micro-environments.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Berko, H N; Farrar, D; Galbally, I E; Weeks, I A

    2006-04-01

    A program of sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air was undertaken in selected locations and micro-environments in Perth, Western Australia to characterise concentrations of target VOCs and to determine the relative strength of the contributing sources to ambient air in different micro-environments in a major Australian city. Twenty-seven locations were sampled and, of the forty-one target compounds, 26 VOCs were detected in the samples collected. The highest concentrations were recorded for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), chloroform and styrene. The maximum 12-h toluene and benzene concentrations observed were from a basement carpark and were 24.7 parts per billion (ppb) and 5.6 ppb, respectively. The maximum xylenes concentration was 29.4 ppb and occurred in a nightclub where styrene was also detected. A factor analysis of the data was undertaken. Two key factors emerge that appear to be associated with petroleum and motor vehicles and environmental tobacco smoke. A third significant occurrence was a high concentration of chloroform that was observed at a sports centre complex with a swimming pool text and was uncorrelated with other compounds in the data set. This study indicates that locations associated with motor vehicles and petrol fuel, tobacco and wood smoke and chlorinated water represent the major risks for personal exposure to VOCs in Perth. PMID:16289288

  3. Modeling Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from New Carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1993-02-01

    A simple model is proposed to account for observed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new carpets. The model assumes that the VOCs originate predominantly in a uniform slab of polymer backing material. Parameters for the model (the initial concentration of a VOC in the polymer, a diffusion coefficient and an equilibrium polymer/air partition coefficient) are obtained from experimental data produced by a previous chamber study. The diffusion coefficients generally decrease as the molecular weight of the VOCs increase, while the polymer/air partition coefficients generally increase as the vapor pressure of the compounds decrease. In addition, for two of the study carpets that have a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) backing, the diffusion and partition coefficients are similar to independently reported values for SBR. The results suggest that predictions of VOCs emissions from new carpets may be possible based solely on a knowledge of the physical properties of the relevant compounds and the carpet backing material. However, a more rigorous validation of the model is desirable.

  4. Volatile organic compounds adsorption onto neat and hybrid bacterial cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Violeta Alexandra; Pârvulescu, Oana Cristina; Dobre, T?nase

    2015-04-01

    Adsorption dynamics of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) vapour from air streams onto fixed bed adsorbent were measured and simulated under various operation conditions. Isopropanol (IPA) and n-hexane (HEX) were selected as representatives of polar and nonpolar VOCs, whereas bacterial cellulose (BC) and BC incorporated with magnetite nanoparticles (M/BC), were tested as adsorbents. An experimental study emphasizing the influence of air superficial velocity (0.7 cm/s and 1.7 cm/s), operation temperature (30 °C and 40 °C), adsorbate and adsorbent type, on fixed bed saturation curves was conducted. Optimal adsorption performances evaluated in terms of saturation adsorption capacity were obtained for the adsorption of polar compound (IPA) onto M/BC composite (0.805 g/g) and of nonpolar compound (HEX) onto neat BC (0.795 g/g), respectively, at high values of air velocity and operation temperature. A mathematical model including mass balance of VOC species, whose parameters were fitted based on experimental data, was developed in order to predict the fixed bed saturation curves. A 23 statistical model indicating a significant increase in adsorption performances with process temperature was validated under the experimental conditions.

  5. Partitioning of neutral organic compounds to structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Bauerfeind, Jasmin; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2012-11-20

    Protein-water partition coefficients (K(pw)) of neutral organic chemicals were measured using muscle proteins (from chicken, fish, and pig), collagen and gelatin. K(pw) values for these structural proteins were consistently lower than those of bovine serum albumin (BSA), indicating that the use of BSA as a model protein leads to an overestimation of K(pw) for structural proteins. Differences in K(pw) between chicken, fish, and pig muscle proteins were small. Across the structural proteins, K(pw) values were often in the order: muscle proteins > collagen ? gelatin. Differences in K(pw) between the structural proteins were relatively large (<2 log units) for nonpolar compounds, and much smaller or insignificant for polar compounds. There were correlations between log K(pw) of muscle proteins and log K(ow) (R(2) = 0.83-0.86, SD: 0.35-0.40, n = 45-46). The polyparameter linear free energy relationship (PP-LFER) models fit even better to the data (R(2) = 0.95, SD: 0.22). The good model fitting suggests that the reversible binding to muscle proteins can be considered to be nonspecific binding. There was an indication that some chemicals may sorb irreversibly to muscle proteins, which needs further research. We found that the partitioning to muscle protein is typically weaker than that to lipids, but that the protein partitioning of an H-bond donor compound can be as strong as the storage lipid partitioning. PMID:23102204

  6. Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, J W

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussing chemical and geochemical aspects of biogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of entering ecosystems, and their physical chemical forms are discussed. Important factors that influence bioavailability and disposition (e.g., organism-water partitioning, uptake via food, food web transfer) are reviewed. These factors include solubilities of chemicals; partitioning of chemicals between solid surfaces, colloids, and soluble phases; variables rates of sorption, desorption; and physiological status of organism. It appears that more emphasis on considering food as a source of uptake and bioaccumulation is important in benthic and epibenthic ecosystems when sediment-associated pollutants are a significant source of input to an aquatic ecosystem. Progress with mathematical models for exposure and uptake of contaminant chemicals is discussed briefly. PMID:1904812

  7. [Discharge ion mobility spectrometry of ketonic organic compounds].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-dong; Han, Hai-yan; Jia, Xian-de; Jin, Shun-ping; Li, Jian-quan; Wang, Hong-mei; Tang, Xiao-shuan; Jiang, Hai-he; Chu, Yan-nan; Zhou, Shi-kang

    2007-05-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a sensitive technique for fast on-line monitoring trace volatile organic compounds based upon the mobilities of gas phase ions at ambient pressure in weak electric field. In the present work, protonated water reactant ions were successfully prepared, and eight ketones were studied on a homemade high-resolution IMS apparatus using a discharge ionization source. The reduced mobility values of all ions were derived from the observed ion mobility spectra. The experimentally determined reduced mobilities for acetone, 2-butone, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone acetophenone, cyclohexanone and product ions were compared with the previously reported values in the Ni-IMS, indicating that they are in good agreement. The reduced mobilities of methyl isopropyl ketone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone and cyclopentanone ions were given for the first time. The ionization process for organic compounds in the authors' discharge ion mobility spectrometer is suggested to be similar to Ni-IMS system, i.e., the proton transfer reactions produce protonated ketone ions. In addition, a linear correlation was found between the reduced mobilities of the ketone ions and their molecular masses. Qualitative measurements show that the limit of detection is in the ng x L(-1) order of magnitude in the authors' discharge ion mobility spectrometer. PMID:17655083

  8. Anti-photoaging and Photoprotective Compounds Derived from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pallela, Ramjee; Na-Young, Yoon; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms form a prominent component of the oceanic population, which significantly contribute in the production of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical molecules with biologically efficient moieties. In addition to the molecules of various biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative etc., these organisms also produce potential photoprotective or anti-photoaging agents, which are attracting present day researchers. Continuous exposure to UV irradiation (both UV-A and UV-B) leads to the skin cancer and other photoaging complications, which are typically mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated in the oxidative pathways. Many of the anti-oxidative and anti-photoaging compounds have been identified previously, which work efficiently against photodamage of the skin. Recently, marine originated photoprotective or anti-photoaging behavior was observed in the methanol extracts of Corallina pilulifera (CPM). These extracts were found to exert potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UV-A-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells by protecting DNA and also by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to UV-A. The present review depicts various other photoprotective compounds from algae and other marine sources for further elaborative research and their probable use in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:20479974

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires

    PubMed Central

    CICCIOLI, PAOLO; CENTRITTO, MAURO; LORETO, FRANCESCO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

  10. Fungal volatile organic compounds and their role in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hung, Richard; Lee, Samantha; Bennett, Joan W

    2015-04-01

    All odorants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), i.e., low molecular weight compounds that easily evaporate at normal temperatures and pressure. Fungal VOCs are relatively understudied compared to VOCs of bacterial, plant, or synthetic origin. Much of the research to date on fungal VOCs has focused on their food and flavor properties, their use as indirect indicators of fungal growth in agriculture, or their role as semiochemicals for insects. In addition, research into fungal volatiles has also taken place to monitor spoilage, for purposes of chemotaxonomy, for use in biofilters and for biodiesel, to detect plant and animal disease, for "mycofumigation," and with respect to plant health. As methods for the analysis of gas phase molecules have improved, it has become apparent that fungal VOC are more chemically varied and more biologically active than has generally been realized. In particular, there is increasing data that show that fungal VOCs frequently mediate interactions between organisms within and across different ecological niches. The goal of this mini review is to orchestrate data on fungal VOCs obtained from disparate disciplines as well as to draw attention to the ecological importance of fungal VOCs in signaling between different species. Technologies and approaches that are common in one area of research are often unknown in others, and the study of fungal VOCs would benefit from more cross talk between subdisciplines. PMID:25773975

  11. Investigation of membrane fouling in ultrafiltration using model organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kweon, J H; Lawler, D F

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is known to be the worst foulant in the membrane processes, but the complexities of NOM make it difficult to determine its effects on membrane fouling. Therefore, simple organic compounds (surrogates for NOM) were used in this research to investigate the fouling mechanisms in ultrafiltration. Previous research on NOM components in membrane processes indicated that polysaccharides formed an important part of the fouling cake. Three polysaccharides (dextran, alginic acid, and polygalacturonic acid) and a smaller carbohydrate (tannic acid) were evaluated for their removal in softening (the treatment process in the City of Austin). Two polysaccharides (dextran and alginic acid) were selected and further investigated for their effects on membrane fouling. The two raw organic waters (4 mg/L C) showed quite different patterns of flux decline indicating different fouling mechanisms. Softening pretreatment was effective to reduce flux decline of both waters. The SEM images of the fouled membrane clearly showed the shapes of deposited foulants. The high resolution results of the XPS spectra showed substantially different spectra of carbon, C(1s), in the membrane fouled by two raw organic waters. The XPS was beneficial in determining the relative composition of each fouling material on the membrane surface. PMID:16003967

  12. Chiral Analyses of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Characterization of Tagish Lake organic content. The first two grant years were largely devoted to the molecular and isotopic analyses of Tagish Lake organic composition. This carbonaceous meteorite fell in Canada in the winter of the year 2000, and its exceptional atmospheric entry and subsequent recovery (e. g., the sample was recovered and stored by avoiding hand contact and above freezing temperatures) contributed in providing a rare and pristine extraterrestrial material. 2. Chiral analyses of Murchison and Murray soluble organics. One of the most intriguing finding in regard to soluble meteorite organics is the presence within the amino acid suite of some compounds displaying L-enantiomeric excesses. This configuration is exclusive in the amino acids of terrestrial proteins and the finding has raised speculations of a possible role of amino acids from meteorites in the origin of homochirality on the early Earth. The main objective for this NASA funding was the characterization of enantiomeric excesses in meteorites and we have conducted several studies toward establishing their distribution and indignity.

  13. Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from wastewater treatment plant effluents by means of advanced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bertanza, G; Pedrazzani, R; Zambarda, V; Grande, M Dal; Icarelli, F; Baldassarre, L

    2010-01-01

    Municipal sewage and WWTP effluents are considered to be a major source of pollution, regarding the occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment. Although removal potential of many EDCs by conventional WWTPs is recognised, literature data are not easily comparable. Besides, in order to reach very low concentrations, a further treatment might be sometimes required. Positive results can be achieved by tertiary chemical oxidation; nevertheless, technical-economic suitability is still to be fully demonstrated. In this work, two estrogen-like susbstances were considered: nonylphenol (NP) (and its parent compounds) and bisphenol A (BPA). The experimental work was conducted at Verona (Northern Italy) WWTP (370,000 p.e.): after a 15 days sampling campaign, which was carried out in order to calculate mass balance of target compounds, chemical oxidation tests were performed on effluent by means of UV/H(2)O(2) process and ozonation. Technical-economic feasibility of these solutions is discussed. PMID:20371923

  14. Organic matter composition, microbial biomass and microbial activity in gravel-bed constructed wetlands treating farm dairy wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long M. Nguyen

    2000-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) composition, microbial biomass and microbial activity in a planted (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani), gravel-bed wetland receiving cumulative OM (determined as volatile suspended solids) loadings over 5 years from farm dairy wastewater (8.2 kg OM m?2) and in situ plant residues (8.4 kg OM m?2) were investigated. Organic deposits above and within the gravel stratum (0–100- and 100–400 mm depths)

  15. Treatment and reuse of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Luthy, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of recent experimental activities to evaluate processing characteristics of coal conversion wastewaters. Treatment studies have been performed with high-BTU coal gasification process quench waters to assess enhanced removal of organic compounds via powdered activated carbon-activated sludge treatment, and to evaluate a coal gasification wastewater treatment train comprised of sequential processing by ammonia removal, biological oxidation, lime-soda softening, granular activated carbon adsorption, and reverse osmosis. In addition, treatment studies are in progress to evaluate solvent extraction of gasification process wastewater to recover phenolics and to reduce wastewater loading of priority organic pollutants. Biological oxidation of coal gasification wastewater has shown excellent removal efficiencies of major and trace organic contaminants at moderate loadings, addition of powdered activated carbon provides lower effluent COD and color. Gasification process wastewater treated through biological oxidation, lime-soda softening and activated carbon adsorption appears suitable for reuse as cooling tower make-up water. Solvent extraction is an effective means to reduce organic loadings to downstream processing units. In addition, preliminary results have shown that solvent extraction removes chromatographable organic contaminants to low levels.

  16. Impact of polymeric membrane filtration of oil sands process water on organic compounds quantification.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed M A; Kim, Eun-Sik; Alpatova, Alla; Sun, Nian; Smith, Scott; Kang, Seoktae; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between organic fractions in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and three polymeric membranes with varying hydrophilicity (nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene) at different pHs was studied to evaluate the impact of filtration on the quantification of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and naphthenic acids (NAs). Four functional groups predominated in OSPW (amine, phosphoryl, carboxyl and hydroxyl) as indicated by the linear programming method. The nylon membranes were the most hydrophilic and exhibited the lowest AEF removal at pH of 8.7. However, the adsorption of AEF on the membranes increased as the pH of OSPW decreased due to hydrophobic interactions between the membrane surfaces and the protonated molecules. The use of ultra pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC/HRMS) showed insignificant adsorption of NAs on the tested membranes at pH 8.7. However, 26±2.4% adsorption of NAs was observed at pH 5.3 following the protonation of NAs species. For the nylon membrane, excessive carboxylic acids in the commercial NAs caused the formation of negatively charged assisted hydrogen bonds, resulting in increased adsorption at pH 8.2 (25%) as compared to OSPW (0%). The use of membranes for filtration of soluble compounds from complex oily wastewaters before quantification analysis of AEF and NAs should be examined prior to application. PMID:25225922

  17. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATION OF BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To be presented is an overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the statistical evaluation of concentrations obtained from the analysis of a suite of compounds (e.g., Galaxolide®, musk xylene, and amino musk xylene) in an aquatic ecological site. ...

  18. Semivolatile organic compounds in urban and over-water atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenberg, John H., Jr.

    Concentrations of semi-volatile organic contaminants were measured both in air and precipitation in and downwind of Chicago, IL and Baltimore, MD as part of the A_tmospheric E_xchange O_ver L_akes and O_ceans_ (AEOLOS) project. Precipitation events were collected simultaneously in the city and over the water to measure increased wet depositional fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls to Lake Michigan during May and July 1994 and January 1995. Elevated atmospheric concentrations in Chicago, IL increase atmospheric loadings of PCBs to Lake Michigan by at least a factor of two over regional background levels. Precipitation loadings, bidirectional gas exchange and dry deposition combine to increase measured surface water concentrations of PCBs in Lake Michigan during periods of southwesterly winds which transport the urban air mass across the lake. PCB concentrations in surface waters were higher during winter than in spring or summer, but PAH concentrations did not vary significantly with season. However, when placed in historical context, Lake Michigan PCB concentrations have declined ten fold over fourteen years from 1980 to 1994. Size segregated airborne particulate samples collected around and over southern Lake Michigan show geometric mean diameters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are correlated with the compound's sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures. More volatile compounds were found on larger particles. The slope of the relationship between GMD and vapor pressure depends on the transit time from the shoreline, suggesting that higher wind speeds induce faster dry deposition of large particles. Measured gas/particle partitioning of these compounds is modeled according to a three dimensional multiple linear regression that includes the influences of vapor pressure, particle size and measured aerosol fractional organic carbon content. Each of these terms is significant in the full model but, addition of the latter two terms appears to be practically unimportant in describing partitioning of these compounds between the gas and particle bound phases. Finally, spatial trends in PAH and PCB concentrations in the Baltimore/northern Chesapeake Bay atmosphere during June 1996 are similar to those observed in Chicago. These observations further support the hypothesis that urban centers increase loadings to adjacent surface waters.

  19. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donata Dubber; Nicholas F. Gray

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment

  20. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 49 synthetic organic compounds. Ten pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the upstream site and seven pesticides and four pesticide metabolites were detected at the downstream site. Pesticides detected at both sites were atrazine, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and trans-nonachlor. Additionally at the upstream site, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, and prometon were detected. The pesticide metabolites p,p'-DDE, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane also were detected at both sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds aroclor-1016/1242, aroclor-1254, and aroclor-1260 were detected at both sites. The upstream site had 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detections and the downstream site had 8 detections. Because of chromatographic interference during analysis, a positive identification of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be made. Consequently, there may have been a greater number of these compounds detected at both sites. A total of 36 synthetic organic compounds were detected at the two sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The upstream site had 21 synthetic organic compound detections: three detergent metabolites, two fecal indicators, three flame retardants, seven industrial compounds, five compounds related to personal care products, and beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Fifteen synthetic organic compounds were detected at the downstream site and included: one fecal indicator, three flame retardants, six industrial compounds, and five compounds related to personal care products.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdi; K. Stamatelatou; M. Kornaros; G. Lyberatos

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic digestions for the treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are reviewed. A major limitation of anaerobic digestion of OMW is inhibition of methanogenic bacteria by simple phenolic compounds, certain organic acids and polyphenols. Pretreatment methods that modify or remove these natural inhibitors improve digestion of OMW.

  2. Purgeable organic compounds in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Mann; L. L. Knobel

    1987-01-01

    Reconnaissance-level sampling for purgeable organic compounds in ground water was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June to November 1987. Water samples from 81 wells that tap the Snake River Plain aquifer and that are equipped with dedicated pumps were collected and analyzed for 36 purgeable organic compounds. Twelve compounds were detected in the samples, including carbon tetrachloride;

  3. A SURVEY ON RESEARCH NEEDS ON PERSONAL SAMPLERS FOR TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey is presented on the research and development needs for personal monitoring devices for toxic organic compounds in the ambient atmosphere. This survey includes a description of organic compounds and their ambient concentrations, individual compounds of high priority, a su...

  4. Speciation of volatile organic compound emissions for regional air quality modeling of particulate matter and ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Makar; M. D. Moran; M. T. Scholtz; A. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    A new classification scheme for the speciation of organic compound emissions for use in air quality models is described. The scheme uses 81 organic compound classes to preserve both net gas-phase reactivity and particulate matter (PM) formation potential. Chemical structure, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, freezing point\\/boiling point, and solubility data were used to create the 81 compound classes.

  5. Rules of Thumb for Assessing Equilibrium Partitioning of Organic Compounds: Successes and Pitfalls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-Uwe Goss; René P. Schwarzenbach

    2003-01-01

    Organic compounds are often categorized according to their volatility, polarity, and hydrophobicity. These terms are then used to estimate the equilibrium partitioning of compounds between different phases (e.g., air, water, organic solvents). However, these terms are rather ill-defined, and their application can easily lead to erroneous ideas about the partition behavior of compounds as is demonstrated with several examples. A

  6. Time Dependence of Blood Concentrations during and after Exposure to a Mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Ashley; James D. Prah

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds constitute a group of important environmental pollutants that have been associated with the constellation of symptoms known as sick building syndrome. An understanding of the kinetics of uptake and elimination of volatile organic compounds is important for the proper interpretation of the internal dose concentrations of people exposed to these compounds. Blood concentrations measured before, during, and

  7. New way to quantify multiple steroidal compounds in wastewater by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kopperi, Matias; Ruiz-Jiménez, José; Hukkinen, Janne I; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-01-25

    The applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry to the screening of steroidal compounds in wastewater is demonstrated. Advanced software was utilized to identify unknown compounds in complex two-dimensional chromatograms exploiting retention indices and two different mass spectral databases. Response factors calculated as a function of the individual mass spectra of six commercial standards at different concentrations were used to develop a model allowing the quantitation of all steroidal compounds identified in the sample. The model, based on partial least squares regression equations, provided good accuracy (prediction error < 16%) in the quantitation of steroidal compounds, so offering a valuable alternative to conventional quantitation methods where reference compounds are required for the verification of analytical measurements. Special attention was paid to the development of an exhaustive sample preparation method for the separate analysis of conjugated and free steroids in both water phase and suspended solid particles. The method, including the exploitation of chemometrics, was successfully applied to the determination of steroidal compounds in effluent and influent waters collected at a local wastewater treatment plant. PMID:23312334

  8. Characterisation of high added value compounds in wastewater throughout the salting process of codfish ( Gadus morhua)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenza Ferraro; Isabel B. Cruz; Ruben Ferreira Jorge; F. Xavier Malcata; Paula M. L. Castro; Manuela E. Pintado

    2011-01-01

    In Portugal Atlantic codfish (Gadus morhua) is dry-salted with food-grade marine salt for 6days. During this process, codfish incorporates salt and drains away water up to 22%(w\\/w) of its weight, which contains important compounds, such as free amino acids, peptides and proteins. Hence, the chemical profile of such water, composed of various soluble nitrogen fractions, was thoroughly determined.Along the salting

  9. The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-04-15

    Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. PMID:24531125

  10. Microbial populations analysis and field application of biofilter for the removal of volatile-sulfur compounds from swine wastewater treatment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Ling Ho; Ying-Chien Chung; Yueh-Hsien Lin; Ching-Ping Tseng

    2008-01-01

    A biofilter packed with granular activated carbon (GAC) was applied to eliminate volatile-sulfur compounds (VSC) emitted from solid–liquid separation tank in swine wastewater treatment system. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl sulfide were effectively reduced to 96–100% at gas residence times of 13–30s. Elemental sulfur and sulfate are their primary oxidation metabolites. Regarding odor, an average of 86% reduction

  11. Subjective reactions to volatile organic compounds as air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, Lars; Grønkjær, John; Larsen, Søren

    Human subjective reactions to indoor air pollution in the form of volatile organic compounds in five concentrations ? mg m -3 were examined in a climate chamber under controlled conditions in a balanced experimental design. The reactions of 25 subjects were registered in two questionnaires containing 25 and six questions and on a linear analogue rating scale. Each subject was tested for one day including four runs in each of the five treatments of 50 min duration. Dose effects were found for perceived odour intensity at 3 mgm -3. Air quality, need for ventilation, irritation of eye and nose showed significant effect at 8 mg m -3. Significant reduced well being was reported at 25 mgm -3. The analyses indicated that lower threshold for some of these effects would have been found if more subjects or longer exposure-times had been used. Gender, age, occupational education and smoking habits were co-factors for many of the symptoms reported.

  12. Laboratory methods for volatile organic compounds evolved in mineralization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, W.J.; Arnold, S.M.; Moran, B.N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A system to study mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was developed using commercially available solid-phase VOC traps and impingers to collect CO{sub 2} as well as VOCs breaking out from the solid-phase trap. The efficiencies of VOC traps containing activated charcoal (AC) or graphitized carbon black (GCB) for absorbing [{sup 14}C]trichloroethylene ([{sup 14}C]TCE) and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were evaluated, and approaches for minimizing VOC losses from reaction vessels were established. Mass balances showed AC and GCB absorbed similar amounts of [{sup 14}C]TCE. However, GCB had no detectable {sup 14}CO{sub 2} retention, whereas AC absorbed about 7% of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Because {sup 14}CO{sub 2} absorption could influence the interpretation of mineralization experiments, GCB was concluded to be the better VOC-trapping matrix.

  13. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  14. Neutral-ionic transitions in organic mixed-stack compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, R.; Bak, Per; Torrance, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    Torrance et al. have made the interesting observation that several mixed-stack organic compounds undergo transitions from neutral states to ionic states as the temperature or pressure is varied. We examine a simple model of such transitions including Coulomb interaction and hybridization of neutral and ionic states. In the limit of weak hybridization and long-range repulsive interaction between ionic planes, it is proven that there is a complete devil's staircase where the degree of ionicity assumes an infinity of rational values. For attractive interactions between ionic planes, the neutral-ionic transition is shown to be first order for weak hybridization. Comparison with experiment indicates that this situation applies to tetrathiafulvalene chloranil. For strong hybridization the transition is continuous but goes through a metallic phase. It is shown, for the first time, that the spectrum of the charge-transfer Hamiltonian contains both a bound spectrum, the observed charge-transfer excitations, and a continuum.

  15. Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds and Chemical Sensitivity Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Arashidani, Keiichi; Kunugita, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Studies of unexplained symptoms observed in chemically sensitive subjects have increased the awareness of the relationship between neurological and immunological diseases due to exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, there is no direct evidence that links exposure to low doses of VOCs and neurological and immunological dysfunction. We review animal model data to clarify the role of VOCs in neuroimmune interactions and discuss our recent studies that show a relationship between chronic exposure of C3H mice to low levels of formaldehyde and the induction of neural and immune dysfunction. We also consider the possible mechanisms by which VOC exposure can induce the symptoms presenting in patients with a multiple chemical sensitivity. PMID:24228055

  16. Volatile organic compounds in the environment: A multimedia perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The environment is a complex system of interacting environmental media. Pollutants do not stay in the medium where they originate but move across environmental phase boundaries. The distribution of pollutants throughout the various environmental compartments (for example, air, water, soil, and biota) is the result of complex physical, chemical, and biological processes. The resulting environmental and human health risks depend upon the degree of exposure of human and ecological receptors, via multiple pathways, to these chemicals. Thus, environmental pollution is a multimedia problem. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in particular, are very mobile in the environment. For example, VOCs which are initially present in the soil or water media can readily volatilize to the atmosphere where they can be transported over significant distances from the source location. In this paper an overview is presented of VOC sources, VOC ambient levels, the multimedia distribution of VOCs in the environment, and multipathway exposure to VOCs.

  17. Field-usable portable analyzer for chlorinated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, W.J.; Penrose, W.R.; Stetter, J.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, a chemical sensor was developed which showed almost perfect selectivity to vapors of chlorinated solvents. When interfaced to an instrument, a chemical analyzer will be produced that has near- absolute selectivity to vapors of volatile chlorinated organic compounds. TRI has just completed the second of a 2-phase program to develop this new instrument system, which is called the RCL MONITOR. In Phase II, this instrument was deployed in 5 EM40 operations. Phase II applications covered clean-up process monitoring, environmental modeling, routine monitoring, health and safety, and technology validation. Vapor levels between 0 and 100 ppM can be determined in 90 s with a lower detection limit of 0.5 ppM using the hand-portable instrument. Based on the favorable performance of the RCL MONITOR, the commercial instrument was released for commercial sales on Sept. 20, 1996.

  18. Rejection of organic compounds by ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Ozaki; Huafang Li

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis (ULPRO) membrane has widened the horizon of reverse osmosis (RO) in purification of surface water and wastewater as well as desalination of brackish water. The ULPRO membrane chemistry can provide a high water flux at low operating pressure, while maintaining a very good salt and organics rejection. This paper deals with the investigation

  19. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds & their photochemical transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhujun; Hohaus, Thorsten; Tillmann, Ralf; Andres, Stefanie; Kuhn, Uwe; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic activities emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. While it is known that land vegetation accounts for 90% of the global VOC emissions, only a few molecules' emission factors are understood. Through VOCs atmospheric oxidation intermediate products are formed. The detailed chemical mechanisms involved are insufficiently known to date and need to be understood for air quality management and climate change predictions. In an experiment using a PTR-ToF-MS with the new-built plant chamber SAPHIR-PLUS in Forschungszentrum Juelich, biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from Quercus ilex trees were measured. The BVOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, minor emissions of isoprene and methanol were also observed with the overall emission pattern typical for Quercus ilex trees in the growing season. Monoterpenes and isoprene emissions showed to be triggered by light. Additionally, their emissions showed clear exponential temperature dependence under constant light condition as reported in literature. As a tracer for leaf growth, methanol emission showed an abrupt increase at the beginning of light exposure. This is explained as instantaneous release of methanol produced during the night once stomata of leaves open upon light exposure. Emission of methanol showed a near linear increase with temperature in the range of 10 to 35 °C. BVOC were transferred from the plant chamber PLUS to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR, where their oxidation products from O3 oxidation were measured with PTR-ToF-MS. Gas phase oxidation products such as acetone and acetaldehyde were detected. A quantitative analysis of the data will be presented, including comparison of observations to the Master Chemical Mechanism model.

  20. Color and chlorinated organics removal from pulp mills wastewater using activated petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Shawwa, A R; Smith, D W; Sego, D C

    2001-03-01

    Delayed petroleum coke, a waste by-product from the oil sand industry, was utilized in the production of activated carbon. The activated carbon was then evaluated for color and chlorinated organics reduction from pulp mill wastewater. The activation of the petroleum coke was evaluated using a fixed bed reactor involving carbonization and activation steps at temperature of 850 degrees C and using steam as the activation medium. The activation results showed that the maximum surface area of the activated coke was achieved at an activation period of 4 h. The maximum surface area occurred at burnoff and water efficiency of 48.5 and 54.3%, respectively. Increasing the activation period to 6 h resulted in a decrease in the surface area. Methylene blue adsorption results indicated that the activation process was successful. Methylene blue adsorbed per 100 g of applied activated coke was 10 times higher than that adsorbed by raw petroleum coke. Adsorption equilibrium results of the bleached wastewater and the activated coke showed that significant color, COD, DOC and AOX removal (> 90%) was achieved when the activated coke dose exceeded 15,000 mg/L. Adsorption isotherms, in terms of COD, DOC, UV and color were developed based on the batch equilibrium data. Based on these isotherms, the amount of activated coke required to achieve certain removal of color and AOX can be predicted. The utilization of the petroleum coke for the production of activated carbon can provide an excellent disposal option for the oil sand industry at the same time would provide a cheap and valuable activated carbon. PMID:11228973

  1. Biodegradation of organic compounds sequestered in organic solids or in nanopores within silica particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted using model solids to determine whether the time-dependent decline in availability for biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil might result from the entrapment of these compounds in porous or nonporous solids. A strain of Pseudomonas mineralized phenanthrene in solid alkanes containing 18 to 32 carbons, three waxes, and low-molecular-weight polycaprolactone, polyethylene, and polypropylene. The rates were appreciably slower than when the substrate was not initially present within these nonporous solids. From 1.4 to 63.4% of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon added to the solids was mineralized in 90 d. The rates and extents of partitioning of phenanthrene varied markedly among the solids. The rates of partitioning and biodegradation of phenanthrene initially present in the alkanes were positively correlated. The bacterium rapidly and extensively mineralized phenanthrene provided in calcium alginate beads containing varying amounts of soluble soil organic matter. The rates and extents of phenanthrene mineralization declined as the percentage of the substrate in the nanopores within silica particles increased, but the reductions in rate, extent, or both were less pronounced than with nonporous solids. The rate of 4-nitrophenol biodegradation also declined with increasing percentages of the compound in these nanopores. The data are consistent with hypotheses that the sequestration and consequent decrease in bioavailability of organic compounds that persist in soil result from their partitioning into organic matter or their presence within nanopores in soil.

  2. Toward energy-neutral wastewater treatment: a high-rate contact stabilization process to maximally recover sewage organics.

    PubMed

    Meerburg, Francis A; Boon, Nico; Van Winckel, Tim; Vercamer, Jensen A R; Nopens, Ingmar; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2015-03-01

    The conventional activated sludge process is widely used for wastewater treatment, but to progress toward energy self-sufficiency, the wastewater treatment scheme needs to radically improve energy balances. We developed a high-rate contact stabilization (HiCS) reactor system at high sludge-specific loading rates (>2 kg bCOD kg(-1)TSS d(-1)) and low sludge retention times (<1.2 d) and demonstrate that it is able to recover more chemical energy from wastewater organics than high-rate conventional activated sludge (HiCAS) and the low-rate variants of HiCS and HiCAS. The best HiCS system recovered 36% of the influent chemical energy as methane, due to the combined effects of low production of CO2, high sludge yield, and high methane yield of the produced sludge. The HiCS system imposed a feast-famine cycle and a putative selection pressure on the sludge micro-organisms toward substrate adsorption and storage. Given further optimization, it is a promising process for energy recovery from wastewater. PMID:25553568

  3. Effect of different organic matters on flocculation of Chlorella sorokiniana and optimization of flocculation conditions in swine manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Sanfeng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, flocculation of Chlorella sorokiniana cultivated in swine manure wastewater, BG-11 medium and BG-11 medium supplemented with different organic matters (glucose, urea and tryptone) was investigated. The results demonstrated that the minimum amount of Al(3+) required for complete flocculation in wastewater would increase substantially, and flocculation efficiency became highly sensitive to pH. Tryptone could cause similar extent of inhibition on flocculation as in wastewater. Meanwhile, glucose could increase concentrations of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM), inhibiting flocculation strongly at higher pH, including flocculation induced by Al(3+) and autoflocculation. However, urea had little effect on flocculation of C. sorokiniana. Moreover, the major factors: dilution times, pH and flocculants dosage, which had significant impact on flocculation efficiency of C. sorokiniana in piggery wastewater, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal flocculation efficiency (100%) was achieved at pH 8.5, 7-folds of dilution and 52.14mgL(-1) of Al(3+). PMID:26111631

  4. Successful application of nitritation/anammox to wastewater with elevated organic carbon to ammonia ratios.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Sarina; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2014-02-01

    The nitritation/anammox process has been mainly applied to high-strength nitrogenous wastewaters with very low biodegradable organic carbon content (<0.5 g COD?g N(-1)). However, several wastewaters have biodegradable organic carbon to nitrogen (COD/N) ratios between 0.5 and 1.7 g COD?g N(-1) and thus, contain elevated amounts of organic carbon but not enough for heterotrophic denitrification. In this study, the influence of elevated COD/N ratios was studied on a nitritation/anammox process with suspended sludge. In a step-wise manner, the influent COD/N ratio was increased to 1.4 g COD?g N(-1) by supplementing digester supernatant with acetate. The increasing availability of COD led to an increase of the nitrogen removal efficiency from around 85% with pure digester supernatant to >95% with added acetate while the nitrogen elimination rate stayed constant (275 ± 40 mg N?L(-1)?d(-1)). Anammox activity and abundance of anammox bacteria (AMX) were strongly correlated, and with increasing influent COD/N ratio both decreased steadily. At the same time, heterotrophic denitrification with nitrite and the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) gradually increased. Simultaneously, the sludge retention time (SRT) decreased significantly with increasing COD loading to about 15 d and reached critical values for the slowly growing AMX. When the SRT was increased by reducing biomass loss with the effluent, AMX activity and abundance started to rise again, while the AOB activity remained unaltered. Fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that the initial AMX community shifted within only 40 d from a mixed AMX community to "Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" as the dominant AMX type with an influent COD/N ratio of 0.8 g COD?g N(-1) and higher. "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" is known to oxidise acetate, and its ability to outcompete other types of AMX indicates that AMX participated in acetate oxidation. In a later phase, glucose was added to the influent instead of acetate. The new substrate composition did not significantly influence the nitrogen removal nor the AMX activity, and "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" remained the dominant type of AMX. Overall, this study showed that AMX can coexist with heterotrophic bacteria at elevated influent COD/N ratios if a sufficiently high SRT is maintained. PMID:24355291

  5. Validation of HPLC and CE methods for determination of organic acids in sour cassava starch wastewater.

    PubMed

    de Sena Aquino, Ana Carolina Moura; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Ribeiro, Deise Helena Baggio; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Amante, Edna Regina

    2015-04-01

    Fast and efficient analytical methods to determine the concentrations of lactic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in sour cassava starch wastewater using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), were developed and validated. Good linearity (R(2) > 0.999) and significance with F > 25,000 for all acids was showed. The matrix effect was not detected. The coefficient of variation values indicated good repeatability. The limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 1.0 to 3.7 and 2.0 to 3.0, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) from 3.1 to 12.2, and 8.0 to 12.5mg/L for HPLC and CE, respectively. The quantification of the samples did not reveal significant differences between the methods for all compounds analyzed. However, the benefits of CE in relation to HPLC, such as lower costs and less waste generation, along with shorter analysis times, need to be taken into consideration. PMID:25442614

  6. Optically active microspheres constructed by helical substituted polyacetylene and used for adsorption of organic compounds in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junya; Song, Ci; Deng, Jianping

    2014-11-12

    This article reports optically active microspheres consisting of chiral helical substituted polyacetylene and ?-cyclodextrin-derivative (?-CD-A). The microspheres showed remarkable adsorption toward various organic compounds in water. To prepare the microspheres, an acetylenic-derived helical macro-monomer was synthesized and then underwent aqueous suspension copolymerization with octadecyl acrylate and butyl acrylate by using azobis(isobutyronitrile) as initiator and ?-CD-A simultaneously as comonomer and cross-linking agent. The helical macro-monomer chains enabled the microspheres to exhibit desirable enantio-differentiating adsorption capacity toward chiral compounds respectively dissolved in organic solvent, dispersed in water, and dissolved in water. The saturated absorbency toward (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine was 29 and 12 mg · g(-1), respectively. The microspheres also showed large oil absorbency (e.g., 22 g · g(-1) CCl4) and a large adsorption toward methyl red (as a model for organic dyes) dispersed in water. The presence of ?-CD-A moieties improved the adsorption performance of the microspheres. The present optically active microspheres open a new approach for preparing adsorbents particularly chiral adsorbents with potentials for wastewater treatment. PMID:25290256

  7. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOEpatents

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-09-11

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  8. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOEpatents

    Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-06-25

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  9. Identification of volatile organic compounds in human cerumen

    PubMed Central

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A.; Thaler, Erica; Wysocki, Charles J.; Preti, George

    2014-01-01

    We report here the initial examination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human earwax (cerumen). Recent studies link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11) to the production of different types of axillary odorants and cerumen. ABCC11 encodes an ATP-driven efflux pump protein that plays an important function in ceruminous apocrine glands of the auditory canal and the secretion of axillary odor precursors. The type of cerumen and underarm odor produced by East Asians differ markedly from that produced by non-Asians. In this initial report we find that both groups emit many of the same VOCs but differ significantly in the amounts produced. The principal odorants are volatile organic C2-to-C6 acids. The physical appearance of cerumen from the two groups also matches previously reported ethnic differences, viz., cerumen from East Asians appears dry and white while that from non-Asians is typically wet and yellowish-brown. PMID:24572763

  10. Normal Boiling Points for Organic Compounds: Correlation and Prediction by a Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan R. Katritzky; Victor S. Lobanov; Mati Karelson

    1998-01-01

    We recently reported a successful correlation of the normal boiling points of 298 organic compounds containing O, N, Cl, and Br with two molecular descriptors.1 In the present study the applicability of these two descriptors for the prediction of boiling points for various other classes of organic compounds was investigated further by employing a diverse data set of 612 organic

  11. The seasonal variation in bioactive compounds content in juice from organic and non-organic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Lipowski, Janusz; Marsza?ek, Krystian; Rembia?kowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    A specific objective of this paper was to evaluate seasonal changes in bioactive compounds level (carotenoids and polyphenols) in juice prepared from organic and non-organic tomatoes in Poland. In the examined tomato juice, the content of dry matter, vitamin C, carotenoids as well as polyphenols (by HPLC method) has been measured. The presented results indicate the impact of the growing system and the year of production on the composition of tomato juice. The organic tomato juice contained significantly more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, rutin as well as more total phenolic acids, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin in comparison with the non-organic. The tomato juice from 2008 contained significantly more carotenoids and some flavonoids compared to the one produced in 2009, which contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, as well as quercetin and it derivatives. PMID:23609833

  12. Biodegradation of organic compounds sequestered in organic solids or in nanopores within silica particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Hatzinger; Martin Alexander

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted using model solids to determine whether the time-dependent decline in availability for biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil might result from the entrapment of these compounds in porous or nonporous solids. A strain of Pseudomonas mineralized phenanthrene in solid alkanes containing 18 to 32 carbons, three waxes, and low-molecular-weight polycaprolactone, polyethylene, and polypropylene. The rates were

  13. Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (echo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppmann, R.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Schatzmann, M.

    Forests are complex sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the planetary boundary layer. The impact of biogenic VOC on tropospheric photochem- istry, air quality, and the formation of secondary products affects our climate on a regional and global scale but is far from being understood. A considerable lack of knowledge exists concerning a forest stand as a net source of reactive trace com- pounds, which are transported directly into the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In particular, little is known about the amounts of VOC which are processed within the canopy. The goal of ECHO, which is presented in this poster, is to investigate these questions and to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their effects on the PBL. The investigation of emissions, chemical processing and vertical transport of biogenic VOC will be carried out in and above a mixed forest stand in Jülich, Germany. A large set of trace gases, free radicals and meteorologi- cal parameters will be measured at different heights in and above the canopy, covering concentrations of VOC, CO, O3, organic nitrates und NOx as well as organic aerosols. For the first time concentration profiles of OH, HO2, RO2 und NO3 radicals will be measured as well together with the actinic UV radiation field and photolysis frequen- cies of all relevant radical precursors (O3, NO2, peroxides, oxygenated VOC). The different tasks of the field experiments will be supported by simulation experiments investigating the primary emission and the uptake of VOC by the plants in stirred tank reactors, soil parameters and soil emissions in lysimeter experiments, and the chem- ical processing of the trace gases as observed in and above the forest stand in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. The planning and interpretation of the field experiments is supported by simulations of the field site in a wind tunnel.

  14. Screening of ground water samples for volatile organic compounds using a portable gas chromatograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    A portable gas chromatograph was used to screen 32 ground water samples for volatile organic compounds. Seven screened samples were positive; four of the seven samples had volatile organic substances identified by second-column confirmation. Four of the seven positive, screened samples also tested positive in laboratory analyses of duplicate samples. No volatile organic compounds were detected in laboratory analyses of samples that headspace screening indicated to be negative. Samples that contained volatile organic compounds, as identified by laboratory analysis, and that contained a volatile organic compound present in a standard of selected compounds were correctly identified by using the portable gas chromatography. Comparisons of screened-sample data with laboratory data indicate the ability to detect selected volatile organic compounds at concentrations of about 1 microgram per liter in the headspace of water samples by use of a portable gas chromatography. -Author

  15. Secondary organic aerosol formation from a large number of reactive man-made organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Derwent, Richard G; Jenkin, Michael E; Utembe, Steven R; Shallcross, Dudley E; Murrells, Tim P; Passant, Neil R

    2010-07-15

    A photochemical trajectory model has been used to examine the relative propensities of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human activities to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under one set of highly idealised conditions representing northwest Europe. This study applied a detailed speciated VOC emission inventory and the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM v3.1) gas phase chemistry, coupled with an optimised representation of gas-aerosol absorptive partitioning of 365 oxygenated chemical reaction product species. In all, SOA formation was estimated from the atmospheric oxidation of 113 emitted VOCs. A number of aromatic compounds, together with some alkanes and terpenes, showed significant propensities to form SOA. When these propensities were folded into a detailed speciated emission inventory, 15 organic compounds together accounted for 97% of the SOA formation potential of UK man made VOC emissions and 30 emission source categories accounted for 87% of this potential. After road transport and the chemical industry, SOA formation was dominated by the solvents sector which accounted for 28% of the SOA formation potential. PMID:20452649

  16. Innovation of a New-Style Macromolecule Compound Flocculant and its Application for Treating Copper Heavy Metal Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cui Yan; Wu Chao; Wang Haining; Feng Xiujuan

    2009-01-01

    The copper heavy metal wastewater does lots of harm to people and it is difficult to deal. Using flocculant to treat copper wastewater has a lot of advantages. Under certain conditions proceeded modification of a kind of clay which has the unique characteristic of absorbability. Then the modification clay and the polymerization iron carbonyl ion can play polyreaction, to innovate

  17. Evaluation of second-generation multistage wastewater treatment system for the removal of malodorous compounds from liquid swine waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reductions in wastewater malodor that were effected by a second generation implementation of Environmentally Superior Technology (EST) were monitored over a 15 month period that encompassed three cycles of pig production. The wastewater treatment system consisted of three modules: solids separation,...

  18. Identification of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ho, K F; Lee, S C

    2002-04-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds are the major organic pollutants in the atmosphere. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan area of Hong Kong. A 12-month monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds was performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HKPU) in order to determine the correlations of each selected pollutant. The monitoring program ran from 16 April 1999 to 10 April 2000 for a period of 1 year, and a 2-week winter intensive sampling was carried out during January 2000. Traditionally, emission sources are identified from organic compounds in air particulates. Since many of the gaseous and particulate phases of organic compounds are from the same sources, correlations between the major exhausts are to be expected. Therefore, it would be more effective to apportion the sources using the combined gaseous and particulate phases of organic compounds. Correlations of selected pollutants within two other toxic air pollutants (TAPs) monitoring stations in Tsuen Wan (TW) and Central/Western (CW) were analyzed. Good correlations were found between pollutants that came from vehicle exhaust, especially in intensive sampling periods at HKPU roadside station. This was because the washing out effect for particulates during rainy days and photochemical degradation during high solar radiation were minimized in wintertime. PMID:12049391

  19. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and interpretation of impact of CECs difficult since water temperature, conductivity and bacteria are also inducing biomarker responses in both fish and mussels. PMID:26026416

  20. Delivery of complex organic compounds from evolved stars to the solar system.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2011-12-01

    Stars in the late stages of evolution are able to synthesize complex organic compounds with aromatic and aliphatic structures over very short time scales. These compounds are ejected into the interstellar medium and distributed throughout the Galaxy. The structures of these compounds are similar to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. In this paper, we discuss to what extent stellar organics has enriched the primordial Solar System and possibly the early Earth. PMID:22139515

  1. Approach to predict partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cong Sun; Liu Feng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the theoretical linear solvation energy relationship and quantum chemical descriptors computed by AM1 Hamiltonian,\\u000a a new approach was developed to predict the partitioning of some organic compounds between the airborne particulate and air.\\u000a It could be successfully used to study the partitioning of organic compounds from air into airborne particulate, and evaluate\\u000a the potential risk of organic compounds.

  2. Screening of volatile organic compounds in river sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, K.; Tanabe, A.; Saito, S. [Niigata Prefectural Research Lab. for Health and Environment (Japan)] [and others] [Niigata Prefectural Research Lab. for Health and Environment (Japan); and others

    1997-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as trichloroethene, toluene and xylenes have been reported to be detected from river water and sediment, because a part of VOCs charged into river can be distributed to river sediment. Fifty-three common VOCs in water have been simultaneously determined with good accuracy and precision by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with headspace method as well as purge-and-trap method. However, simultaneous determination methods for the VOCs in sediment have not been established. Several GC or GOMS methods have been reported to determine some VOCs in sediment, purge-and-trap, distillation, headspace and solvent extraction. Among them headspace GC/MS method appears to be the most appropriate method for screening the VOCs in sediments, because of its simplicity in analytical procedure. Hewitt et al. have reported that headspace method gave no statistically different results from purge-and-trap method for GC/MS determination of four VOCs in soil. Voice and Kolb have reported that headspace GC method gave better results to determine nine VOCs in soil than purge-and-trap method or solvent extraction method followed by headspace. However, headspace analysis of some VOCs in sediments could give insufficient recoveries. This is because VOCs adsorb to sediment. To improve their low recoveries from sediment, we have previously used a stable isotope-labeled compound as an internal standard to determine eight chlorinated VOCs. However, this method is not proper for determining simultaneously as many as 53 VOCs with various physical properties. Therefore, we investigate headspace GC/MS method with standard addition method for simultaneous screening of them in sediment. In this paper, we describe effects of a few headspace conditions on the VOC recoveries from sediment, and present screening results of the VOCs in sediments from mouths of rivers and a port in Niigata, Japan. 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Quantum Magnetism and possible BEC in an organic Nickel compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Vivien

    2007-03-01

    I will review recent experimental and theoretical work on the S=1 quantum magnet, NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. [1] This compound exhibits field-induced XY antiferromagnetism for magnetic fields along the tetragonal c-axis between Hc1 = 2.1 and Hc2 = 12.6 T. The axial symmetry of the spin environment allows us to understand the quantum phase transitions at Hc1 and Hc2 in terms of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of spin levels. Here the tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field and not the temperature. Specific heat, magnetocaloric effect, and magnetization data at low temperatures confirm the predicted behavior for a BEC: Hc-Hc1˜ T^? and M(Hc1) ˜ T^? where ? = 3/2. I will also present magnetostriction data [2] taken at dilution refrigerator temperatures that show significant magnetoelastic coupling and magnetic-order-induced modifications of the lattice parameters in this soft organic compound. The data are well-described by Quantum Monte Carlo calculations, allowing us to make a quantitative determination of the magnetoelastic coupling, and also extract the spin-spin correlation function from the magnetostriction data. [1] V. S. Zapf, D. Zocco, B. R. Hansen, M. Jaime, N. Harrison, C. D. Batista, M. Kenzelmann, C. Niedermayer, A. Lacerda, and A. Paduan-Filho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077204 (2006).[2] V. S. Zapf, V. Correa, C. D. Batista, T. Murphy, E. D. Palm, M. Jaime, S. Tozer, A. Lacerda, A. Paduan-Filho, ``Magnetostriction in the Bose-Einstein Condensate quantum magnet NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2,'' cond-mat/0611229.

  4. Aqueous processing of organic compounds in carbonaceous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep Maria; Rimola, Albert; Martins, Zita

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence pointing towards a prebiotic synthesis of complex organic species in water-rich undifferentiated bodies. For instance, clays have been found to be associated with complex organic compounds (Pearson et al. 2002; Garvie & Buseck 2007; Arteaga et al. 2010), whereas theoretical calculations have studied the interaction between the organic species and surface minerals (Rimola et al., 2013) as well as surface-induced reactions (Rimola at al. 2007). Now, we are using more detailed analytical techniques to study the possible processing of organic molecules associated with the mild aqueous alteration in CR, CM and CI chondrites. To learn more about these processes we are studying carbonaceous chondrites at Ultra High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (UHR-TEM). We are particularly interested in the relationship between organics and clay minerals in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) matrixes (Trigo-Rodríguez et al. 2014, 2015).We want to address two goals: i) identifying the chemical steps in which the organic molecules could have increased their complexity (i.e., surface interaction and catalysis); and ii) studying if the organic matter present in CCs experienced significant processing concomitant to the formation of clays and other minerals at the time in which these planetary bodies experienced aqueous alteration. Here, these two points are preliminarily explored combing experimental results with theoretical calculations based on accurate quantum mechanical methods. References Arteaga O, Canillas A, Crusats J, El-Hachemi Z, Jellison GE, Llorca J, Ribó JM (2010) Chiral biases in solids by effect of shear gradients: a speculation on the deterministic origin of biological homochirality. Orig Life Evol Biosph 40:27-40. Garvie LAJ, Buseck PR (2007) Prebiotic carbon in clays from Orgueil and Ivuna (CI) and Tagish lake (C2 ungrouped) meteorites. Meteorit Planet Sci 42:2111-2117. Pearson VK, Sephton MA, Kearsley AT, Bland AP, Franchi IA, Gilmour A (2002) Clay mineral-organic matter relationships in the early solar system. Meteorit Planet Sci 37:1829-1833. Rimola A, Costa D, Sodupe M, Lambert JF, Ugliengo P (2013) Silica surface features and their role in the adsorption of biomolecules: computational modeling and experiments. Chem Rev 113:4216-4313. Rimola A, Sodupe M, Ugliengo P (2007) Aluminosilicate as promoters for peptide bond formation: an assessment of Bernal's hypothesis by ab initio methods. J Am Chem soc 129:8333-8344 Trigo-Rodríguez JM, Moyano-Cambero CE, Llorca J, Formasier S, Barucci MA, Belskaya I, Martins Z, Rivkin AS, Dotto E, Madiedo JM, Alonso-Azcárate J (2014) UV to far-IR reflectance spectra of carbonaceous chondrites - I. Implications for remote characterization of dark primitive asteroids targeted by sample-return missions. Mon Not R Astron Soc 437:227-240. Trigo-Rodríguez JM, Alonso-Azcárate J, Abad MM, Lee MR (2015) Ultra high resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of matrix mineral grains in CM chondrites: preaccretionary or parent body aqueous processing? LPI constribution, 46th LPSC, abstract #1198.

  5. FATE OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN A WASTEWATER LAND TREATMENT SYSTEM USING LAGOON IMPOUNDMENT AND SPRAY IRRIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Muskegon County Wastewater Management System (MCWMS) is one of the largest facilities of its kind treating on the average of 125 thousand cubic meters of wastewater by extended aeration, lagoon impoundment and spray irrigation. Over 70% of the influent originates from industrial ...

  6. Comparative study on removal of pathogenic and parasitic organisms using extended wastewaters treatment technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Martín; Concepción Ariza; José Manuel Úbeda; Luciana Sánchez; Diego C. Guevara; Cristina Cutillas; Manuel. de Rojas

    2009-01-01

    Although there is an absence of common guidelines or regulations about wastewater reuse at European Community level, there are several countries or federal regions that have published their own standards or regulations. In Spain, the current Royal Decree 1620\\/2007 regulates the legal regime for reuse of treated wastewaters for different uses. The aim of present study is to evaluate the

  7. Comparative study on removal of pathogenic and parasitic organisms using extended wastewaters treatment technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Martín; Concepción Ariza; José Manuel Úbeda; Diego C. Guevara; A. Plant

    Although there is an absence of common guidelines or regulations about wastewater reuse at European Community level, there are several countries or federal regions that have published their own standards or regulations. In Spain, the current Royal Decree 1620\\/2007 regulates the legal regime for reuse of treated wastewaters for different uses. The aim of present study is to evaluate the

  8. Removal of organic constituents in a coal gasification process wastewater by activated sludge treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. C. Stamoudis; R. G. Luthy; W. Harrison

    1979-01-01

    The wastewater sample was obtained from a pilot-scale HYGAS run. Wastewater was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity and was then processed in an activated sludge reactor at a hydraulic residence time of two days with a bacterial mean cell residence time of 15 days and a COD removal rate of 0.86 per day. Analysis indicates that activated sludge treatment

  9. Efficacy of activated sludge\\/powdered activated carbon for removal of organic constituents in wastewater from commercial-scale, high-Btu coal gasification plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Harrison; D. L. Ford

    1980-01-01

    Bench-scale, activated-sludge (AS) treatability studies indicate that approximately 98 percent of total organic constituents can be removed from wastewater generated by HYGAS and slagging-type, high-Btu coal gasification pilot plants. This suggests that the most important unit of a wastewater treatment system for organics removal in commercial-scale versions of such plants will be the AS unit, augmented by powdered activated carbon

  10. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  12. Infiltration of combined sewer overflow and tertiary municipal wastewater: an integrated laboratory and field study on nutrients and dissolved organics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Reemtsma; Regina Gnirß; Martin Jekel

    2000-01-01

    A comparative field and laboratory study was conducted on the infiltration of combined sewer overflow (CSO), with the infiltration of tertiary municipal wastewater (TMW) studied in parallel. Compared to TMW quality, CSO exhibits elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 34±11mg l?1), and nutrients (N, 24±10mg l?1; P, 1.8± 0.5mg l?1), while the adsorable organohalogen load (AOX) is significantly lower

  13. CONSIDERATIONS IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF COMBINED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to examine the use of activated carbon in reducing the content of biologically resistant organic compounds in a combined industrial wastewater treatment system. The invvestigation was conducted in two stages: (1) characterize organic priority pol...

  14. Quantification of human norovirus GII, human adenovirus, and fecal indicator organisms in wastewater used for irrigation in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Andrea I; Akrong, Mark O; Amoah, Philip; Drechsel, Pay; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is frequently used to estimate health risks associated with wastewater irrigation and requires pathogen concentration estimates as inputs. However, human pathogens, such as viruses, are rarely quantified in water samples, and simple relationships between fecal indicator bacteria and pathogen concentrations are used instead. To provide data that can be used to refine QMRA models of wastewater-fed agriculture in Accra, stream, drain, and waste stabilization pond waters used for irrigation were sampled and analyzed for concentrations of fecal indicator microorganisms (human-specific Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, enterococci, thermotolerant coliform, and somatic and F+ coliphages) and two human viruses (adenovirus and norovirus genogroup II). E. coli concentrations in all samples exceeded limits suggested by the World Health Organization, and human-specific Bacteroidales was found in all but one sample, suggesting human fecal contamination. Human viruses were detected in 16 out of 20 samples, were quantified in 12, and contained 2-3 orders of magnitude more norovirus than predicted by norovirus to E. coli concentration ratios assumed in recent publications employing indicator-based QMRA. As wastewater irrigation can be beneficial for farmers and municipalities, these results should not discourage water reuse in agriculture, but provide motivation and targets for wastewater treatment before use on farms. PMID:23981876

  15. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Fengji [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu Shuxia, E-mail: liusx@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liang Dadong; Ren Guojian; Wei Feng; Chen Yaguang; Su Zhongmin [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2011-11-15

    The functionalization of porous metal-organic frameworks (Cu{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}) was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs), and further optimized via alkali metal ion-exchange. In addition to thermal gravimetric analysis, IR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and powder X-ray diffraction, the adsorption properties were characterized by N{sub 2} and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption measurements, including short-chain alcohols (C<4), cyclohexane, benzene, and toluene. The adsorption enthalpies estimated by the modified Clausius-Clapeyron equation provided insight into the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations on the adsorption of VOCs. The introduction of POMs not only improved the stability, but also brought the increase of adsorption capacity by strengthening the interaction with gas molecules. Furthermore, the exchanged alkali metal cations acted as active sites to interact with adsorbates and enhanced the adsorption of VOCs. - Graphical Abstract: The adsorption behavior of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates has been systematically evaluated. Highlights: > Functionalization of MOFs was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type POMs. > Introduction of POMs improved the thermal stability and adsorption capacity. > Alkali metal ion-exchange modified the inclusion state and also enhanced the adsorption. > Adsorption enthalpies were estimated to study the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations.

  16. Intermediate-volatility organic compounds: a large source of secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Tkacik, Daniel S; de Gouw, Joost A; Gilman, Jessica B; Kuster, William C; Borbon, Agnes; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of atmospheric fine particle mass. Intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) have been proposed to be an important source of SOA. We present a comprehensive analysis of atmospheric IVOC concentrations and their SOA production using measurements made in Pasadena, California during the California at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) study. The campaign-average concentration of primary IVOCs was 6.3 ± 1.9 ?g m(-3) (average ± standard deviation), which is comparable to the concentration of organic aerosol but only 7.4 ± 1.2% of the concentration of speciated volatile organic compounds. Only 8.6 ± 2.2% of the mass of the primary IVOCs was speciated. Almost no weekend/weekday variation in the ambient concentration of both speciated and total primary IVOCs was observed, suggesting that petroleum-related sources other than on-road diesel vehicles contribute substantially to the IVOC emissions. Primary IVOCs are estimated to produce about 30% of newly formed SOA in the afternoon during CalNex, about 5 times that from single-ring aromatics. The importance of IVOCs in SOA formation is expected to be similar in many urban environments. PMID:25375804

  17. Enantiomer distribution of major chiral volatile organic compounds in selected types of herbal honeys.

    PubMed

    Pažitná, Alexandra; Džúrová, Jana; Spánik, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    In this article, volatile organic compounds in 14 honey samples (rosemary, eucalyptus, orange, thyme, sage, and lavender) were identified. Volatile organic compounds were extracted using a solid phase microextraction method followed by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry analysis. The studied honey samples were compared based on their volatile organic compounds composition. In total, more than 180 compounds were detected in the studied samples. The detected compounds belong to various chemical classes such as terpenes, alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, norisoprenoids, benzene and furane derivatives, and organic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen heteroatom. Ten chiral compounds (linalool, trans-linalool oxide, cis-linalool oxide, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, hotrienol, and four stereoisomers of lilac aldehydes) were selected for further chiral separation. PMID:25099214

  18. Evaluating the efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment: target analysis of organic contaminants and (geno-)toxicity assessment tell a different story.

    PubMed

    Magdeburg, Axel; Stalter, Daniel; Schlüsener, Michael; Ternes, Thomas; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    At a pilot scale wastewater treatment plant ozonation and powdered activated carbon filtration were assessed for their efficacy to remove trace organic contaminants from secondary treated effluents. A chemical analysis of 16 organic compounds was accompanied by a comprehensive suite of in vitro and in vivo bioassays with the focus on genotoxicity to account for the potential formation of reactive oxidation products. In vitro experiments were performed with solid phase extracted water samples, in vivo experiments with native wastewater in a flow through test system on site at the treatment plant. The chemical evaluation revealed an efficient oxidation of about half of the selected compounds by more than 90% at an ozone dose of 0.7 g/g DOC. A lower oxidizing efficiency was observed for the iodinated X-ray contrast media (49-55%). Activated carbon treatment (20 mg/L) was less effective for the removal of most pharmaceuticals monitored. The umuC assay on genotoxicity delivered results with about 90% decrease of the effects by ozonation and slightly lower efficiency for PAC treatment. However, the Ames test on mutagenicity with the strain YG7108 revealed a consistent and ozone-dose dependent increase of mutagenicity after wastewater ozonation compared to secondary treatment. Sand filtration as post treatment step reduced the ozone induced mutagenicity only partly. Also the fish early life stage toxicity test revealed an increase in mortality after ozonation and a reduced effect after sand filtration. Only activated carbon treatment reduced the fish mortality compared to conventional treatment on control level. Likewise the in vivo genotoxicity detected with the comet assay using fish erythrocytes confirmed an increased (geno-)toxicity after ozonation, an effect decrease after sand-filtration and no toxic effects after activated carbon treatment. This study demonstrates the need for a cautious selection of methods for the evaluation of advanced (oxidative) treatment technologies and of the effectiveness of post-treatments for elimination of adverse effects caused by oxidative treatments case by case. PMID:24361518

  19. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils. PMID:26037076

  20. Measurement of organic nitrogen and phosphorus fractions at very low concentrations in wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Arnaldos, Marina; Pagilla, Krishna

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop simple, accurate, and inexpensive measurement protocols for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved non-reactive phosphorus (DNRP) at low levels in wastewater effluents. Two protocols are presented--one to measure DON exclusively, and the other to measure DON and DNRP simultaneously. Currently, DON and DNRP are calculated indirectly by subtracting the dissolved inorganic fractions from the total dissolved concentration, resulting in significant errors. To increase the accuracy of DON measurements, effluent sample pretreatment using ion exchange to remove nitrate was applied. Spectrometric methods were selected to measure the inorganic fractions-the second derivative UV spectroscopy method for nitrate, and the malachite green method for orthophosphate. These methods, combined with the optimized persulfate digestion of the samples, can be used to measure total dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus accurately. The measurement ranges attained were 0.05 to 3 mg N/L for DON and 0.01 to 0.5 mg P/L for DNRP. PMID:21905404