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1

Minimization of excess sludge production for biological wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess sludge treatment and disposal currently represents a rising challenge for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to economic, environmental and regulation factors. There is therefore considerable impetus to explore and develop strategies and technologies for reducing excess sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes. This paper reviews current strategies for reducing sludge production based on these mechanisms: lysis-cryptic growth, uncoupling

Yuansong Wei; Renze T. Van Houten; Arjan R. Borger; Dick H. Eikelboom; Yaobo Fan

2003-01-01

2

Agricultural Value of Irradiated Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sludges were obtained from the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Boston, in order to test the effect on plant growth of irradiated sludges applied to agricultural land. Both irradiated raw sludge and nonirradiated raw sludge have been used to grow a...

M. B. Kirkham

1977-01-01

3

Microwave Irradiation Technology In Waste Sludge And Wastewater Treatment Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pursuit of a green and sustainable world, wastewater remediation and sludge treatment have equally become a growing global environmental concern. Several innovative treatment processes have been designed throughout the last few decades for treating wastewaters and sludges but many of them are very costly and operate at low efficiencies. In view to find novel treatment processes, active research is

Ackmez Mudhoo; Sanjay Kumar Sharma

2011-01-01

4

Munitions Wastewater Treatment in Semicontinuous Activated Sludge Treatment Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bench-scale study for the treatment of munitions wastewater was conducted in a semicontinuous activated sludge treatment system over a period of 30 months. This work effort addressed the suitability of such systems for the treatment of munitions wastewa...

B. A. Bell W. D. Burrows

1984-01-01

5

DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR AUTOMATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a systems engineering handbook for the automation of activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. Process control theory and application are discussed to acquaint the reader with terminology and fundamentals. Successful unit process control strategies currently...

6

Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

Basim, Yalda; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Hendrickx, Tim

2012-08-02

7

Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant  

PubMed Central

Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

2012-01-01

8

Effects of Alum Water Treatment Sludge on Domestic Wastewater Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on the effects of alum sludge generated by water treatment plants on the properties of domestic waste water sludges is reported. Phase I of the three phase investigation was concerned with the effects of raw sewage containing alum sludge on an ac...

M. E. Burman

1975-01-01

9

Domestic wastewater treatment using microaerophilic upflow sludge bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microaerophilic Upflow Sludge Bed Reactor (MUSB) is a new wastewater treatment process originally developed as Multi?Stage Reversing Flow Bioreactor (MRB) in Japan. The process relies on the interaction between sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and microaerophilic sulphide oxidizing bacteria (SOB), Beggiatoa which dominates in organic matter removal because of a limited oxygen supply in a sludge blanket type bioreactor. A five

Saibal Kumar Basu; Takashi Mino

1993-01-01

10

Livestock wastewater treatment using aerobic granular sludge.  

PubMed

The present study demonstrated that aerobic granular sludge is capable of treating livestock wastewater from a cattle farm in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) without the presence of support material. A lab scale SBR was operated for 80 d using 4 h cycle time with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Results showed that the aerobic granules were growing from 0.1 to 4.1 mm towards the end of the experimental period. The sludge volume index (SVI) was 42 ml g(-1) while the biomass concentration in the reactor grew up to 10.3 g L(-1) represent excellent biomass separation and good settling ability of the granules. During this period, maximum COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies (74%, 73% and 70%, respectively) were observed in the SBR system, confirming high microbial activity in the SBR system. PMID:23453799

Othman, Inawati; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Ujang, Zaini; Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Harun, Hasnida; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

2013-02-09

11

BENEFICIAL DISPOSAL OF WATER PURIFICATION PLANT SLUDGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the disposal of waste alum sludge from a water treatment plant to a municipal wastewater treatment plant and is submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. 803336-01 by Novato Sanitary District and North Marin County Water Distr...

12

Wastewater cleanup: Put activated-sludge treatment to work  

SciTech Connect

Strict wastewater treatment and discharge limits continue to challenge wastewater treatment systems. For industrial wastewater, the selected system must not only meet regulatory requirements, but must also be flexible enough to handle the variations in volume, flowrate and pollutant load that typify industrial effluent streams. At existing industrial sites, the selection of a wastewater treatment system is also impacted by constraints, such as limited space or the desire to minimize downtime or process interruptions. Meanwhile, for municipalities, wastewater treatment requirements are often made or complicated by the need to add a disinfection step to destroy waterborne pathogens in the discharge stream. Biological treatment processes, based on the use of activated sludge, have long been used to degrade organic contaminants in municipal and industrial wastewater. For years, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been used to treat wastewater using activated sludge. However, in recent years, the variable depth reactor (VDR) has emerged as an alternative system, by addressing some of the shortcomings of the SBR.

Scroggins, D. [Pollution Control, Inc., Florence, KY (United States); Deiters, S. [Diffused Gas Technologies, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

13

Stability and maturity of thickened wastewater sludge treated in pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Thickened wastewater activated sludge was treated in 13 pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands of various configurations that operated continuously for three years in North Greece. Sludge was loaded for approximately 2.5 years, and the beds were left to rest for the remaining period. Three different sludge loading rates were used that represented three different population equivalents. Residual sludge stability and maturity were monitored for the last year. Sludge was regularly sampled and microbial respiration activity indices were measured via a static respiration assay. The phytotoxicity of sludge was quantified via a seed germination bioassay. Measurements of total solids, organic matter, total coliforms, pH and electrical conductivity were also made. According to microbial respiration activity measurements, the sludge end-product was classified as stable. The germination index of the final product exceeded 100% in most wetland units, while final pH values were approximately 6.5. The presence of plants positively affected the stability and maturity of the residual sludge end-product. Passive aeration did not significantly affect the quality of the residual sludge, while the addition of chromium at high concentrations hindered the sludge decomposition process. Conclusively, sludge treatment wetlands can be successfully used, not only to dewater, but also to stabilize and mature wastewater sludge after approximately a four-month resting phase. PMID:22027385

Stefanakis, Alexandros I; Komilis, Dimitrios P; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

2011-10-12

14

Waste Sludge Characteristics of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Compared with Environmental Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. On the other hand, this sludge has benefits for plants and soils. Thereupon, land application of sludge has received much attention

AR Mesdaghinia; M Panahi Akhavan; F Vaezi; K Naddafi; GH Moosavi

15

THE LOADS OF PAHS IN WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE OF MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for 16 EPA-PAHs. This plant is a classic mechanical-biological treatment plant, consisting of activated sludge technology with additional chemical treatment for the removal of phosphorus compounds. The process of sewage sludge treatment is carried out in closed as well as open sludge digesters. Primary and mechanically thickened sludge

Maria Wlodarczyk-Makula

2005-01-01

16

Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

2012-12-22

17

The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment works using coagulation\\/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The

M. Basibuyuk; D. G. Kalat

2004-01-01

18

Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration  

SciTech Connect

Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

1991-01-01

19

Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration  

SciTech Connect

Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

1991-12-31

20

Treatment of refinery wastewaters using various modified activated sludge processes  

SciTech Connect

Biological processes for treating refinery industry wastewater for reuse were studied. A pilot-scale biological reactor was constructed to simulate the activated sludge treatment process. Actual refinery industry wastewater collected from a regional refinery and spiked with additions of selected priority organics was fed at a rate of 1.3 liters/hour into a 6-liter pilot plant having a hydraulic retention time of 4 hours. Activated sludge (AS) which was augmented by additions of powdered activated carbon (PAC) at dosages of 10, 50 and 120 mg/l was evaluated. The AS process removed 70-80% of the BOD, COD and TOC. With the addition of PAC, removal efficiencies of the indicator compounds rose to 80-95%. The sludge physical parameters and kinetic constants were determined with and without the addition of PAC to the AS. PAC additions to the AS increased the amount of biomass in the reactor. Volatile compounds (benzene, chloroform, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-xylene and o-xylene) were removed from the reactor by volatilization which occurred from air stripping. PAC alone (without AS) was primarily responsible for removing base and acid/neutral-extractable compounds (2,4-dimethylphenol, fluorene, naphthalene and pyrene).

Al-Muzaini, S.M.

1987-01-01

21

COMPUTER-AIDED SYNTHESIS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SLUDGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A computer-aided design procedure for the preliminary synthesis of wastewater treatment and sludge disposal systems is developed. It selects the components in the wastewater treatment and sludge disposal trains from a list of candidate process units with fixed design characterist...

22

COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal wastewater sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. C...

23

Sludge reduction by aquatic worms in wastewater treatment : with emphasis on the potential application of Lumbriculus variegatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), large amounts of biological waste sludge are produced. In the Netherlands, the application of this sludge in agriculture or disposal in landfills is no longer allowed, mainly because of its high heavy metal content. The sludge therefore generally is incinerated. Sludge processing costs are estimated to be half of the total wastewater treatment costs. This

H. J. H. Elissen

2007-01-01

24

Batch biological treatment of nitrogen deficient synthetic wastewater using Azotobacter supplemented activated sludge.  

PubMed

Biological treatment of nitrogen deficient wastewaters are usually accomplished by external addition of nitrogen sources to the wastewater which is an extra cost item. As an alternative for effective biological treatment of nitrogen deficient wastewaters, the nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii, was used in activated sludge and also in pure culture. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal performances of Azotobacter-added and free activated sludge cultures were compared at different initial TN/TOC ratios. The rate and extent of TOC removal were comparable for all cultures when initial TN/TOC ratio was larger than 0.12; however, both the rate and extent of TOC removal from nitrogen deficient (TN/TOC<12%) synthetic wastewater were improved by using Azotobacter-added activated sludge as compared to the Azotobacter-free activated sludge culture. More than 90% TOC removal was obtained with pure Azotobacter or Azotobacter-added activated sludge culture from a nitrogen deficient synthetic wastewater. PMID:15158502

Kargi, Fikret; Ozmihçi, Serpil

2004-09-01

25

Phosphorus Recovery From Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge Liquor by Ion Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study phosphorous recovery from sludge liquor by ion exchange process was investigated. The efficiency of a commercially available anionic iron oxide resin was evaluated in batch and packed column tests using synthetic phosphorous solution and actual sludge liquor, taken from of an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP). When phosphorous recovery from sludge liquor was investigated, experimental data fitted

A. Bottini; L. Rizzo

2012-01-01

26

[Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants and sludge disposal in Chinese coastal areas].  

PubMed

Thirteen sludge samples from Guangzhou, Shanghai and Dalian were collected and analysed for heavy metals to investigate the distribution and variation trend of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chinese coastal areas. The results showed that contents of heavy metals in sludge varied significantly, and the average contents exhibited an order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Additionally, contents of Cr, Cu and As exceeded their corresponding standard levels. Compared with contents of heavy metals in 2006 and 2001, content of Zn in sludge increased while contents of Cr, Cu and As decreased. Results also indicated that the industrial sludge was more seriously polluted than domestic sludge in terms of Zn, Cu and As. Only 23% sludge samples exceeded the standards for fertilization of sludge, suggesting that most of the sludge could be disposed by land application. These results also provide further information about the establishment of ocean disposal assessment for sludge. PMID:23798112

Zhang, Can; Chen, Hong; Yu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Li-Jun; Han, Jian-Bo; Tao, Ping

2013-04-01

27

Electro-coagulation treatment of oily wastewater with sludge analysis.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to treat the oily effluent by electro-coagulation. The influence of operating parameters such as applied current, type of electrode and electrolysis time on electro-coagulation efficiency has been critically examined. The maximum percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 94% under optimum experimental conditions of pH 6.7, current density 6 mA/cm², electrolysis time 40 min, and using mild steel as anode. The remaining sludge in the reactor was analyzed by energy disperse analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The analysis confirms that the oily pollutant was removed by electroflotation and adsorption of the oily particles of precipitate during the electro-coagulation process. Electro-coagulation can be used as an efficient treatment technique for oily wastewater. PMID:23109567

Ibrahim, Dhorgham Skban; Sakthipriya, N; Balasubramanian, N

2012-01-01

28

Ozone treatment of wastewater sludge for reduction and stabilization.  

PubMed

Ozonation was applied to wastewater sludge for reduction and stabilization. Ozone was found to be very effective at reducing sludge and producing a useful carbon source. An ozone dose of 0.3 g/gDS fulfilled the criteria for the disinfection of class A type biosolids. The sludge treated with 0.5 gO(3)/gDS produced no hydrogen sulfide for a month at 29 degrees C. Ozonation resulted in low pH conditions, which might facilitate the mobilization of heavy metals from sludge. The results of a geotechnical investigation proved that the residuals of ozone-treated sludge did not meet the required properties required for landfill cover without the addition of quick lime. PMID:18821242

Park, K Y; Maeng, S K; Song, K G; Ahn, K H

2008-11-01

29

Biological Risks Associated with the Composting of Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Personnel employed at wastewater treatment plant sludge composting operations are exposed to a variety of viable gram-negative bacteria, and fungi as well as microbial products such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in their work environment. This i...

C. S. Clark H. S. Bjorson J. S. Fulton J. W. Holland P. S. Gartside

1983-01-01

30

BIOLOGICAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPOSTING OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Personnel employed at wastewater treatment plant sludge composting operations are exposed to a variety of viable gram-negative bacteria, and fungi as well as microbial products such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in their work environment. This investigation was designed...

31

LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 4. SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE FROM A SYNTHETIC MANUFACTURING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a synthetics manufacturing plant. The waste, composed of 8.5% solids, contained a large concentration of cellulose and...

32

Fate of wastewater organic pollution during activated sludge treatment: nature of residual organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge treatment is used to remove wastewater organic matter (OM) and residual OM is found at low levels in treated water. The molecular composition of OM of waters and sludge was determined in order to understand the fate of the organic substances during biological treatment and the nature of residual OM. Proteins, sugars, lipids and polyphenolic compounds were quantified

M.-F Dignac; P Ginestet; D Rybacki; A Bruchet; V Urbain; P Scribe

2000-01-01

33

Electrokinetic Separation of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Treatment Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, a preliminary experiment on the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater sludge was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of electrokinetic separation. Four different types of processing fluid—tap water, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA), and 0.1 M nitric acid—were tested. EDTA was found to be the most effective agent within the set of chemicals tested for

Seon-Young Park; Geun-Yong Park; Do-Hyung Kim; Jung-Seok Yang; Kitae Baek

2010-01-01

34

Microbial Products of Activated Sludge in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge is subjected to transient conditions, resulting in the enhanced production of microbial products (i.e., extracellular polymeric substances, soluble microbial products, and internal storage products). The authors review the status of the microbial products formed by activated sludge in wastewater treatment systems. They outline the fundamental facets of their formation and metabolism, define their key characteristics and important roles,

BING-JIE NI; HAN-QING YU

2012-01-01

35

Microbial Products of Activated Sludge in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge is subjected to transient conditions, resulting in the enhanced production of microbial products, i.e., extracellular polymeric substances, soluble microbial products, and internal storage products. In this article, the current status of the microbial products formed by activated sludge in wastewater treatment systems is reviewed. Fundamental facets of their formation and metabolism are outlined. Their key characteristics and important

Bing-Jie Ni; Han-Qing Yu

2011-01-01

36

An LCA of alternative wastewater sludge treatment scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was carried out in order to compare the environmental impacts of five alternative treatment scenarios of sewage sludge in the French context. The scenarios were composed of one main process (incineration, agricultural land application, or landfill), one stabilization process (lime stabilization, composting, or anaerobic digestion) and transports of sludge. Average data on literature, real site data

Young-Jin Suh; Patrick Rousseaux

2002-01-01

37

Distillery wastewater treatment using waste Fe\\/Cr hydroxide sludge and polymer flocculants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination of the waste Fe\\/Cr hydroxide sludge and polymer flocculant used in the treatment of distillery wastewater yielded good results. Fe\\/Cr hydroxide sludge and polymer flocculants were not effective, when used separately. Various parameters like turbidity, colour, COD, Chloride, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium and BOD. Among various polymer flocculants used, anionic polymer RF?440 in combination with Fe3\\/Crhydroxide sludge gave a maximum

C. Namasivayam; A. Kanagarathinam

1992-01-01

38

Aluminium Salts Hydrolysis Products from Industrial Anodising Sludges in Wastewater Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wastewaters resulting from industrial aluminium anodising processes must be treated in a wastewater treatment plant usually involving the main operations of neutralisation, flocculation, settling and filtration with a press-filter. In Portugal the annual quantity of sludges, resulting from these wastewaters treatment, is estimated in 15 000 t/year (2002) and in the EU a large quantity is also involved. No use has been found for these sludges and they are sent to landfills or disposed of in uncontrolled places. Recycling is an economical and environmentally friendly way to handle hazardous wastes, reducing the amounts disposed in landfills. So the effect of the anodising sludge as flocculant of municipal wastewaters instead of inorganic salts commonly used was studied.

Chambino, Teresa; Correia, Anabela; Barany, Sandor

39

Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.  

PubMed

Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. PMID:24045213

Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

2013-08-28

40

A comparative study of the flocculation behaviour and final properties of synthetic and activated sludge in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have investigated in a comparative fashion the flocculation behaviour and final properties of both synthetic and activated sludge. Synthetic sludge was prepared according to established procedures; activated sludge was produced in a lab-scale, continuous-flow reactor which was fed with live activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The novelty of our approach lies in the attempt

Tan Phong Nguyen; Nicholas P. Hankins; Nidal Hilal

2007-01-01

41

Two strategies for phosphorus removal from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant using alum sludge.  

PubMed

In view of the well recognized need of reject water treatment in MWWTP (municipal wastewater treatment plant), this paper outlines two strategies for P removal from reject water using alum sludge, which is produced as by-product in drinking water treatment plant when aluminium sulphate is used for flocculating raw waters. One strategy is the use of the alum sludge in liquid form for co-conditioning and dewatering with the anaerobically digested activated sludge in MWWTP. The other strategy involves the use of the dewatered alum sludge cakes in a fixed bed for P immobilization from the reject water that refers to the mixture of the supernatant of the sludge thickening process and the supernatant of the anaerobically digested sludge. Experimental trials have demonstrated that the alum sludge can efficiently reduce P level in reject water. The co-conditioning strategy could reduce P from 597-675 mg P/L to 0.14-3.20 mg P/L in the supernatant of the sewage sludge while the organic polymer dosage for the conditioning of the mixed sludges would also be significantly reduced. The second strategy of reject water filtration with alum sludge bed has shown a good performance of P reduction. The alum sludge has P-adsorption capacity of 31 mg-P/g-sludge, which was tested under filtration velocity of 1.0 m/h. The two strategies highlight the beneficial utilization of alum sludge in wastewater treatment process in MWWTP, thus converting the alum sludge as a useful material, rather than a waste for landfill. PMID:19955642

Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

2009-01-01

42

The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.  

PubMed

Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained. PMID:15176752

Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

2004-03-01

43

Treatment of winery wastewater in a conventional municipal activated sludge process: five years of experience.  

PubMed

A full-scale wastewater treatment plant where municipal and winery wastewaters were co-treated was studied for five years. The experimental results showed that suspended solids, COD, nitrogen and phosphorous were effectively removed both during the treatment of municipal wastewater and the cotreatment of municipal and winery wastewater. The sludge production increase from 4 tons to 5.5 tons per day during the harvesting and wine making period. In any case the specific sludge production was 0.2 kgMLVSS per kgCOD(removed) despite the organic loading increasing. About 70% of the COD was removed through respiration. Also the energy demand increased from 6,000 to 7,000 kWh per day. The estimated costs for the treatment of the winery wastewater was 0.2-0.3 Euros per m3 of treated wastewater. With reference to the process efficiency, the nitrogen removal was just 20%. The co-treatment of municipal and winery wastewater in conventional activated sludge processes can be a feasible solution for the treatment of these streams at relatively low costs. PMID:17849981

Bolzonella, D; Zanette, M; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

2007-01-01

44

Application of ozonation to reduce biological sludge production in an industrial wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Biosolids production in the activated sludge process generates an additional cost to wastewater treatment plants due to the growing requirements for sludge treatment and disposal. This work focuses on the application of ozonation to reduce sludge production in an industrial wastewater treatment plant. The results show that ozonation was able to promote cell wall rupture, releasing intracellular matter into the liquid medium. This effect was observed by the increase in concentrations of DNA (1.14 to 7.83 mg/L) and proteins (0.5 to 45.602 mg/L) in the liquid phase, when ozonation was applied during 10 min, using 30 mg/L of ozone. Reduction of sludge production was assessed by calculating the observed sludge yield coefficient (Y) in bench-scale continuous experiments conducted with varying proportions of ozonated sludge in the recycle stream and recycle ratios. Reduction of sludge production ranged from 14 to 39%, depending on the experimental conditions. The best result in terms of sludge excess reduction was achieved when 20% of the recycle sludge was ozonated and the recycle ratio was 0.67. PMID:19039177

Albuquerque, J S; Domingos, J C; Sant'Anna, G L; Dezotti, M

2008-01-01

45

Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant  

PubMed Central

Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results The Archaea community was dominated by Methanosaeta-like species. During a 15?month period major changes in the community composition were only observed twice despite seasonal variations in environmental and operating conditions. Water temperature appeared to be the process parameter that affected the community composition the most. Several terminal restriction fragments also showed strong correlations with sludge properties and effluent water properties. The Archaea were estimated to make up 1.6% of total cell numbers in the activated sludge and were present both as single cells and colonies of varying sizes. Conclusions The results presented here show that Archaea can constitute a constant and integral part of the activated sludge and that it can therefore be useful to include Archaea in future studies of microbial communities in activated sludge.

2012-01-01

46

ENTEROVIRUSES IN SLUDGE: MULTIYEAR EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...

47

Fate of estrogenic hormones in wastewater and sludge treatment: A review of properties and analytical detection techniques in sludge matrix.  

PubMed

Estrogenic hormones (estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) are the major contributor to the total estrogenicity in waterways. Presence of these compounds in biosolids is also causing concern in terms of their use as soil amendment. In comparison with wastewater treatment, removal of estrogenic compounds in sewage sludge has received less attention. This paper presents a literature review regarding the source and occurrence of these pollutants in our environment. The removal pathways of estrogenic compounds in engineered systems, such as full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), are also discussed. Review of the fate studies revealed that activated sludge system with nutrient removal shows very high (>90%) removal of estrogenic hormones in most of the cases. Although, aerobic digestion showed better attenuation of estrogenic compounds, anaerobic digestion increased the overall estrogenicity of biosolids. Finally, this paper highlights the challenges involved in analytical determination of these compounds in sewage sludge matrix. PMID:22939851

Hamid, Hanna; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

2012-08-17

48

Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.  

PubMed

The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 ?g/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 ?g/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17?-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17?-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17?-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

2012-05-07

49

Production of biodegradable plastics from activated sludge generated from a food processing industrial wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Most of the excess sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (60%) is disposed by landfill. As a resource utilization of excess sludge, the production of biodegradable plastics using the sludge has been proposed. Storage polymers in bacterial cells can be extracted and used as biodegradable plastics. However, widespread applications have been limited by high production cost. In the present study, activated sludge bacteria in a conventional wastewater treatment system were induced, by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymers. Polymer yield increased to a maximum 33% of biomass (w/w) when the C/N ratio was increased from 24 to 144, where as specific growth yield decreased with increasing C/N ratio. The conditions which are required for the maximum polymer accumulation were optimized and are discussed. PMID:15288276

Suresh Kumar, M; Mudliar, S N; Reddy, K M K; Chakrabarti, T

2004-12-01

50

Degradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A during pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various pre-treatment methods, including alkaline hydrolysis (AH), thermal hydrolysis (TH), thermal alkaline hydrolysis (TAH), thermal oxidation (TO) and thermal alkaline oxidation (TAO), on solubilization and simultaneous degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, in wastewater sludge (WWS) were investigated. The results showed that among AH, TH and TAH pre-treatments, TAH significantly improved the solubilization of WWS

D. P. Mohapatra; S. K. Brar; R. D. Tyagi; R. Y. Surampalli

2010-01-01

51

Sludge reduction during brewery wastewater treatment by hydrolyzation-food chain reactor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

During brewery wastewater treatment by a hydrolyzation-food chain reactor (FCR) system, sludge was recycled to the anaerobic\\u000a segment. With the function of hydrolyzation acidification in the anaerobic segment and the processes of aerobic oxidation\\u000a and antagonism, predation, interaction and symbiosis among microbes in multilevel oxidation segment, residual sludge could\\u000a be reduced effectively. The 6-month dynamic experiments show that the average

Lijie Li; Qunhui Wang; Xuesong Li; Shuo Yang

2008-01-01

52

Tetracycline resistance genes in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic, commensal, and environmental microorganisms is a major public health concern. The extent to which human activities contribute to the maintenance of environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. In the current study, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated as possible sources of tetracycline resistance via qualitative PCR and quantitative PCR

Eric A. Auerbach; Erin E. Seyfried; Katherine D. McMahon

2007-01-01

53

Occurrence, partition and removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage water and sludge during wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 8 sampling campaigns carried out over a period of two years, 72 samples, including influent and effluent wastewater, and sludge samples from three conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess the occurrence and fate of 43 pharmaceutical compounds. The selected pharmaceuticals belong to different therapeutic classes, i.e. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid modifying agents (fibrates and statins), psychiatric

Aleksandra Jelic; Meritxell Gros; Antoni Ginebreda; Raquel Cespedes-Sánchez; Francesc Ventura; Mira Petrovic; Damia Barcelo

2011-01-01

54

Treatment of mixed municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of co-treating municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process was studied at full scale. The wastewater treatment plant considered in this paper operated an extended-oxidation process during vintage (four month per year) and a pre-denitrification\\/ oxidation process during the rest of the year. The experimentation showed that good performances, in terms of COD and nitrogen

M. Brucculeri; D. Bolzonella; P. Battistoni; F. Cecchi

55

Aluminium Salts Hydrolysis Products from Industrial Anodising Sludges in Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewaters resulting from industrial aluminium anodising processes must be treated in a wastewater\\u000a treatment plant usually involving the main operations of neutralisation, flocculation, settling and filtration\\u000a with a press-filter. In Portugal the annual quantity of sludges, resulting from these wastewaters\\u000a treatment, is estimated in 15?000?t\\/year (2002) and in the EU a large quantity is also\\u000a involved. No use has been found for

Teresa Chambino; Anabela Correia; Sandor Barany

2008-01-01

56

Chemical and mutagenic evaluation of sludge from a large wastewater treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Digested sludges from a wastewater treatment plant were analyzed to assess their level of contamination by some organic (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides) and inorganic (heavy metals) micropollutants and their mutagenicity features. The heavy metal content in none of the samples exceeded the limits set out in EEC Directive 276/86; as far as PCBs are concerned, the sludges analyzed indicated a level of contamination up to two orders of magnitude higher than some Italian agricultural soils. Mutagenicity assays on either crude or fractionated sludge extracts using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 gave negative results, thus suggesting the absence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated.

Ottaviani, M.; Crebelli, R.; Fuselli, S.; La Rocca, C.; Baldassarri, L.T. (IIstituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy))

1993-08-01

57

Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic carbons in sludges from wastewater treatment plants in Guangdong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in six sludge\\u000a samples collected from Guangdong Province, China. Concentrations of PAHs varying from 2,534.1 to 6,926.6 ?g kg???1 (dry sludge) were observed in three municipal wastewater treatment plants with phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene, and pyrene\\u000a being the main compounds. In addition, 682.6 ?g kg???1 PAHs were detected in one sludge

Xiangying Zeng; Zheng Lin; Hongyan Gui; Wenlan Shao; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu; Zhiqiang Yu

2010-01-01

58

Thermal Sludge Dryer Demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of installing and testing an indirect sludge dryer, combustion testing work and analysis of heat recovery and use at the Bird Island wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Two multiple hearth furnaces at the plant process an a...

K. M. O Beirne

1995-01-01

59

EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, started in 1977, clinical and serologic evaluations of workers involved in composting of wastewater treatment plant sludge by the aerated pile method was initiated to evaluate the potential health effects of exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus and other viable and no...

60

CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS : SOME PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present some of our experiences on the design and implementation of control systems for the activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. The following two issues will be particularly addressed : Choosing an appropriate control strategy. Before designing a control system, one usually has on hand an objective function which has to be minimised or maximised by appropriately

Z. YUAN; H. BOGAERT; P. VANROLLEGHEM; G. VANSTEENKISTE; W. VERSTRAETE

61

An Assessment of the Power Generated With Plasma Processing of Sludge From Wastewater Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an assessment of a power that is generated with plasma processing of sludge from wastewater treatment plants. Besides fusion, the generation of electrical power is one of the novel and more relevant applications of plasma. The magmavication or vitrification, the gasification or synthesis gas production, and the generation of electrical power are briefly reviewed. The environmental advantage

Edbertho Leal-Quiros; C. R. Villafafie

2007-01-01

62

Relationship between pollutant content and ecotoxicity of sewage sludges from Spanish wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of 28 sewage sludge samples from Spanish wastewater treatment plants were studied in order to assess their suitability for agricultural purposes. Sludge samples were classified into five categories according to specific treatment processes in terms of digestion (aerobic/anaerobic) and drying (mechanical/thermal). Composted samples, as indicative of the most refined process, were also considered. Sludges were subjected to physical-chemical characterization, being the sludge stabilization degree respirometrically assessed. The concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) and organic substances (phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds) were determined. Finally, two ecotoxicological tests were performed: i) Microtox® toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri, and ii) root elongation test with Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus seeds. Significant differences were found in the following parameters: dry matter, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter and its stability, phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity, depending on the sludge treatment. In turn, no significant differences were found between categories in the concentrations of most metals and organic pollutants, with the exception of free phenolic compounds. Furthermore, no correlation between total heavy metal burden and ecotoxicity was observed. However, a good correlation was found between phenolic compounds and most ecotoxicological tests. These results suggest that sludge stability (conditioned by sludge treatment) might have a greater influence on sludge ecotoxicity than the pollutant load. Composting was identified as the treatment resulting in the lowest toxicity. PMID:22483948

Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Martí, Esther; Navalón-Madrigal, Pedro; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

2012-04-06

63

Physico-chemical treatment of marble processing wastewater and the recycling of its sludge.  

PubMed

In the first part of this study, the treatability of marble processing wastewater by the coagulation-flocculation process was investigated. Optimum coagulant-flocculant doses for turbidity removal in wastewater from the cutting, faience and equalization processes were determined as 500, 200 and 500 ppm of Al2(SO4)3; 300, 500 and 300 ppm of FeCl3 and 600, 400 and 200 ppm of Agrofloc 100 (AGRON Water Treatment Technologies and Chemical Marketing Industry and Trade Limited Company, Izmir, Turkey), respectively. It was found that the removal of total solids from cutting and equalization process wastewaters was highest for the 100 ppm dosage of all chemicals used. The amount of total solids removed from faience process wastewater by Agrofloc 100 was higher than that removed by the other chemicals used. The removals of suspended solids from cutting, faience and equalization process wastewaters were similar to each other for each of the chemicals. The pH values after treatment by Agrofloc 100 were higher than the values determined after treatment by other chemicals for all process wastewater. Electrical conductivity values, however, were lower for Agrofloc 100 than for the others. Settled sludge volume experiments showed that settled sludge volumes decreased with time. The results of the quiescent settling experiment showed that the settling type could be termed flocculent settling. In the second part of the study, the usage of waste sludge from marble processing as an additive material in cement was investigated. The waste sludge originated from the wastewaters of different steps of the marble processing plant. Waste sludge was replaced with cement at various percentages by weight to prepare the mixtures of mortar. The specimens poured into the moulds were held for 24 h, removed from the moulds and held again for 28 days in lime-saturated water at 23 degrees C. Compressive and flexural strengths were evaluated with respect to percentages of waste sludge replaced with cement. The maximum compressive and flexural strengths were observed for specimens containing a 6% waste sludge when compared with control and it was also found that waste sludge up to 9% could effectively be used as an additive material in cement. PMID:16379124

Arslan, E I?il; Aslan, Sibel; Ipek, Ubeyde; Altun, Samet; Yazicio?lu, Salih

2005-12-01

64

Temperature effect on shear flow and thixotropic behavior of residual sludge from wastewater treatment plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature and shear rate effects on rheological behavior of residual sludge from wastewater treatment plant was investigated in this work. The model of Herschel-Bulkley was used to fit the shear rate dependence of the shear stress. The temperature increase induced not only an increase in the yield stress and the flow index of sludge but also a decrease of the consistency index of sludge. The temperature dependence of limit viscosity at high shear rate of the residual sludge was fitted by an Arrhenius equation. For constant shear rate applied on the sludge at 20 °C a thixotropic behavior was observed and analyzed using a modified model of Herschel-Bulkley in which a structural parameter ? was included in order to account for the time-dependent effect.

Hammadi, L.; Ponton, A.; Belhadri, M.

2013-08-01

65

Temperature effect on shear flow and thixotropic behavior of residual sludge from wastewater treatment plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature and shear rate effects on rheological behavior of residual sludge from wastewater treatment plant was investigated in this work. The model of Herschel-Bulkley was used to fit the shear rate dependence of the shear stress. The temperature increase induced not only an increase in the yield stress and the flow index of sludge but also a decrease of the consistency index of sludge. The temperature dependence of limit viscosity at high shear rate of the residual sludge was fitted by an Arrhenius equation. For constant shear rate applied on the sludge at 20 °C a thixotropic behavior was observed and analyzed using a modified model of Herschel-Bulkley in which a structural parameter ? was included in order to account for the time-dependent effect.

Hammadi, L.; Ponton, A.; Belhadri, M.

2012-09-01

66

Study on sludge expansion during treatment of salad oil manufacturing wastewater by yeast.  

PubMed

Five yeast strains, namely Rhodotorula rubra, Candida tropicalis, Candida utilis, Candida boidinii, Trichosporon cutaneum, were isolated from soil spots of a salad oil factory, and applied for continuous treatment of salad oil manufacturing wastewater. The oil and COD removal performance of the mixed cultures were comparable to the results other researchers obtained. Sludge expansion, accompanied with sludge morphology change from pseudomycelia to true mycelia, occurred during continuous treatment of wastewater. The true mycelia dominated sludge had a much higher water content and SVI value than that of the yeast pure cultures, although the two kinds of sludge had similar oil removal performance. A mold, Geotrichum candidum, was isolated from the expanded sludge, and was suspected to be a reason for sludge expansion. Addition of 0.3% sodium propionate into batch cultures degraded SVI value from around 100 to 60. In a continuous running, addition of 10 mg l-1 sodium hypochlorite decreased SVI value from over 200 to below 100. The yeast activity, however, was weakened to a large extent at the same time. PMID:11424730

Zheng, S; Yang, M; Lv, W; Liu, F

2001-05-01

67

Engineering properties of water/wastewater-treatment sludge modified by hydrated lime, fly ash and loess.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to present engineering properties of modified sludge from water/wastewater treatment by modifiers such as hydrated lime, loess, and fly ash. The proper mixing ratio was determined to hold the pH of the modified sludge above 12.0 for 2 h. Laboratory tests carried out in this research included particle analysis, compaction and CBR, SEM and X-ray diffraction, unconfined compression test, permeability test, and TCLP test. The main role of lime was to sterilize microorganisms in the sludge. The unconfined strength of the modified sludge by fly ash and loess satisfied the criteria for construction materials, which was above 100 kPa. The permeability of all the mixtures was around 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/s. Extraction tests for hazardous components in modified sludge revealed below the regulated criteria, especially for cadmium, copper, and lead. The present study suggested that the use of lime, fly ash, and loess be an another alternative to modify or stabilize water/wastewater treatment sludge as construction materials in civil engineering. PMID:12420922

Lim, Sungjin; Jeon, Wangi; Lee, Jaebok; Lee, Kwanho; Kim, Namho

2002-10-01

68

Occurrence, partition and removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage water and sludge during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

During 8 sampling campaigns carried out over a period of two years, 72 samples, including influent and effluent wastewater, and sludge samples from three conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess the occurrence and fate of 43 pharmaceutical compounds. The selected pharmaceuticals belong to different therapeutic classes, i.e. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid modifying agents (fibrates and statins), psychiatric drugs (benzodiazepine derivative drugs and antiepileptics), histamine H2-receptor antagonists, antibacterials for systemic use, beta blocking agents, beta-agonists, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and anti-diabetics. The obtained results showed the presence of 32 target compounds in wastewater influent and 29 in effluent, in concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few ?g/L (e.g. NSAIDs). The analysis of sludge samples showed that 21 pharmaceuticals accumulated in sewage sludge from all three WWTPs in concentrations up to 100 ng/g. This indicates that even good removal rates obtained in aqueous phase (i.e. comparison of influent and effluent wastewater concentrations) do not imply degradation to the same extent. For this reason, the overall removal was estimated as a sum of all the losses of a parent compound produces by different mechanisms of chemical and physical transformation, biodegradation and sorption to solid matter. The target compounds showed very different removal rates and no logical pattern in behaviour even if they belong to the same therapeutic groups. What is clear is that the elimination of most of the substances is incomplete and improvements of the wastewater treatment and subsequent treatments of the produced sludge are required to prevent the introduction of these micro-pollutants in the environment. PMID:21167546

Jelic, Aleksandra; Gros, Meritxell; Ginebreda, Antoni; Cespedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Petrovic, Mira; Barcelo, Damia

2010-11-13

69

Integrated system of activated sludge–reverse osmosis in the treatment of the wastewater from the meat industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work aimed at determining the effectiveness of the treatment of the wastewater coming from the meat industry in a hybrid system combining the biological methods of activated sludge (in an SBR) and reverse osmosis. The tests carried out on the wastewater from the Meat Processing Plant Uni-Lang in Wrzosowa showed that the biological treatment resulted in a sufficient removal

Jolanta Bohdziewicz; Ewa Sroka

2005-01-01

70

Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit.  

PubMed

Chlorophenol compounds present in many chemical industry wastewaters are resistant to biological degradation because of the toxic effects of such compounds on microorganisms. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) was subjected to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit. Effects of feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP, and toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 10 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. The Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for assessment of toxicity for the feed and effluent wastewater. Percent COD, DCP, and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, DCP, and toxicity levels increased with increasing feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) because of inhibitory effects of DCP. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) resulting in lower COD and DCP removal rates. The system should be operated at feed DCP concentrations of less than 150 mgl(-1) in order to obtain high COD, DCP, and toxicity removals. PMID:15922505

Kargi, Fikret; Eker, Serkan; Uygur, Ahmet

2005-08-01

71

Optimisation of long-term activated-sludge treatment of winery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results obtained in work carried out in order to verify the overall efficiency of full-scale, long-term, activated-sludge treatment of winery wastewater are presented. The analytical data showed the high removal of COD (average 98%; min. 97.6; max. 99.1) during the whole experimentation period and with various working parameters. The effluent had chemico-physical values in conformity with Table A of

R. Marchetti

1995-01-01

72

Composting of pulp and paper mill fly ash with wastewater treatment sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment sludge and power boiler fly ash were combined and composted in mixed and static windrows 50 m long, 4 m high and 6 m wide. Moisture content was maintained above 50%. The final compost had a pH of 8.5, contained high concentrations of specific nutrients, and an average C:N ratio of 43:1. All metal, PCB, chlorophenol and PAH

Graydon A. R Hackett; Charles A Easton; Sheldon J. B Duff

1999-01-01

73

Levels and distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge of urban wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been measured in sewage sludge samples from 8 urban wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. The PCB congeners were analyzed by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography\\/high resolution mass spectrometry method. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 65.6 to 157 ng\\/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 101 ng\\/g dw. The dioxin-like

Li GUO; Bing ZHANG; Ke XIAO; Qinghua ZHANG; Minghui ZHENG

2009-01-01

74

Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this gap through the determination of selected UV filters and derivatives namely 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor, benzophenone-3, octocrylene, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, ethylhexyldimethyl PABA, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, and 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone in treated sewage sludge. The target compounds were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction and after this, determined by ultra high resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The determination was fast and sensitive, affording limits of detection lower than 19 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (60 ng g(-1) dw). Good recovery rates, especially given the high complexity of sludge matrix (between 70% and 102% except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (30%)) were achieved. The application of developed method allowed reporting for the first time the occurrence of two major degradation products of benzophenone-3 that have estrogenic activity in sewage sludge: 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (in 5/15 WWTPs) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (in 1/15 WWTPs). Results revealed the presence of UV filters in 15 wastewater treatment plants in Catalonia (Spain) at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 9.17 ?g g(-1) dw. PMID:21530995

Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

2011-04-30

75

Different options for metal recovery after sludge decontamination at the Montreal Urban Community wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

The MUG (Montreal Urban Community) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (270 tds/day) during the physico-chemical treatment of wastewater. Recently, this treatment plant endowed a system of drying and granulation of sludge for valorization as an agricultural fertilizer having a capacity of 70 tds/day (25% of the daily sludge production). However, the metal content (mainly Cu and Cd) of the sludge surpasses the norms for biosolids valorization. In order to solve this problem, a demonstration project, from the lab scale to the industrial pilot plant, was carried out to test the Metix-AC technology for the removal of metals. A strongly metal-loaded filtrate was generated during the sludge decontamination. Tests concerned the study of the metal recovery by total precipitation and selective precipitation, as well as the use of alternative products for the metal precipitation. Other works consisted to simulate the acid filtrate recirculation from the decontaminated sludge (25% of the total volume) in the untreated sludge (75% of the total volume) intended for the incineration. The total precipitation with hydrated limeappearedeffectivefortherecoveryof metals (87% Cd, 96% Cr, 97% Cu, 98% Fe, 71% Ni, 100% Pb, 98% Zn). However, this option entails the production of an important quantity of metallic residue, which should be disposed of expensively as dangerous material. The selective iron precipitation does not appear to bean interesting option because the iron in solution within the leached sludge was principally present in the form of ferrous iron, which cannot be precipitated at pH lower than five. On the other hand, the use of commercial precipitating agents (TMT-15, CP-33Z, CP-NB and CPX) without pH adjustment of filtrate gave good results for the recovery of Cu and, to a lesser degree for the recovery of Pb. However, the efficiency for the other metals' (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) recovery was weaker (< 25%). Finally, the acid filtrate recirculation containing solubilised metals in untreated sludge destined for incineration appears to be the most interesting option. Metals in solution in the acid filtrate, precipitate or adsorb effectively (97% Cd, 97% Cr, 99% Cu, 82% Ni, 100% Pb and 87% Zn) on the solids of the untreated sludge. Moreover, TCLP tests were done on ashes produced during the incineration of sludge mixed with the acid filtrate produced during sludge decontamination. These tests showed that there were no significant differences, as regards the extractability of metals, between such ashes and those produced during the untreated sludge incineration without addition of filtrate. Therefore, it was predictable that this method can respect the current environmental standards required by the different governmental authorities. PMID:12479450

Meunier, N; Blais, J F; Lounès, M; Tyagi, R D; Sasseville, J L

2002-01-01

76

Metaproteomics Provides Functional Insight into Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Through identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Methodology/Principal Findings A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis”. When EBPR failed, the sludge was dominated by tetrad-forming ?-Proteobacteria. Representative and reproducible 2D gel protein separations were obtained for all sludge samples. 638 protein spots were matched across gels generated from the phosphate removing sludges. 111 of these were excised and 46 proteins were identified using recently available sludge metagenomic sequences. Many of these closely match proteins from “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” and could be directly linked to the EBPR process. They included enzymes involved in energy generation, polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, glyoxylate/TCA cycle, fatty acid ? oxidation, fatty acid synthesis and phosphate transport. Several proteins involved in cellular stress response were detected. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, this study provides direct evidence linking the metabolic activities of “Accumulibacter” to the chemical transformations observed in EBPR. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to current EBPR metabolic models.

Wilmes, Paul; Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L.

2008-01-01

77

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

2008-01-01

78

Sludge valorization from wastewater treatment plant to its application on the ceramic industry.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study is to assess the effect of incorporating waste sludge on the properties and microstructure of clay used for bricks manufacturing. Wastewater treatment plants produce annually a great volume of sludge. Replacing clay in a ceramic body with different proportions of sludge can reduce the cost due to the utilization of waste and, at the same time, it can help to solve an environmental problem. Compositions were prepared with additions of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% wt% waste sludge in body clay. In order to determine the technological properties, such as bulk density, linear shrinkage, water suction, water absorption and compressive strength, press-moulded bodies were fired at 950 °C for coherently bonding particles in order to enhance the strength and the other engineering properties of the compacted particles. Thermal heating destroys organic remainder and stabilizes inorganic materials and metals by incorporating oxides from the elemental constituent into a ceramic-like material. Results have shown that incorporating up to 5 wt% of sludge is beneficial for clay bricks. By contrast, the incorporation of sludge amounts over 5 wt% causes deterioration on the mechanical properties, therefore producing low-quality bricks. PMID:21723033

Martínez-García, C; Eliche-Quesada, D; Pérez-Villarejo, L; Iglesias-Godino, F J; Corpas-Iglesias, F A

2011-06-30

79

Monitoring Precursor 16S rRNAs of Acinetobacter spp. in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Systems  

PubMed Central

Recently, Cangelosi and Brabant used oligonucleotide probes targeting the precursor 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli to demonstrate that the levels of precursor rRNA were more sensitive to changes in growth phase than the levels of total rRNA (G. A. Cangelosi and W. H. Brabant, J. Bacteriol. 179:4457–4463, 1997). In order to measure changes in the levels of precursor rRNA in activated sludge systems, we designed oligonucleotide probes targeting the 3? region of the precursor 16S rRNA of Acinetobacter spp. We used these probes to monitor changes in the level of precursor 16S rRNA during batch growth of Acinetobacter spp. in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, filtered wastewater, and in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. Consistent with the previous reports for E. coli, results obtained with membrane hybridizations and fluorescence in situ hybridizations with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus grown in LB medium showed a more substantial and faster increase in precursor 16S rRNA levels compared to the increase in total 16S rRNA levels during exponential growth. Diluting an overnight culture of A. calcoaceticus grown in LB medium with filtered wastewater resulted in a pattern of precursor 16S rRNA levels that appeared to follow diauxic growth. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridizations with oligonucleotide probes targeting total 16S rRNA and precursor 16S rRNA showed that individual cells of A. calcoaceticus expressed highly variable levels of precursor 16S rRNA when adapting from LB medium to filtered sewage. Precursor 16S rRNA levels of Acinetobacter spp. transiently increased when activated sludge was mixed with influent wastewater in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. These results suggest that Acinetobacter spp. experience a change in growth activity within wastewater treatment systems.

Oerther, Daniel B.; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schramm, Andreas; Amann, Rudolf; Raskin, Lutgarde

2000-01-01

80

STATUS OF OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication provides an updated status report on the number and type of oxygen-activated sludge facilities in operation, under construction, and being designed. It describes in detail the latest EPA supported oxygenation research and demonstration project, an evaluation of t...

81

Metaproteomics Provides Functional Insight into Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThrough identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg\\/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured polyphosphate-accumulating organism “Candidatus

Paul Wilmes; Margaret Wexler; Philip L. Bond; Anna-Louise Reysenbach

2008-01-01

82

Metaproteomics Provides Functional Insight into Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Through identification of highly expressed proteins from a mixed culture activated sludge system this study provides functional evidence of microbial transformations important for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Methodology\\/Principal Findings: A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was successfully operated for different levels of EBPR, removing around 25, 40 and 55 mg\\/l P. The microbial communities were dominated by the uncultured

Paul Wilmes; Margaret Wexler; Philip L. Bond

2008-01-01

83

EVALUATION OF HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SLUDGE COMPOSTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigation included (1) a prospective study of wastewater sludge compost workers, (2) serologic analyses of wastewater-exposed workers, (3) a mortality study of former wastewater employees, and (4) chemical analyses of specimens from a population whose drinking water was c...

84

40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721...coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and...coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-501; CAS...

2013-07-01

85

Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review. PMID:20083294

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

2010-01-18

86

Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: A comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:23880131

Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

2013-07-05

87

Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

2011-06-01

88

Occurrence of multiclass UV filters in treated sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. So far, there is only one extensive survey on the occurrence of UV filter residues in sewage sludge. However, more data are required to draw a reliable picture of the fate and effects of these compounds in the environment. This study attempts to fill this

Pablo Gago-Ferrero; M. Silvia Díaz-Cruz; Damià Barceló

2011-01-01

89

Integration of aerobic granular sludge and mesh filter membrane bioreactor for cost-effective wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Conventional MBR has been mostly based on floc sludge and the use of costly microfiltration membranes. Here, a novel aerobic granule (AG)-mesh filter MBR (MMBR) process was developed for cost-effective wastewater treatment. During 32-day continuous operation, a predominance of granules was maintained in the system, and good filtration performance was achieved at a low trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of below 0.025 m. The granules showed a lower fouling propensity than sludge flocs, attributed to the formation of more porous biocake layer at mesh surface. A low-flux and low-TMP filtration favored a stable system operation. In addition, the reactor had high pollutant removal efficiencies, with a 91.4% chemical oxygen demand removal, 95.7% NH(4)(+) removal, and a low effluent turbidity of 4.1 NTU at the stable stage. This AG-MMBR process offers a promising technology for low-cost and efficient treatment of wastewaters. PMID:22370232

Li, Wen-Wei; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Gui, Yong-Xin; Yu, Lei; Xie, Tong-Qing; Yu, Han-Qing

2012-02-14

90

Fate of aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian municipal wastewater systems: An overview of wastewater treatment using conventional activated-sludge processes (CASP) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the occurrence, removal, and fate of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Italian municipal wastewater treatment systems in terms of their common contents and forms, and their apparent and actual removal in both conventional activated-sludge processes (CASP) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs). We studied five representative full-scale CASP treatment plants (design capacities of

Francesco Fatone; Silvia Di Fabio; David Bolzonella; Franco Cecchi

2011-01-01

91

Short-Term Effects of Low pH on the Microfauna of an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum pH for biological (e.g., activated sludge) wastewater treatment is stat- ed to lie between pH 6.5 and 8.0; however, the pH of processed effluent from thermomechanical pulp mills is closer to 4.5 and 5.5. Consequently, pH adjust- ment of effluent is required with associated costs. The ability of the microfaunal community (protozoa and metazoa) of activated sludge to survive

DAMIAN D. BALDWIN; CHRISTINE E. CAMPBELL

2001-01-01

92

Lime and fly ash stabilization of wastewater treatment sludge  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides a process meeting the EPA's PFRP standard for WWTS treatment thereby producing a readily usable end-product in either soil-like form or semi-impermeable low load bearing, mass form. The process includes mixing WWTS with lime and fly ash, to cause a temperature increase to above 70 C for at least 30 minutes and to cause the pH to exceed 12 for at least 2 hours. The end-product may be compacted to produce an semi-impermeable, durable mass or the soil-like product may be used as landfill cover material. 3 figs.

Burns, H.; Gremminger, L.

1994-01-11

93

Two-stage treatment of edible oil-containing wastewater: Yeast coupled with activated sludge unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) were coupled to treat edible-oil containing wastewater directly. Ten yeast strains were inoculated to the first SBR to treat high-strength oil-containing wastewater. The effluents of the system were further degraded by activated sludge in the second SBR. The results show that each yeast can efficiently decompose edible oil-containing wastewater with the COD removal rate above

Wen-zhou Lv; Ying Liu; Yi-tong Yu

2011-01-01

94

Assessment of the environmental hazard from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge by employing chemical and biological methods.  

PubMed

Chemical analyses and toxicity testing were employed in conjunction to evaluate the environmental hazard from the wasted sludge generated during the biological treatment of urban and industrial wastewaters. Chemical analyses included determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total organic carbon (TOC), and seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) in sludge and sludge leachates deriving from two standard leaching procedures: (a) the mild leaching test EN-12457-2 proposed by EC and (b) the relatively aggressive toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leaching test proposed by US EPA. Acute toxicity measurements were performed in aqueous sludge elutriates and leachates by using bioluminescence bacteria. The urban sludge was found to be more enriched with PAHs than the industrial sludge, however, at levels below the EU limits for sludge application. The total PCB content (Sigma7PCBs) in both sludges, particularly in the industrial sludge, exceeded the proposed European limit for sludge use as soil amendment. With regards to their heavy metal content, both sludges met the requirements for use in agriculture. The urban sludge exhibited high ecotoxicity, while the industrial sludge with almost two times lower toxicity was classified as not toxic to slightly toxic. The EN and the TCLP leaching procedures resulted in different sludge characterizations both from chemical and from ecotoxicological points of view. The EN procedure appeared to be more sensitive to the potential environmental risk from sludge disposal. The results of the study revealed the necessity for combining chemical with ecotoxicological criteria for integrated characterization of wasted sludge and the need for harmonization of the methods employed for waste classification. PMID:16216634

Mantis, I; Voutsa, D; Samara, C

2005-11-01

95

FRACTIONATION OF MUTAGENS FROM MUNICIPAL SLUDGE AND WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

There are potential environmental concerns from the disposal of municipal wastewater effluents and sewage treatment plant sludges. This report summarizes the microbial mutagenic evaluation and chemical analysis of 13 sewage sludge samples from various sewage treatment plants loca...

96

Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment. PMID:22766882

Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

2012-01-01

97

Effect of hypochloride on microbial ecology of bulking and foaming activated sludge treatment for tannery wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of hypochloride application for controlling bulking and foaming on the microbial ecology of an activated sludge system treating tannery wastewater. Detailed characterization of the wastewater treatment influent and effluent is also reported for the study period. During the study, bulking and foaming are first monitored with a sudden burst in the sludge volume index over 250 mL g(-1), creating a significant deterioration of the effluent quality. The corresponding upset in the microbial ecology is the combined excessive proliferation of M. parvicella, N. limicola II and Gordona (Nocardia) spp., but mainly triggered by Gordona contamination of the floc structure and the rapid outward growth of this filamentous microorganism extending to adjacent flocs. Chlorine application at an average rate of 3 g Cl(-1)(kg MLSS.day)(-1) for 12 days provide an effective solution for bulking and foaming, restoring the effluent quality. It destroys filamentous texture between the flocs, leaving only a lot of loose and chopped filament fragments and, totally removes the Gordona spp. from solution which retrieves back into the flocs. Therefore, chlorine remediation of bulking and foaming, although temporarily effective, is only superficial as the Gordona seeding inside the floc remains intact and potentially available for excessive growth in the next favorable conditions. PMID:17018406

Ovez, Süleyman; Ors, Canan; Murat, Selda; Orhon, Derin

2006-01-01

98

Occurrence and analysis of parabens in municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Madrid (Spain).  

PubMed

A rapid method for determination of seven parabens and two chlorinated by-products in sewage sludge was developed based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical procedure showed good recoveries that ranged from 80 to 125%, with relative standard deviations lower than 12% and low detection limits, ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 ng g(-1) dry weight. The developed method was applied to the analysis of sewage sludge collected during 2010 in 19 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in various urban, industrial or rural zones in Madrid (Spain). Methylparaben was found in most of the WWTPs sampled (95%) at levels between 5.1 and 26.2 ng g(-1) dry weight and propylparaben was detected in 74% of the WWTPs at levels up to 44.1 ng g(-1) dry weight. In order to study the temporal variation of parabens and two chlorinated parabens during a four-year period, sludge samples were collected from 3 selected WWTPs. The levels of methylparaben encountered were rather constant throughout the sampling period whereas propylparaben levels slightly increased. In one of the WWTPs monitored, isopropylparaben was found at the beginning of the sampling period but its content decreased and was not detected in the 2010 sampling. PMID:22640822

Albero, Beatriz; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Tadeo, José Luis

2012-05-11

99

EFFECT OF AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT ON AMBIENT AIR DENSITIES OF AEROSOLS CONTAINING BACTERIA AND VIRUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacteria and virus-containing aerosols were studied during late summer and fall in a U.S. midwestern suburb before and during the start up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of in...

100

Process efficiency and microbial monitoring in MBR (membrane bioreactor) and CASP (conventional activated sludge process) treatment of tannery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a conventional activated sludge plant (CASP), treating the same tannery wastewaters and in the same operating conditions, have been compared in order to evaluate the overall treatment efficiency, the presence and distribution of Gram negative bacteria and the kinetics of nitrifying bacteria. Process efficiency was evaluated in terms of organic and

Giulio Munz; Mori Gualtiero; Laura Salvadori; Barberio Claudia; Lubello Claudio

2008-01-01

101

Relevance of the sludge retention time (SRT) as design criteria for wastewater treatment plants for the removal of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals from wastewater.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represent a significant source for the input of micro pollutants as endocrine disruptors (EDs) or pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) into the aquatic environment. Treatment efficiency of WWTPs often is reported, taking into account only inflow and effluent concentrations without further specification of the WWTP investigated. In order to allow comparison and evaluation of the removal efficiency of different layouts and concepts in wastewater treatment, additional information like the sludge retention time (SRT) and sludge load (F/M ratio) are necessary. Presented results from different WWTPs show correlation of removal of EDs and PhACs to the SRT. Compared to WWTPs with high F/M ratio implementation of the nitrification process on WWTPs results in a significant increase of the removal efficiency for EDs and PhACs. This paper describes an approach to determine comparable removal rates for different activated sludge systems based on mass balance and SRT. PMID:15497842

Kreuzinger, N; Clara, M; Strenn, B; Kroiss, H

2004-01-01

102

Nitrification treatment of swine wastewater with acclimated nitrifying sludge immobilized in polymer pellets  

SciTech Connect

Nitrification of ammonia (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) is a critical component for improved systems of animal wastewater treatment. One of the most effective processes uses nitrifying microorganisms encapsulated in polymer resins. It is used in Japan in municipal wastewater treatment plants for higher nitrification rates, shorter hydraulic retention times (HRT), and lower aeration treatment cost. The authors evaluated whether this technology could be adapted for treatment of higher-strength lagoon swine wastewaters containing {approximately}230 mg NH{sub 4}-N/L and 195 mg BOD{sub 5}/L. A culture of acclimated lagoon nitrifying sludge (ALNS) was prepared from a nitrifying biofilm developed in an overland flow soil using fill-and-draw cultivation. The ALNS was successfully immobilized in 3- to 5-mm polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer pellets by a PVA-freezing method. Swine wastewater was treated in aerated, suspended bioreactors with a 15% (w/v) pellet concentration using batch and continuous flow treatment. Alkalinity was supplemented with inorganic carbon to maintain the liquid pH within an optimum range (7.7--8.4). In batch treatment, only 14 h were needed for nitrification of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Ammonia was nitrified readily, decreasing at a rate of 16.1 mg NH{sub 4}-N/L h. In contrast, it took 10 d for a control (no-pellets) aerated reactor to start nitrification; furthermore, 70% of the N was lost by air stripping. Without alkalinity supplements, the pH of the liquid fell to 6.0--6.2, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} oxidation stopped. In continuous flow treatment, nitrification efficiencies of 95% were obtained with NH{sub 4}{sup +} loading rates of 418 mg-N/L-reactor d (2.73 g-N/g-pellet d) and an HRT of 12 h. The rate of nitrification obtained with HRT of 4 h was 567 mg-N/L d. In all cases, the NH{sub 4}-N removed was entirely recovered in oxidized N forms. Nitrification rates obtained in this work were not greatly affected by high NH{sub 4}{sup +} or BOD concentration of swine wastewater. Thus, immobilized pellet technology can be adapted for fast and efficient removal of NH{sub 4}{sup +} contained in anaerobic swine lagoons using acclimated microorganisms.

Vanotti, M.B.; Hunt, P.G.

2000-04-01

103

Levels and distribution patterns of short chain chlorinated paraffins in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.  

PubMed

Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are listed as persistent organic pollutant candidates in the Stockholm Convention and are receiving more and more attentions worldwide. In general, concentrations of contaminants in sewage sludge can give an important indication on their pollution levels at a local/regional basis. In this study, SCCPs were investigated in sewage sludge samples collected from 52 wastewater treatment plants in China. Concentrations of total SCCPs (?SCCPs) in sludge were in the range of 0.80-52.7 ?g/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 10.7 ?g/g dw. Most of SCCPs in the sludge samples showed a similar congener distribution patterns, and C(11) and Cl(7,8) were identified as the dominant carbon and chlorine congener groups. Significant linear relationships were found among different SCCP congener groups (r(2) ? 0.9). High concentrations of SCCPs in sewage sludge imply that SCCPs are widely present in China. PMID:22035930

Zeng, Lixi; Wang, Thanh; Ruan, Ting; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

2011-10-14

104

Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinic red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

van Hullenbusch, Eric; /Marne la Vallee U.; Farges, Francois; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur., Paris; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; /Wageningen U.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

2006-12-13

105

XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

1994-12-01

106

Analysis of toxicity of leachates from coal liquefaction wastewater treatment sludge  

SciTech Connect

The disposal requirements for wastewater treatment sludge from coal liquefaction plants will be determined by toxicity tests established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enforce the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Concentrations of eight elements in samples from a noncommercial plant were well below the standards used in the EP (extraction procedure) test of the EPA. Toxicity bioassays with Daphnia magna supported the results of the EP tests. Leachates generated according to the American Society for Testing and Materials extraction procedure (ASTM D-3987) were also tested. Concentrations of RCRA elements were frequently below the minimum detectable concentrations, and no differences in toxicity of the EP and ASTM extracts were evident. 17 references, 3 tables.

Dahlberg, M.D.; Ruppel, T.C.

1985-03-01

107

Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinc red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

van Hullenbusch, Eric; Farges, François; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; Brown, Gordon E.

2007-02-01

108

Para-chlorophenol containing synthetic wastewater treatment in an activated sludge unit: effects of hydraulic residence time.  

PubMed

Due to the toxic nature of chlorophenol compounds present in some chemical industry effluents, biological treatment of such wastewaters is usually realized with low treatment efficiencies. Para-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol, 4-CP) containing synthetic wastewater was treated in an activated sludge unit at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) varying between 5 and 30 h while the feed COD (2500 mg l(-1)), 4-CP (500 mg l(-1)) and sludge age (SRT, 10 days) were constant. Effects of HRT variations on COD, 4-CP, toxicity removals and on settling characteristics of the sludge were investigated. Percent COD removals increased and the effluent COD concentrations decreased when HRT increased from 5 to 15 h and remained almost constant for larger HRT levels. Nearly, 91% COD and 99% 4-CP removals were obtained at HRT levels above 15 h. Because of the highly concentrated microbial population at HRT levels of above 15 h, low effluent (reactor) 4-CP concentrations and almost complete toxicity removals were obtained. High biomass concentrations obtained at HRT levels above 15 h were due to low 4-CP contents in the aeration tank yielding negligible inhibition effects and low maintenance requirements. The sludge volume index (SVI) decreased with increasing HRT up to 15 h due to high biomass concentrations at high HRT levels resulting in well settling sludge with low SVI values. Hydraulic residence times above 15 h resulted in more than 90% COD and complete 4-CP and toxicity removals along with well settling sludge. PMID:16814923

Kargi, Fikret; Konya, Isil

2006-07-11

109

Polish/U.S. Symposium on Wastewater Treatment and Sludge Disposal Held at Cincinnati, Ohio on February 10-12, 1976. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication comprises the proceedings of the Polish/U.S. Symposium on Wastewater Treatment and Sludge Disposal, held in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 10 through 12, 1976. Topics included both research work, notably in biodegradability and toxicity, and t...

1976-01-01

110

Treatment of chemical mechanical polishing wastewater by electrocoagulation: system performances and sludge settling characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor plant by electrocoagulation is investigated. The CMP wastewater was characterized by high suspended solids (SS) content, high turbidity (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration up to 500 mgl?1 and copper concentration up to 100 mgl?1. In the present study, electrocoagulation was employed to treat the CMP wastewater with an

Chen L. Lai; Sheng H. Lin

2004-01-01

111

Temporal evolution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Five homologues of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)-LAS C-10, LAS C-11, LAS C-12, and LAS C-13 and total LAS-were monitored during a one-year period in primary, secondary, and digested sludge to evaluate their presence and temporal evolution. Extraction of LAS was carried out using microwaves energy, and determination was performed using high-performance liquid chromatographic- fluorescence (HPLC-FL). The results showed that concentrations of total LAS were between 9 337 mg/kg(-1) dry matter for primary sludge and 33.3 mg/kg(-1)(DM) for secondary sludge. Concentrations of total LAS were greater than 2 113 mg/kg(-1) in primary and digested sludge and were less than 260 mg/kg(-) in secondary sludge. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of LAS in primary sludge were found in summer, probably because of lack of rain during those months. Concentrations tend to be constant throughout the year in digested sludge. In addition heavy metals also were analyzed. Heavy metals, including zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and chromium are persistent environmental contaminants that cannot be destroyed. Biomagnification through the food-chain and potential accumulation in human tissues can cause both human health and environmental concerns. Concern regarding total heavy metal content of sludge limits sludge recycling for use on agricultural lands. This paper presents a comparative study of wastewater sludge that are going to be used as fertilizer based on the requirements of legislation proposed in the European Union. This research found that concentrations of total LAS in digested sludge are higher than the limits established in the proposed new draft. PMID:21657192

Villar, M; Callejón, M; Villar, P; Fernández-Torres, R; Bello, M A; Guiraúm, A

2011-05-01

112

Characterization of oily sludge from a wastewater treatment plant flocculation-flotation unit in a petroleum refinery and its treatment implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partly due to the complex and variable composition of oily sludge generated by the petroleum industry, cost-effective treatment\\u000a and proper disposal pose considerable challenges worldwide. In this study, an extended component-based analysis of the oily\\u000a sludge from a flocculation-flotation unit of a wastewater treatment system in a refinery in Sweden was carried out over 1\\u000a year. The heterogeneity of the

Mait Kriipsalu; Marcia Marques; Aleksander Maastik

2008-01-01

113

Dynamics of the microfauna community in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant experiencing sludge bulking.  

PubMed

We investigated the dynamics of the microfauna community in activated sludge, with special reference to sludge bulking, in two parallel municipal wastewater treatment systems in Beijing, China over a period of 14 months. Annual cyclic changes in microfauna community structures occurred in both systems. RELATE analysis based on Spearman's Rank correlation indicated that microfauna community structures were highly correlated with the sludge volume index (SVI) (p<0.001), which indicates sludge settleability. Nutrient conditions of raw sewage (p<0.01) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) (p<0.05) were also related to microfauna community structures. Abundances of the species Epistylis plicatilis and Vorticella striata increased significantly with an increase in SVI (p<0.001) and decrease in water temperature (p<0.001), suggesting that sludge bulking may have created favorable conditions for the two species, even under unfavorable temperature conditions. Sludge de-flocculation primarily due to the excessive growth of Microthrix parvicella-like filaments could be an important driving force for the microfauna community changes. The release of flocculated non-filamentous bacteria may represent a suitable food source for these species. The two species may be considered as potential bioindicators for sludge bulking. PMID:23628141

Hu, Bo; Qi, Rong; An, Wei; Xu, Muqi; Zhang, Yu; Bai, Xue; Bao, Haipeng; Wen, Yang; Gu, Jian; Yang, Min

2013-04-28

114

Pilot-scale anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in upflow anaerobic sludge bed and anaerobic baffled reactors at ambient temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiencies of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) were compared for the treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures. Two pilot-scale anaerobic biological reactors were operated for about two years at ambient conditions at psychrophilic and\\/or sub-mesophilic temperatures. The average total chemical oxygen demand removal was 56 and 58% in the UASB

Selma Ç. Ayaz; Lütfi Akça; Özgür Akta?; Nur F?nd?k; ?zzet Öztürk

2012-01-01

115

Combined activated sludge with partial nitrification (AS\\/PN) and anammox processes for treatment of seafood processing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activated sludge process with partial nitrification (AS\\/PN) in combination with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process for treatment of seafood processing wastewater was developed and investigated in this research. Operating conditions of AS\\/PN process for coupling with Anammox process were identified as pH between 7.7–8.2 and DO as 0.5–0.9 mg L to achieve over 85% COD removal as well as

Apipong Lamsam; Sawanya Laohaprapanon; Ajit P. Annachhatre

2008-01-01

116

Treatment of wastewater from a monosodium glutamate manufacturing plant using successive yeast and activated sludge systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive systems using yeast and activated sludge (AS) were developed to treat monosodium glutamate manufacturing wastewater (MSGW). The yeast system allowed over 80% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a rise of pH from 2.5 to 6.5 on treating MSGW directly (COD 25,000mg\\/l and NH4+–N 19,000mg\\/l). Observation of the microbial community using a scanning electron microscope indicated that the

Qingxiang Yang; Min Yang; Shujun Zhang; Wenzhou Lv

2005-01-01

117

DESIGN MANUAL: DEWATERING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual discusses the many factors involved in selecting and designing dewatering equipment for organic sludges produced during primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment. ive-step approach is outlined for the selection and design of the dewatering equipment for eit...

118

Assessing wastewater toxicity to activated sludge: recent research and developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicants in municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) influent wastewater may inhibit the biological activity of the activated sludge and cause treatment plant process upsets. Such process upsets may be avoided if influent wastewater is monitored for toxicity and protective actions are taken when toxicity is detected. A comprehensive review of the methods that can be used for assessing wastewater toxicity

Shijin Ren

2004-01-01

119

Modeling the performance of “up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket” reactor based wastewater treatment plant using linear and nonlinear approaches—A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes linear and nonlinear modeling of the wastewater data for the performance evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate polynomial regression (MPR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methods were applied to predict the levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Kunwar P. Singh; Nikita Basant; Amrita Malik; Gunja Jain

2010-01-01

120

Patulibacter medicamentivorans sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-endospore-forming rod-shaped bacterium with ibuprofen-degrading capacity, designated strain I11(T), was isolated from activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The major respiratory quinone was demethylmenaquinone DMK-7, C18 : 1 cis9 was the predominant fatty acid, phosphatidylglycerol was the predominant polar lipid, the cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 74.1 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain I11(T) were Patulibacter ginsengiterrae CECT 7603(T) (96.8 % similarity), Patulibacter minatonensis DSM 18081(T) (96.6 %) and Patulibacter americanus DSM 16676(T) (96.6 %). Phenotypic characterization supports the inclusion of strain I11(T) within the genus Patulibacter (phylum Actinobacteria). However, distinctive features and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggest that is represents a novel species, for which the name Patulibacter medicamentivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is I11(T) ( = DSM 25962(T) = CECT 8141(T)). PMID:23264500

Almeida, Bárbara; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Schumann, Peter; Nunes, Olga C; Carvalho, Gilda; Barreto Crespo, Maria T

2012-12-21

121

Stabilization of heavy metals in wastewater treatment sludge from power plants air heater washing.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, for the first time in Iran, dewatered sludge waste from the air heater washing wastewater treatment of a thermal power plant was subject to investigation with regard to cement-based stabilization in order to reduce the mobility of heavy metals. Studies of the chemical composition, mineralogy, morphology and leaching characteristics of the untreated and treated waste were conducted. The stabilization was done with two cement-based mix designs with different waste/cement ratios in different samples. In the cement stabilization process the leaching of V, Ni, Zn and Cr could be decreased from 314.1, 209.1, 24.8 and 5.5 mg L(-1), respectively, in the untreated waste to 6.02, 32.11, 3.57 and 3.68 mg L(-1) in a mixture with 20% waste/cement ratio, while during stabilization with cement + sand, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate contents of the mentioned metals were decreased to 4.24, 16.2, 2.51 and 2.2 mg L(-1) for the same waste/cement ratio. Stabilization with sand/cement seemed to be more efficient in reducing metal leaching from the waste. X-ray diffraction studies showed that portlandite, calcite, lime, larnite and quartz were produced during the stabilization process. PMID:19423607

Saeedi, Mohsen; Amini, Hamid Reza

2009-05-07

122

A comparative study of freeze-thaw processes for conditioning wastewater and water treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect

This research effort involved the application of indirect- and direct-contact, freeze-thaw conditioning techniques for improving the dewatering characteristics of both waste water and water treatment sludges. Sludges tested included waste activated sludge, primary sewage sludge, waste activated/primary sewage sludge mixtures and alum sludge. The direct-freeze methods examined were the use of a secondary refrigerant (butane) evaporated in the sludge and the use of gas hydrate or clathrate formation by addition of Freon 12 under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions. Sludges were also frozen solid using indirect freezing methods, thawed and tested for comparative purposes. Particle size distribution and floc density measurements were used to determine changes in particle characteristics; specific resistance values and dewatered dry solids concentration were used to assess dewatering characteristics. Results of direct and indirect-contact, freeze-thaw conditioning were compared to the effects of polymer conditioning. The results indicated that direct-freeze methods do not appear technically or economically competitive with currently accepted conditioning methods. The superior results obtained with the indirect-contact, freeze-thaw process when compared to the direct-contact processes suggested that the extent and rate of freezing may greatly influence the particle characteristics of the conditioned sludge, and thus its dewatering characteristics.

Trahern, P.G.

1989-01-01

123

Ozonation of wastewater sludge for reduction and recycling.  

PubMed

An ozone treatment system was introduced as an alternative method for municipal sludge treatment and disposal. A pilot-scale facility was built to investigate the feasibility of the ozonation for sludge reduction and recycle. The system consists of three main parts; advanced wastewater treatment, sludge ozone treatment and belt press dewatering. Ozonation of wastewater sludge resulted in mass reduction by mineralization as well as volume reduction by improvement of dewatering characteristics. The supernatant of the ozonated sludge, consisting of solubilized organics and micro-particles, proved to be an effective carbon source for denitrification. A simple economic assessment reveals that the ozonation process can be more economical than incineration for sludge treatment and disposal at small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. PMID:12479455

Ahn, K H; Park, K Y; Maeng, S K; Hwang, J H; Lee, J W; Song, K G; Choi, S

2002-01-01

124

Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Laposata, Mark

125

Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

2004-01-01

126

Recovery of Iron Coagulants From Tehran Water-Treatment-Plant Sludge for Reusing in Textile Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the water treatment plants in Iran discharge their sludge to the environment whithout consideration of possible side effects. Since this kind of sludge is generally considered pollutant, the sludge treatment of water industry seems to be an essential task. Obviously theweight and volume of solids produced during the coagulation process are much more than other wastes of water

F Vaezi; F Batebi; Gh Moosavi

127

40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the treatment of wastewaters during aluminum and iron casting, machining and finishing operations. It may contain aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc.) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

2013-07-01

128

Determination of azoles in sewage sludge from Spanish wastewater treatment plants by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of 16 azoles in sewage sludge has been developed and validated. The method was based on ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric detection. The azoles were selected by their intensive usage as biocides (tebuconazole, propiconazole, cyproconazole and thiabendazole), antimycotic pharmaceuticals (ketoconazole, econazole, fluconazole and clotrimazole) or fungicides in agriculture (difenoconazole, flusilazole, hexaconazole, prochloraz, bromuconazole, epoxiconazole and triticonazole). The recoveries of these compounds through the method were between 71.9 and 115.8%, with relative standard deviations lower than 20%. Detection limits were in the range of 0.5-5.0 ng/g. The developed method was applied to the analysis of azoles in sewage sludge samples collected from 19 Spanish wastewater treatment plants. Although azoles used as biocides or agriculture fungicides were present in a few sludge samples, the pharmaceuticals ketoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole were present in all of the analyzed sludge samples, being ketoconazole the one found at the highest level, representing the 68.6% of the total azole content found in the 19 sludge samples studied. PMID:21491590

García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Tadeo, José L

2011-04-13

129

Phylogenetic and functional diversity of metagenomic libraries of phenol degrading sludge from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system  

PubMed Central

In petrochemical refinery wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), different concentrations of pollutant compounds are received daily in the influent stream, including significant amounts of phenolic compounds, creating propitious conditions for the development of particular microorganisms that can rapidly adapt to such environment. In the present work, the microbial sludge from a refinery WWTP was enriched for phenol, cloned into fosmid vectors and pyrosequenced. The fosmid libraries yielded 13,200 clones and a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the sequence data set revealed a complex and diverse bacterial community in the phenol degrading sludge. The phylogenetic analyses using MEGAN in combination with RDP classifier showed a massive predominance of Proteobacteria, represented mostly by the genera Diaphorobacter, Pseudomonas, Thauera and Comamonas. The functional classification of phenol degrading sludge sequence data set generated by MG-RAST showed the wide metabolic diversity of the microbial sludge, with a high percentage of genes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of phenol and derivatives. In addition, genes related to the metabolism of many other organic and xenobiotic compounds, such as toluene, biphenyl, naphthalene and benzoate, were found. Results gathered herein demonstrated that the phenol degrading sludge has complex phylogenetic and functional diversities, showing the potential of such community to degrade several pollutant compounds. This microbiota is likely to represent a rich resource of versatile and unknown enzymes which may be exploited for biotechnological processes such as bioremediation.

2012-01-01

130

Investigation of extracellular polymer substances (EPS) and physicochemical properties of activated sludge from different municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

This paper examines the chemical constituents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and physicochemical properties of eight different sludge flocs from seven full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The physicochemical properties included floc properties (floc size, turbidity and effluent suspended solids (ESS) content of the supernatant), sludge volume index, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration. The relationships between the chemical constituents of EPS and the flocculation, settleability and dewaterability of sludge flocs were also assessed. The results showed that higher amounts of EPS were found in the municipal sludge flocs than in the industrial sludges. The content of tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) was much greater than that of loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS). The amounts of total EPS, LB-EPS, TB-EPS and protein in LB-EPS were strongly related to ESS. The ratios of total protein to EPS and total carbohydrate to EPS showed positive correlation to the flocs size. It was surprising that there was no correlation between settleability or dewaterability and the chemical constituents of EPS. PMID:22720410

Peng, Ge; Ye, Fenxia; Li, Ying

131

Determining the mechanisms for aerobic granulation from mixed seed of floccular and crushed granules in activated sludge wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Aerobic granulation is a novel and promising technology for wastewater treatment. However, long start-up periods required for the development of granules from floccular sludge, and the loss of biomass in this period leading to poor nutrient removal performance are key challenges. In a recent study the addition of crushed granules to a floccular sludge significantly reduced the start-up period, and also maintained the nutrient removal performance during granulation. In this study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the fast granulation from a mixture of floccular and granular sludges. Fluorescent microbead particles (4 ?m diameter) were successfully applied to differentially label the surfaces of floccular and crushed granular aggregates. Labelled flocs and crushed granules were added to a laboratory scale wastewater treatment reactor, and the granule formation process was monitored using confocal laser scanning microscopy over an 80 day period. Flocs were observed to attach to the surface of the seeding granules, resulting in reduced biomass washout during granulation. This mechanism not only reduces the granulation period, but also maintains the nutrient removal performance of the reactor. The results indicate that the granules acted as nuclei for floccular particle attachment, which accelerated granule formation. PMID:22153958

Verawaty, M; Pijuan, M; Yuan, Z; Bond, P L

2011-11-27

132

Hungry microbes eat away wastewater sludge problem  

SciTech Connect

Accumulations of diluted resin solids and sludge in an equalization pond were reducing a White City, Ore., chemical plant`s wastewater treatment capacity by 90%. Dyno Polymers, a division of Norway-based Dyno Industries, manufacturers formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins for the wood products industry. High-solids and biosolids bulking in the plant`s aeration pond overloaded the clarifier, and an overabundance of solids in the excess-wastewater holding pond made pumping nearly impossible. The plant`s drains carry production wastewater, truck washout water and equipment rinsewater flows to a central sump. The wastewater is pumped to the facility`s biological treatment system, where it enters an equalization pond and flows to an aeration pond equipped with two 50-horsepower aerators. The water then flows to a clarifier, where solids are settled out and removed before the water is reused or discharged to a public sewer system.

Kratch, K.

1995-09-01

133

[Feasibility study on coke wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactor (MBR) system with complete sludge retention].  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale submerged anaerobic-anoxic-oxic membrane bioreactor (A1/A2/O-MBR) system was used to treat real coke wastewater and operated continuously for 160 d with complete sludge retention. Pollutants removal performance of the system was investigated through long-term operation. The characteristics of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) in influent and effluent coke wastewater were analyzed using hydrophilic/hydrophobic fractionation, and further discussed based on fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix (EEM). The results showed that A1/A2/O-MBR system could stably remove 88.0% +/- 1.6% of COD, > 99.9% of volatile phenol, 99.4% +/- 0.2% of turbidity, and 98.3% +/- 1.9% of NH4(+) -N, with individual average effluent concentrations of 249 mg/L +/- 44 mg/L, 0.18 mg/L +/- 0.05 mg/L, 1.0 NTU +/- 0.2 NTU and 4.1 mg/L +/- 4.3 mg/L, respectively; moreover, the maximum TN removal rate also reached 74.9%. During the whole operation period, the MLVSS/MLSS appeared to be constant as 90.2% +/- 1.0% and no inorganic matters accumulation occurred. The observed sludge production (MLVSS/COD) decreased with time and stabilized at 0.035 kg/kg. DOMs in coke wastewater were fractionated as hydrophobic acids (HOA), hydrophobic neutrals (HON), hydrophobic bases (HOB) and hydrophilic substances (HIS); HOA was found to be the most abundant constituent in terms of DOC and color intensity both in influent and effluent, which accounted for 70% and 67% of total DOC, and 75% and 76% of total color intensity, respectively. Humic-like substances were suggested to be the major refractory organic and color-causing compounds coke wastewater effluent according to EEM analysis. PMID:20063747

Zhao, Wen-Tao; Huang, Xia; Lee, Duu-Jong; He, Miao; Yuan, Yuan

2009-11-01

134

Heavy metals in untreated\\/treated urban effluent and sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  The presence of heavy metals in wastewater is one of the main causes of water and soil pollution. The aim of the present study\\u000a was to investigate the removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr and Zn in urban effluent by a biological wastewater treatment, as\\u000a well as to quantify the levels of As, Be, Cd,

Aline da Silva Oliveira; Ana Bocio; Tânia M. Beltramini Trevilato; Angela M. Magosso Takayanagui; José L. Domingo; Susana I. Segura-Muñoz

2007-01-01

135

Evaluation of operation of submerged aerated filters in wastewater treatment and excess sludge production.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the SCOD removal efficiency in submerged biological aerated filters (BAFs) and subsequently to assess the relationship between the specific surface area (Ss) and Excess Sludge Production (ESP) rate in such filters. Accordingly, four filters with different porosity and specific surface (647, 295, 175 and 136 m2 m(-3)) have been loaded with synthetic wastewater based on low fat dry milk powder with COD of 1500 mg L(-1) in different hydraulic retention time (8, 4, 2, 1 and 0.5 h). In this study, it was shown that specific surface increase of the filters initially increases the efficiency of the filters and after a certain value, the filter efficiency remains uncharged or decreases, as in HRT of 8 h the SCOD removal efficiency of filters 1 and 2 (Ss = 647 m2 m(-3) and Ss = 295 m2 m(-3)) were 89.8 and 91% at VOL of 3.195 and 3.727 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. Also, the results showed that in all the filters, the production rate of suspended sludge increases inversely with the hydraulic retention time and the media with higher porosity (90.5%) produced less suspended sludge (8-57 g m(-3)) despite having lower efficiency in the SCOD removal. PMID:19090097

Baghapour, Mohammad A; Jabbari, Ebrahim

2007-09-15

136

Evaluation of physical stability and leachability of Portland pozzolona cement (PPC) solidified chemical sludge generated from textile wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The chemical sludge generated from the treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a hazardous waste as per Indian Hazardous Waste Management rules. In this paper, stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge was carried out to explore its reuse potential in the construction materials. Portland pozzolona cement (PPC) was selected as the binder system which is commercially available cement with 10-25% fly ash interground in it. The stabilized/solidified blocks were evaluated in terms of unconfined compressive strength, block density and leaching of heavy metals. The compressive strength (3.62-33.62 MPa) and block density (1222.17-1688.72 kg/m3) values as well as the negligible leaching of heavy metals from the stabilized/solidified blocks indicate that there is a potential of its use for structural and non-structural applications. PMID:21724323

Patel, Hema; Pandey, Suneel

2011-06-02

137

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR FINAL TREATMENT OF COMBINED MUNICIPAL AND TEXTILE WASTEWATER INCLUDING SLUDGE UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The investigations were carried out on laboratory scale, employing various mixtures of dyeing and municipal wastewaters. The processes studied were: coagulation, ozonization, chlorination, activated carbon, activated sludge, and anaerobic digestion. Lime appeared to be the best c...

138

Performance analysis of a combined system of membrane bioreactor and worm reactor: wastewater treatment, sludge reduction and membrane fouling.  

PubMed

A new process that combined a membrane bioreactor (S-MBR) and a novel worm reactor was proposed in this study. The combined system indicated excellent sludge reduction efficiency, wastewater treatment performance and membrane permeability. The sludge reduction percentage of the combined system was about 1.9 times higher than that of the conventional MBR. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge rate in the combined system was only one fourth of that in the conventional MBR, indicating that the COD was removed more thoroughly. Low extracellular polymeric substances level (60-75 ?g/mg), low filamentous bacteria level, narrow floc size distribution (distribution spread index of 0.91) and high roundness (0.80 ± 0.10) were observed in the S-MBR sludge. Deposited by this modified sludge, a fouling layer with smaller thickness, larger porosity and less proteins and polysaccharides accumulation was formed in the S-MBR, demonstrating that the combined system was able to alleviate membrane fouling. PMID:22858483

Tian, Yu; Lu, Yaobin; Li, Zhipeng

2012-06-30

139

Sludge accumulation in polishing ponds treating anaerobically digested wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

When ponds are used for wastewater treatment, settleable solids will form a steadily growing bottom sludge layer, which reduces their effective volume. Eventually this sludge must be removed to ensure that the pond maintains the required retention time to keep performing properly. The settleable solids may either be present in the influent or they are formed during the treatment as

P. F. F. Cavalcanti; A. van Haandel; G. Lettinga

2002-01-01

140

Anaerobic treatment of a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater in a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.  

PubMed

In this study, performance of a lab-scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, treating a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater, was evaluated under different operating conditions. This study consisted of two experimental stages: first, acclimation to the pharmaceutical wastewater and second, determination of maximum loading capacity of the hybrid UASB reactor. Initially, the carbon source in the reactor feed came entirely from glucose, applied at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1 kg COD/m(3) d. The OLR was gradually step increased to 3 kg COD/m(3) d at which point the feed to the hybrid UASB reactor was progressively modified by introducing the pharmaceutical wastewater in blends with glucose, so that the wastewater contributed approximately 10%, 30%, 70%, and ultimately, 100% of the carbon (COD) to be treated. At the acclimation OLR of 3 kg COD/m(3) d the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 2 days. During this period of feed modification, the COD removal efficiencies of the anaerobic reactor were 99%, 96%, 91% and 85%, and specific methanogenic activities (SMA) were measured as 240, 230, 205 and 231 ml CH(4)/g TVS d, respectively. Following the acclimation period, the hybrid UASB reactor was fed with 100% (w/v) pharmaceutical wastewater up to an OLR of 9 kg COD/m(3) d in order to determine the maximum loading capacity achievable before reactor failure. At this OLR, the COD removal efficiency was 28%, and the SMA was measured as 170 ml CH(4)/g TVS d. The hybrid UASB reactor was found to be far more effective at an OLR of 8 kg COD/m(3) d with a COD removal efficiency of 72%. At this point, SMA value was 200 ml CH(4)/g TVS d. It was concluded that the hybrid UASB reactor could be a suitable alternative for the treatment of chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. PMID:17449241

Oktem, Yalcin Askin; Ince, Orhan; Sallis, Paul; Donnelly, Tom; Ince, Bahar Kasapgil

2007-04-20

141

Dissolved oxygen control of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process using stable adaptive fuzzy control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the operation of wastewater treatment plants a key variable is dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the bioreactors. The paper describes the development of an adaptive fuzzy control strategy for tracking the DO reference trajectory applied to the Benchmark Simulation Model n.1. The design methodology of this data-driven controller uses the Lyapunov synthesis approach with a parameter projection algorithm to

Carlos Alberto Coelho Belchior; Rui Alexandre Matos Araújo; Jorge Afonso Cardoso Landeck

142

Microfiltration of activated sludge using submerged membrane with air bubbling (application to wastewater treatment)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor is one of the applications of membrane technology to wastewater treatment. In this study we present the results obtained using hollow fiber microfiltration membranes directly immersed in the bioreactor. Two sizes of equipment were used: laboratory scale with a specially designed set of microfiltration hollow fibers (filtration area 0.016 m2) and pilot scale with a bundle of

El Hani Bouhabila; Roger Ben Aïm; Herve Buisson

1998-01-01

143

Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

1983-11-01

144

Microbiological basis of phosphate removal in the activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains resembling members of theAcinetobacter-Moraxella-Mima group of bacteria were isolated from activated sludge-type sewage treatment plants designed for phosphate removal. The bacteria are obligate aerobes but utilize as carbon and energy sources low-molecular intermediates generated anaerobically, particularly acetate and ethanol. These bacteria can be shown to be responsible for the phosphate luxury uptake occurring in these treatment plants. The

G. W. Fuhs; Min Chen

1975-01-01

145

Characteristics and quantities of sludge produced by coagulating wastewater with seawater bittern, lime and caustic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of sludge generated from the chemical treatment of municipal wastewater using seawater bittern as a source of Mg2+ and lime or caustic as alkalizing agents was conducted. The tests were performed on a laboratory scale using the jar-test system. The parameters tested included: determination of sludge depth; settled sludge volume; sludge suspended solids; time to filter; sludge volume

G. M. Ayoub; F. Merhebi

2002-01-01

146

Wastewater Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)|

Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

1978-01-01

147

High salinity wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The shock effect, survival and ability of activated sludge to acclimatize to wastewater containing different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 were investigated under laboratory conditions. To accomplish this, the potential penetration of a sewage system by seawater as a consequence of storm surge flooding was simulated. The experiments were conducted using activated sludge taken from the aeration tank of a communal wastewater treatment plant and adding different concentrations up to 40 g/L of NaCl and 4.33 g/L of Na2SO4. The effects of salinity on the activated sludge were monitored for 5 weeks based on the values of pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sludge volume, sludge volume index, electrokinetic potential, respirometric measurements and enzymatic activity. The addition of salt sharply reduced or completely inhibited the microbial activity in activated sludge. When salt concentrations were below 10 g/L NaCl, microorganisms were able to acclimatize in several weeks and achieve the same initial activity as in raw sludge samples. When the salt concentration was above 30 g/L NaCl, the acclimatization process was very slow or impossible. PMID:24056440

Linari?, M; Marki?, M; Sipos, L

2013-01-01

148

Modeling Solar Drying Rate of Wastewater Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient solar drying requires that the drying rate is quantitatively known as a function of the environment and the control. To develop a drying-rate model for wastewater sludge, data were collected at a solar drying installation in Füssen, Germany. In this solar dryer, wet sludge is uniformly spread over a concrete floor under a greenhouse-like transparent cover. The sludge is

Ido Seginer; Markus Bux

2006-01-01

149

Process efficiency and microbial monitoring in MBR (membrane bioreactor) and CASP (conventional activated sludge process) treatment of tannery wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a conventional activated sludge plant (CASP), treating the same tannery wastewaters and in the same operating conditions, have been compared in order to evaluate the overall treatment efficiency, the presence and distribution of Gram negative bacteria and the kinetics of nitrifying bacteria. Process efficiency was evaluated in terms of organic and nitrogen compounds: the MBR showed a higher COD removal (+4%) and a more stable and complete nitrification. The Gram negative bacteria were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with phylogenetic probes monitoring of alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, of the main ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the Nitrobacter and Nitrospira genera. The results showed that the main differences between the two sludges were: the higher abundance of alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria in the MBR bioreactor and the presence of AOB aggregates only on the surfaces of MBR flocs. Finally, the titrimetric (pH-stat, DO-stat) tests showed similar values of the kinetic parameters of the nitrifiers both in MBR and CASP sludge. PMID:18499451

Munz, Giulio; Gualtiero, Mori; Salvadori, Laura; Claudia, Barberio; Claudio, Lubello

2008-05-21

150

Effect of temperature and organic nutrients on the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) during the composting of anaerobically digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limits on the application of biosolids (anaerobically processed sludges from wastewater treatment plants) as fertilizers for the amendment of soil are becoming greater because of the accumulation of recalcitrant substances, making necessary the use of techniques that bring the concentration of xenobiotics to lower concentrations than those permitted. In general, the biosolids composting process is sufficient to reduce the usual

E. Sanz; D. Prats; M. Rodríguez; A. Camacho

2006-01-01

151

Application of the system which combines coagulation, activated sludge and reverse osmosis to the treatment of the wastewater produced by the meat industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastewater from the meat industry was treated in the system linking the processes of: coagulation, biological treatment using the activated sludge method, simultaneous precipitation of phosphor and reverse osmosis. The carried out investigation studies showed that after the simultaneous precipitation of phosphor the sewage could be returned to the natural receiving water, since its pollution ratio did not exceed

Jolanta Bohdziewicz; Ewa Sroka; Ewa Lobos

2002-01-01

152

Phosphine production potential of various wastewater and sewage sludge sources  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory incubation procedure followed by gas chromatographic detection was used to measure phosphine production potential in representative wastewater and sewage sludge sources. Phosphine production potential was determined by measuring the rate of phosphine formation in samples incubated under laboratory conditions over a seven day period when both electron donors and the targeted electron acceptor were not limiting factors. Results of their experiments showed that except the primary effluent and secondary effluent wastewater samples all other samples studied (influent wastewater, various type of sludge and sediment sources) produced phosphine. The minimum phosphine production potential value (0.39 pg/ml wastewater/day) was measured in composite influent wastewater samples while the maximum (268 pg/g wet sludge/day) was measured in sediment samples collected from an open-air sewage treatment plant.

Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Wetland Biogeochemistry Inst.; Devai, G.; Czegeny, I. [Lajos Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary). Dept. of Ecology

1999-05-01

153

Heavy metal removal from wastewater and leachate co-treatment sludge by sulfur oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal concentration in sludge is one of the major obstacles for the application of sludge on land. There are various methods for the removal of heavy metals in sludge. Using sulfur oxidizing bacteria for microbiological removal of heavy metals from sludges is an outstanding option because of high metal solubilization rates and the low cost. In this study, bioleaching

L. C. Aralp; A. Erdincler; T. T. Onay

2001-01-01

154

Biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of physicochemical and biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the activated sludge process was performed in an oxidation ditch. The physicochemical study using different coagulants revealed that all the coagulants used are not effective and their doses required were very high for COD reduction. In the biological oxidation study, it was found that the wastewater could be processed

S. P. Mayabhate; S. K. Gupta; S. G. Joshi

1988-01-01

155

Study of the viscosity behaviour of glasses obtained from urban wastewater treatment sludges from Egypt using hot stage microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants in Egypt is becoming more important; this paper studied the chemical composition of sludge from four treatment plants located around Nile delta and valley: El-Sadat City (E-01), Alexandria (E-02), Abo-Rawash (E-03) and Minufiya (E-04), and is suggested as a possible solution, the vitrification of these sludges. Another important objective for obtaining correct this glass is to know the viscosity temperature curve, including developing a prototype of hot stage microscopy (HSM) and development of software suitable for the analysis of images. Each image has different morphology related to different viscosity, can that way determine the viscosity at the temperature of heating. The chemical composition of these sludges is close to a basalt rock except that the phosphorus content is higher, and sometimes with a certain proportion of heavy metals. Cr, Zn and Pb exceeds the limit allowed to be used in agriculture, this is one of the solutions actually used. In general, major oxides to sludges ranging from: SiO2 (36-48 wt %), Al2O3 (9-16 wt %), CaO (5-25 wt %), P2O5 (1.5-11 wt %) and Fe2O3 (~ 9 wt %), this composition. Since of them are formulated and prepared by four different glasses, in some cases being necessary to incorporate a quantity of raw materials. The sludge combustion heat, the thermal evolution, vitreous transition temperature (Tg) and crystal growth temperature of the glasses were obtained by carrying out a differential thermal analysis. Tg of the four glasses vary between 650 and 725 °C and the growth occurs between 938 and 1033 °C. The vitreous transition temperature was also determined with a dilatometer. Each original glass has been characterized mineralogically by X-ray diffraction: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and calcite. Two samples contained gypsum and some clay mineral traces. We also obtained the viscosity - temperature curves with the aid of the hot stage microscopy that has allowed us to determine the working temperatures of the four glasses, ranging from 926 and to 1419 °C, depending on the type of forming process used. In all glass samples the viscosity-temperature curves have similar characteristics, but for higher viscosities a separation among the different viscosity-temperature curves occurs. This different behaviour is associated to chemical composition: Ca-rich silica aluminum melt, present low viscosity at low temperatures, > P2O5 content, the nucleation of a more refractory phosphate phase occurs. In order to obtain the original glasses working conditions (necessary for possible industrial applications) are used the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation: a) upper and lower annealing temperatures of the samples are similar for the different glasses and ranging between 595-641 °C and 671-701 °C respectively; b) working temperature range from 917-1307 °C for the sample E-02, and 925-1503 °C for the sample E-04, depending on the conformation system used. Finally, the forming and melting temperatures of the samples vary between 1307-1403 °C (E-02) and 1503-1550 °C (E-04). The results confirm that HSM is a good technique for studying the sludge vitrification process, and could provide important information for the possible industrial application. Acknowledgements This study is a contribution of the bilateral project A/030032/10 and CICYT TIN2008-02903. The analytical work was conducted at Research Consolidated Groups 2009SGR-0044 (Mineral Resources). Wastewater treatment plants at El-Sadat City, Alexandria, Abo-Rawash and Minufiya are acknowledged for sampling authorization and facilities. We express our acknowledgement to the technical support of the Scientific-Technical Service Unit of the University of Barcelona and the additional support of the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC).

Garcia-Valles, M.

2012-04-01

156

Anaerobic treatment of a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater in a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, performance of a lab-scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, treating a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater, was evaluated under different operating conditions. This study consisted of two experimental stages: first, acclimation to the pharmaceutical wastewater and second, determination of maximum loading capacity of the hybrid UASB reactor. Initially, the carbon source in the reactor feed came

Yalcin Askin Oktem; Orhan Ince; Paul Sallis; Tom Donnelly; Bahar Kasapgil Ince

2008-01-01

157

Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.  

PubMed

Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner. PMID:17506421

Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

2007-01-01

158

Sewage sludge and wastewater for use in agriculture. Proceedings of consultants meetings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, gamma rays and electron beams have been successfully used on sludges and wastewater to eliminate pathogenic organisms and some toxic chemicals. Sufficient technical data are available for gamma treatment of sludges, permitting its application on...

1997-01-01

159

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY : CONTROL OF PATHOGENS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This 71 - page Technology Transfer Environmental Regulations and echnology publication describes the Federal requirements promulgated in 1979 for reducing pathogens n wastewater sludge and provides guidance in determining whether individual sludge treatment andated or particular ...

160

ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF VERMICOMPOSTING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Vermicomposting -- the biological degradation of organic matter that occurs as earthworms feed on waste materials -- has been advocated by some as a means of stabilizing and disposing of municipal wastewater sludges. Vermicomposting is being attempted on an experimental scale, th...

161

Use of dewatered alum sludge as main substrate in treatment reed bed receiving agricultural wastewater: Long-term trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to explore a novel application of dewatered alum sludge cakes (DASC) as the main medium in a single model reed bed to treat phosphorus-rich animal farm wastewater under “tidal flow” operation on a long-term basis. It is expected that the cakes act as the carrier for developing biofilm and also serve as adsorbent to enhance phosphorus (P)

Y. Q. Zhao; X. H. Zhao; A. O. Babatunde

2009-01-01

162

Kinetics of wet oxidation of biological sludges from coal-conversion wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

Combustible organics in aqueous solutions or suspensions, which are characteristic of waste treatment effluent from coal liquefaction, may be treatable by wet oxidation. The wet oxidation of model compounds (phenol in water or phenol in municipal waste sludge) in a batch autoclave reactor was found to proceed rapidly to 99% conversion in less than 15 min for temperatures between 185 and 230/sup 0/C, oxygen pressures between 2000 and 1300 psig, and initial phenol concentrations of 2.5, 10, and 50 g/L. At 10 g/L initial concentration, the reaction rate was independent of the stirring rate, indicating that mass-transfer limitations were unimportant. The reaction occurs in three phases: a slow induction period, a fast first-order reaction with a low activation energy of 4.9 kcal/gmol, followed by a slow first-order reaction. During the reaction a variety of colored intermediates (catechol, succinic acid, hydroquinine) form. It is postulated that the fast portion of the reaction sequence follows free-radical mechanism. Solids settling and turbidity prevented accurate analytical analysis of the phenol in sludge samples, although qualitative results indicate that the disappearance of phenol follows a path similar to that in the phenol-water system.

Helling, R.K.; Strobel, M.K.; Torres, R.J.

1981-09-01

163

Predicting concentrations of trace organic compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge and biosolids using the PhATE™ model.  

PubMed

This article presents the capability expansion of the PhATE™ (pharmaceutical assessment and transport evaluation) model to predict concentrations of trace organics in sludges and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PhATE was originally developed as an empirical model to estimate potential concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in US surface and drinking waters that could result from patient use of medicines. However, many compounds, including pharmaceuticals, are not completely transformed in WWTPs and remain in biosolids that may be applied to land as a soil amendment. This practice leads to concerns about potential exposures of people who may come into contact with amended soils and also about potential effects to plants and animals living in or contacting such soils. The model estimates the mass of API in WWTP influent based on the population served, the API per capita use, and the potential loss of the compound associated with human use (e.g., metabolism). The mass of API on the treated biosolids is then estimated based on partitioning to primary and secondary solids, potential loss due to biodegradation in secondary treatment (e.g., activated sludge), and potential loss during sludge treatment (e.g., aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting). Simulations using 2 surrogate compounds show that predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated by PhATE are in very good agreement with measured concentrations, i.e., well within 1 order of magnitude. Model simulations were then carried out for 18 APIs representing a broad range of chemical and use characteristics. These simulations yielded 4 categories of results: 1) PECs are in good agreement with measured data for 9 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, 2) PECs are greater than measured data for 3 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, possibly as a result of as yet unidentified depletion mechanisms, 3) PECs are less than analytical reporting limits for 5 compounds with low analytical detection frequencies, and 4) the PEC is greater than the analytical method reporting limit for 1 compound with a low analytical detection frequency, possibly again as a result of insufficient depletion data. Overall, these results demonstrate that PhATE has the potential to be a very useful tool in the evaluation of APIs in biosolids. Possible applications include: prioritizing APIs for assessment even in the absence of analytical methods; evaluating sludge processing scenarios to explore potential mitigation approaches; using in risk assessments; and developing realistic nationwide concentrations, because PECs can be represented as a cumulative probability distribution. Finally, comparison of PECs to measured concentrations can also be used to identify the need for fate studies of compounds of interest in biosolids. PMID:22162313

Cunningham, Virginia L; D'Aco, Vincent J; Pfeiffer, Danielle; Anderson, Paul D; Buzby, Mary E; Hannah, Robert E; Jahnke, James; Parke, Neil J

2012-02-07

164

PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE ON LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this paper is to discuss the acceptance of municipal wastewater sludge on land in the United States. Application to land has been an economical disposal method for cities and a means of increasing soil productivity. Use of land for sludge disposal is increasing. ...

165

Bacteriophage-based biocontrol of biological sludge bulking in wastewater.  

PubMed

In a previous paper, the first ever application of lytic bacteriophage (virus)-mediated biocontrol of biomass bulking in the activated sludge process using Haliscomenobacter hydrossis as a model filamentous bacterium was demonstrated. In this work we extended the biocontrol application to another predominant filamentous bacterium, Sphaerotilus natans, notoriously known to cause filamentous bulking in wastewater treatment systems. Very similar to previous study, one lytic bacteriophage was isolated from wastewater that could infect S. natans and cause lysis. Significant reduction in sludge volume index and turbidity of the supernatant was observed in batches containing S. natans biomass following addition of lytic phages. Microscopic examination confirmed that the isolated lytic phage can trigger the bacteriolysis of S. natans. This extended finding further strengthens our hypothesis of bacteriophage-based biocontrol of overgrowth of filamentous bacteria and the possibility of phage application in activated sludge processes, the world's widely used wastewater treatment processes. PMID:21829092

Choi, Jeongdong; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh

2011-07-01

166

INVESTIGATIONS OF HEAT TREATMENT FOR PAPER MILL SLUDGE CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

The capability of oxidative and nonoxidative heat treatment processes for the conditioning of hydrous sludges originating in pulp and paper industry manufacturing or wastewater treatment operations was defined on the basis of laboratory scale investigation. Sludges employed in th...

167

Sequential modeling of fecal coliform removals in a full-scale activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant using an evolutionary process model induction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an evolutionary process model induction system that is based on the grammar-based genetic programming to automatically discover multivariate dynamic inference models that are able to predict fecal coliform bacteria removals using common process variables instead of directly measuring fecal coliform bacteria concentration in a full-scale municipal activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant. A sequential modeling paradigm is also proposed to

Chang-Won Suh; Joong-Won Lee; Yoon-Seok Timothy Hong; Hang-Sik Shin

2009-01-01

168

Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation. PMID:23500587

Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

2013-02-09

169

Production and Utilization of Methane from Anaerobic Sludge Digestion in US Wastewater-Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this study were: (1) to estimate the energy potential from the anaerobic digestion of municipal sewage sludge, and (2) to assess present digester gas utilization schemes with respect to energy and cost effectiveness. Present use was determine...

1981-01-01

170

Anaerobic granulation technology for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment using granular sludge reactors is a developing technology, in which granular sludge is the core component. So far, around 900 anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide. Although intensive research attention has been given to anaerobic granules in the past 20 years, the mechanisms responsible for anaerobic granulation and the strategy of how to expedite substantially

Yu Liu; Hai-Lou Xu; Kuan-Yeow Show; Joo-Hwa Tay

2002-01-01

171

PCR typing of tetracycline resistance determinants (Tet A–E) in Salmonella enterica serotype Hadar and in the microbial community of activated sludges from hospital and urban wastewater treatment facilities in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants Tet A–E was studied by PCR in 40 tetracycline-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Hadar (S. hadar) isolates collected from human patients in 1996 and 1997, as well as in the microbial community originating from activated sludges of hospital and urban wastewater treatment facilities. A fast DNA extraction and purification method from activated sludges was used

Gilliane Guillaume; Dirk Verbrugge; Marie-Louise Chasseur-Libotte; William Moens; Jean-Marc Collard

2000-01-01

172

Response of anaerobic granular sludge to a shock load of zinc oxide nanoparticles during biological wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in consumer and industrial products highlights a need to understand their potential environmental impacts. In this study, the response of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) to a shock load of ZnO NPs during anaerobic biological wastewater treatment was reported. It was observed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS and the methane production were not significantly influenced at ZnO NPs of 10 and 50 mg per gram of total suspended solids (mg/g-TSS), but they were decreased when the dosage of ZnO NPs was greater than 100 mg/g-TSS. The visualization of EPS structure with multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that ZnO NPs mainly caused the decrease of proteins by 69.6%. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis further indicated that the C-O-C group of polysaccharides and carboxyl group of proteins in EPS were also changed in the presence of ZnO NPs. The decline of EPS induced by ZnO NPs resulted in their deteriorating protective role on the inner microorganisms of AGS, which was in correspondence with the observed lower general physiological activity of AGS and the death of microorganisms. Further investigation showed that the negative influence of ZnO NPs on methane production was due to their severe inhibition on the methanization step. PMID:22587556

Mu, Hui; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Hong; Liu, Kun

2012-05-22

173

Moringa oleifera seeds as a flocculant in waste sludge treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the results of a laboratory based investigation to determine the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seeds as a flocculant for activated sludge treatment are presented. Waste sludge samples are activated sludge from Taman Dr. Tun. Ismail Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment plant, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Moringa oleifera seed was applied as dry powder (shelled blended), solution (shelled blended), and

Suleyman Aremu Muyibi; Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor; Ding Tai Ong; Khor Woon Kai

2001-01-01

174

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The publication describes and evaluates the various municipal sludge combustion systems. It also emphasizes the necessity for considering and evaluating the costs involved in the total sludge management train, including dewatering, combustion, air pollution control, and ash dispo...

175

EVALUATION OF SORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR SELECTED AZO DYES AS PREDICTORS OF FATE IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Azo dyes are of concern because of their widespread production and use and their potential adverse environmental and health impacts. Environmental exposure is normally via aqueous effluents of manufacturing and use industries, and treatment is at municipal wastewater treatment pl...

176

DEWATERING WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE BY CLATHRATE FREEZING: A BENCH-SCALE FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory studies were performed to prove the concept and feasibility for a novel technology to dewater sludges. This involves the formation of solid hydrate crystals of water and specific clathrate-forming agents followed by separation of the hydrate crystal solids from the slu...

177

Toxicity of ionic liquid cations and anions towards activated sewage sludge organisms from different sources -- consequences for biodegradation testing and wastewater treatment plant operation.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted great interest in academia and industry during the last decade. So far, several ILs have been used in technological processes, from small scale to industrial applications, which makes it more and more likely that they will be released into the environment. Researchers have been actively studying the environmental and toxicological behaviour of ILs, but their influence on the activated sludge communities of wastewater treatment plants have yet to be investigated. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap by systematically investigating the influence of ILs on activated sewage sludge communities. We tested the inhibition of activated sludge respiration (according to OECD guideline 209) by a selection of 19 different compounds covering the chemical space of ILs as comprehensively as possible. To elicit the differences in sensitivities/tolerances towards ILs we investigated activated sludge from different domestic and industrial sources. Generally speaking, the structure activity relationships of IL toxicity towards activated sludge are in good agreement with those found for other organisms and test systems. The inhibitory potential of tested ILs substituted with short alkyl chains (? 4) and polar anions was low. On the other hand, the toxic effects of highly hydrophobic ionic cations and anions were greater - IC50 values were low, some < 50 ?M (<10 mg L(-1)). We were able to demonstrate that the EC50 values from Vibrio fischeri can be used for a reliable assessment of the sludge inhibition potential of tested ILs. All the results are discussed in the context of their consequences for biodegradation processes and the performance of wastewater treatment plants. PMID:23561501

Markiewicz, Marta; Piszora, Magdalena; Caicedo, Nelson; Jungnickel, Christian; Stolte, Stefan

2013-03-15

178

Microfiltration of activated sludge wastewater—the effect of system operation parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane or hollow fiber microfiltration is increasingly used with the activated sludge process in conventional wastewater treatment to produce a higher quality effluent. The major problem of such applications is membrane fouling, which has generally been attributed to the high contents of suspended solids in the wastewater. In this study, the operation of an integrated activated sludge bioreactor–membrane microfiltration system

Renbi Bai; H. F. Leow

2002-01-01

179

Cyanide removal from cassava mill wastewater using Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094 with mixed microorganisms in activated sludge treatment system.  

PubMed

Cassava mill wastewater has a high organic and cyanide content and is an important economic product of traditional and rural low technology agro-industry in many parts of the world. However, the wastewater is toxic and can pose serious threat to the environment and aquatic life in the receiving waters. The ability of Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094, a N2-fixing bacterium, to grow and remove cyanide in cassava wastewater was evaluated. Results revealed that the cells in the exponential phase reduce the level of cyanide more rapidly than when the cells are at their stationary growth phase. The rate of cyanide removal by A. vinelandii depends on the initial cyanide concentration. As the initial cyanide concentration increased, removal rate increased and cyanide removal of up to 65.3% was achieved. In the subsequent pilot scale trial involving an activated sludge system, the introduction of A. vinelandii into the system resulted in cyanide removals of up to 90%. This represented an improvement of 20% when compared to the activated sludge system which did not incorporate the strain. PMID:19632039

Kaewkannetra, P; Imai, T; Garcia-Garcia, F J; Chiu, T Y

2009-07-05

180

The effect of chemical composition on the PCT durability of mixed waste glasses from wastewater treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program has been designed to examine the chemical durability of glass compositions derived from the vitrification of simulated wastewater treatment sludges. These sludges represent the majority of low-level mixed wastes currently in need of treatment by the US DOE. The major oxides in these model glasses included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, CaO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, three minor oxides, BaO, NiO, and PbO, were added as hazardous metals. The major oxides were each varied at two levels resulting in 32 experimental glasses. The chemical durability was measured by the 7-Day Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized sodium release rates (NRR{sub Na}) of these glasses ranged from 0.01 to 4.99 g/m{sup 2}. The molar ratio of the glass-former to glass-modifier (F/M) was found to have the greatest effect on PCT durability. Glass-formers included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Na{sub 2}O, CaO, BaO, NiO, and PbO were glass-modifiers. As this ratio increased from 0.75 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} was found to decrease between one and two orders of magnitude. Another important effect on NRR{sub Na} was the Na{sub 2}O/CaO ratio. As this ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} increased up to two orders of magnitude for the glasses with the low F/M ratio but almost no effect was observed for the glasses with the high F/M ratio. Increasing the iron oxide content from 2 to 18 mole% was found to decrease NRR{sub Na} one order of magnitude for the glasses with low F/M but iron had little effect on the glasses with the high F/M ratio. The durability also increased when 10 mole percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was included in low iron oxide glasses but no effect was observed with the high iron glasses. The addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} had little effect on durability. The effects of other composition parameters on durability are discussed as well.

Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-01-25

181

Nitrogen fixation in the activated sludge treatment of thermomechanical pulping wastewater: effect of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-ViroTech, a novel technology which selects for nitrogen-fixing bacteria as the bacteria primarily responsible for carbon removal, has been developed to treat nutrient limited wastewaters to a high quality without the addition of nitrogen, and only minimal addition of phosphorus. Selection of the operating dissolved oxygen level to maximise nitrogen fixation forms a key component of the technology. Pilot scale

A. H. Slade; S. M. Anderson; B. G. Evans

182

Comparison of dye wastewater treatment by normal and anoxic+anaerobic\\/aerobic SBR activated sludge processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the effects of different color intensities, anoxic+anaerobic times and types of substrate on color removal effectiveness were studied using 16-litre bench scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anoxic+anaerobic\\/aerobic models. The systems were fed with a synthetic wastewater containing 500 mg\\/l of COD, 50 mg\\/l of N, 15 mg\\/l of P along with 10, 40 and 80 mg\\/l of

T. Panswad; A. Techovanich; J. Anotai

2001-01-01

183

Sewage Sludge ElectroDewatering Treatment—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of municipal wastewater generates huge amounts of sewage sludge, which contains large quantities of water, biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. It is widely known that sewage sludge usually has a poor dewaterability. A large amount of water in sludge directly translates into high transport and handling costs; therefore, sludge treatment and disposal usually requires over 50% of the operation

Pham-Anh Tuan; Sillanpää Mika; Isosaari Pirjo

2012-01-01

184

[Densification of autotrophic bacteria sludge and its characteristics for wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

Autotrophic granular sludge was developed in an SBR reactor using inorganic carbonal substrate. The variation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) during the densification process and their effects on granulation have been evaluated. It was found that the autotrophic bacteria granular sludge was compact with the density reached up to 1.06 g/mL, and the rod-like bacteria predominated in granules on the evidence of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results. Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in the effluent were 4.5-15.2 mg/L, 10.2-20.3 mg/L and 17.9-30.1 mg/L, respectively, and the ammonia removal efficiency was 78% -92%. By evaluating the profile of various types of nitrogen and their conversion rates, it was found that short settling time was the main factor that enriched the AOB at the beginning of this experiment, and the granulation did not correlate with AOB. On the contrary, nitrification rate well correlated with granulation, and evidence demonstrated that the formation of granulation was in favorate of immoblization of NOB and the metabolite of NOB stabilized granules, therefore granules and NOB mutually enhanced. Additionally, it was found that the autotrophic denitrification was gradually increased with the process of granulation. PMID:20358836

Li, Zhi-hua; Guo, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Zhou-quan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiao-chang

2010-03-01

185

Aerobic biological treatment of thermophilically digested sludge.  

PubMed

Aerobic biological treatment of digested sludge was studied in a continuously operated laboratory set-up. An aerated reactor was filled with thermophilically digested sludge from the Moscow wastewater treatment plant and inoculated with special activated sludge. It was then operated at the chemostat mode at different flow rates. Processes of nitrification and denitrification, as well as dephosphatation, occurred simultaneously during biological aerobic treatment of thermophilically digested sludge. Under optimal conditions, organic matter degradation was 9.6%, the concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and phosphate decreased by 89 and 83%, respectively, while COD decreased by 12%. Dewaterability of digested sludge improved significantly. The processes were found to depend on hydraulic retention time, oxygen regime, and temperature. The optimal conditions were as follows: hydraulic retention time 3-4 days, temperature 30-35 degrees C, dissolved oxygen levels 0.2-0.5 mg/L at continuous aeration or 0.7-1 mg/L at intermittent aeration. Based on these findings, we propose a new combined technology of wastewater sludge treatment. The technology combines two stages: anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic biological treatment of digested sludge. The proposed technology makes it possible to degrade the sludge with conversion of approximately 45% volatile suspended solids to biogas, to improve nitrogen and phosphorus removal in reject water from sludge treatment units, and to achieve removal of malodorous substances after 8-9 days of anaerobic-aerobic sludge treatment. PMID:21977658

Kevbrina, M V; Nikolaev, Y A; Danilovich, D A; Vanyushina, A Ya

2011-01-01

186

Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators. PMID:17331640

Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

2007-02-03

187

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: Isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and\\/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances

S. Bala Subramanian; S. Yan; R. D. Tyagi; R. Y. Surampalli

2010-01-01

188

Nocardioides daeguensis sp. nov., a nitrate-reducing bacterium isolated from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain 2C1-5(T)) was isolated from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant in Daegu, South Korea. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the closest phylogenetic relatives were the type strains of Nocardioides nitrophenolicus (98.6?% similarity), N. kongjuensis (98.5?%), N. caeni (98.4?%), N. simplex (98.3?%), N. aromaticivorans (98.1?%) and N. ginsengisoli (97.5?%); the phylogenetic distance from other species with validly published names within the genus Nocardioides was greater than 3?%. Strain 2C1-5(T) was characterized chemotaxonomically as having ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C16?:?0, C16?:?0 and C17?:?1?6c as the major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 74.9 mol%. These chemotaxonomic properties and phenotypic characteristics supported the affiliation of strain 2C1-5(T) to the genus Nocardioides. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain 2C1-5(T) from existing species with validly published names. Therefore, strain 2C1-5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides daeguensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 2C1-5(T) (?=?JCM 17460(T)?=?KCTC 19799(T)). PMID:23645020

Cui, Yingshun; Woo, Sung-Geun; Lee, Jangho; Sinha, Sahastranshu; Kang, Myung-Suk; Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Park, Joonhong; Lee, Myungjin; Lee, Sung-Taik

2013-05-03

189

Biological treatment of meat industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work aimed to determine the effectiveness of the treatment of wastewater generated by the meat industry in a hybrid system combining biological methods of activated sludge (in an SBR reactor) and reverse osmosis. The tests carried out on the wastewater from the meat processing plant Uni-Lang in Wrzosowa showed that the biological treatment resulted in sufficient removal of contaminants

Ewa Sroka; Wladys?aw Kami?ski; Jolanta Bohdziewicz

2004-01-01

190

Industrial flue gas desulfurization waste may offer an opportunity to facilitate SANI® application for significant sludge minimization in freshwater wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This paper reports an exploratory study on the use of a sulfite-rich industrial effluent to enable the integration of a sulfite-sulfide-sulfate cycle to the conventional carbon and nitrogen cycles in wastewater treatment to achieve sludge minimization through the non-sludge-producing Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitri?cation and Nitri?cation Integrated (SANI) process. A laboratory-scale sulfite reduction reactor was set up for treating sulfite-rich synthetic wastewater simulating the wastewater from industrial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) units. The results indicated that the sulfite reduction reactor can be started up within 11 d, which was much faster than that using sulfate. Thiosulfate was found to be the major sulfite reduction intermediate, accounting for about 30% of the total reduced sulfur in the reactor effluent, which may enable additional footprint reduction of the autotrophic denitrification reactor in the SANI process. This study indicated that it was possible to make use of the FGD effluent for applying the FGD-SANI process in treating freshwater-based sewage. PMID:23787323

Qian, J; Jiang, F; Chui, H K; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, G H

2013-01-01

191

Removal of dissolved Zn(II) using coal mine drainage sludge: implications for acidic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The mechanism for the removal of Zn(II) by using coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) was investigated by spectroscopic analysis and observations of batch tests using model materials. Zeta potential analysis showed that CMDS(25) (dried at 25 °C) and CMDS(550) (dried at 550 °C) had a much lower isoelectric point of pH (pH(IEP)) than either goethite or calcite, which are the main constituents of CMDS. This indicates that the negatively charged anion (sulfate) was incorporated into the structural networks and adsorbed on the surface of CMDS via outer-sphere complexation. The removal of Zn(II) by CMDS was thought to be primarily caused by sulfate-complexed iron (oxy)hydroxide and calcite. In particular, the electrostatic attraction of the negatively charged functional group, FeOH-SO(4)(2-), to the dissolved Zn(II) could provide high removal efficiencies over a wide pH range. Thermodynamic modeling and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated that ZnSO(4) is the dominant species in the pH range 3-7 as the sulfate complexes with the hydroxyl groups, whereas the precipitation of Zn(II) as ZnCO(3) or Zn(5)(CO(3))(2) (OH)(6) through the dissolution of calcite is the dominant mechanism in the pH range 7-9.6. PMID:23295677

Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Cannon, Fred S; Na, Seunmin; Khim, Jeehyeong; Park, Jae Kwang

2013-01-05

192

Comparison of dye wastewater treatment by normal and anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic SBR activated sludge processes.  

PubMed

In this research, the effects of different color intensities, anoxic + anaerobic times and types of substrate on color removal effectiveness were studied using 16-litre bench scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic models. The systems were fed with a synthetic wastewater containing 500 mg/l of COD, 50 mg/l of N, 15 mg/l of P along with 10, 40 and 80 mg/l of reactive diazo Remazol Black B dye. The anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic periods were 0/11 (normal aerobic SBR), 2/9, 4/7 and 8/3 hours, respectively. The color removal occurred mainly under the anaerobic environment, while a slight attenuation was noticed under the aerobic condition. A better decolorization could be achieved with a longer anoxic + anaerobic period. The sodium acetate was a slightly better co-substrate for the color removal than glucose. The decolorization efficiency dwindled as the fed dye concentration increased, but the overall color removal leaned in the opposite direction. The phosphorus removal of the anoxic + anaerobic/aerobic systems was outstanding, whereas only 50% removal was achieved for the aerobic process. A dye concentration of up to 80 mg/l did not have any significant impact on the performance of the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). The removal of organic carbon and TKN was comparable among all experiments regardless of system configurations, color intensities and types of substrate. PMID:11380203

Panswad, T; Techovanich, A; Anotai, J

2001-01-01

193

Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of indicators that incorporate environmental, societal, and economic sustainability were developed and used to investigate the sustainability of different wastewater treatment technologies, for plant capacities of 5 million gallons per day (MGD) or 18.9×103 cubic meters (m3\\/day). The technologies evaluated were mechanical (i.e., activated sludge with secondary treatment), lagoon (facultative, anaerobic, and aerobic), and land treatment systems (e.g.,

Helen E. Muga; James R. Mihelcic

2008-01-01

194

Kinetics of Wet Oxidation of Biological Sludges from Coal-Conversion Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustible organics in aqueous solutions or suspensions, which are characteristic of waste treatment effluent from coal liquefaction, may be treatable by wet oxidation. The wet oxidation of model compounds (phenol in water or phenol in municipal waste sl...

R. K. Helling M. K. Strobel R. J. Torres

1981-01-01

195

Treatment of winery effluent with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) – granular sludges enriched with Enterobacter sakazakii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three upflow anaerobic sludge blankets (UASBs) were evaluated for the treatment of winery wastewater: the first was seeded with granular sludge enriched with Enterobacter sakazakii and reached a 90% COD removal within 17 d at hydraulic retention time of 24 h; the second was seeded with brewery granules and achieved 85% COD removal within 50 d, the third was seeded with just sludge

M. Keyser; R. C. Witthuhn; L.-C. Ronquest; T. J. Britz

2003-01-01

196

Quantification of Hyphomicrobium Populations in Activated Sludge from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment System as Determined by 16S rRNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

The bacterial community structure of the activated sludge from a 25 million-gal-per-day industrial wastewater treatment plant was investigated using rRNA analysis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries were created from three sludge samples taken on different dates. Partial rRNA gene sequences were obtained for 46 rDNA clones, and nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for 18 clones. Seventeen of these clones were members of the beta subdivision, and their sequences showed high homology to sequences of known bacterial species as well as published 16S rDNA sequences from other activated sludge sources. Sixteen clones belonged to the alpha subdivision, 7 of which showed similarity to Hyphomicrobium species. This cluster was chosen for further studies due to earlier work on Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 isolated from this treatment plant. A nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequence was obtained from Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 was 99% similar to Hyphomicrobium denitrificans DSM 1869T in Hyphomicrobium cluster II. Three of the cloned sequences from the activated sludge samples also grouped with those of Hyphomicrobium cluster II, with a 96% sequence similarity to that of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. The other four cloned sequences from the activated sludge sample were more closely related to those of the Hyphomicrobium cluster I organisms (95 to 97% similarity). Whole-cell fluorescence hybridization of microorganisms in the activated sludge with genus-specific Hyphomicrobium probe S-G-Hypho-1241-a-A-19 enhanced the visualization of Hyphomicrobium and revealed that Hyphomicrobium appears to be abundant both on the outside of flocs and within the floc structure. Dot blot hybridization of activated sludge samples from 1995 with probes designed for Hyphomicrobium cluster I and Hyphomicrobium cluster II indicated that Hyphomicrobium cluster II-positive 16S rRNA dominated over Hyphomicrobium cluster I-positive 16S rRNA by 3- to 12-fold. Hyphomicrobium 16S rRNA comprised approximately 5% of the 16S rRNA in the activated sludge.

Layton, A. C.; Karanth, P. N.; Lajoie, C. A.; Meyers, A. J.; Gregory, I. R.; Stapleton, R. D.; Taylor, D. E.; Sayler, G. S.

2000-01-01

197

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater, Sediments, Sludge and Plants in Karak Province, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis for sixteen types of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)from samples of raw and treated wastewater, sediments, sludge andplants growing along treated wastewater way was performed inOctober 1997. The collection sites represent two wastewatertreatment plants (WWTP) receiving different types of wastewaterand one site from disposal of raw wastewater in the city ofKarak in southern Jordan.Wastewater treatment efficiency showed removal of PAHs

Anwar Jiries; Helmi Hussain; Jutta Lintelmann

2000-01-01

198

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Schwing, Carl M.

199

Evaluation of sorption isotherms for selected azo dyes as predictors of fate in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes are of concern to environmental regulators because of the widespread production and utilization of these compounds as well as their potential adverse impact to environmental and human health. The typical line of defense between a dye-laden effluent and a receiving stream, river or other body of water is an aerobic biological wastewater treatment plant; hence the need for

R. J. Lieberman; G. M. Shaul; C. R. Dempsey; K. A. Dostal

1988-01-01

200

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Schwing, Carl M.

201

The Microbial Database for Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal (MiDas-DK) - a tool for understanding activated sludge population dynamics and community stability.  

PubMed

Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called 'The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)'. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected, analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge ecosystems, and, besides many scientific articles on fundamental issues on mixed communities encompassing nitrifiers, denitrifiers, bacteria involved in P-removal, hydrolysis, fermentation, and foaming, the project has provided results that can be used to optimize the operation of full-scale plants and carry out trouble-shooting. A core microbial community has been defined comprising the majority of microorganisms present in the plants. Time series have been established, providing an overview of temporal variations in the different plants. Interestingly, although most microorganisms were present in all plants, there seemed to be plant-specific factors that controlled the population composition thereby keeping it unique in each plant over time. Statistical analyses of FISH and operational data revealed some correlations, but less than expected. MiDas-DK (www.midasdk.dk) will continue over the next years and we hope the approach can inspire others to make similar projects in other parts of the world to get a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities in wastewater engineering. PMID:23752384

Mielczarek, A T; Saunders, A M; Larsen, P; Albertsen, M; Stevenson, M; Nielsen, J L; Nielsen, P H

2013-01-01

202

Oxidative treatment of digested sewage sludge with ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process to improve anaerobic biodegradation of wastewater treatment sludges is investigated. Recalcitrant organic compounds which are contained in biologically stabilized digested sludge become biodegradable by partial oxidation using ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide respectively. By oxidation with ozone, cell walls of microorganisms were destroyed and cytoplasm dissolved in sludge water. Water insoluble substances with high molecular

A. Scheminski; R. Krull; D. C. Hempel

203

Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35°C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918m3\\/tVSadded), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the

S. Luostarinen; S. Luste; M. Sillanpää

2009-01-01

204

High energy electron beam irradiation of water, wastewater and sludge  

SciTech Connect

Research on the use of high energy electrons for treating water, wastewater and wastewater sludge has been under way for approximately twenty years. Much of this work has been supported by the National Science Foundation and an overview of that support has been reported on by Bryan. The results of recent work, especially the most recent project at the Miami Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF), has stimulated great interest in the area of utilizing this technology for treating environmental problems. This facility is located at the Miami Dade Central District (Virginia Key) Wastewater Treatment Plant in Miami, Florida, and is unique in that it is the only electron beam system set up for large scale treatment of wastewater. High energy electron beam irradiation as a treatment process has potential application in many areas of water, wastewater and industrial waste treatment and in the area of toxic/hazardous waste disposal. This chapter will discuss these applications and present selected results to date. Electron beam technology is described and the underlying chemistry is reviewed to provide a basis for interpretation of results obtained so far, and to point out the necessary information on water quality that is required to quantitatively describe the effectiveness of the process. 55 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.J. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

1991-12-31

205

Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Wastewater and Sludge of Poultry Slaughterhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotimicrobial resistance was investigated in 537 Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered from 22 samples of crude inflow, treated effluent and sludge collected in wastewater treatment plants of eight poultry slaughterhouses of Portugal. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in the resistance to each antimicrobial agent with regards to the origin of the sample (inflow, sludge and effluent). Many of

PAULO M. MARTINS DA COSTA; PAULO M. VAZ-PIRES; FERNANDO M. BERNARDO

2006-01-01

206

Characterization and biological treatment of pickling industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pickling industry wastewaters present unique difficulties in biological treatment because of high salt content (3-6% salt). Conventional activated sludge cultures disintegrate or loose microbial activity as a result of plasmolysis at salt concentrations above 1%. In order to overcome adverse effects of salt in pickling wastewater, salt tolerant bacteria (Halobacter halobium) was added to activated sludge culture and used in

F. Kargi; A. R. Dinçer; A. Pala

2000-01-01

207

Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550°C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control

Mustafa K. Hossain; Vladimir Strezov; K. Yin Chan; Peter F. Nelson

2010-01-01

208

Anaerobic treatment of vegetable tannery wastewaters: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic process is a very attractive solution for the treatment of highly loaded wastewaters, due to low sludge production and energy consumption; nevertheless, its application to tannery wastewater shows several drawbacks due to the complexity of the chemical composition. The objective of this paper is to summarize recent research efforts in the field of anaerobic treatment of tannery wastewaters.Primary

Alberto Mannucci; Giulio Munz; Gualtiero Mori; Claudio Lubello

2010-01-01

209

POLYELECTROLYTE CONDITIONING FOR IRON-HYDROXIDE-CONTAINING SLUDGE PRODUCED FROM ELECTROFLOCCULATION OF FERMENTATION WASTEWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the application of chemical conditioning method for the post-electroflocculation wastewater sludge treatment with polyelectrolytes of varying ionic characters, namely anionic, cationic and nonionic flocculating agents. Electroflocculation, a combination of the processes of electroflotation and electroprecipitation, was found effective to remove the organic and color components in monosodium glutamate fermentation wastewater. The settleability

Wen-Jang Chen; Tson-Nan Chen; Yang-Chu Cheng

2002-01-01

210

Upgrading of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant by adding a moving bed biofilm reactor as pre-treatment and ozonation followed by biofiltration for enhanced COD reduction: design and operation experience.  

PubMed

A paper mill producing 500,000 ton of graphic paper annually has an on-site wastewater treatment plant that treats 7,240,000 m³ of wastewater per year, mechanically first, then biologically and at last by ozonation. Increased paper production capacity led to higher COD load in the mill effluent while production of higher proportions of brighter products gave worse biodegradability. Therefore the biological capacity of the WWTP needed to be increased and extra measures were necessary to enhance the efficiency of COD reduction. The full scale implementation of one MBBR with a volume of 1,230 m³ was accomplished in 2000 followed by another MBBR of 2,475 m³ in 2002. An ozonation step with a capacity of 75 kg O?/h was added in 2004 to meet higher COD reduction demands during the production of brighter products and thus keeping the given outflow limits. Adding a moving bed biofilm reactor prior to the existing activated sludge step gives: (i) cost advantages when increasing biological capacity as higher COD volume loads of MBBRs allow smaller reactors than usual for activated sludge plants; (ii) a relief of strain from the activated sludge step by biological degradation in the MBBR; (iii) equalizing of peaks in the COD load and toxic effects before affecting the activated sludge step; (iv) a stable volume sludge index below 100 ml/g in combination with an optimization of the activated sludge step allows good sludge separation--an important condition for further treatment with ozone. Ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration pre-treated waste water provide: (i) reduction of hard COD unobtainable by conventional treatment; (ii) controllable COD reduction in a very wide range and therefore elimination of COD-peaks; (iii) reduction of treatment costs by combination of ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration; (iv) decrease of the color in the ozonated wastewater. The MBBR step proved very simple to operate as part of the biological treatment. Excellent control of the COD-removal rate in the ozone step allowed for economical usage and therefore acceptable operation costs in relation to the paper production. PMID:21099060

Kaindl, Nikolaus

2010-01-01

211

Cultivation and characterization of bacterial isolates capable of degrading pharmaceutical and personal care products for improved removal in activated sludge wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are an emerging surface water quality concern. Biological transformation has been identified as an important removal mechanism during wastewater treatment. The aim of this research was the identification of bacteria with characteristics for potential bioaugmentation to enhance PPCP removal. We report here the cultivation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading PPCPs to ng/L concentrations. An isolation approach was developed using serial enrichment in mineral medium containing 1 mg/L of an individual PPCP as the sole organic carbon source available to heterotrophs until the original activated sludge inocula was diluted to ~10(-8) of its initial concentration, followed by colony growth on solid R2A agar. Eleven bacteria were isolated, eight that could remove triclosan, bisphenol A, ibuprofen, or 17?-estradiol to below 10 ng/L, one that could remove gemfibrozil to below 60 ng/L, and two that could remove triclosan or E2, but not to ng/L concentrations. Most bacterial isolates degraded contaminants during early growth when grown utilizing rich carbon sources and were only able to degrade the PPCPs on which they were isolated. Seven of the bacterial isolates were sphingomonads, including all the triclosan and bisphenol A degraders and the ibuprofen degrader. The study results indicate that the isolated bacteria may have a positive influence on removal in WWTPs if present at sufficient concentrations and may be useful for bioaugmentation. PMID:23455956

Zhou, Nicolette A; Lutovsky, April C; Andaker, Greta L; Gough, Heidi L; Ferguson, John F

2013-02-28

212

Treatment of domestic wastewater in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by moving bed biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The performance of a laboratory-scale sewage treatment system composed of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at a temperature of (22-35 degrees C) was evaluated. The entire treatment system was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT's) of 13.3, 10 and 5.0 h. An overall reduction of 80-86% for COD(total); 51-73% for COD(colloidal) and 20-55% for COD(soluble) was found at a total HRT of 5-10 h, respectively. By prolonging the HRT to 13.3 h, the removal efficiencies of COD(total), COD(colloidal) and COD(soluble) increased up to 92, 89 and 80%, respectively. However, the removal efficiency of COD(suspended) in the combined system remained unaffected when increasing the total HRT from 5 to 10 h and from 10 to 13.3 h. This indicates that, the removal of COD(suspended) was independent on the imposed HRT. Ammonia-nitrogen removal in MBBR treating UASB reactor effluent was significantly influenced by organic loading rate (OLR). 62% of ammonia was eliminated at OLR of 4.6 g COD m(-2) day(-1). The removal efficiency was decreased by a value of 34 and 43% at a higher OLR's of 7.4 and 17.8 g COD m(-2) day(-1), respectively. The mean overall residual counts of faecal coliform in the final effluent were 8.9 x 10(4) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 13.3 h, 4.9 x 10(5) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 10 h and 9.4 x 10(5) MPN per 100 ml at a HRT of 5.0 h, corresponding to overall log(10) reduction of 2.3, 1.4 and 0.7, respectively. The discharged sludge from UASB-MBBR exerts an excellent settling property. Moreover, the mean value of the net sludge yield was only 6% in UASB reactor and 7% in the MBBR of the total influent COD at a total HRT of 13.3 h. Accordingly, the use of the combined UASB-MBBR system for sewage treatment is recommended at a total HRT of 13.3 h. PMID:19404682

Tawfik, A; El-Gohary, F; Temmink, H

2009-04-30

213

Alternatives for energy production in aerobic wastewater treatment facilities.  

PubMed

Using technologies such as anaerobic digestion for energy generation from wastewater demands a change in infrastructure that several treatment works are not prepared to immediately implement. This works explores the use of energy production technologies to increase the sustainability of conventional aerobic wastewater treatment plants. The first option considered sludge (a by-product from wastewater treatment) as raw material for biodiesel production as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). The second option consisted of the addition of microalgae during aerobic wastewater treatment and subsequent harvesting of combined microalgae-sludge to produce biodiesel. Results showed that microalgae were able to grow in aerobic wastewater treatment reactors, reaching maximum growth after 6 days. The use of microalgae did not statistically affect chemical oxygen demand removal but provided benefits on ammonia removal (100% removal vs 68 ± 9% when microalgae were not added). Activated sludge contained fewer lipids (13 ± 3%, by dry weight) than the microalgae-sludge mixture (20.8 ± 4.5%). Hence, FAME production when using microalgae-sludge was higher (51.12 ± 12 mg of FAME/g of dry microalgae-sludge) than when using activated sludge (25.6 ± 7 mg of FAME/g of dry activated sludge). This work showed that producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in conjunction with bacteria during aerobic wastewater treatment can reduce energy use and carbon emissions produced by 18.6 and 26.5%, respectively. PMID:23787329

Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B

2013-01-01

214

Sludge treatment studies  

SciTech Connect

Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

1997-06-01

215

A Combined Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion Model (CASADM) to understand the role of anaerobic sludge recycling in wastewater treatment plant performance.  

PubMed

The Combined Activated Sludge-Anaerobic Digestion Model (CASADM) quantifies the effects of recycling anaerobic-digester (AD) sludge on the performance of a hybrid activated sludge (AS)-AD system. The model includes nitrification, denitrification, hydrolysis, fermentation, methanogenesis, and production/utilization of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). A CASADM example shows that, while effluent COD and N are not changed much by hybrid operation, the hybrid system gives increased methane production in the AD and decreased sludge wasting, both caused mainly by a negative actual solids retention time in the hybrid AD. Increased retention of biomass and EPS allows for more hydrolysis and conversion to methane in the hybrid AD. However, fermenters and methanogens survive in the AS, allowing significant methane production in the settler and thickener of both systems, and AD sludge recycle makes methane formation greater in the hybrid system. PMID:23567682

Young, Michelle N; Marcus, Andrew K; Rittmann, Bruce E

2013-03-07

216

Wastewater Sludge Pretreatment for Enhancing Entomotoxicity Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Wastewater sludge is a complex raw material for fermentation and requires pre-treatment in order to transform less biodegradable\\u000a compounds into more easily degradable ones. In this study, sludge was treated by thermo-alkaline and oxidative pre-treatment\\u000a methods and subjected to Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation in bench scale fermentors under controlled conditions. Thermo-alkaline treatment was found to be an effective\\u000a process in order

Abdessalem Yezza; Rajeshwar D. Tyagi; José R. Valéro; Rao Y. Surampalli

2005-01-01

217

Electroplating Plant Operating Conditions Related to Wastewater Sludge Leachability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to characterize the operating variables and wastewater sludges from six electroplating plants conducting a wide variety of plating operations so that the information developed would be applicable on an industry-wide basis...

A. Procko E. Handel M. Moskowitz

1983-01-01

218

The survival of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and enterobacteriaceae in general in soil treated with sludge from wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We monitored the effect of the application of treated sludge on the behaviour of enterobacteriaceae (mainly faecal coliforms and especially Escherichia coli) in the soil, and studied their evolution over time after application. Three different sludges were used: two from a municipal sewage plant, one of them had been subjected to anaerobic digestion and heat drying, and the other to

I. B. Estrada; A. Aller; F. Aller; X. Gómez; A. Morán

2004-01-01

219

Filtration properties of activated sludge in municipal MBR wastewater treatment plants are related to microbial community structure.  

PubMed

In the conventional activated sludge process, a number of important parameters determining the efficiency of settling and dewatering are often linked to specific groups of bacteria in the sludge - namely floc size, residual turbidity, shear sensitivity and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In membrane bioreactors (MBRs) the nature of solids separation at the membrane has much in common with sludge dewaterability but less is known about the effect of specific microbial groups on the sludge characteristics that affect this process. In this study, six full-scale MBR plants were investigated to identify correlations between sludge filterability, sludge characteristics, and microbial community structure. The microbial community structure was described by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and sludge filterability by a low-pressure filtration method. A strong correlation between the degree of flocculation (ratio between floc size and residual turbidity) and sludge filterability at low pressure was found. A good balance between EPS and cations in the sludge correlated with good flocculation, relatively large sludge flocs, and low amounts of small particles and single cells in the bulk phase (measured as residual turbidity), all leading to a good filterability. Floc properties could also be linked to the microbial community structure. Bacterial species forming strong microcolonies such as Nitrospira and Accumulibacter were present in plants with good flocculation and filtration properties, while few strong microcolonies and many filamentous bacteria in the plants correlated with poor flocculation and filtration problems. In conclusion this study extends the hitherto accepted perception that plant operation affects floc properties which affects fouling. Additionally, plant operation also affects species composition, which affects floc properties and in the end fouling propensity. PMID:24094729

Bugge, Thomas V; Larsen, Poul; Saunders, Aaron M; Kragelund, Caroline; Wybrandt, Lisbeth; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten L; Nielsen, Per H

2013-09-12

220

Destruction and formation of PCDD/Fs in a fluidised bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue with refuse derived fuel and wastewater treatment sludge.  

PubMed

During an eight day trial automotive shredder residue (ASR) was added to the usual waste feed of a Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) for waste-to-energy conversion; the input waste mix consisted of 25% ASR, 25% refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and 50% wastewater treatment (WWT) sludge. All inputs and outputs were sampled and the concentration of the 17 PCDD/Fs with TEF-values was determined in order to obtain "PCDD/F fingerprints". The ASR contained approximately 9000 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), six times more than the RDF and 10 times more than the WWT sludge. The fingerprint of ASR and RDF was dominated by HpCDD and OCDD, which accounted for 90% of the total PDDD/F content, whereas the WWT sludge contained relatively more HpCDFs and OCDF (together 70%). The flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR) and fly and boiler ash contained approximately 30,000 and 2500 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), respectively. The fingerprints of these outputs were also dominated by HpCDFs and OCDF. The bottom ash contained only OCDD and OCDF, in total 8 ng PCDD/Fs/kg (DW). From the comparison of the bottom ash fingerprints with the fingerprints of the other output fractions and of the inputs, it could be concluded that the PCDD/Fs in the waste were destroyed and new PCDD/Fs were formed in the post combustion process by de novo synthesis. During the ASR-co-incineration, the PCDD/F congener concentrations in the fly and boiler ash, FGCR and flue gas were 1.25-10 times higher compared to the same output fractions generated during incineration of the usual waste mix (70% RDF and 30% WWT sludge). The concentration of the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased most. As these congeners have the lowest TEF-factors, the total PCDD/F output, expressed in kg TEQ/year, of the FBC did not increase significantly when ASR was co-incinerated. Due to the relatively high copper levels in the ASR, the copper concentrations in the FBCs outputs increased. As copper catalysis the de novo syntheses, this could explain the increase in PCDD/F concentrations in these outputs. PMID:21621915

Van Caneghem, J; Vermeulen, I; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

2011-04-21

221

Ultrasound Applications in Wastewater Sludge Pretreatment: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal wastewater sludge, particularly waste activated sludge (WAS), is more difficult to digest than primary solids due to a rate-limiting cell lysis step. The cell wall and the membrane of prokaryotes are composed of complex organic materials such as peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, and complex polysaccharides, which are not readily biodegradable. Physical pretreatment, particularly ultrasonics, is emerging as a popular method

Samir Kumar Khanal; David Grewell; Shihwu Sung; J. van Leeuwen

2007-01-01

222

SEPARATION OF METALS IN WASTEWATER SLUDGE BY CENTRIFUGAL CLASSIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Municipal wastewater sludges frequently contain undesirably high concentrations of heavy metals and/or organic pollutants which interfere with beneficial use of sludge on farmland and with some disposal practices such as ocean disposal. Centrifugal classification is a low-cost pr...

223

Rheological Behavior of Wastewater Sludge Following Cationic Polyelectrolyte Flocculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological characteristics of the wastewater sludge were investigated by using a Haake Rheostress RS 75 rheometer. The shear creep compliance experiments and the dynamic viscosity measurements were conducted. The shear creep compliance experiments indicate the addition of polymer coagulants to the sludge samples will form more rigid structures. The elastic solid-like behaviors were always observed in the samples with

Bing-Hung Chen; Sue-Jean Lee; D. J. Lee; L. Spinosa

2006-01-01

224

Wastewater Sludge as a New Medium for Rhizobial Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to demonstrate that municipal and industrial wastewater sludges could be used as a sole raw material to sustain growth of rhizobia. Growth of two different groups of rhizobium (fast growing: Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae; and slow growing: Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii) was tested on primary, secondary and mixed sludges obtained from

FAOUZI BEN REBAH; RAJESHWAR D. TYAGI; DANIELLE PRÉVOST

2002-01-01

225

Optimization of the Proportion of the Activated Sludge Irradiated with Low-Intensity Ultrasound for Improving the Quality of Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of irradiated sludge for the enhancement of the biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater\\u000a by low-intensity ultrasound was optimized through contrast experiment between two anaerobic–aerobic–anoxic–aerobic sequencing\\u000a batch reactors ((AO)2SBR) with and without ultrasound. Ultrasound with the intensity of 0.2 W?cm?2 was employed to irradiate a certain proportion of the condensed sludge in one of the (AO)2SBRs for 10 min

Beizhen Xie; Hong Liu

2011-01-01

226

Parasitic contamination in wastewater and sludge samples in Tunisia using three different detection techniques.  

PubMed

The limited availability of water results in the reuse of wastewater or sludge. The Tunisian wastewater regulatory guidelines have specific limits for ova of helminths (<1 egg/l) but none for protozoan parasites. We assessed the presence and loads of parasites in 20 samples of raw, treated wastewater and sludge collected from six wastewater treatment plants. Samples were tested by microscopy using the modified Bailenger method (MBM), immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by immunofluorescent assay microscopy, and PCR and sequence analysis for the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The seven samples of raw wastewater had a high diversity of helminth and protozoa contamination. Giardia spp., Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris spp., Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia saginata were detected by MBM, and protozoan loads were greater than helminth loads. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also detected by IMS microscopy and PCR. Six of the eight samples of treated wastewater had parasites: helminths (n = 1), Cryptosporidium (n = 1), Giardia (n = 4), and Entamoeba (n = 4). Four of five samples of sludge had microscopically detectable parasites, and all had both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were of both human and animal origin. These findings suggest that it may be important to monitor the presence of protozoan parasites in treated wastewater and sludge in Tunisia. PMID:20352447

Khouja, Layla Ben Ayed; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua

2010-03-30

227

High energy electron beam irradiation of water, wastewater and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the use of high energy electrons for treating water, wastewater and wastewater sludge has been under way for approximately twenty years. Much of this work has been supported by the National Science Foundation and an overview of that support has been reported on by Bryan. The results of recent work, especially the most recent project at the Miami

C. N. Kurucz; T. D. Waite; W. J. Cooper; M. J. Nickelsen

1991-01-01

228

Dye Removal from Textile Dye Wastewater Using Recycled Alum Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh

W Chu

2001-01-01

229

Simulation study supporting wastewater treatment plant upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study where upgrading of an existing wastewater treatment plant was supported by simulation. The aim of the work was to decide between two technologies to improve nitrogen removal: a conventional activated sludge process (ASP) and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). To perform simulations, the mathematical models of both processes were designed. The models were calibrated

N. Hvala; D. Vrecko; O. Burica; M. Strazar; M. Levstek

230

HEALTH EFFECTS OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Data obtained as part of a comprehensive community health study conducted during 1965-1971 were utilized to examine the incidence of acute illness in a population surrounding an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and a control location in Tecumseh, Michigan. Study partic...

231

SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 1. SLUDGE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: lime stabilization, anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, thermal sludge conditioning, thickening, dewatering, and landfilling. The discussion of each ...

232

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Guide to Biosolids Sampling Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a sampling plan should be the first step in the implementation of a wellrun sampling program. This guidance document is intended to help wastewater treatment plant operators develop a comprehensive sludge (or biosolids) sampling plan. U...

2006-01-01

233

Fluidized Bed Clarification as Applied to Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental study of the application of a fluidized sludge blanket clarifier to the coagulation and separation of wastewater solids was made to determine the effects of controlled process variables on the treatment achieved. Experiments using alum and...

J. C. Orcutt

1972-01-01

234

Effect of temperature and organic nutrients on the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) during the composting of anaerobically digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Limits on the application of biosolids (anaerobically processed sludges from wastewater treatment plants) as fertilizers for the amendment of soil are becoming greater because of the accumulation of recalcitrant substances, making necessary the use of techniques that bring the concentration of xenobiotics to lower concentrations than those permitted. In general, the biosolids composting process is sufficient to reduce the usual concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to low levels. In this work, an assessment is made on the effect of temperature in the capacity of enriched bacterial populations to biodegrade LAS, together with the influence that the available nutrients may have in the biodegradation of these compounds. The results show that the microbial metabolism of LAS was not observed in the thermophilic range. The optimum temperature for the biodegradation of LAS appears to be around 40 degrees C, this is, the lowest assayed here, and at this temperature the differences in the biodegradation of LAS among the nutritionally supplemented cultures are small. PMID:16298520

Sanz, E; Prats, D; Rodríguez, M; Camacho, A

2005-11-18

235

Assessment of characteristics and biological treatment technologies of Jordanian wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for wastewater treatment facilities will increase as Jordan's population grows. In addition, currently available systems of treatment desperately need upgrades in capacity or supplementary systems; especially in the Amman-Zarqa region. Overall; based on the current wastewater flow rates; approximately 85% of the collected sewerage is treated in stabilization ponds, 10% in trickling filters, and 5% in activated sludge systems.

A. I. Jamrah

1999-01-01

236

State of the art of biogranulation technology for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogranulation technology developed for wastewater treatment includes anaerobic and aerobic granulation processes. Anaerobic granulation is relatively well known, but research on aerobic granulation commenced only recently. Many full-scale anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide, but no report exists of similar units for aerobic granulation. This paper reviews the fundamentals and applications of biogranulation technology in wastewater treatment. Aspects

Yu Liu; Joo-Hwa Tay

2004-01-01

237

Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

2009-01-01

238

Study of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria from wastewater treatment systems treating acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene resin wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the population of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria in three biological wastewater treatment systems treating acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS) resin wastewater. In addition to isolating and identifying these bacteria, we examined the physiological properties of the isolates, particularly utilization of acrylonitrile and its derivatives. An enrichment process was employed to isolate heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria from sludge

T.-L. Hu; K. T. Kung

2000-01-01

239

Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A., III; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

2010-01-01

240

Treatment of tannery wastewater through the combination of a conventional activated sludge process and reverse osmosis with a plane membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannery wastewater contains high concentrations of organic matter (COD) with a significant percentage of refractory organic compounds, ammonium substances, salts (i.e. chloride and sulphate) as well as sulphur. Contaminants have to be removed in order to avoid significant environmental impacts. This paper presents the results obtained from a pilot scale study developed in the tannery district of Solofra in Southern

Sabino De Gisi; Maurizio Galasso; Giovanni De Feo

2009-01-01

241

Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.  

PubMed

This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater. PMID:21322643

Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

2011-02-15

242

Novel technique for internal structure and elemental distribution analyses of granular sludge from reactors for wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A novel technique for internal structure and elemental distribution analyses of granular sludge is presented. Sludge samples were freeze-dried and embedded in epoxy resin to form a module, which were then ground and polished to obtain sequential cross-sections. The cross-sections were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). SEM observations showed that one granule was formed having several cores with different inorganic minerals, rather than a single core. EDX results indicate that the main elements of the granules are O, Ca, Mg, and P. In addition, the distribution areas of calcium and magnesium in the granule do not coincide. PMID:23160739

Cao, Xiaolei; Cao, Hongbin; Sheng, Yuxing; You, Haixia; Zhang, Yi

2012-11-18

243

Effects of ionizing radiation in wastewater treatment and residuals processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and pilot scale tests were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying ionizing radiation technology as a means to enhance overall operation at an activated sludge wastewater treatment facility with residuals processing. Effects of ionizing radiation were investigated with respect to applications of bulking control, thickening enhancement, and anaerobic stabilization. Irradiation induced permanent effects in several sludge parameters including

Daniel Eduardo Meeroff

2001-01-01

244

Enrichment of Anammox bacteria in seed sludges from different wastewater treating processes and start-up of Anammox process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three seed sludges (sludge A, B and C) were collected from various wastewater treatment processes. Then they were inoculated in Reactor A, B and C in parallel. After 67days of operation, only Reactor A successfully started up the Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) process, while the other two reactors failed. The Anammox activity was observed within 49days and a final nitrogen

Tao Wang; Hanmin Zhang; Dawen Gao; Fenglin Yang; Shuai Yang; Tao Jiang; Guangyi Zhang

2011-01-01

245

Alternative Flotation Techniques for Wastewater Treatment: Focus on Electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades (dissolved-air) flotation has found several applications in water and wastewater treatment. Flocculation is generally required in advance for a satisfactory separation and a membrane process is often applied downstream. Examples from the literature given in the present review include heavy metals, textile dyes, food, paper industry, oily effluents, laundry wastewaters, sludge etc. and are accompanied by

K. A. Matis; E. N. Peleka

2010-01-01

246

USE OF ZERO-VALENT IRON FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays many water resources are polluted by anthropogenic sources including household and agricultural waste and industrial processes. Public concern over the environmental impact of wastewater pollution has increased. Several conventional wastewater treatment techniques, i.e. chemical coagulation, adsorption, activated sludge, have been applied to remove the pollution, however there are still some limitations, especially that of high operation costs. The use

Suwannee Junyapoon

2005-01-01

247

COLLECTION, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGE FROM SMALL COMMUNITIES: U.S. EXPERIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Sludge treatment represents almost half the cost of wastewater treatment at many facilities in the U.S. Although sludge problems are of serious concern everywhere, they are different for different locations. The approach to sludge handling and the solution to problems depends on ...

248

Study on the treatment of tannery wastewater with high pollution load by UASB reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution load of the tannery wastewater was higher than before with the strict environmental protection laws and implying of water-saving process, and aerobic treatment of tannery wastewater was no longer suitable for treating tannery wastewater with high pollution load. In this paper, the UASB9' up flow anaerobic sludge blanket9' reactor be used to treat the tannery wastewater with high

Xingyuan Ma; Qi Liu; Jun Ma

2011-01-01

249

Use of Filamentous Fungi for Wastewater Treatment and Production of High Value Fungal Byproducts: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional biological wastewater treatment generates large amounts of low value bacterial biomass. The treatment and disposal of this excess bacterial biomass, also known as waste activated sludge, accounts for about 40–60% of the wastewater treatment plant operation cost. A different form of biomass with a higher value could significantly change the economics of wastewater treatment. Fungi could offer this benefit

Sindhuja Sankaran; Samir Kumar Khanal; Nagapadma Jasti; Bo Jin; Anthony L. Pometto III; J. Hans Van Leeuwen

2010-01-01

250

Sludge treatment studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating...

E. C. Beahm C. F. Weber T. A. Dillow S. A. Bush S. Y. Lee

1997-01-01

251

EMISSIONS OF METALS AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne site incorpo...

252

Polishing treatment of coal liquefaction wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Details and diagrams are given of a mobile pilot plant developed for studies of advanced treatment of coal liquefaction wastewaters. The plant included a multi-media roughing filter and facilities for ozonation, adsorption on activated carbon, and reverse osmosis. There was also a mobile support laboratory. Results are presented from studies carried out using this pilot plant at a coal liquefaction R and D facility in Alabama, where the wastewaters were treated by preliminary oxidation of sulphide and organic compounds, the activated sludge process, and sand filtration.

Brown, C.H.

1984-11-01

253

Bioaugmentation of activated sludge with Acinetobacter sp. TW enhances nicotine degradation in a synthetic tobacco wastewater treatment system.  

PubMed

Bioaugmentation (BA) using Acinetobacter sp. TW with high nicotine-degrading efficiency was applied in a bioreactor receiving a load of COD (3,200 ± 50 mg/L) and nicotine (1.0 ± 0.1g/L). The results showed that because of the colonization of strain TW, the COD removal was stable at 80-90%, while nicotine removal reached 98% in the BA system. Furthermore, according to PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, compared with the originally activated sludge, more bacteria existed in the BA systems while some bacteria disappeared from the non-BA system. In terms of the quorum sensing, short chain AHLs increased to assist colonization of strain TW, and long chain AHLs were secreted and helped to resist the nicotine toxicity. Compared with the non-BA system, the amounts of ROS, protein carbonyls and 8-OHdG were significant lower in the BA systems, which suggested that strain TW played an important role in eliminating the nicotine toxicity from the bioreactors. PMID:23748093

Wang, Jue-Hua; He, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Wen; Xu, Han-Xue; Lv, Zhen-Mei; Shen, Dong-Sheng

2013-05-24

254

Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission. PMID:22564037

Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

2012-05-29

255

Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory…

Himes, Dottie

256

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by activated sludge treating municipal wastewater: effect of pH, sludge retention time (SRT), and acetate concentration in influent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the production of biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by activated sludge treating municipal wastewater was investigated. The effect of three operational factors, i.e. the acetate concentration in influent, pH, and sludge retention time (SRT) were studied. Sludge acclimatized with municipal wastewater supplemented with acetate could accumulate PHA up to 30% of sludge dry weight, while sludge acclimatized with

Adeline S. M Chua; Hiroo Takabatake; Hiroyasu Satoh; Takashi Mino

2003-01-01

257

Decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process.  

PubMed

The research conducted a study on decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process. The purposes of this research are to remove pollutant through decomposition and to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater. The wastewater is treated using electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment before undergo an activated sludge process. As a result, for non-irradiated wastewater, the COD removal was achieved to be between 70% and 79% after activated sludge process. The improvement of COD removal efficiency increased to 94% after irradiation of treated effluent at the dose of 50 kGy. Meanwhile, the BOD(5) removal efficiencies of non-irradiated and irradiated textile wastewater were reported to be between 80 and 87%, and 82 and 99.2%, respectively. The maximum BOD(5) removal efficiency was achieved at day 1 (HRT 5 days) of the process of an irradiated textile wastewater which is 99.2%. The biodegradability ratio of non-irradiated wastewater was reported to be between 0.34 and 0.61, while the value of biodegradability ratio of an irradiated wastewater increased to be between 0.87 and 0.96. The biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater is increased with increasing the doses. Therefore, an electron beam radiation holds a greatest application of removing pollutants and also on enhancing the biodegradability of textile wastewater. PMID:20595752

Mohd Nasir, Norlirubayah; Teo Ming, Ting; Ahmadun, Fakhru'l-Razi; Sobri, Shafreeza

2010-01-01

258

Preparation and characterisation of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) and thiourea-doped titanate nanotubes prepared from wastewater flocculated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, titanium (Ti), ferric (Fe) and aluminum (Al) salt flocculants were compared for their efficiency in treating wastewater collected from Sydney Olympic Park wastewater treatment plant by following the jar test procedure. Produced sludge from Ti-salt flocculation was dried and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were generated after the incineration of sludge produced from the Ti-salt flocculation of wastewater.

Y. Okour; H. K. Shon; I. J. El Saliby; R. Naidu; J. B. Kim; J.-H. Kim

2010-01-01

259

Influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and nutrient properties of wastewater sludge biochar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important challenge for effective management of wastewater sludge materials in an environmentally and economically acceptable way can be addressed through pyrolytic conversion of the sludge to biochar and agricultural applications of the biochar. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on production of wastewater sludge biochar and evaluate the properties required for agronomic

Mustafa K. Hossain; Vladimir Strezov; K. Yin Chan; Artur Ziolkowski; Peter F. Nelson

2011-01-01

260

Microalgae and wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The performance of microalgae aquaculture wastewater treatment system predominated mainly by Scenedesmus and Chlorella was assessed. Treatment induced a progressive reduction in both COD and BOD to values below the discharge limits. Different patterns were obtained for removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, and ammonia; however, the algal culture efficiencies reached 100% in their removal by the end of the treatment period. The applied aquatic systems demonstrated percentage reduction of heavy metals in the range between 52.3 and 100% in the batch system and 64.2 and 100% in the continuous system. Wastewater supported algal growth by inducing the incorporation of a significantly higher content of the individual amino acids Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, and Tyr, and a markedly higher level of Pro. However, His, Lys, and Arg were markedly reduced compared to their levels in synthetic-medium-grown algae. PMID:7498057

Hammouda, O; Gaber, A; Abdel-Raouf, N

1995-08-01

261

USER ACCEPTANCE OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMPOST  

EPA Science Inventory

This study involved visits to several composting and composting distribution operations, extensive literature review, and interviews with users in several metropolitan areas. Existing and past compost and sludge product distribution operations were analyzed to determine the chara...

262

User Acceptance of Wastewater Sludge Compost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study involved visits to several composting and composting distribution operations, extensive literature review, and interviews with users in several metropolitan areas. Existing and past compost and sludge product distribution operations were analyz...

W. F. Ettlich A. E. Lewis

1977-01-01

263

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge treating a paper mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in activated sludge treating wastewater represents an economical and environmental promising alternative to pure culture fermentations. A process for production of PHA from a paper mill wastewater was examined at laboratory scale. The three stage process examined consisted of acidogenic fermentation to convert wastewater organic matter to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), an activated sludge system operating

Simon Bengtsson; Alan Werker; Magnus Christensson; Thomas Welander

2008-01-01

264

Treatment and Disposal of Alum and Other Metallic Hydroxide Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sludge is an inevitable product of water and wastewater treatment. The treatment and disposal of these materials is often the most costly aspect of the overall operation. The use of alum and other metallic chemicals for coagulation and other purposes has ...

S. C. Reed J. E. Smith R. S. Sletten J. Resta

1987-01-01

265

A computational technique for turbulent flow of wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique applied to the turbulent flow of wastewater sludge in horizontal, smooth-wall, circular pipes is presented. The technique uses the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in conjunction with the variable secant method, an algorithm for determining the pressure gradient of the flow. A simple algebraic turbulence model is used. A Bingham-plastic rheological model is used to describe the shear stress/shear rate relationship for the wastewater sludge. The method computes velocity gradient and head loss, given a fixed volumetric flow, pipe size, and solids concentration. Solids concentrations ranging from 3 to 10% (by weight) and nominal pipe sizes from 0.15 m (6 in.) to 0.36 m (14 in.) are studied. Comparison of the CFD results for water to established values serves to validate the numerical method. The head loss results are presented in terms of a head loss ratio, R(hl), which is the ratio of sludge head loss to water head loss. An empirical equation relating R(hl) to pipe velocity and solids concentration, derived from the results of the CFD calculations, is presented. The results are compared with published values of Rhl for solids concentrations of 3 and 6%. A new expression for the Fanning friction factor for wastewater sludge flow is also presented. PMID:16121510

Bechtel, Tom B

266

Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs.

Chinagarn Kunacheva; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii; Suwanna Kitpati Boontanon; Chanatip Musirat; Thana Wongwattana; Binaya Raj Shivakoti

2011-01-01

267

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS FERMENTATION OF WASTEWATER AND WASTEWATER SLUDGE – PRESENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITINASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the presence of chitinases in Bacillus thuringiensis ssp kurstaki HD?1(Bt) fermented broths of wastewater sludge (non?hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed); starch industry wastewater and soyameal. Chitinase activity was absent in soyameal and present in others. Chitinase demonstrated peaks at pH 4.0 and temperatures 40 and 50°C with higher activity between pH 4–5 and 10–11. The chitinase band on SDS?PAGE

S. K. Brar; M. Verma; R. D. Tyagi; J. R. Valéro; R. Y. Surampalli

2008-01-01

268

Treatment of oily sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily sludge is treated by filtering it through a precoated surface filter, treating the filtration residue with a hydrocarbon solvent and\\/or steam stripping the extracted residue. The residual oil content of the treated sludge is very low and it can be used for land fill operations.

M. P. Broadribb; G. Greig

1981-01-01

269

Production of Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides using wastewater sludge as a raw material: effect of inoculum and sludge solids concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to optimise inoculum quantity and total solids concentration for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides using wastewater sludge as a raw material in shake flasks and 15 l fermenters. The sludge used was a mixture of primary and secondary sludges. Two different Bt strains were employed; Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-1 (Btk) and a new strain

K Lachhab; R. D Tyagi; J. R Valéro

2001-01-01

270

Fluorochemical Mass Flows in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility  

PubMed Central

Fluorochemicals have widespread applications and are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants via domestic wastewater. A field study was conducted at a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant to determine the mass flows of selected fluorochemicals. Flow-proportional, 24-h samples of raw influent, primary effluent, trickling filter effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent and grab samples of primary, thickened, activated, and anaerobically-digested sludge were collected over ten days and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Significant decreases in the mass flows of perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorodecanoate occurred during trickling filtration and primary clarification, while activated sludge treatment decreased the mass flow of perfluorohexanoate. Mass flows of the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate were unchanged as a result of wastewater treatment, which indicates that conventional wastewater treatment is not effective for removal of these compounds. A net increase in the mass flows for perfluorooctane and perfluorodecane sulfonates occurred from trickling filtration and activated sludge treatment. Mass flows for perfluoroalkylsulfonamides and perfluorononanoate also increased during activated sludge treatment and are attributed to degradation of precursor molecules.

Schultz, Melissa M.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Huset, Carin A.; Luthy, Richard G.; Barofsky, Douglas F.; Field, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

271

Fluorochemical mass flows in a municipal wastewater treatment facility.  

PubMed

Fluorochemicals have widespread applications and are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants via domestic wastewater. A field study was conducted at a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant to determine the mass flows of selected fluorochemicals. Flow-proportional, 24 h samples of raw influent, primary effluent, trickling filter effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent and grab samples of primary, thickened, activated, and anaerobically digested sludge were collected over 10 days and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Significant decreases in the mass flows of perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorodecanoate occurred during trickling filtration and primary clarification, while activated sludge treatment decreased the mass flow of perfluorohexanoate. Mass flows of the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate were unchanged as a result of wastewater treatment, which indicates that conventional wastewater treatment is not effective for removal of these compounds. A net increase in the mass flows for perfluorooctane and perfluorodecane sulfonates occurred from trickling filtration and activated sludge treatment. Mass flows for perfluoroalkylsulfonamides and perfluorononanoate also increased during activated sludge treatment and are attributed to degradation of precursor molecules. PMID:17180988

Schultz, Melissa M; Higgins, Christopher P; Huset, Carin A; Luthy, Richard G; Barofsky, Douglas F; Field, Jennifer A

2006-12-01

272

Cotton-textile wastewater management: investigating different treatment methods.  

PubMed

The cotton-textile industry consumes significant amounts of water during manufacturing, creating high volumes of wastewater needing treatment. The organic-load concentration of cotton-textile wastewater is equivalent to a medium-strength municipal wastewater; the color of the water, however, remains a significant environmental issue. This research, in cooperation with a cotton-textile manufacturer, investigated different treatment methods and different combinations of methods to identify the most cost-effective approaches to treating textile wastewater. Although activated-sludge is economical, it can only be used as part of an integrated wastewater management system because it cannot decolorize wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation methods are able to decolorize cotton-wastewater; however, this process creates high amounts of wastewater solids, thus significantly increasing total treatment costs. Chemical oxidation is an environmentally friendly technique that can only be used as a polishing step because of high operating costs. Anaerobic digestion in a series of fixed-bed bioreactors with immobilized methanogens using acetic acid as a substrate and a pH-control agent followed by activated-sludge treatment was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe cotton-textile wastewater management approach investigated. PMID:22368827

Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A

2012-01-01

273

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized. PMID:20122709

Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

2010-01-07

274

Enhanced Solar Drying of Wastewater Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An increased efficiency was verified experimentally for the drying of anaerobically-digested waste water sludge on a sand bed, using a simple shed roof of translucent corrugated fiberglass. A closed cover designed in the manner of a solar collector and fe...

T. F. Craft

1980-01-01

275

Modelling activated sludge treatment of petroleum and petrochemical wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish the general framework of a comprehensive dynamic mechanistic mathematical model for predicting the behaviour of an activated sludge plant treating petroleum\\/petrochemical industrial wastewaters. Specifically, the aim was to develop two activated sludge mechanistic models which predicted the behaviour of systems treating: (1) petroleum refinery wastewater, and (2) petrochemical refinery wastewater. The wastewater

Alison Julia Baker

1994-01-01

276

SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this manual is to present a contemporary review of sludge processing technology and the specific procedures to be considered, modified, and applied to meet unique conditions. he manual emphasizes the operational considerations and interrelationships of the various ...

277

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF A SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT BY AN IRRADIATION PLANT IN MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-1 liquid

Jaime MORENO; Arturo COLÍN; Miguel BALCÁZAR; Leticia TAVERA

278

ORGANIC CHEMICAL FATE PREDICTION IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results from a broadly-based effort to determine the feasibility of predicting the fates of organic chemicals in diffused air, activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. The three conversion/removal mechanisms emphasized in the work were stripping, sorp...

279

Removal of Escherichia coli in wastewater by activated sludge.  

PubMed Central

Removal of bacteria from wastewater treated with activated sludge was studied by the use of a streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli strain. The removal appeared to be a biphasic process. A rapid sorption of bacteria to the sludge flocs took place in the first hour after seeding mixed liquor with E. coli. Thereafter, slower elimination of E. coli was observed. The latter process was due to predation on E. coli by ciliated protozoa. This was shown by: (i) appearance of fluorescent food vacuoles of ciliates when fluorescent E. coli cells were added to mixed liquor; (ii) inhibition of predation either in the presence of cycloheximide or under anaerobic conditions; and (iii) absence of predation in bulking and washed sludge. Images

van der Drift, C; van Seggelen, E; Stumm, C; Hol, W; Tuinte, J

1977-01-01

280

Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aq...

E. N. Coppola J. Rine

2002-01-01

281

Vermistabilization of paper mill wastewater sludge using Eisenia fetida.  

PubMed

Vermistabilization of paper mill wastewater sludge (PMS) spiked with cow dung (CD) at ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% was carried out employing the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. A total of five treatments were established and changes in chemical and microbial properties of mixtures were observed. Vermistabilization caused decreases in total organic carbon, C:N ratio and cellulose by 1.2-1.5, 4.6-14.6, and 2.3-9.7-fold, respectively, but increases in pH, electrical conductivity, ash content, (tot)N, (avail)P, (tot)P, (exch)K, Ca, Na, and N-NO(3)(-) of 1.06-1.11, 1.2-1.6, 1.3-1.6, 3.8-11.5, 4.1-6.5, 5.7-10.3, 1.7-2.0, 1.16-1.24, 1.23-1.45, 4.2-13.4-folds, respectively. PMS with 25-50% of CD showed the maximum mineralization rate. The fungal, bacterial and actinomycetes population increased 2.5-3.71, 3.13-8.96, and 5.71-9.48-fold, respectively after vermistabilization. The high level of plant-available nutrients indicates the suitability of vermistabilized material for agronomic uses. PMID:23196238

Negi, Renu; Suthar, Surindra

2012-10-16

282

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Design Information Report: Sidestreams in Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance problems at publicly-owned treatment works are often attributed to the recycling of sidestreams generated in the wastewater treatment and sludge handling systems. Although the volumes of these sidestreams are generally small compared to plant ...

1987-01-01

283

Sewage sludge treatment with lime.  

PubMed

The article describes the application of lime as a method for treatment and hygienisation of sewage sludges with lime products such as quicklime, slake lime and dolomitic lime. As a result of the increase in temperature and pH-value during sludge and lime mixing most pathogenic vectors of disease (i.e. bacteria, worms, viruses and parasites) are reduced in concentration and viability to manufacture a safe product for further application on agricultural land. PMID:10842835

Herbst, B

2000-01-01

284

Sludge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cites a recycling success story involving sludge production from wastewater and transformation into an effective plant fertilizer. Discusses related concerns such as dealing with pollutants like heavy metals and PCBs often found in sludge. Provides an example of an application of sludge produced in Chicago to an area reclamation site. (MCO)|

Tenenbaum, David

1992-01-01

285

Salicylic-Acid-Mediated Enhanced Biological Treatment of Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge represents a microbial community which is responsible for reduction in pollution load from wastewaters and\\u000a whose performance depends upon the composition and the expression of degradative capacity. In the present study, the role\\u000a of salicylic acid (SA) has been evaluated for acclimatization of activated sludge collected from a combined effluent treatment\\u000a plant followed by analysis of the physiological

Anshuman A. Khardenavis; Atya Kapley; Hemant J. Purohit

2010-01-01

286

Determination/Validation of Technologies for Treatment/Recycle of Contaminated Sludges: Phase 2 - Field Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Air Logistics Centers (AF-ALCs) generate large quantities of sludges from their industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTPs). This report covers the Phase I field tests for: dewatering by flocculation and filtration; metals removal by Liqu...

T. Werner S. Chauhan B. Monzyk D. Folsom N. Conkle

1998-01-01

287

Reduction in toxicity of organic priority pollutants by pilot-scale conventional wastewater treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static acute toxicity tests with fathead minnows,Daphnia magna, and rainbow trout were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a pilot-scale conventional wastewater treatment system in detoxifying a raw municipal wastewater that continuously received a mixture of 22 organic priority pollutants. Wastewater from the City of Cincinnati (Ohio) was added to two parallel pilot-scale (control and experimental) conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment

William B. Horning; Ernest L. Robinson; Albert C. Petrasek

1984-01-01

288

Biodegradation of wastewater pollutants by activated sludge encapsulated inside calcium-alginate beads in a tubular packed bed reactor.  

PubMed

The wastewater treatment plants produce large quantities of biomass (sludge) that require about one-third of the total inversion and operation plant costs for their treatment. By the microorganisms immobilization it is possible to handle high cell concentration in the reactor, increasing its efficiency, reducing the loss of biomass and the wash out is avoided. Moreover, there is no cell growth then the sludge production is reduced. In this study, the COD removal and VSS variation were modeled in a tubular reactor with activated sludge immobilized in Ca-alginate. Moreover, two aspects that are commonly not considered in the performance of the actual reactors of this kind were introduced; the performance in non-steady state and the dispersion effect. The model was calibrated with an actual wastewater taken out from a Mexican wastewater treatment plant. The results of the performance of the tubular bioreactor at different scenarios (i.e., different residence time and VSS in the reactor) are presented. With longer residence times and higher VSS concentration in the Ca-alginate beads in the tubular bioreactor it is possible to increase the time operation of the bioreactor and to treat higher volumes of wastewater. During the process, the sludge generation was drastically reduced and it is possible to remove nitrogen form the wastewater making this process more attractive. PMID:19340591

Sergio, A Martinez D; Bustos, T Yaneth

2009-04-02

289

Biological treatment processes for fish processing wastewater – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water consumption in a fish-processing industry and high-strength wastewater from such an industry are of great concern world-wide. Liquid effluent regulations are becoming more stringent day by day. Biological treatment is the best option for such a wastewater. Anaerobic processes such as upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, anaerobic filter (AF) and anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) reactor can achieve high

Pankaj Chowdhury; T. Viraraghavan; A. Srinivasan

2010-01-01

290

A direct comparison amongst different technologies (aerobic granular sludge, SBR and MBR) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by 4-chlorophenol.  

PubMed

Environmental concern on chlorinated phenols is rising due to their extreme toxicity even at low concentrations and their persistency in water and soils. Since the high amount of published data often lacks in terms of uniformity, direct comparisons amongst different treatment technologies are very difficult, or even impossible. In this study, granular sludge developed in an acetate-fed Granular sludge Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) was used for the aerobic degradation of low chlorinated 4-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as growth substrate. A conventional Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and a Membrane BioReactor (MBR) were operated in parallel under the same 4CP influent concentrations and/or 4CP volumetric organic loading rates as the GSBR, in order to carry out a direct comparison in terms of 4CP removal efficiencies and specific removal rates, effluent quality, waste sludge production, system simplicity, land area requirement, start-up times, NaAc dosage as growth substrate and maximum applied 4CP volumetric organic loading rate. A decision matrix was built to define the best technology to suit different scenarios: the GSBR was proved to be the most suitable technology when system simplicity, low land area requirement and short start-up times were considered as critical parameters for decision making. PMID:20116174

Carucci, Alessandra; Milia, Stefano; Cappai, Giovanna; Muntoni, Aldo

2010-01-14

291

Ozone pre-treatment as improver of PAH removal during anaerobic digestion of urban sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous persistent pollutants. They may accumulate in sludge during wastewater treatment because of their low biodegradability and their hydrophobic characteristics. Combination of ozonation and anaerobic digestion may be efficient to remove PAHs naturally present in sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of ozone pre-treatment, with and without surfactant addition, on the

Arodi Bernal-Martinez; Hélène Carrère; Dominique Patureau; Jean-Philippe Delgenès

2007-01-01

292

Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management  

SciTech Connect

To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor [La Trobe University, Vic. (Australia). Environmental Geoscience

2006-03-15

293

Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.  

PubMed

To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. PMID:16570625

McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

2006-03-15

294

Wastewater treatment method and apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

According to this wastewater treatment apparatus, wastewater can be treated by novel action by a foaming tank 7 in comparison with a treatment method solely using a biological treatment tank 1 constituting an aeration tank. That is, wastewater can be treated by action achieved by combining (1) action solely of a biological treatment tank 1 and (2) action of a foaming tank 7. Specific action in this foaming tank 7 includes supply of dissolved oxygen to wastewater and oxidation by bubbled air (micro air) under a favorable condition with a shallow water depth. According to this wastewater treatment apparatus, energy to be consumed can be saved and toxic chemical substances such as dimethylformamide as a toxic chemical substance can be completely decomposed by unlimited microorganisms.

Yamasaki; Kazuyuki (Hiroshima, JP); Chujo; Kazumi (Kagawa-ken, JP)

2004-11-30

295

POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS FROM PERSISTENT ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGES USED FOR LAND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their fate on land, and available con...

296

Study of the Biological Treatment of Industrial Waste Water by the Activated Sludge Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activated sludge process simply involves bringing together wastewater and a mixed culture of microorganisms under aerobic conditions. The system usually includes a secondary treatment given to the settled sewage, and requires an environment in which active microorganisms are maintained in intimate contact with wastewater in the presence of sufficient oxygen. In this study, the treatment of industrial effluents, by

MK Sharifi-Yazdi; C Azimi; MB Khalili

297

LAS homolog distribution shift during wastewater treatment and composting ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) in different environmental compartments was studied through wastewater treatment process steps in sewage treatment plants of Alicante and Benidorm (activated sludge type) as well as in Guardamar (lagoons). The fate of LAS, using a specific HPLC method, was monitored during treatment sludge compostage and soil amendment operations. Finally, the marine sediments close to

D. Prats; F. Ruiz; B. Vazquez; D. Zarzo; J. L. Berna; A. Moreno

1993-01-01

298

Ecophysiology of different filamentous Alphaproteobacteria in industrial wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheecophysiologyoffivefilamentousspeciesaffiliatedtotheAlphaproteobacteriawasinvestigated in industrial activated sludge systems. The five species, 'Candidatus Alysiosphaera europaea', 'Candidatus Monilibacter batavus', 'Candidatus Alysiomicrobium bavaricum', 'Candidatus Sphaeronema italicum' and Meganema perideroedes, are very abundant in industrial wastewater treatment plants and are often involved in bulking incidents. The morphology of these filamentous bacterial species resembled Eikelboom's Nostocoida limicola, or Type 021N, and could only be correctly identified by

Caroline Kragelund; Yunhong Kong; Jaap van der Waarde; Karin Thelen; Dick Eikelboom; Valter Tandoi; Trine Rolighed Thomsen; Per Halkjær Nielsen

2006-01-01

299

Bacteriophages—potential for application in wastewater treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the

S. Withey; E. Cartmell; L. M. Avery; T. Stephenson

2005-01-01

300

Perfluoroalkyl compounds in Danish wastewater treatment plants and aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the results of a screening survey of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the Danish environment. The study included point sources (municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and landfill sites) and the marine and freshwater environments. Effluent and influent water and sewage sludge were analysed for point sources. Sediment, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and liver from plaice (Pleuronectes platessa),

R. Bossi; J. Strand; O. Sortkjær; M. M. Larsen

2008-01-01

301

SAFETY MANUAL FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH OXYGEN AERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This safety manual provides design, operating, and safety personnel of municipal wastewater treatment plants which use oxygen aeration of activated sludge systems with the knowledge to prevent hazards due to the interaction of the oxygen with combustibles and other hazardous mate...

302

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)|

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

303

Oily wastewater treatment using ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of the oily and greasy wastewater of Tehran refinery using an ultrafiltration (UF) system was experimentally studied. In the experiments, a polysulfone (PS) (30 kDa) and a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (20 kDa) and the API wastewater of Tehran refinery as membranes and feed were used, respectively. Effects of different operating parameters such as transmembrane pressure (TMP), cross flow velocity (CFV),

Abdolhamid Salahi; Toraj Mohammadi; Ali Rahmat Pour; Fatemeh Rekabdar

2009-01-01

304

Application of Sludges and Wastewaters on Agricultural Land: A Planning and Educational Guide, MCD-35. Research Bulletin 1090.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report addresses the application of agricultural processing wastes, industrial and municipal wastes on agricultural land as both a waste management and resource recovery and reuse practice. The document emphasizes the treatment and beneficial utilization of sludge and wastewater as opposed to waste disposal. These objectives are achieved…

Knezek, Bernard D., Ed.; Miller, Robert H., Ed.

305

Studies on the production of B. thuringiensis based biopesticides using wastewater sludge as a raw material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and ?-endotoxin yield of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp kurstaki in tryptic soy yeast extract (TSY) medium, soybean meal based commercial medium and wastewater sludge medium were studied. The viable spores (VS) count in sludge medium was comparable to that obtained in laboratory and commercial media. The entomotoxicity of the fermentation liquid (Bt grown sludge) against Choristoneura fumiferana was comparable

A. S Vidyarthi; R. D Tyagi; J. R Valero; R. Y Surampalli

2002-01-01

306

EVALUATION OF THE TWO-ZONE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS AT NORRISTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Economic and practical considerations compel today's designers to investigate alternatives to conventional strategies for wastewater treatment systems. One such alternative is the Two-Zone process, a novel activated sludge process which combines the aerobic biological reactor and...

307

Energy autonomy in the wastewater treatment process  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater treatment plants can recover a high percentage of their energy needs by using new techniques in anaerobic digestion through the production and utilization of methane gas. The Acheres Wastewater Treatment Plant outside Paris has a present design capacity of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//d (400 mgd) and produces over 70% of its energy needs using this process. Methane gas is used to drive a series of engines that produce compressed air for the biological process and drive generators that produce electricity for use in all phases of the treatment process, equipment, and buildings. Water that cools these engines is also used to maintain optimum sludge temperature during the digestion process. After World War II, a master plan was developed that projects the plant's expansion through five major phases to an ultimate design capacity of 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//d (715 mgd). To date three phases are in operation, with a total design capacity of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//d (400 mgd). Phase IV (6.0 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3//d, 160 mgd) is under construction. The article reviews the sludge digestion process used in all three operating phases of the plant.

Bernard, J. (Degremont S. A., Paris, France); DaVia, P.

1980-03-01

308

REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES FOR TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF PHOSPHORUS-LADEN CHEMICAL SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the effects of phosphorus removal by chemical addition on sludge handling and disposal options at full-scale wastewater treatment plants. American and Canadian plants which generate phosphorus-laden chemical sludges were surveyed by questionnaire, and 174 re...

309

CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DIGESTED, HEAT-CONDITIONED, AND PURIFAX-TREATED SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater sludges were stabilized by Purifax treatment, anaerobic digestion and heat conditioning. The processed sludges from the Purifax process at chlorine dosages normally used in processing wastewater sludges contained 2 to > 14 times the total organic chlorine content of th...

310

Wastewater Solids Process Technology for Environmental Quality Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of problems confronted in disposing of sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants is presented. The quantities and characteristics of these sludges that must be dealt with are enumerated. Waste sludges originating from the activated sludg...

J. E. Smith

1970-01-01

311

Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.  

PubMed

Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems. PMID:23376111

Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

2013-01-29

312

Phosphorus removal from synthetic and municipal wastewater using spent alum sludge.  

PubMed

In the present study, phosphorus removal was studied using as coagulant spent alum sludge from a water treatment plant of EYDAP (Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company) and compared to alum (Al2(SO4)3.18H2O), iron chloride (FeCl3.7H2O), iron sulfate (Fe2(S04).10H2O) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at a constant pH (equal to 6). The comparison was based on their efficiency to remove phosphorus in synthetic wastewater consisting of 10 mg/L P as potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 50 mg/L N as ammonium chloride, The experiments were carried out using a jar-test apparatus and the measurements were performed according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Pure alum, iron chloride and iron sulfate were much more efficient in phosphorus removal than the spent alum sludge but in the case of calcium hydroxide, phosphorus removal was very low in pH = 6. Specifically, orthophosphate were totally removed by alum using 15 mg/L as Al, by alum sludge using 75 mg/L as Al and by FeCl3.7H2O or Fe2(SO4).10H2O using 30 mg/L of Fe while in the case of calcium hydroxide P removal was actually zero. pH measurements showed that the uptake of phosphates is associated to the release of OH ions in the solution and that the end of P uptake is accompanied by the stabilization of pH. Finally this spent alum sludge was tested on municipal wastewater and proved to be effective as apart from phosphorus it was shown to remove turbidity and COD. PMID:16459830

Georgantas, D A; Grigoropoulou, H P

2005-01-01

313

Evaluation of reusing alum sludge for the coagulation of industrial wastewater containing mixed anionic surfactants.  

PubMed

A coagulation-flocculation process is typically employed to treat the industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry manufacturing detergents, soaps, and others. The expenditure of chemicals including coagulants and chemicals for pH adjustment is costly for treating this wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing the aluminum sulfate (alum) sludge as a coagulant or as a coagulation aid so that the fresh alum dosage can be minimized or the removal efficiency can be enhanced. The experiments were conducted in a jar-test apparatus simulating the coagulation-flocculation process for simultaneous removals of organic matters, anionic surfactants, suspended solids, and turbidity. At the optimum initial pH value of 10 and the fresh alum concentration of 400 mg/L, the total suspended solids (TSS), total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total anionic surfactants, and turbidity removal efficiencies were 71.5%, 76.4%, 95.4%, and 98.2%, respectively. The addition of alum sludge as a coagulant alone without any fresh alum addition could significantly remove the turbidity, TCOD, and anionic surfactants. The TSS was left in the supernatants after the settling period, but would subsequently be removed by adding the fresh alum. The TSS, TCOD, and turbidity removal efficiencies were also enhanced when both the alum sludge and the fresh alum were employed. The TCOD removal efficiency over 80% has been accomplished, which has never fulfilled by using the fresh alum alone. It is concluded that the alum sludge could be reused for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry. PMID:21793400

Jangkorn, Siriprapha; Kuhakaew, Sinchai; Theantanoo, Suwapee; Klinla-or, Harit; Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai

2011-01-01

314

Water footprint assessment for wastewater treatment: method, indicator, and application.  

PubMed

The water footprint in terms of the sum of both direct and indirect water cost of wastewater treatment is for the first time accounted in this work. On the basis of the hybrid method as a combination of process analysis and input-output analysis, a detailed water footprint accounting procedure is provided to cover the supply chain of a wastewater treatment plant. A set of indices intending to reveal the efficiency as well as renewability of wastewater treatment systems are devised as parallels of corresponding indicators in net energy analysis for energy supply systems. A case study is carried out for the Beijing Space City wastewater treatment plant as a landmark project. The high WROI (water return on investment) and low WIWP (water investment in water purified) indicate a high efficiency and renewability of the case system, illustrating the fundamental function of wastewater treatment for water reuse. The increasing of the wastewater and sludge treatment rates are revealed in an urgent need to reduce the water footprint of China and to improve the performance of wastewater treatment. PMID:23777208

Shao, Ling; Chen, G Q

2013-07-05

315

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls in wastewaters and sewage sludges from the Paris area (France).  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were investigated during 1999-2000 in the sewerage system to the Seine Aval treatment plant which drains the Paris area (France). Contamination of sludges from storage chambers indicated a local origin typical of motor car traffic with PAH concentrations (Sigma16) ranging from 14 to 31 mg kg(-1) of dry weight, pyrene/fluoranthene ratios ranging between 1.12 and 1.48 and PCB concentrations (Sigma7) ranging from 0.07 to 0.65 mg kg(-1) of dry weight. In the same way, sludges from sand removal tanks displayed PAH values related to the importance of traffic whereas PCBs were rather characteristic of a diffuse origin. Among the five sewers entering the Seine Aval treatment plant, Clichy Argenteuil, which drains a large industrial area, was the most polluted one (PAHs as Sigma3, 10 kg year(-1); PCBs as Sigma7, 3.5 kg year(-1)). Seasonal variations were observed for PAHs with higher levels in winter in relation with the occurrence of combustion processes. Ninety-eight percent of the PAHs and 76% of the PCBs were extracted during the treatment plant processes, the primary clarifier of which retained 50% of the pollutants. Fluoranthene and PCB concentrations in the final dehydrated sludge (mean values) were 1.07 and 0.623 mg kg(-1) of dry weight, respectively. For PCBs, a significant correlation was found (r=0.668, P<0.001) between wastewater and dehydrated sludge concentrations. Yearly measured amounts of PAHs (Sigma3) were twice higher in sludges (76.3 kg) than in precipitations (37.7 kg) whereas those of PCBs (Sigma7) brought by total atmospheric fallout (17.6 kg) and sludges (21.1 kg) did not differ significantly. PMID:15147924

Blanchard, M; Teil, M J; Ollivon, D; Legenti, L; Chevreuil, M

2004-06-01

316

Partitioning of nutrients and micropollutants along the sludge treatment line: a case study.  

PubMed

A 2-year sampling campaign was conducted in three wastewater treatment plants of various sizes in the Rome area to assess the occurrence of nutrients and micropollutants among primary, secondary and digested sludge. The primary purpose was to evaluate the quality of different sludge types and their suitability for agricultural use. Primary sludge was consistently more polluted than secondary in terms of organic micropollutants, whereas heavy metals partitioned equally among the sludge types. In digested sludge, the heavy metal concentrations were always below limit values proposed for agricultural utilisation. In contrast, organic micropollutants concentrated during anaerobic digestion and affected the quality of the digested sludge. Secondary sludge resulted less polluted and richer in nitrogen and phosphorus (up to three times) than primary sludge and is hence more suitable for agricultural use. Separate processing of primary and secondary sludge might therefore be an innovative option for sludge management that could maximise the possibilities of agricultural use of secondary sludge and limit disposal problems only to primary sludge. In fact, primary sludge could be easily treated and disposed of by conventional processes including thickening, anaerobic digestion, centrifugation and incineration, whereas the difficult digestibility of secondary sludge could be improved by disintegration pre-treatment before stabilisation. PMID:23589264

Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mascolo, G; Mininni, G

2013-04-16

317

Organic sludge-energy recycling method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for converting substantially untreated organic sludge into useful substances. The sludge may include primary sludge, a mixture of primary and secondary sludges from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, slurries of agricultural manure, and other organic wastes. The sludge is mechanically comminuted to reduce the size of organic solids, the sludge is then further mechanically disintegrated and thereafter

L. G. Erickson; H. E. Worne

1982-01-01

318

A novel treatment technique for DMSO wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an efficient treatment technique for wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO, (CH3)2SO], a compound used as a photoresist stripping solvent in semiconductor manufacturing processes. Generally, wastewater containing organic compounds can be treated biologically, but with DMSO wastewater, biological treatment is not available because noxious compounds are produced that harm the environment. Here, we present an effective DMSO wastewater

Tatsuya Koito; Masafumi Tekawa; Arata Toyoda

1998-01-01

319

Degradability of five aromatic compounds in a pilot wastewater treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified terephthalic acid-manufacturing wastewater was treated aerobically with the microbial fusant Fhhh in the carrier activated sludge process at a pilot wastewater treatment plant. Biodegradability of p-toluic acid (p-Tol), benzoic acid (BA), 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA), phthalic acid (PA) and terephthalic acid (TA) was monitored. The TOC and COD loading rate of suspended solids (SS) in the sludge were 0.53gTOCgSS?1 d?1 and

X. X. Zhang; S. P. Cheng; Y. Q. Wan; S. L. Sun; C. J. Zhu; D. Y. Zhao; W. Y. Pan

2006-01-01

320

Occurrence of Listeria spp. in Effluents of French Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

Listeria spp. were found in most treated waters (84.4%) and raw sludge (89.2%) of six French urban wastewater treatment plants and one composting facility, examined monthly over a 1-year period. Most strains belonged to Listeria monocytogenes, serotypes 4b/4e being predominant. Sludge composting and liming reduced or prevented Listeria contamination.

Paillard, Delphine; Dubois, Veronique; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Nathier, Fany; Hoogland, Emilie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

2005-01-01

321

Upgrade of a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant by an upflow anaerobic pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petrochemical plant producing terephthalic acid faced a saturation of its wastewater treatment facilities due to an increase in production. In fact, the plant has been growing in recent years, and the effluents have been treated by reproducing the original activated sludge design. However, owing to lack of space, as well as energy consumption and sludge production reaching a certain

A. Noyola; H. Macarie; F. Varela; S. Landrieu; R. Marcelo; M. A. Rosas

2000-01-01

322

ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

323

Radiation Treatment of Wastewater, (11). Treatment of Dye Wastewaters and Its Cost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-energy electron treatment of wastewaters from dyeing factories (in Kiryu city, Gunma Prefecture) was investigated in a series on wastewater treatment by radiation. Experiments were made on decoloration of printing and dip dyeing wastewaters using a d...

W. Kawakami S. Hashimoto T. Miyata A. Sakumoto T. Tokunaga

1978-01-01

324

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - AUTOTHERMAL THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes a promising technology ? autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion ? for meeting the current and proposed U.S. federal requirements for pathogen controJ and land application of municipal wastewater sludge. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, or AT...

325

Use of zoogloeal culture for enhancing tannery wastewater treatment: High organic loading and unbalanced nutrient condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition effects of both Zoogloea ramigera and its extracellular zoogloeal polymer for enhancing the operation efficiency in biological wastewater treatment system were investigated. The zoogloeal culture which was composed of Zoogloea ramigera and its extracellular zoogloeal polymer was daily added to a lab?scale activated sludge reactor for treating a tannery wastewater. Compared with controlled reactor without any addition of

Dae Hee Ahn; Young Je Yoo; Jin Young Jung

1997-01-01

326

Application of hybrid systems to the treatment of meat industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of meat industry wastewater treatment applying two hybrid systems of activated sludge and ultrafiltration in: (1) an aerobic bioreactor in combination with ultrafiltration and (2) a bioreactor equipped with separate denitrification and nitrification tanks in combination with ultrafiltration. It was found that it is feasible to treat this wastewater in both systems; however,

Jolanta Bohdziewicz; Ewa Sroka

2006-01-01

327

Polyelectrolytes: Wastewater and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning polyelectrolytes in wastewater and water treatment. Topics include flocculation, coagulation, separation techniques, pollutant identification, water pollution sources, and sludge dehydration. Hospital wastewater processing, methods of synthesizing polyelectrolyte complexes, and performance evaluations of polyelectrolytes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-02-01

328

Coupling of sequencing batch reactor and mesh filtration: Operational parameters and wastewater treatment performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment performance of the combined process of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and mesh filtration bio-reactor was investigated with a synthetic wastewater. In this system, the filtration was performed only by the water level difference between the reactor and the effluent port, with the help of a sludge layer which accumulated on the mesh filter.A half volume of the mixed

Yoshiaki Kiso; Yong-Jun Jung; Min-Soo Park; Wenhui Wang; Masahiro Shimase; Toshiro Yamada; Kyung-Sok Min

2005-01-01

329

Iron salts dosage for sulfide control in sewers induces chemical phosphorus removal during wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical phosphorus (P) removal during aerobic wastewater treatment induced by iron salt addition in sewer systems for sulfide control is investigated. Aerobic batch tests with activated sludge fed with wastewater containing iron sulfide precipitates showed that iron sulfide was rapidly reoxidised in aerobic conditions, resulting in phosphate precipitation. The amount of P removed was proportional to the amount of iron

Oriol Gutierrez; Donghee Park; Keshab R. Sharma; Zhiguo Yuan

2010-01-01

330

RDX biodegradation by a methanogenic enrichment culture obtained from an explosives manufacturing wastewater treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the biodegradation of RDX in wastewater from an industrial wastewater treatment plant at the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, TN. Serum bottles containing 100 ml of a basal salts medium amended with 10 percent (v\\/v) sludge from the anoxic filter at the plant were amended with RDX and incubated under methanogenic conditions. Biodegradation intermediates corresponding to

N. R. Adrian; K. Sutherland

1998-01-01

331

Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) as an Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and application of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for full-scale municipal wastewater\\u000a treatment is the most important recent technological advance in terms of biological wastewater treatment.\\u000a The MBR is a suspended growth-activated sludge system that utilizes microporous membranes for solid\\/liquid\\u000a separation instead of secondary clarifiers. It represents a decisive step forward concerning effluent\\u000a quality by delivering a hygienically pure effluent and by exhibiting

Jelena Radjenovi?; Marin Matoši?; Ivan Mijatovi?; Mira Petrovi?; Damià Barceló

332

Preparation and characterization of titania nanoparticle produced from Ti-flocculated sludge with paper mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge disposal after flocculation with paper mill wastewater is one of the most costly and environmentally problematic challenges. In this study, an effective sludge recycling process was proposed using Ti-salt coagulant instead of the currently used Fe-salt. Paper mill wastewater flocculation using TiCl4 and FeCl3 coagulants was investigated for organic removal and precipitation efficiency. A large amount of titania nanoparticle

Suk-Hyun Na; Ho Kyong Shon; Jong Beom Kim; Hee Ju Park; Jong-Ho Kim

2011-01-01

333

Use of sanitary sewers as wastewater pre-treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

As wastewater travels through a sewer system it undergoes changes in composition. The changes in composition may be caused by chemical, physical and/or biological processes. At present engineers do not take into consideration the impacts of these processes on the wastewater quality when designing wastewater treatment systems. However, the impact of these processes on the chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus content of the wastewater can be significant. In the case of the biological processes, microorganisms present in the water as it travels through the sewer system are similar to those found in an activated sludge process. Given that the microorganism population and the hydraulic retention time often resembles that of an activated sludge process, it would seem only reasonable to look further into the possibility of using sewers as wastewater treatment systems. Furthermore, the plug flow regime of a sanitary sewer is inherently beneficial in terms of wastewater treatment as it is not subject to short-circuiting. The first part of this paper provides a technical review of the processes which take place in a sewer system and the resulting degradation of some of the more significant substances found in wastewater. The contribution of both the suspended biomass and the attached biomass to the degradation of substrate is also examined. The second part of this paper examines the use of the Toxchem computer model to predict the processes which are taking place in the sewer under a variety of conditions. The goal being to determine the magnitude of the degradation of substrate and dissolved oxygen depletion in a sewer system. In obtaining a better understanding of the processes that are taking place in sewer systems, engineers will be able to more accurately predict the degradation of substrates in sanitary sewer systems. This will result in a reduction in the size of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs).

Warith, M.A. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Kennedy, K. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Civil Engineering Dept.; Reitsma, R. [WCT-Delcan Corp., Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

1998-12-31

334

Concomitant degradation of bisphenol A during ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation and production of biofertilizer from wastewater sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, from wastewater sludge (WWS) has attracted great interest recently. In the present study, the effects of different pre-treatment methods, including ultrasonication (US), Fenton’s oxidation (FO) and ferro-sonication (FS) was assessed in terms of increase in solubilization of WWS and simultaneous degradation of BPA. Among US, FO and FS pre-treatment, higher suspended solids

D. P. Mohapatra; S. K. Brar; R. D. Tyagi; R. Y. Surampalli

2011-01-01

335

Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge in the United States: Regulatory Considerations for Risk Reduction and Determining Treatment Process Equivalency  

EPA Science Inventory

In the United States, municipal wastewater includes discharges from households, commercial businesses and various industries. Microorganisms associated with these wastes can be concentrated in the solids (sludge) which are removed during treatment operations. Beneficial reuse a...

336

The effect of ozone on tannery wastewater biological treatment at demonstrative scale.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results obtained during an investigation aimed at transferring to the demonstrative scale an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR--Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) integrated with ozonation for the efficient treatment of tannery wastewater. The results show that the integrated process was able to achieve high removal efficiencies for COD, TSS, TKN, surfactants and colour with residual concentrations much lower than the current discharge limits. Furthermore, the process was characterised by a very low sludge production (i.e., 0.1 kg dry sludge/m(3) of treated wastewater) with interesting repercussions on treatment costs (about 1 euro per m(3) of wastewater). PMID:19577926

Di Iaconi, Claudio; Ramadori, Roberto; Lopez, Antonio

2009-07-04

337

POTENTIAL NON-PHYTOPATHOGENIC FILAMENTOUS FUNGI FOR BIOCONVERSION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten filamentous fungi adapted to domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) were further studied to evaluate their potential in terms of adaptation to higher sludge supplemented growing media and phytopathogenicity (induction of diseases to plants) to three germinating crop (Corn: Zea mays, Mung bean: Phaseolus aureus and Mustard: Brassica napus) seeds. The performances of the fungi in seed germination were evaluated based

Abul Hossain Molla; Ahmadun Fakhrul-Razi; Mohamed Musa Hanafi; Suraini Abd-Aziz

2002-01-01

338

Hydrolysis of macromolecular components of primary and secondary wastewater sludge by thermal hydrolytic pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory simulation of the thermal hydrolytic pretreatment (THP) process was performed on wastewater sludge, as well as key macromolecular components: proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides. Hydrolysis temperatures from 130 to 220°C were investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine how and over which temperature range THP specifically affects sludge components, and whether hydrolysis temperature can be used to

Christopher A. Wilson; John T. Novak

2009-01-01

339

ENZYME ADDITION TO THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER PRIMARY SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluates the effects of enzyme augmentation on municipal wastewater (MWW) sludge anaerobic digestion. The primary objective was to examine the impact of using enzymes to enhance the degradation of the cellulosic and the oil- and grease-rich sludge fractions. The additi...

340

Different types of sludge granules in UASB reactors treating acidified wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a high energy substrate, i.e. sucrose, on the granular sludge yield and the development of different types of granular sludge was investigated by using Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors fed with synthetic wastewater. The feed COD was a mixture of volatile fatty acids (VFA) i.e., 20, 40, and 40% of the COD as C2-, C3-, and

Jullapong Thaveesri; Daniele Daffonchio; Bart Liessens; Willy Verstraete

1995-01-01

341

Anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with an internal membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment is growing very popular these days because of low sludge production compared to activated sludge processes. The drawback of the process is the risk of sludge washout, especially when the formation of granular sludge is not expected. By using an internal anaerobic bioreactor this problem can be overcome. A lab scale internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated at SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. to which brewery wastewater was fed (COD=2300 mg/l). Hollow fibres were inserted into the anaerobic bioreactor, from which the effluent was extracted by underpressure. The COD-removal was excellent and very constant at a value of 95%. No suspended solids were present in the effluent. The membrane permeability stabilised at relatively low value of 18 l/m2.h.bar due to an irreversible adhesion of constituents in the bioreactor. No growth of biomass was found during two months of operation. Inocculated granular sludge fell apart into loose flocs within several weeks of the startup, not affecting biological performance. The internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor is a promising new area within the field of wastewater treatment. It is expected that this process will have an important future. PMID:15954573

Cornelissen, E R; van Buggenhout, S; van Ermen, S; De Smedt, M; Van Impe, J; Koning, J

2001-01-01

342

Conditioning of wastewater sludge using freezing and thawing: Role of curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze\\/thaw (F\\/T) treatment is an efficient pre-treatment process for biological sludges. When bulk sludge was frozen, tiny unfrozen regimes in the ice matrix were continuously dehydrated by surrounding ice fronts, termed as the “curing stage”. This work demonstrated that the F\\/T treatment could not only enhance sludge dewaterability, but also solubilize organic matters from sludge matrix. Most enhancement of sludge

Kai Hu; Jun-Qiu Jiang; Qing-Liang Zhao; Duu-Jong Lee; Kun Wang; Wei Qiu

2011-01-01

343

Treatment of dredged sludge by mechanical dehydration  

SciTech Connect

Sludge deposits in the water area damage the ecosystems and environments; their elimination has always been an urgent task for human communities. Generally, sludge deposits are dredged out of the bottom of the water area, transported to, and discharged at a large disposal area on land. Recently, however, it has become increasingly difficult to secure disposal areas and routes of speedy transportation for disposal of dredged sludge. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water that can be returned to the water area through mechanical centrifugal dehydration. Sludge deposits are distributed thin and wide on the bottom of the water area, and a pump dredge has been proved effective in many cases for dredging the upper layers of sludge deposits accurately and without creating turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers the following advantages: (a) It requires smaller space for treatment and disposal of dredged sludge than the conventional method. (b) Facilities and costs for transportation can be reduced. (c) Various systems can be adopted for transportation of sludge cakes. (d) This system is transportable and compact and can be constructed anywhere either on land or on water.

Maekawa, T.

1992-03-01

344

Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

Dieu, B

2001-01-01

345

Impact assessment of treated\\/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater\\/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving\\/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet

Kunwar P Singh; Dinesh Mohan; Sarita Sinha; R Dalwani

2004-01-01

346

The nitrite-oxidizing community in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant determined by fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing.  

PubMed

Metabolically-active autotrophic nitrite oxidizers from activated sludge were labeled with (13)C-bicarbonate under exposure to different temperatures and nitrite concentrations. The labeled samples were characterized by FAME-SIP (fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing). The compound cis-11-palmitoleic acid, which is the major lipid of the most abundant nitrite oxidizer in activated sludge, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii, showed (13)C-incorporation in all samples exposed to 3mM nitrite. Subsequently, the lipid cis-7-palmitoleic acid was labeled, and it indicated the activity of a nitrite oxidizer that was different from the known Nitrospira taxa in activated sludge. The highest incorporation of cis-7-palmitoleic acid label was found after incubation with a nitrite concentration of 0.3mM at 17 and 22°C. While activity of Nitrobacter populations could not be detected by the FAME-SIP approach, an unknown nitrite oxidizer with the major lipid cis-9 isomer of palmitoleic acid exhibited (13)C-incorporation at 28°C with 30mM nitrite. These results indicated flexibility of nitrite-oxidizing guilds in a complex community responding to different conditions. Labeled lipids so far not described for activated sludge-associated nitrifiers indicated the presence of unknown nitrite oxidizers in this habitat. The FAME-SIP-based information can be used to define appropriate conditions for the enrichment of nitrite-oxidizing guilds from complex samples. PMID:23921154

Kruse, Myriam; Zumbrägel, Sabine; Bakker, Evert; Spieck, Eva; Eggers, Till; Lipski, André

2013-08-04

347

WINERY WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report has been prepared to fulfill a Research, Development and Demonstration Grant. The grant was awarded to investigate a method of treatment for winery wastewaters. In brief - the grapes are harvested in the fall and are immediately pressed of their juice. The juice is fe...

348

Excess sludge reduction performance of an aerobic SBR process equipped with a submerged mesh filter unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amounts of sludge are being produced in biological wastewater treatment processes, and the treatment of excess sludge may account for up to 60% of the total operation costs of the wastewater treatment. In smaller wastewater treatment facilities, especially, on-site sludge treatment is difficult, therefore new technology which is low costs and simple to operate is required for this purpose.

Wenhui Wang; Yong-Jun Jung; Yoshiaki Kiso; Toshiro Yamada; Kyung-Sok Min

2006-01-01

349

Treatment of dairy wastewater using anaerobic and solar photocatalytic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed to treat the dairy wastewater by using anaerobic and solar photocatalytic oxidation methods. The anaerobic treatment was carried out in a laboratory scale hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (HUASB) with a working volume of 5.9L. It was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) varying from 8 to 20kg COD\\/m3day for a period of 110

J. Rajesh Banu; S. Anandan; S. Kaliappan; Ick-Tae Yeom

2008-01-01

350

Water Treatment Sludge Filtration Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of various aspects of aluminum sulfate sludge and lime softening sludge filtration was conducted using specific resistance for filterability comparisons. The effects of solids concentration, aluminum sulfate coagulant dosage,...

F. C. Hawkins

1972-01-01

351

Activated sludge is a potential source for production of biodegradable plastics from wastewater.  

PubMed

Increased utilization of synthetic plastics caused severe environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. In the search for environmentally friendly materials to substitute for conventional plastics, different biodegradable plastics have been developed by microbial fermentations. However, limitations of these materials still exist due to high cost. This study aims at minimization of cost for the production of biodegradable plastics P(3HB) and minimization of environmental pollution. The waste biological sludge generated at wastewater treatment plants is used for the production of P(3HB) and wastewater is used as carbon source. Activated sludge was induced by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymer. Initially polymer accumulation was studied by using different carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximum accumulation of polymer was observed with carbon source acetic acid and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) as nitrogen source. Further studies were carried out to optimize the carbon: nitrogen ratios using acetic acid and DAHP. A maximum of 65.84% (w/w) P(3HB) production was obtained at C/N ratio of 50 within 96 hours of incubation. PMID:15974272

Khardenavis, A; Guha, P K; Kumar, M S; Mudliar, S N; Chakrabarti, T

2005-05-01

352

Distribution and characterization of anammox in a swine wastewater activated sludge facility.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a novel biological nitrogen removal process that oxidizes NH4(+) to N2 with NO2(-) as an electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential activity and characteristics of anammox in a conventional swine wastewater treatment facility, which uses an activated sludge system consisting of three cascade aeration tanks equipped with ceramic support material. Anammox activity was estimated by a (15)N tracer assay method and was detected in all the sludge and biofilm samples in each aeration tank. Biofilm taken from the third aeration tank, in which the dissolved oxygen concentration was 7.5 mg/L and the wastewater included a high concentration of NO3(-), showed by far the highest anammox activity. A clone library analysis showed the existence of anammox bacteria closely related to 'Candidatus Jettenia asiatica' and 'Ca. Brocadia caroliniensis'. The optimum conditions for anammox activity were a pH of 6.7-7.2, a temperature of 35 °C, a NO2(-) concentration of 10 mmol/L or less, and an NH4(+) concentration of 32 mmol/L or less. PMID:23676406

Yamagishi, Takao; Takeuchi, Mio; Wakiya, Yuichiro; Waki, Miyoko

2013-01-01

353

Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.

King, P.H.

1982-07-01

354

Biotreatment of oily wastewater by rhamnolipids in aerated active sludge system*  

PubMed Central

Oily wastewater generated by various industries creates a major ecological problem throughout the world. The traditional methods for the oily wastewater treatment are inefficient and costly. Surfactants can promote the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by dispersing oil into aqueous environment. In the present study, we applied rhamnolipid-containing cell-free culture broth to enhance the biodegradation of crude oil and lubricating oil in a conventional aerobically-activated sludge system. At 20 °C, rhamnolipids (11.2 mg/L) increased the removal efficiency of crude oil from 17.7% (in the absence of rhamnolipids) to 63%. At 25 °C, the removal efficiency of crude oil was over 80% with the presence of rhamnolipids compared with 22.3% in the absence of rhamnolipids. Similarly, rhamnolipid treatment (22.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 20 °C significantly increased the removal rate of lubricating oil to 92% compared with 24% in the absence of rhamnolipids. The enhanced removal of hydrocarbons was mainly attributed to the improved solubility and the reduced interfacial tension by rhamnolipids. We conclude that a direct application of the crude rhamnolipid solution from cell culture is effective and economic in removing oily contaminants from wastewater.

Zhang, Hong-zi; Long, Xu-wei; Sha, Ru-yi; Zhang, Guo-liang; Meng, Qin

2009-01-01

355

Biotreatment of oily wastewater by rhamnolipids in aerated active sludge system.  

PubMed

Oily wastewater generated by various industries creates a major ecological problem throughout the world. The traditional methods for the oily wastewater treatment are inefficient and costly. Surfactants can promote the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by dispersing oil into aqueous environment. In the present study, we applied rhamnolipid-containing cell-free culture broth to enhance the biodegradation of crude oil and lubricating oil in a conventional aerobically-activated sludge system. At 20 degrees C, rhamnolipids (11.2 mg/L) increased the removal efficiency of crude oil from 17.7% (in the absence of rhamnolipids) to 63%. At 25 degrees C, the removal efficiency of crude oil was over 80% with the presence of rhamnolipids compared with 22.3% in the absence of rhamnolipids. Similarly, rhamnolipid treatment (22.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 20 degrees C significantly increased the removal rate of lubricating oil to 92% compared with 24% in the absence of rhamnolipids. The enhanced removal of hydrocarbons was mainly attributed to the improved solubility and the reduced interfacial tension by rhamnolipids. We conclude that a direct application of the crude rhamnolipid solution from cell culture is effective and economic in removing oily contaminants from wastewater. PMID:19882761

Zhang, Hong-zi; Long, Xu-wei; Sha, Ru-yi; Zhang, Guo-liang; Meng, Qin

2009-11-01

356

The Effect of Copper on The Structure of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Microbial Community in an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular approaches based on both whole-cell and extracted DNA were applied to assess chronic and acute effects of copper\\u000a on the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community in an activated sludge system. The ammonia monooxygenase amoA gene was chosen as the functional marker to evaluate changes in the AOB community. Using in situ polymerase chain reaction, we were able to visualize

Pamela Principi; Federica Villa; Barbara Giussani; Elisabetta Zanardini; Francesca Cappitelli; Claudia Sorlini

2009-01-01

357

Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

358

Present Technology of Sludge Dewatering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of problems confronted in disposing sludges from water purification and municipal wastewater treatment plants is presented. The quantities and characteristics of these sludges that must be dealt with are enumerated. Each of a variety of biologica...

J. E. Smith

1970-01-01

359

Optimization of Ozonation Process for the Reduction of Excess Sludge Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design  

PubMed Central

Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2) of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

Subha, B.; Muthukumar, M.

2012-01-01

360

Optimization of ozonation process for the reduction of excess sludge production from activated sludge process of sago industry wastewater using central composite design.  

PubMed

Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R(2)) of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction. PMID:22593666

Subha, B; Muthukumar, M

2012-04-19

361

Dye wastewater treated by Fenton process with ferrous ions electrolytically generated from iron-containing sludge.  

PubMed

Fenton process was employed to treat synthetic dye wastewater with supply of Fe(II) electrolytically generated from iron-containing sludge which was recycled and reused throughout the study. Treated water quality and properties of iron sludge after being repeatedly used were reported and discussed. Experimental results showed that COD was mainly removed by oxidation other than coagulation. Although, the process was quite effective for COD and color removal, conductivity of treated water was enormously high. Meanwhile, repeated use of iron-containing sludge results in accumulation of organic materials embedded in the sludge as indicated by increasing volatile suspended solid (VSS)/TSS ratio and decreasing zeta potential. PMID:17137712

Li, Chi-Wang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chiou, Yi-Cheng; Liu, Chuan-Kun

2006-10-29

362

Fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in treatment plants.  

PubMed

This study reports the presence of fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in wastewater treatment plants. The findings pinpoint the inaccuracy of current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines which defines all organic carbon in wastewater to be of biogenic origin. Stable and radiocarbon isotopes ((13)C and (14)C) were measured throughout the process train in four municipal wastewater treatment plants equipped with secondary activated sludge treatment. Isotopic mass balance analyses indicate that 4-14% of influent total organic carbon (TOC) is of fossil origin with concentrations between 6 and 35 mg/L; 88-98% of this is removed from the wastewater. The TOC mass balance analysis suggests that 39-65% of the fossil organic carbon from the influent is incorporated into the activated sludge through adsorption or from cell assimilation while 29-50% is likely transformed to carbon dioxide (CO2) during secondary treatment. The fossil organic carbon fraction in the sludge undergoes further biodegradation during anaerobic digestion with a 12% decrease in mass. 1.4-6.3% of the influent TOC consists of both biogenic and fossil carbon is estimated to be emitted as fossil CO2 from activated sludge treatment alone. The results suggest that current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines, which assume that all CO2 emission from wastewater is biogenic may lead to underestimation of emissions. PMID:23863394

Law, Yingyu; Jacobsen, Geraldine E; Smith, Andrew M; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

2013-06-12

363

Identification and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coking wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

GC-MS analysis was performed on the coking sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to allow detailed chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The identification and characterization of the isomers of PAHs was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of their isomers with mass spectra databases or based on a comparison of electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of target compounds with those reference compounds. In total, 160 PAH compounds including numerous N-, O-, S-, OH-, and Cl-containing derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target compounds was performed in the selected ion-monitoring mode using the internal standard method. The total concentrations of selected compounds in the coking sludge samples from the anaerobic tank, aerobic tank, hydrolytic tank, and secondary clarifier of the WWTP ranged from 1690 ± 585 to 6690 ± 522 mg/kg, which were much higher than those in other industrial and municipal sludges. PAHs with four and five rings were found to be the dominant compounds, and diagnostic ratios of these compounds suggested that they had the characteristics of coal combustion and pyrolysis. PMID:23184371

Zhang, Wanhui; Feng, Chunhua; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Wu, Chaofei; Li, Ning

2012-12-01

364

Biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by partial nitritation and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in a pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic sludge digestion, 15–20% of the nitrogen load is recirculated to the main stream with the return liquors from dewatering. Separate treatment of this ammonium-rich digester supernatant would significantly reduce the nitrogen load of the activated sludge system. Some years ago, a novel biological process was discovered in which ammonium is converted to nitrogen gas

Christian Fux; Marc Boehler; Philipp Huber; Irene Brunner; Hansruedi Siegrist

2002-01-01

365

Evidence of vivianite in FeSO 4-flocculated sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation of sludges with ferrous iron salts can increase the total phosphorus content of sludges. However, the forms of phosphorus thus precipitated have never been directly investigated. Three dewatered urban sewage sludges were sampled from wastewater treatment plants performing dephosphatation with the addition of FeSO4 (two anaerobically digested sludges and an activated sludge). Phosphorus species in sludges were investigated by

E. Frossard; J. P. Bauer; F. Lothe

1997-01-01

366

Full scale treatment of wastewater from a biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of wastewater derived from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied at full scale. The investigated wastewater treatment plant consisted of the following phases: primary adsorption\\/coagulation\\/flocculation\\/sedimentation processes, biological treatment with the combination of trickling filter and activated sludge systems, secondary flocculation\\/sedimentation processes, reverse osmosis (RO) system with spiral membranes. All the processes were developed

Sabino De Gisi; Maurizio Galasso; Giovanni De Feo

2012-01-01

367

Biological treatment of wastewater containing dimethyl sulphoxide from the semi-conductor industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater containing dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), a widely used organic solvent in the semi-conductor industry, is usually classified as an industrial waste requiring high-cost treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the biological treatment of DMSO wastewater with activated sludge (AS). The optimum conditions for Fenton treatment were also investigated. The optimum chemical dosage of H2O2: Fe2+ for

Se-Jin Park; Tai-Il Yoon; Jae-Ho Bae; Hyung-Joon Seo; Hyo-Jung Park

2001-01-01

368

Combination of alkaline and microwave pretreatment for disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

Meat processing wastewater sludge has high organic content but it is very slow to degrade in biological processes. Anaerobic digestion may be a good alternative for this type of sludge when the hydrolysis, known to be the rate-limiting step of biological sludge anaerobic degradation, could be eliminated by disintegration. This investigation deals with disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge. Microwave (MW) irradiation and combined alkaline pretreatment and MW irradiation were applied to sludge for disintegration purposes. Disintegration performance of the methods was evaluated with disintegration degree based on total and dissolved organic carbon calculations (DD(TOC)), and the solubilization of volatile solids (S(VS)) in the pretreated sludge. Optimum conditions were found to be 140 degrees C and 30 min for MW irradiation using response surface methodology (RSM) and pH = 13 for combined pretreatment. While DD(TOC) was observed as 24.6% and 54.9, S(VS) was determined as 8.54% and 42.5% for MW pretreated and combined pretreated sludge, respectively. The results clearly show that pre-conditioning of sludge with alkaline pretreatment played an important role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of subsequent MW irradiation. Disintegration methods also affected the anaerobic biodegradability and dewaterability of sludge. An increase of 23.6% in biogas production in MW irradiated sludge was obtained, comparing to the raw sludge at the end of the 35 days of incubation. This increase was observed as 44.5% combined pretreatment application. While MW pretreatment led to a little improvement of the dewatering performance of sludge, in combined pretreatment NaOH deteriorates the sludge dewaterability. PMID:23837322

Erden, G

369

Wet Oxidation of Phenol and Naphthalene (As a Surrogate PAH) in Aqueous and Sludge Solution: Application to Coal-Conversion Wastewater and Sludge Treatment (In Autoclaves: 130 to 250 exp 0 C; 6 to 11 MPa Oxygen; in Water Solution).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wet oxidation of phenol and naphthalene in distilled water and municipal sludge has been investigated in a 1-L autoclave at temperatures from 130 to 250 exp 0 C, oxygen presures of 6 to 11.2 MPa, and initial phenol and naphthalene concentrations of 10...

M. T. Harris R. L. Jolley G. E. Oswald J. C. Rose

1983-01-01

370

Nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from wastewater and the supernate of dewatered sludge.  

PubMed

Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus supply to freshwater negatively affects water quality and ecosystem balance through a process known as eutrophication. This can lead to increased wastewater treatment costs, a reduction in the biological diversity and recreational value of natural water bodies. Besides, algal blooms can result in loss of livestock and human health issues. Therefore, efficient and reliable nitrogen and phosphorus removal methods are required. In wastewater containing relatively high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus (e.g. wastewater from chemical fertilizer plant, the supernate of dewatered sludge, etc.), these elements are difficult to remove economically to reach the appropriate compliance limits by biological methods. On the other hand, both nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients for the plants, and recently, nitrogen and phosphorus recovery by precipitation (e.g. struvite) has drawn much attention, because nitrogen and phosphorus precipitates can be utilized as a fertilizer and both phosphorus and ammonium can be simultaneously removed. Thus, this review summarized nitrogen and phosphorus recovery methods, during which nitrogen and phosphorus compounds can be used as a raw material for the fertilizer industry, including the options of struvite and hydroxyapatite formation and other feasible using options. In this article most important patents are also discussed. PMID:20653545

Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Ding, Yan; Zeng, Tian-jing; Zeng, Guang-ming

2009-11-01

371

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by a Constructed Upland-Wetland Wastewater Treatment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Upland-Wetland wastewater treatment system was installed during September 1989 to test its effectiveness in treatment of wastewater from a single family home. Treatment effectiveness is indicated by representative exit drain samples taken from March 19...

C. H. House S. W. Broome M. T. Hoover

1993-01-01

372

Treatment and reuse of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge was treated using composting, fixed-bed and stirred anaerobic digesters. The treatment performance in terms of the physico chemical parameters, bacterial indicators and pathogenic forms were assessed. In addition, the biogas production rate was recorded in the case of anaerobic digesters. Composting of the sewage sludge increased its total solids from 39 to 93% after 6 weeks, while the

Fayza A. Nasr

1997-01-01

373

Activated Sludge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)|

Saunders, F. Michael

1978-01-01

374

Wet oxidation of phenol and naphthalene (as a surrogate PAH) in aqueous and sludge solution: application to coal-conversion wastewater and sludge treatment. [In autoclaves: 130 to 250/sup 0/C; 6 to 11 MPa oxygen; in water solution  

SciTech Connect

The wet oxidation of phenol and naphthalene in distilled water and municipal sludge has been investigated in a 1-L autoclave at temperatures from 130 to 250/sup 0/C, oxygen presures of 6 to 11.2 MPa, and initial phenol and naphthalene concentrations of 10 mg/L to 16 g/L and 10 mg/L to 420 mg/L, respectively. The reaction of phenol in water is rapid; 95% of the phenol degrades in less than 15 min at operating temperatures above 175/sup 0/C. The oxidation of phenol in sludge is mass-transfer limited and therefore yields lower rate-constant values. The reaction of phenol in water or sludge is postulated to involve a free-radical mechanism and proceeds in three steps: an induction step, a rapid first-order step, and a slower first-order step. The rapid first-order step for the phenol-water study is temperature dependent and follows the Arrhenius expression given. The slower first-order step is due to an inhibition of the rate of phenol oxidation by organic intermediates. The major organic intermediates formed during the wet oxidation of phenol are hydroquinone, catechol, succinic acid, and glycolic acid. Greater than 98% oxidation of naphthalene at milligram-per-liter concentrations in water was observed in less than 10 min. The rate of oxidation of naphthalene in sludge is inhibited by either mass transfer and/or oxidizable organics. A pseudo-first-order reaction was observed for the oxidation of naphthalene in water and sludge. The first-order rate constants are given. Essentially none of the naphthalene is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and phthalic anhydride is the principal product for the wet oxidation of naphthalene.

Harris, M.T.; Jolley, R.L.; Oswald, G.E.; Rose, J.C.

1983-05-01

375

Recycle of Alum recovered from water treatment sludge in chemically enhanced primary treatment.  

PubMed

An investigation was made to study the feasibility of recovering the Alum from coagulation sludges and reusing it in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process to make the CEPT more cost-effective and recover the resource (Alum) efficiently. The optimum condition and efficiency of the acidification method for Alum recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated in the test. The results show that when the recovery rate of Alum reaches its highest level, 84.5%, the reduction rate of sludge is 35.5%. It turns out that the capability of recovered coagulant to remove turbidity, UV(254) and COD are 96%, 46% and 53%, respectively. The results prove that the recovered coagulants could be used in CEPT and the efficiency of recovered coagulant to remove pollutants is similar to that of fresh coagulant. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on the quality of treated wastewater. The experiments verify that it would be an advisable and cost-effective way to recover Alum from coagulation sludges in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and it could be then recycled to CEPT as well as reduce sludge volume. PMID:18486332

Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, Y C; Wang, N

2008-04-10

376

Comparative analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities in methanogenic sludge granules from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating various food-processing, high-strength organic wastewaters.  

PubMed

A comprehensive survey of bacterial and archaeal community structures within granular sludges taken from twelve different types of full-scale, food-processing wastewater-treating, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors was performed with a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method. In total, 1,282 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clones and 722 archaeal clones were analyzed, and their identities were determined by phylogenetic analyses. Overall, clones belonging to the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (the class Deltaproteobacteria in particular), Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Bacteroidetes were observed in abundance within the bacterial clone libraries examined, indicating common bacterial denominators in such treatment systems. Within the domain Archaea, clones affiliated with the classes Methanomicrobia and Methanobacteria were found to be abundant in the archaeal libraries. In relation to features of reactor performance (such as chemical oxygen demand removal, fatty acid accumulation, and sludge bulking), possible representative phylotypes likely to be associated with process failures, such as sludge bulking and the accumulation of propionate, were found in comparative analyses of the distribution of phylotypes in the sludge libraries. PMID:21566360

Narihiro, Takashi; Terada, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Kae; Iguchi, Akinori; Ikeda, Mizuyo; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Koji; Kamagata, Yoichi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2009-01-01

377

A strategy for reducing pollutants at source in order to obtain sustainable agricultural recycling of wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

The Swedish licensing system for wastewater sludge use in agriculture, REVAQ, sets challenges. These include a maximum nominal accumulation rate of 0.2%/year on farmland, for specified metals, to be reached by 2025. Here a model is suggested, and applied for the Gothenburg regional wastewater treatment plant, Gryaab, to quantify historic sludge quality improvements and necessary future development. Local sampling campaigns covering two decades show a substantial reduction of heavy metals and ecologically harmful organic substances (such as adsorbable organic halogens, nonylphenols, phthalates, naphthalenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from households and society at large. For the metals studied the historic mass flow reduction to sludge varies from 1 to 2%/year for mercury, zinc and copper to 15%/year for silver. Copper needs further reduction, involving water pipes and copper roofing. Silver is rare in soil, and significant reduction from already low levels is needed to reach the accumulation goal. Further reduction of other metals involves addressing storm- and drainage water entering the sewers and the sediments already in the sewers. Fulfilling the goals of REVAQ implies national and local measures affecting public and private stakeholders including property owners, the wastewater collection system, commercial businesses and legislating authorities. PMID:22925859

Mattsson, A; Mattsson, J; Davidsson, F

2012-01-01

378

Self-heating of dried industrial wastewater sludge: lab-scale investigation of supporting conditions.  

PubMed

We studied the reactivity of dried sludge produced by treatment of wastewater, mainly from tanneries. The solids transformations have been first characterized with thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) proving that exothermic transformation takes place at fairly low temperature, before the total organic combustion that occurs in air above 400°C. The onset of low temperature reactions depends on the heating rate and it can be below 100°C at very small heating rate. Then, we reproducibly determined the conditions to trigger dried sludge self-heating at the laboratory scale, on samples in the 0.2-0.3 kg size. Thermal insulation, some aeration and addition of water are key factors. Mastering the self-heating at this scale allows more detailed investigations as well as manipulation of conditions, to understand its nature, course and remediation. Here we report proves and discussions on the role of air, water, particle size, porosity and biological activity, as well as proving that also dried sludge from similar sources lead to self-heating. Tests demonstrate that air and water are simultaneously required for significant self-heating to occur. They act in diverging directions, both triggering the onset of the reactions and damping the temperature rise, by supporting heat loss. The higher the O2 concentration, the higher the solids heating rate. More added water prolongs the exothermic phase. Further additions of water can reactivate the material. Water emphasizes the exothermic processes, but it is not sufficient to start it in an air-free atmosphere. The initial solid moisture concentration (between 8% and 15%) affects the onset of self-heating as intuitive. The sludge particles size strongly determines the strength and extent of the heat release, indicating that surface reactions are taking place. In pelletized particles, limitations to water and air permeability mitigates the reaction course. PMID:23490357

Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Canu, P

2013-03-13

379

Denitrification of high nitrate wastewater in a cloth strip bioreactor with immobilized sludge.  

PubMed

Denitrification of synthetic high nitrate wastewater containing 40,000 ppm NO(3) (9,032 ppm NO(3)-N) was achieved using immobilized activated sludge in a column reactor. Active anoxic sludge adsorbed onto Terry cloth was used in the denitrification of high nitrate wastewater. The operational stability of the immobilized sludge system was studied both in a batch reactor and in a continuous reactor. The immobilized sludge showed complete degradation of different concentrations of NO(3)-N (1,129, 1,693, 3,387, 6,774, and 9,032 ppm) in a batch process. The reactors were successfully run for 90 days without any loss in activity. The immobilized cell process has yielded promising results in attaining high denitrifying efficiency. PMID:22832944

Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F

2012-07-26

380

Biodegradability and toxicity of pharmaceuticals in biological wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

In this experimental study both biological treatability of pharmaceuticals and their potential toxic effect in biological processes were evaluated. The pharmaceuticals were selected among those that are present at higher concentration in the Italian wastewater treatment plant effluents and widely used as antiulcer (ranitidine), beta-blocker (atenolol) and antibiotic (lincomycin). The present paper is the continuation of a work already presented,[1] which used a synthetic wastewater fed to laboratory scale SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) operated with different sludge ages (8 and 14 days), different biochemical conditions (aerobic or anoxic-aerobic mode) and several influent drug concentrations (2, 3 and 5 mg/L). In this case a real municipal wastewater was used as influent to the SBR. In parallel, batch tests were conducted to determine the removal kinetics of drugs and nitrogen. Toxicity tests using a titrimetric biosensor to verify possible inhibition on microorganisms were also performed. Finally, the possible adsorption of the pharmaceuticals on activated sludge was evaluated. The drugs under investigation showed different behaviours in terms of both biodegradability and toxicity effect on nitrifiers. Ranitidine showed generally low removal efficiencies (17-26%) and a chronic inhibition on nitrification. Atenolol showed generally higher removal efficiencies than ranitidine, even if the fairly good efficiency obtained in the previous experimentation with synthetic wastewater (up to 90%) was not attained with real wastewater (36%). No inhibition on nitrification was observed on both acclimated and non acclimated microorganisms with a high nitrification activity, whilst it was present with activated sludge characterised by a lower nitrification activity. Consistently with his pharmaceutical properties, lincomycin showed significant inhibition on nitrification activity. PMID:16849129

Carucci, Alessandra; Cappai, Giovanna; Piredda, Martina

2006-01-01

381

LIME STABILIZATION AND ULTIMATE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty-eight lime stabilization facilities were visited. None of these plants were originally designed for sludge lime stabilization. Lime stabilization was instituted either as a permanent sludge handling mechanism to replace a more costly process, as an interim sludge handling ...

382

Fluoride Analysis of Water-Treatment-Plant Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for fluoride analysis of sludges was developed and verified using laboratory-prepared alum sludge. The developed method was then used to measure fluoride concentrations in sludges from selected water treatment plants. Initially, three methods of ...

W. H. Duke

1974-01-01

383

A study of the improvement in dewatering behavior of wastewater sludge through the addition of fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater sludge is classified as a difficult dewatering material (DDM) due to the high cake specific resistance (CSR). On\\u000a the other hand, fly ash is classified as an easy dewatering material (EDM), which suggests that it might be able to improve\\u000a the dewaterability of wastewater sludge. The water content and cake specific resistance of dewatered sludge without the addition\\u000a of

Jung Eun Lee; Jae Keun Lee; Dong Soo Kim

2010-01-01

384

Treatment of solvent-refined coal wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Effective wastewater treatment is essential to the successful operation of coal-conversion facilities. Process wastewater streams from these facilities will require treatment before reuse or discharge to the environment. Current treatment technology is considered generally applicable to coal-conversion wastewaters, but its effectiveness in the treatment of specific coal-conversion wastewaters has not been demonstrated on a large scale. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has previously investigated treatment methods for coal gasification and liquefaction wastewaters to provide data for the design and operation of commercial-scale units. In continuation of our coal-conversion processes, we now report on the effectiveness of a treatment train and selected-component unit operations for Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-I) process wastewater.

Drummond, C.J.; Noceti, R.P.; Walters, J.G.

1982-02-01

385

Critical evaluation of treatment strategies involving adsorption and chelation for wastewater containing copper, zinc and cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and cyanide requires treatment for removal of both metals and cyanide before disposal. Conventional methods for treatment of such wastewater involve alkaline-chlorination for cyanide destruction, followed by pH adjustment for metal precipitation, and subsequent removal of precipitate by solid–liquid separation processes. However, excessive sludge production, slow metal precipitation kinetics, and inefficient metal removal due to

Purnendu Bose; M Aparna Bose; Sunil Kumar

2002-01-01

386

Thermophilic aerobic wastewater treatment, process performance, biomass characteristics, and effluent quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic aerobic wastewater treatment is reviewed. Thermophilic processes have been studied in laboratory and pilot-scale\\u000a while full-scale applications are rare. The paper focuses on the microbiology of aerobic thermophiles, performance of the\\u000a aerobic wastewater treatments, sludge yield, and alternatives to enhance performance of thethermophilic process. Thermophilic\\u000a processes have been shown to operate under markedly high loading rates (30–180 kg COD

J. Suvilampi; J. Rintala

2003-01-01

387

The fate of lindane in the conventional activated sludge treatment process.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale treatability study was performed to evaluate the fate of lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in wastewater treatment plants operating in the conventional activated sludge mode. Different types of wastewater (industrial and municipal) spiked with variable lindane concentrations were used at different dosing rates in order to determine distribution and removal under various operational conditions. The major amount (67-91%) of lindane inputs to the treatment process was found to concentrate in primary sludge. A significant linear correlation between the compound's partition coefficient (logKp) and the organic fraction of primary sludge (foc) was found. Sorption on primary sludge solids was concluded to be the major removal mechanism. Only 0.1-2.8% of lindane inputs was concentrated in activated sludge. Lindane losses in primary treatment were low (4-26%). Higher losses (up to 61%) were observed during the biological treatment probably due to biodegradation. These losses were negatively correlated with the inflow rate of lindane into the aeration tank. Activated sludge aged about 23 d presented the maximum loss of lindane. Increased sludge age was associated with increased percentages of lindane in the final effluent. PMID:14720550

Kipopoulou, A M; Zouboulis, A; Samara, C; Kouimtzis, Th

2004-04-01

388

Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.  

PubMed

The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. PMID:23410857

Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

2013-02-07

389

Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from an abattoir wastewater in a SBR with aerobic granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and performance of granular sludge was studied in an 8l sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating an abattoir (slaughterhouse) wastewater. Influent concentrations averaged 1520mgl?1 volatile suspended solids (VSS), 7685mgl?1 Chemical oxygen demand (COD), 1057mgl?1 total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 217mgl?1 total P. The COD loading was 2.6kgm?3d?1. The SBR was seeded with flocculating sludge from a SBR with an 1h

D. P. Cassidy; E. Belia

2005-01-01

390

Adsorption Filtration Technology Using Reclaimed Iron Sludge Coated Sand Filter Media for Municipal Wastewater Reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at exploring the feasibility of adsorption filtration technology using reclaimed iron sludge coated sand (RISCS) as filter media for municipal wastewater reuse. The iron sludge as surplus waste solution derived from ferric-carbon micro-electrolysis process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to investigate the surface morphology of quartz sand (QS)

Lu? Jianbo; Sun Liping; Li Yuyou; Jia Renyong; Yi Xuesong

2010-01-01

391

ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

392

Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

C?bere, B.; Falti?a, E.; Zel??ns, N.; Kalni?a, D.

2009-01-01

393

Recovering and recycling Hg from chlor-alkali plant wastewater sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Montana Tech of the University of Montana and Universal Dynamics of British Columbia have developed a hydrometallurgical process for recovering and recycling mercury from chlorine plant wastewater sludge materials (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]hazardous-waste classification K106). The hydrometallurgical process is also applicable for the treatment of mercury-contaminated soils (EPA hazardous waste classification D009) and other mercury-bearing waste materials. The process, which is capable of lowering the mercury content in the K106 solids from 10% to <50 mg/kg Hg, has been commercialized and utilized at three U.S. plants. This paper describes the fundamental chemistry of the process, the flowsheet being used, and operating plant case histories.

Twidwell, L. G.; Thompson, R. J.

2001-01-01

394

Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

Conn, K. E.; Siegrist, Prof. , R. L.; Barber, L. B.; Brown, G. K.

2007-01-01

395

Tannery wastewater pre-treatment.  

PubMed

Tannery wastewater is one of the most pollution sources. It can cause environmental problems related to its high organic matter, suspended solids and chromium. Chromium (III) salts are the most widely used chemicals for tanning processes, causing the tannery wastewater to be highly pollutant with chromium. The main objective of this study is to investigate the pre-treatment of an actual Egyptian tannery wastewater using two systems; the first electrolytic system and the second physico-chemical system. The performances of electrolytic system at current of 10, 20, 30 and 40 A were discussed. Poor removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), chromium (III), ammonia (NH(4) (+) and sulfide (S(2-)) were obtained. In the second physico-chemical system, calcium hydroxide was used as a coagulant material for chromium precipitation and plain sedimentation was applied for reducing of COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and TSS. The results demonstrate 98.8% removal of chromium, 31% removal of COD, 25.8% removal of BOD(5) and 51.2% removal of TSS. PMID:19633385

Elsheikh, Mahmoud Abdel-Shafy

2009-01-01

396

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

Schwing, Carl M.

397

Treatment of textile dyeing wastewater using two-phase pilot plant UASB reactor with sago wastewater as co-substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing industry is considered as one of the largest generators of toxic chemical wastewater in India. Wastewaters from textile dyeing industries were studied for the decolourization and removal of degradable organics with tapioca sago wastewater as a co-substrate in a pilot scale two-phase Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was inoculated with seed sludge from the

M. Senthilkumar; G. Gnanapragasam; V. Arutchelvan; S. Nagarajan

2011-01-01

398

Ferric coagulant recovered from coagulation sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted to study the feasibility of ferric coagulant recovery from chemical sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) to make the process more cost-effective, as well as reduce sludge volume. The optimum conditions and efficiency of the acidification for ferric coagulant recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated. Experimental results showed that the recovered coagulants can be used in CEPT and the pollutants removal efficiency is similar to that of fresh coagulant, and for some aspects the effect of recovered coagulants is better than that of fresh ones, such as turbidity removal. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on treated wastewater quality. Acidification condition also had significant influence on reduction of sludge volume. The efficiency of coagulant recovery had a linear relationship with sludge reduction. Experiments verify that it would be a sustainable and cost-effective way to recover ferric coagulant from coagulation sludge in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and then recycle it to CEPT, as well as reduce sludge volume. PMID:19587418

Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, N; Li, G B

2009-01-01

399

Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continuing depletion of fresh water resources, focus has shifted more toward water recovery, reuse, and recycling, which require an extension of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Downstream external factors like stricter compliance requirements for wastewater discharge, rising treatment costs, and spatial constraints necessitate renewed investigation of alternative technologies. Coupled with biological treatment processes, membrane technology has gained considerable attention due

C. Visvanathan; R. Ben Aim; K. Parameshwaran

2000-01-01

400

INTEGRATED PLANNING FOR ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unplanned, compartmentalized approaches for onsite wastewater treatment fail to consider cumulative water resource and pollutant impacts. Planning is the key to cost effective wastewater treatment, regardless of whether the facilities are centralized or decentralized. Centralized facility planning has been required for treatment expansion projects since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972. We have now arrived at the time

Barry Tonning; Rod Frederick; Robert Goo; James Kreissl

401

Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD.

Basfar, A. A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

2002-11-01

402

Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

403

Ozone pre-treatment as improver of PAH removal during anaerobic digestion of urban sludge.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous persistent pollutants. They may accumulate in sludge during wastewater treatment because of their low biodegradability and their hydrophobic characteristics. Combination of ozonation and anaerobic digestion may be efficient to remove PAHs naturally present in sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of ozone pre-treatment, with and without surfactant addition, on the anaerobic degradation of 12 PAHs (from low to high molecular weight). Under anaerobic digestion without ozonation pre-treatment, the highest removals were obtained for the lightest PAHs (3-aromatic rings). Ozonation pre-treatment of sludge allowed to increase biodegradability or bioavailability of each PAH, and the PAH removals were well correlated to the PAH solubility. Finally, addition of tyloxapol before sludge ozone pre-treatment had antagonist effects on PAH removal during anaerobic digestion: negative impact on anaerobic ecosystem activity and improvement of PAH bioaccessibility (particularly the PAHs with the highest octanol water partition coefficients). PMID:17382369

Bernal-Martinez, Arodi; Carrère, Hélène; Patureau, Dominique; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe

2007-03-26

404

Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

2011-05-01

405

The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria were investigated in two large-scale municipal treatment plants during a period of six months. Total and relative numbers of resistant bacteria were determined in raw sewage, treated sewage and anaerobically digested sludge by bacteriological counts on media selective for coliforms (MacConkey agar) and Acinetobacter spp. (Baumann agar).

Luca Guardabassi; Danilo M. A Lo Fo Wong; Anders Dalsgaard

2002-01-01

406

EFFECTS ON TOXICITY OF VOLATILE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS ADDED TO A CONVENTIONAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Static acute, unaerated, toxicity tests using fathead minnows and Daphnia magna and a bacterial toxicity assay, Microtox(TM), were conducted on samples of influent and effluent from two conventional activated sludge pilot wastewater treatment systems. The two pilot treatment syst...

407

Improving the Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants with Ozonation during Biological Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-ozonation is often used to enhance the biodegradability of recalcitrant compounds prior to biological treatment of wastewater. A usual shortcoming of such an approach is wasting ozone on other compounds that are already biodegradable. This research followed a groundbreaking approach of degrading a recalcitrant substance with ozone during biological treatment. Two parallel bench-top activated sludge processes were fed a synthetic

J. van Leeuwen; Anand Sridhar; A. Kamel Harrata; Marc Esplugas; Shinnosuke Onuki; Lingshuang Cai; Jacek A. Koziel

2009-01-01

408

Surveys in industrial wastewater treatment, Vol. 3: Manufacturing and chemical industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a detailed review of the treatment of wastewaters from groups of industries. Individual reviews are written by experts and reflect established or proven practice. This third volume, which deals with inorganic waste waters, covers plating, silver recovery (particularly from the photographic industry), general inorganic chemical industries, chloro-alkalai (particularly the treatment and disposal of mercury sludges), and the

1987-01-01

409

A Guide to the Selection of Cost-Effective Wastewater Treatment Systems. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The data within this publication provide guidelines for planners, engineers and decision-makers at all governmental levels to evaluate cost-effectiveness of alternative wastewater treatment proposals. The processes described include conventional and advanced treatment units as well as most sludge handling and processing units. Flow sheets, cost…

Van Note, Robert H.; And Others

410

The Application of Molecular Techniques to the Study of Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater treatment systems tend to be engineered to select for a few functional microbial groups that may be organized in various spatial structures such as activated sludge flocs, biofilm or granules and represented by single coherent phylogenic groups such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO). In order to monitor and control engineered microbial structure in wastewater treatment systems, it is necessary to understand the relationships between the microbial community structure and the process performance. This review focuses on bacterial communities in wastewater treatment processes, the quantity of microorganisms and structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment bioreactors. The review shows that the application of molecular techniques in studies of engineered environmental systems has increased our insight into the vast diversity and interaction of microorganisms present in wastewater treatment systems.

Wojnowska-Bary?a, Irena; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

411

Multi-criteria evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control strategies under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of activated sludge control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) via mathematical modelling is a complex activity because several objectives; e.g. economic, environmental, technical and legal; must be taken into account at the same time, i.e. the evaluation of the alternatives is a multi-criteria problem. Activated sludge models are not well characterized and some of the parameters can

Xavier Flores-Alsina; Ignasi Rodríguez-Roda; Gürkan Sin; Krist V. Gernaey

2008-01-01

412

Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sewage sludge in fluidized bed to produce bio-oil is under study as a useful way to valorise this waste. Sewage sludge is the waste produced in the wastewater treatment plants. Its composition may change due to the origin and to the non-standardized treatments in the wastewater treatment plants. The pyrolysis of three samples of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

I. Fonts; M. Azuara; G. Gea; M. B. Murillo

2009-01-01

413

Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

WESTRA, A.G.

1999-06-24

414

Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.  

PubMed

This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient. PMID:21214003

Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

2010-12-01

415

Comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating instant coffee production wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable anaerobic digestion of settled instant coffee wastewater was achieved for over 100 days in mesophilic (35°C) and termophilic (55°C) UASB reactors. Thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blankets (UASBs) were seeded with mesophilic granules and converted to thermophilic operation by raising the temperature to 55°C in one step. Successful thermophilic operation was achieved within 28 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic UASBs

Richard M. Dinsdale; Freda R. Hawkes; Dennis L. Hawkes

1997-01-01

416

In-vitro compatibility evaluation of fungal mixed culture for bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six different fungal strains\\/isolates were selected after conducting a series of experiments of isolation and screening to evaluate their successful adaptation and growth to domestic wastewater sludge and its efficient bioconversion into compost. Two different fungi were grown in the same petri dish 4 cm apart in two culture media, potato dextrose agar (PDA) and malt extract agar (MEA). Fifteen

Abul Hossain Molla; Ahmadun Fakhru'l-Razi; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Mohamed Musa Hanafi

2001-01-01

417

Biodegradation of olive mill wastewater sludge by its co-composting with agricultural wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of maize straw (MS) or cotton waste (CW) as bulking agents in the composting of olive mill wastewater (OMW) sludge was compared by studying the organic matter (OM) mineralisation and humification processes during composting and the characteristics of the end products. Both composts were prepared in a pilot-plant using the Rutgers static-pile system. The use of CW instead

C Paredes; M. P Bernal; J Cegarra; A Roig

2002-01-01

418

Essential interactions between Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and heterotrophic microorganisms during a wastewater sludge bioleaching process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulating effect of heterotrophic microorganisms was investigated on the growth and on the ferrous iron oxidation of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in synthetic media and in wastewater sludge. The addition of a sediment. Rhodotorula rubra isolate or a strain of T. acidophilus on two-layer agarose-gelled medium doubled the plating efficiency of T. ferrooxidans. In liquid cultures, R. rubra had a slight

Diane Fournier; Réal Lemieux; Denis Couillard

1998-01-01

419

Toxicity testing of wastewater and sewage sludge by biosensors, bioassays and chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity testing has grown steadily in recent years, being a useful tool in environmental risk assessment. This review highlights different bioassays and recently developed biosensors based on acute toxicity measurements. Emphasis is placed on the use of combined approaches involving chemical analysis for the characterization and identification of complex toxic wastewater effluents and sewage sludge. Fractionation schemes that combine sample

Marinella Farré; Damià Barceló

2003-01-01

420

EMISSION OF METALS AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS - VOLUME I: SUMMARY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne site incorpo...

421

THERMAL CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE, PHASE II: STUDY OF HEAVY METAL EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The object of this work was to compare and analyze heavy metal emissions associated with the thermal conversion (incineration) processes which can be conducted in a multiple-hearth furnace to dry municipal wastewater (sewage) sludge and reduce its volume by forming an ash or char...

422

Supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of municipal excess sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater of molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water oxidation has been focused as an environmentally attractive technology where organic materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide, water, and N2. We have applied the supercritical water oxidation to municipal excess sludge and alcohol distillery wastewater of molasses. The reaction was carried out in a batch reactor or a flow reactor with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant in the

Motonobu Goto; Takatsugu Nada; Akane Ogata; Akio Kodama; Tsutomu Hirose

1998-01-01

423

ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES FOR ANILINE AND SELECTED DERIVATIVES IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study involved the development and validation of analytical methods for determining aniline and 18 halogen and nitro-substituted derivatives in industrial wastewater and municipal sludge. Gas chromatography (GC) with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD) was found to be well ...

424

Wastewater treatment process energy optimization  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a program at the Sims South Wastewater treatment plant that would optimize energy usage without any sacrifice of effluent quality. It is proposed to adapt this program in the future for use at the City of Houston's 34 other wastewater treatment plants. The Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation provided assistance in a Hazard and Operability analysis of air compressor starting, operation and stopping. This study resulted in a design considered safe by the City and the blower manufacturer. The blower controls were modified, implementing the recommendations of the study. Power meters were furnished and installed by Houston Lighting and Power Co. to monitor energy use and demand. Because of construction delays, only a brief period of manufacturing after implementation of automatic control was possible. Compressor start-up from a single input signal has worked properly. Dissolved oxygen control has resulted in an indicated saving of 5,000 kWh/day out of 37,500 kWh/day giving a pay back time of 5 years. This indicated energy saving has a value of $4,000 per month. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Garrett, M.T. Jr.

1990-04-30

425

Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ?50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:22105133

Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

2011-01-01

426

High rate aerobic treatment of brewery wastewater using the jet loop reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerobic Jet Loop Reactor (JLR) activated sludge process of 541. volume was used to investigate its suitability for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, specifically brewery wastewater. A loading rate of 50 kg COD\\/m3·d was achieved with 97% COD removal for a period of 5 weeks and although the settleability was found to be acceptable non-flocculating motile bacteria caused the

James C. Bloor; G. K. Anderson; A. R. Willey

1995-01-01

427

Anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater using an anaerobic fixed-bed loop reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of anaerobic processes into wastewater treatment trains minimizes amount and enhances stability of excess sludge, but lowers energy consumption. Objectives of this study were to develop a pilot-scale anaerobic fixed-bed loop (AFBL) reactor, to select critical parameters and to investigate feasibility and performance when treating municipal wastewater under real field conditions. Hydraulic residence times (HRTs) of 0.23, 0.28 and

Paraschos Melidis; Eleni Vaiopoulou; Evagelia Athanasoulia; Alexander Aivasidis

2009-01-01

428

SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Constructed wetlands have been used extensively around the globe for over three decades to provide municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Recently, constructed wetland technology has been used to provide more effective and socially acceptable methods for treatment of swine wastewater. They h...

429

Fenton process for treatment of desizing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of simulated desizing wastewater by the Fenton process along with chemical coagulation was investigated. The simulated wastewater contained less than 0.2% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Blue G (a direct dye) or Black B (a reactive dye). Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of operating variables, including pH, temperature and the treatment time, on the COD removal efficiency. Optimal

Sheng H. Lin; Cho C. Lo

1997-01-01

430

Treatment of turkey processing wastewater with sand filtration.  

PubMed

This research investigated the feasibility of coarse/fine sand filtration for removing organic materials from turkey processing wastewater. Sand filtration was tested with three organic and hydraulic loadings. Six two-layer sand bioreactors were in three groups, each with 5 cm layer of pea gravel at the bottom to support layers of fine sand (46 cm) and coarse sand (15 cm) to a height of 66 cm. The bioreactors were inoculated with a mixture of 20% (vol/vol) of wastewater lagoon sludge, 40% (vol/vol) of turkey processing wastewater, and 40% (vol/vol) of BOD(5) dilution water before starting the column operation with turkey processing wastewater. The wastewater contained 1270+/-730 mg COD/L and was applied to each sand bioreactor at hydraulic loading rates of wastewater at 0.04% (wt/vol). Maximum treatment efficiencies were reached within a week. The removal of TOC and BOD(5) was >94% during 80 days of column operation at low and medium hydraulic loading rates (132 L/m(2)/day). The removal at the highest hydraulic loading rate (264 L/m(2)/day) declined after the appearance of a black zone in the top layer of fine sand on day 30 for one reactor and day 50 for the other. The sand filtration in this study represents a feasible treatment for turkey processing wastewater and its efficiency and the life span of the process are associated with the extent of hydraulic loading of the sand bioreactors. PMID:17092706

Kang, Young W; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

2006-11-07

431

Concomitant degradation of bisphenol A during ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation and production of biofertilizer from wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

Degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, from wastewater sludge (WWS) has attracted great interest recently. In the present study, the effects of different pre-treatment methods, including ultrasonication (US), Fenton's oxidation (FO) and ferro-sonication (FS) was assessed in terms of increase in solubilization of WWS and simultaneous degradation of BPA. Among US, FO and FS pre-treatment, higher suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble organic carbon (SOC) solubilization (39.7%, 51.2%, 64.5% and 17.6%, respectively) was observed during a ferro-sonication pre-treatment process carried out for 180 min, resulting in higher degradation of BPA (82.7%). In addition, the effect of rheological parameters (viscosity and particle size) and zeta potential on the degradation of BPA in raw and different pre-treated sludges were also investigated. The results showed that a decrease in viscosity and particle size and an increase in zeta potential resulted in higher degradation of BPA. BPA degradation by laccases produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti in raw and pre-treated sludge was also determined. Higher activity of laccases (207.9 U L(-1)) was observed in ferro-sonicated pre-treated sludge (180 min ultrasonic time), resulting in higher removal of BPA (0.083 ?g g(-1)), suggesting concomitant biological degradation of BPA. PMID:21463964

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

2011-04-03

432

[Relationship between typical organic matters in domestic wastewater and water characteristic parameters in activated sludge models].  

PubMed

The contribution of typical organic matters such as proteins, sugars, lipids and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) to COD of the domestic wastewater was investigated. Nitrate utilization rate was used to determine wastewater characteristic parameters. Relationship between these typical organic matters and wastewater characteristic parameters (Ss, Xs, SI, XI) in activated sludge models were investigated. The results showed that YH of activated sludge under denitrifying conditions was 0.683. Proteins, sugars, lipids and LAS accounted for 24%-35%, 17%-35%, 5.78%-10.56% and 3.77%-7.23% of the total COD, respectively. It indicated that these four pollutants were the main COD source in the domestic wastewater. SS and XI were in the ranges of 22%-29% and 29%-38% of the total COD, respectively. Concentrations of the four typical target organic matters (proteins, sugars, lipids and LAS) correlated well with the wastewater characteristic parameters (Ss, Xs, SI, XI) of activated sludge models (ASMs) with the correlative coefficients above 0.9. PMID:19558125

Huang, Man-Hong; Li, Yong-Mei; Gu, Guo-Wei

2009-05-15

433

Identifying energy and carbon footprint optimization potentials of a sludge treatment line with Life Cycle Assessment.  

PubMed

This study exemplifies the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to quantify the environmental impacts of processes for wastewater treatment. In a case study, the sludge treatment line of a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is analysed in terms of cumulative energy demand and the emission of greenhouse gases (carbon footprint). Sludge treatment consists of anaerobic digestion, dewatering, drying, and disposal of stabilized sludge in mono- or co-incineration in power plants or cement kilns. All relevant forms of energy demand (electricity, heat, chemicals, fossil fuels, transport) and greenhouse gas emissions (fossil CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) are accounted in the assessment, including the treatment of return liquor from dewatering in the WWTP. Results show that the existing process is positive in energy balance (-162 MJ/PE(COD) * a) and carbon footprint (-11.6 kg CO(2)-eq/PE(COD) * a) by supplying secondary products such as electricity from biogas production or mono-incineration and substituting fossil fuels in co-incineration. However, disposal routes for stabilized sludge differ considerably in their energy and greenhouse gas profiles. In total, LCA proves to be a suitable tool to support future investment decisions with information of environmental relevance on the impact of wastewater treatment, but also urban water systems in general. PMID:23128622

Remy, C; Lesjean, B; Waschnewski, J

2013-01-01

434

Reuse Water Treatment Sludge for Hollow Concrete Block Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: This research reuses the water treatment sludge fro m a water treatment plant to make hollow concrete blocks. The main objectives are to increase the value of the water treatment sludge from a water treatment plant and t o make a sustainable and profitable disposal alternative for the water treatment sludge. Attempt s were made to utilize the

Thaniya Kaosol

435

Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general. PMID:15791932

Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

2005-01-01

436

Virus Survival in Soils Injected with Municipal Wastewater Treatment Residuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine possible viral contamination of the environment resulting from domestic sludge injection into soils. Specific goals were: (1) determination of virus levels in specific treatment plants sludges; (2) determination of sludge vir...

B. P. Sagik

1978-01-01

437

Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.  

PubMed

A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. PMID:23886540

Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

2013-07-03

438

Numerical Simulation of Aerated Sludge Composting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes development of a time-dependent computerized model for composting of wastewater treatment plant sludge with forced aeration of the pile. The work was undertaken because, in the past, development of the composting process for wastewat...

R. Smith R. G. Eilers

1980-01-01

439

Metagenomic Profiling of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Mobile Genetic Elements in a Tannery Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet) were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.

Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; Miao, Yu; Shi, Peng; Liu, Bo; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

2013-01-01

440

Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet) were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns. PMID:24098424

Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; Miao, Yu; Shi, Peng; Liu, Bo; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

2013-10-01

441

OCCURRENCE OF PATHOGENS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND THEIR SURVIVAL DURING WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Pathogens can enter municipal wastewaters from several sources including homes, hospitals and slaughter houses. They are identified, typical levels found in sludges are given along with infectious doses, and their survival on crops and in the soil presented. As wastewater is clea...

442

Experimental Study on the Reduction of Sludge by Ozone Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment on sludge reduction was studied. And the factors of the reaction processes were discussed. The results showed that the method could reduce the sludge efficiently. With the increase of gas flow and reaction time, the sludge removal rate increased gradually. When the gas flow was 2.00 L\\/min, and the reaction time was 60 minutes, the activated sludge removal

Xiaomei Zhu; Bing Sun; Jian Xu

2011-01-01

443

Inactivation of Enteric Pathogens during Aerobic Digestion of Wastewater Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion ...

S. R. Farrah G. Bitton S. G. Zam

1986-01-01

444

INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

445

Development of an up-flow irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beam irradiation processing is an available technology to treat sludge, groundwater, surface water and industrial and municipal wastewater. The use of this technology into environmental areas has moved slowly because industry and government are always conservative in the adoption of new processes, especially when they can not observe the efficiency and cost effectiveness of a treatment in a full

P. R. Rela; M. H. O. Sampa; C. L. Duarte; F. E. Costa; V. Sciani

2000-01-01

446

Modelling and dynamic simulation of a moving bed bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the dynamic simulation of a pilot scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) used for the treatment of municipal wastewater is proposed. The proposed MBBR model includes attachment of particulates to the biofilm and detachment of biofilm into the bulk liquid. The biofilm growth kinetics are modelled with the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Diffusional mass transport limitations

M. Plattes; E. Henry; P. M. Schosseler; A. Weidenhaupt

2006-01-01

447

The role of tannins in conventional and membrane treatment of tannery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role that tannins play in tannery wastewater treatment has been evaluated employing a pilot Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) plant and a full scale Conventional Activated Sludge Process (CASP) plant conducted in parallel. The proposed methodology has established the preliminary use of respirometry to examine the biodegradability of a selection of commercial products (synthetic and natural tannins); the subsequent analysis, by

G. Munz; D. De Angelis; R. Gori; G. Mori; M. Casarci; C. Lubello

2009-01-01

448

Jar Test. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The jar test is used to determine the proper chemical dosage required for good coagulation and flocculation of water. The test is commonly used in potable water, secondary effluent prior to advanced wastewater treatment, secondary clarifier influent, and sludge conditioning practice. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant…

Arasmith, E. E.

449

Bioluminescent reporter bacterium for toxicity monitoring in biological wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic shock due to certain chemical loads in biological wastewater treatment systems can result in death of microorganisms and loss of floc structure. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to toxicity monitoring, genes encoding enzymes for light production were inserted to a bacterium (Shk 1) isolated from activated sludge. The Shk 1 bioreporter indicated a toxic response to concentrations

C. J. Kelly; C. A. Lajoie; A. C. Layton; G. S. Sayler

1999-01-01

450

Jar Test. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The jar test is used to determine the proper chemical dosage required for good coagulation and flocculation of water. The test is commonly used in potable water, secondary effluent prior to advanced wastewater treatment, secondary clarifier influent, and sludge conditioning practice. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant…

Arasmith, E. E.

451

Micropollutant removal during biological wastewater treatment and a subsequent ozonation step  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design criteria for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the sludge retention time, respectively, have a significant impact on micropollutant rem