Science.gov

Sample records for wastewater sludge treatments

  1. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11h against 30h) and a lower sludge production. PMID:24583525

  2. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25381111

  3. DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR AUTOMATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a systems engineering handbook for the automation of activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. Process control theory and application are discussed to acquaint the reader with terminology and fundamentals. Successful unit process control strategies currently...

  4. Parasite contamination of liquid sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Schwartzbrod, J; Banas, S

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed on sludge samples from 20 wastewater treatment plants located in the north west of France with capacities of 1,000-20,000 inhabitant equivalents. The types of treatment studied were activated sludge low charge with and without denitrification. Respectively, 110 samples of fresh sludge and 84 samples of discharged sludge for spreading were analysed. Globally 78.6% of samples contained helminth eggs belonging to the cestodes (6.1%) and nematodes (93.9%). Most of the nematode eggs detected were viable with 135 positive samples. The distribution, according to genera, indicated a high prevalence of Toxocara eggs (77.4%) followed by Capillaria (13.2%), Trichuris (8.1%) and Ascaris (1.3%). For viable nematode eggs, the concentrations detected ranged from < 1 to 28/4 gDM for fresh sludge and from < 1 to 9.6/4 gDM for discharged sludge. PMID:12639023

  5. BENEFICIAL DISPOSAL OF WATER PURIFICATION PLANT SLUDGES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the disposal of waste alum sludge from a water treatment plant to a municipal wastewater treatment plant and is submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. 803336-01 by Novato Sanitary District and North Marin County Water Distr...

  6. Disinfection of sewage wastewater and sludge by electron treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, J. G.; Merrill, E. W.; Wright, K. A.

    The use of machine-accelerated electrons to disinfect sewage waterwaste and sludge is discussed. The method is shown to be practical and energy-efficient for the broad spectrum disinfection of pathogenic organisms in municipal wastewaters and sludge removed from them. Studies of biological, chemical and physical effects are reported. Electron treatment is suggested as an alternative to chlorination of municipal liquid wastes after electron treatment to provide disinfection. Disposal of sewage sludge is recommended as an agricultural resource by subsurface land injection, or as a nutrient for fish populations by widespread ocean dispersal.

  7. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 501C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions. PMID:25851807

  8. Stability and maturity of thickened wastewater sludge treated in pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Stefanakis, Alexandros I; Komilis, Dimitrios P; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2011-12-01

    Thickened wastewater activated sludge was treated in 13 pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands of various configurations that operated continuously for three years in North Greece. Sludge was loaded for approximately 2.5 years, and the beds were left to rest for the remaining period. Three different sludge loading rates were used that represented three different population equivalents. Residual sludge stability and maturity were monitored for the last year. Sludge was regularly sampled and microbial respiration activity indices were measured via a static respiration assay. The phytotoxicity of sludge was quantified via a seed germination bioassay. Measurements of total solids, organic matter, total coliforms, pH and electrical conductivity were also made. According to microbial respiration activity measurements, the sludge end-product was classified as stable. The germination index of the final product exceeded 100% in most wetland units, while final pH values were approximately 6.5. The presence of plants positively affected the stability and maturity of the residual sludge end-product. Passive aeration did not significantly affect the quality of the residual sludge, while the addition of chromium at high concentrations hindered the sludge decomposition process. Conclusively, sludge treatment wetlands can be successfully used, not only to dewater, but also to stabilize and mature wastewater sludge after approximately a four-month resting phase. PMID:22027385

  9. Wastewater cleanup: Put activated-sludge treatment to work

    SciTech Connect

    Scroggins, D.; Deiters, S.

    1995-11-01

    Strict wastewater treatment and discharge limits continue to challenge wastewater treatment systems. For industrial wastewater, the selected system must not only meet regulatory requirements, but must also be flexible enough to handle the variations in volume, flowrate and pollutant load that typify industrial effluent streams. At existing industrial sites, the selection of a wastewater treatment system is also impacted by constraints, such as limited space or the desire to minimize downtime or process interruptions. Meanwhile, for municipalities, wastewater treatment requirements are often made or complicated by the need to add a disinfection step to destroy waterborne pathogens in the discharge stream. Biological treatment processes, based on the use of activated sludge, have long been used to degrade organic contaminants in municipal and industrial wastewater. For years, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been used to treat wastewater using activated sludge. However, in recent years, the variable depth reactor (VDR) has emerged as an alternative system, by addressing some of the shortcomings of the SBR.

  10. Method for lime stabilization of wastewater treatment plant sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.O.

    1981-12-22

    A method for the lime stabilization of wastewater sludge, includes the steps of dewatering sludge so as to produce a sludge cake containing from about 10 to 60% by weight of dry solids and rapidly and intimately mixing and reacting the sludge cake with calcium oxide so as to produce stabilized sludge pellets. An apparatus for performing the process is also provided.

  11. Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced with aerobic digestion for sludge that is intended for land application. PMID:24239827

  12. EFFECTS OF THERMAL TREATMENT OF SLUDGE ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements are presented for thermal treatment of municipal wastewater sludges; for handling, treatment, and disposal of the strong liquor generated; and for controlling odors produced. Size ranges cov...

  13. Sludge minimization in municipal wastewater treatment by polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Francesco; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Fraraccio, Serena; Corsi, Giovanna; Zanaroli, Giulio; Werker, Alan; Majone, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    An innovative approach has been recently proposed in order to link polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production with sludge minimization in municipal wastewater treatment, where (1) a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used for the simultaneous municipal wastewater treatment and the selection/enrichment of biomass with storage ability and (2) the acidogenic fermentation of the primary sludge is used to produce a stream rich in volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as the carbon source for the following PHA accumulation stage. The reliability of the proposed process has been evaluated at lab scale by using substrate synthetic mixtures for both stages, simulating a low-strength municipal wastewater and the effluent from primary sludge fermentation, respectively. Six SBR runs were performed under the same operating conditions, each time starting from a new activated sludge inoculum. In every SBR run, despite the low VFA content (10% chemical oxygen demand, COD basis) of the substrate synthetic mixture, a stable feast-famine regime was established, ensuring the necessary selection/enrichment of the sludge and soluble COD removal to 89%. A good process reproducibility was observed, as also confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the microbial community, which showed that a high similarity after SBR steady-state had been reached. The main variation factors of the storage properties among different runs were uncontrolled changes of settling properties which in turn caused variations of both sludge retention time and specific organic loading rate. In the following accumulation batch tests, the selected/enriched consortium was able to accumulate PHA with good rate (63 mg CODPHA g CODXa(-1)?h(-1)) and yield (0.23 CODPHA COD?S(-1)) in spite that the feeding solution was different from the acclimation one. Even though the PHA production performance still requires optimization, the proposed process has a good potential especially if coupled to minimization of both primary sludge (by its use as the VFA source for the PHA accumulation, via previous fermentation) and excess secondary sludge (by its use as the biomass source for the PHA accumulation). PMID:24996948

  14. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

  15. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-12-31

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

  16. Treatment of refinery wastewaters using various modified activated sludge processes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Muzaini, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Biological processes for treating refinery industry wastewater for reuse were studied. A pilot-scale biological reactor was constructed to simulate the activated sludge treatment process. Actual refinery industry wastewater collected from a regional refinery and spiked with additions of selected priority organics was fed at a rate of 1.3 liters/hour into a 6-liter pilot plant having a hydraulic retention time of 4 hours. Activated sludge (AS) which was augmented by additions of powdered activated carbon (PAC) at dosages of 10, 50 and 120 mg/l was evaluated. The AS process removed 70-80% of the BOD, COD and TOC. With the addition of PAC, removal efficiencies of the indicator compounds rose to 80-95%. The sludge physical parameters and kinetic constants were determined with and without the addition of PAC to the AS. PAC additions to the AS increased the amount of biomass in the reactor. Volatile compounds (benzene, chloroform, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-xylene and o-xylene) were removed from the reactor by volatilization which occurred from air stripping. PAC alone (without AS) was primarily responsible for removing base and acid/neutral-extractable compounds (2,4-dimethylphenol, fluorene, naphthalene and pyrene).

  17. COMPUTER-AIDED SYNTHESIS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SLUDGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided design procedure for the preliminary synthesis of wastewater treatment and sludge disposal systems is developed. It selects the components in the wastewater treatment and sludge disposal trains from a list of candidate process units with fixed design characterist...

  18. Synergistic cooperation between wastewater-born algae and activated sludge for wastewater treatment: influence of algae and sludge inoculation ratios.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanyan; Mennerich, Artur; Urban, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    An algal-bacterial culture, composed of wastewater-born algae and activated sludge, was cultivated to treat domestic wastewater and accumulate biomass simultaneously. The influence of algae and sludge inoculation ratios on the treatment efficiency and the settleability of the accumulated biomass were investigated. There was no significant effect of the inoculation ratios on the chemical oxygen demand removal. Comparatively, the nutrients removal and related mechanism were varied with different inoculation ratios. The highest nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were observed with 5:1 (algae/sludge) culture (91.0±7.0% and 93.5±2.5%, respectively) within 10 days, which was 5-40% higher and 2-4 days faster than those with other inoculation ratios. The biomass settleability was improved with the assistance of sludge, and the 1:5 (algae/sludge) culture showed the best settleability. Furthermore, 16S rDNA gene analysis showed that the bacterial communities were varying with different algae and sludge inoculation ratios and some specific bacteria were enriched during operation. PMID:22189078

  19. COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal wastewater sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. C...

  20. Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar

    2011-10-15

    The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined. PMID:21764417

  1. Application of vibration milling for advanced wastewater treatment and excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Sano, Akira; Senga, Akira; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiroki; Xu, Kai-Qin; Inamori, Yuhei

    2012-01-01

    As a new sludge reduction technology with a phosphorus removal mechanism, a vibration milling technology that uses iron balls have been applied to the wastewater treatment process. Three anaerobic-aerobic cyclic activated sludge processes: one without sludge disintegration; one disintegrated sludge by ozonation; and the other disintegrated sludge with the vibrating ball mill were compared. Ozonation achieved the best sludge reduction performance, but milling had the best phosphorus removal. This is because iron was mixed into the wastewater treatment tank due to abrasion of the iron balls, leading to settling of iron phosphates. Thus, the simple means of using iron balls as the medium in a vibrating ball mill can achieve both a sludge reduction of half and excellent phosphorus removal. Material balances in the processes were calculated and it was found that carbon components in disintegrated sludge were more resistant to biological treatment than nitrogen. PMID:22173418

  2. Electro-coagulation treatment of oily wastewater with sludge analysis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dhorgham Skban; Sakthipriya, N; Balasubramanian, N

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to treat the oily effluent by electro-coagulation. The influence of operating parameters such as applied current, type of electrode and electrolysis time on electro-coagulation efficiency has been critically examined. The maximum percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 94% under optimum experimental conditions of pH 6.7, current density 6 mA/cm², electrolysis time 40 min, and using mild steel as anode. The remaining sludge in the reactor was analyzed by energy disperse analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The analysis confirms that the oily pollutant was removed by electroflotation and adsorption of the oily particles of precipitate during the electro-coagulation process. Electro-coagulation can be used as an efficient treatment technique for oily wastewater. PMID:23109567

  3. Ozone treatment of wastewater sludge for reduction and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Park, K Y; Maeng, S K; Song, K G; Ahn, K H

    2008-11-01

    Ozonation was applied to wastewater sludge for reduction and stabilization. Ozone was found to be very effective at reducing sludge and producing a useful carbon source. An ozone dose of 0.3 g/gDS fulfilled the criteria for the disinfection of class A type biosolids. The sludge treated with 0.5 gO(3)/gDS produced no hydrogen sulfide for a month at 29 degrees C. Ozonation resulted in low pH conditions, which might facilitate the mobilization of heavy metals from sludge. The results of a geotechnical investigation proved that the residuals of ozone-treated sludge did not meet the required properties required for landfill cover without the addition of quick lime. PMID:18821242

  4. Treatment of 14 sludge types from wastewater treatment plants using bench and pilot thermal hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Sun, Yifei; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    A total of 14 types of sludge from household sewage, mixture of domestic and industrial wastewater, and industrial and oil wastewater treatment plants were selected to evaluate the effectiveness and adaptability of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Organic solubilization, dewatering improvement, volume reduction, high-strength filtrate biodegradation, and dewatered sludge incineration were investigated using bench and pilot thermal hydrolysis experiments (170 °C/60 min). Results showed that sludge types significantly affected the treatment effects. Organic content has a primary influence on thermal effects. The relationship between suspended solid (SS) solubilization and raw sludge organic content was linear with an R(2) of 0.73. The relationship between raw sludge organic content and treated sludge dewatering was linear with an R(2) of 0.86 and 0.65 for pilot and bench pre-treatments, respectively. Household and oil sludge possessed incineration possibilities with high heat value. Industrial and oil sludge filtrate was unsuitable for digestion to recover bioenergy. PMID:22766883

  5. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology. PMID:26539712

  6. Evaluation of thickening and dewatering characteristics of SRC-I wastewater treatment sludges. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky, will generate several different sludges as a result of providing extensive wastewater treatment. Because construction of this plant has been postponed indefinitely, there has been an opportunity to generate additional data pertinent to waste treatment. Accordingly, this report presents the results of a study on the thickening and dewatering characteristics of several of the wastewater treatment sludges. The study included: evaluation of chemical conditioning agents; aerobic digestion of biological sludges; gravity thickening; and the relative effectiveness of dewatering by centrifuge, vacuum filter, belt filter, and pressure filter. Sludges were tested individually and in combination. The results indicated that the biological sludge could be best dewatered by pressure filtration. The chemical sludges should be combined prior to dewatering, which should be provided by a belt filter. The tar acid sludge will be kept separate, due to its low pH, and ultimate disposal will be by incineration. The tar acid sludge was more concentrated than had been expected. As a result, thickening, rather than centrifuging, is the recommended treatment for this sludge. All sludges were tested for leachate toxicity by the extraction procedure method. The results were negative, indicating the sludges are non-hazardous in heavy metal concentrations, according to RCRA classification. The test results have identified design changes for the proposed wastewater treatment facilities.

  7. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 4. SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE FROM A SYNTHETIC MANUFACTURING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a synthetics manufacturing plant. The waste, composed of 8.5% solids, contained a large concentration of cellulose and...

  8. BIOLOGICAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPOSTING OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel employed at wastewater treatment plant sludge composting operations are exposed to a variety of viable gram-negative bacteria, and fungi as well as microbial products such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in their work environment. This investigation was designed...

  9. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE DISPOSAL BY LANDFILLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the landfilling of wastewater treatment plant sludge for purposes of describing current practices, determining environmental and public health impacts, describing available control technology, and evaluating management options. The potential environmental/pu...

  10. AMERICAN ADVANCES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT RELATED TO TOXICS CONTROL AND TO SLUDGE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research emphasis by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in wastewater treatment has focussed on control of toxics and sludge management. The paper describes highlights of the Environmental Protection Agency's research in these areas. The research on toxics control ...

  11. Extracellular protein analysis of activated sludge and their functions in wastewater treatment plant by shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Li, Chun; Wang, Han; Chen, You-Peng; Yan, Peng; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, proteins in extracellular polymeric substances extracted from anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic sludges of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed to probe their origins and functions. Extracellular proteins in WWTP sludges were identified using shotgun proteomics, and 130, 108 and 114 proteins in anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic samples were classified, respectively. Most proteins originated from cell and cell part, and their most major molecular functions were catalytic activity and binding activity. The results exhibited that the main roles of extracellular proteins in activated sludges were multivalence cations and organic molecules binding, as well as in catalysis and degradation. The catalytic activity proteins were more widespread in anaerobic sludge compared with those in anoxic and aerobic sludges. The structure difference between anaerobic and aerobic sludges could be associated with their catalytic activities proteins. The results also put forward a relation between the macro characteristics of activated sludges and micro functions of extracellular proteins in biological wastewater treatment process. PMID:26160685

  12. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results found in literatures. PMID:16061269

  13. How does the entering of copper nanoparticles into biological wastewater treatment system affect sludge treatment for VFA production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jingyang

    2014-10-15

    Usually the studies regarding the effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), which are released to wastewater treatment plant, on sludge anaerobic treatment in the literature have been conducted by directly adding NPs to sludge treatment system. Actually, NPs must enter into the wastewater treatment facility from influent before sludge being treated. Thus, the documented results can not reflect the real situations. During sludge anaerobic treatment for producing volatile fatty acids (VFA, the preferred carbon source for wastewater biological nutrient removal), it was found in this study that the entering of CuNPs to biological wastewater treatment system had no significant effect on sludge-derived VFA generation, while direct addition of CuNPs to sludge fermentation reactor caused a much lower VFA production, when compared to the control test. Further investigation revealed that the entering of CuNPs into wastewater biological treatment system improved sludge solubilization due to the decline of sludge particle size and the increase of sludge microorganism cells breakage. In addition, there was no obvious influence on hydrolysis, while significant inhibition was observed on acidification, resulting in the final VFA production similar to the control. When CuNPs were directly added to the fermentation system, the solubilization was little influenced, however the hydrolysis and acidification were seriously inhibited, causing the ultimate VFA generation decreased. Therefore, selecting proper method close to the real situation is vital to accurately assess the toxicity of nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation. PMID:25000195

  14. Thermo-Oxidization of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge for Production of Class A Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale reactors were used to test a novel thermo-oxidation process on municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) waste activated sludge (WAS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve a Class A sludge product appropriate for land application. Reactor ...

  15. Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

    2013-11-01

    Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. PMID:24045213

  16. Evaluation of reed bed technology to dewater Army wastewater treatment plant sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.J.; Cardenas, R.R.; Chennupati, S.P.

    1993-09-01

    As operator of over 100 small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the Army has an interest in efficient and cost-effective sludge dewatering systems. Many Army wastewater treatment plants use conventional sand-drying beds to dewater sludge. However, sand drying involves costly regular removal of sludge, and sand-drying beds are vulnerable to operational problems with long drying periods during wet weather and sand media clogging. Successful new technologies for sludge treatment in small-scale WWTPs include wedgewater beds, vacuum-assisted beds, and reed-bed systems. This study builds on a previous USACERL evaluation of wedgewater and vacuum-assisted bed performance by compiling operational data from municipal and industrial WWTPs that have reed bed systems to evaluate their potential for Army use. The use of reeds speeds sludge dewatering because the root systems maintain natural drainage channels throughout the sludge volume, and because reeds complement air drying by drawing water into the plant for evapotranspiration. Reed beds were found to be easier to operate and maintain than sand-drying beds, and to virtually eliminate the need for regular sludge removal. Moreover, reed beds can be simply and efficiently retrofited to existing sand-drying beds. Because the Army has large-area drying beds that can be converted to reed beds economically, reed bed systems were found to have a good potential for use at Army WWTPS. Wastewater treatment plant, Sludge dewatering systems, Reed bed technology.

  17. Pre-treatment of wastewater sludge--biodegradability and rheology study.

    PubMed

    Verma, M; Brar, Satinder K; Riopel, A R; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2007-03-01

    This study investigates the changes in biodegradability, rheology and metal concentration of wastewater sludge--non-hydrolyzed (raw), sterilized, and hydrolyzed (thermal alkaline pre-treatment) at total solids concentration from 10-50 g l(-1) to ascertain the bioavailability of nutrients for subsequent fermentation. The dissolved solids concentration increased linearly with total solids. Irrespective of the wastewater sludge (raw or, pre-treated), percentage biodegradability in terms of total solids (26.5-44.5%), total COD (25.8-56.5%) and dissolved solids (41.9-66.9%) was maximum around 20 g l(-1) solids concentration. The pseudoplasticity of sludge decreased (consistency index decreased from 895.1 to 5.2 and flow behaviour index increased from 0.28 to 0.88, for all sludge types) with pre-treatment and increased with total solids concentration. The pre-treated sludge, namely, sterilized and hydrolyzed sludge showed higher microbial growth (1-2 log cycles increase in comparison to raw sludge) suggesting their susceptibility to microbial degradation. The C:N ratio decreased with pre-treatment (raw sludge > sterilized > hydrolyzed) during biodegradation. Although the metal concentration increased in incubated hydrolyzed sludge, the final concentration was within the regulatory norms for agriculture application. Thus, pretreatment of sludge resulted in increase in biodegradability making it an excellent proponent for fermented value-added products. PMID:17432380

  18. [Microbial composition of the activated sludges of the Moscow wastewater treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Kallistova, A Iu; Pimenov, N V; Kozlov, M N; Nikolaev, Iu A; Dorofeev, A G; Aseeva, V G; Grachev, V A; Men'ko, E V; Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Nozhevnikova, A N; Kevbrina, M V

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the major technologically important microbial groups (ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing, phosphate-accumulating, foam-inducing, and anammox bacteria, as well as planctomycetes and methanogenic archaea) was characterized for the aeration tanks of the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities. FISH investigation revealed that aerobic sludges were eubacterial communities; the metabolically active archaea contributed insignificantly. Stage II nitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes were significant constituents of the bacterial component of activated sludge, with Nitrobacter spp. being the dominant nitrifier. No metabolically active anammox bacteria were revealed in the sludge from aeration tanks. The sludge from the aeration tanks using different wastewater treatment technologies were found to differ in characteristics. Abundance of the nitrifying and phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the sludges generally correlated with microbial activity, in microcosms and with efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. The highest microbial numbers and activity were found in the sludges of the tanks operating according to the technologies developed in the universities of Hanover and Cape Town. The activated sludge from the Novokur yanovo facilities, where abundant growth of filamentous bacteria resulted in foam formation, exhibited the lowest activity The group of foaming bacteria included Gordonia spp. and Acinetobacter spp., utilizing petroleum and motor oils, Sphaerotilus spp. utilizing unsaturated fatty acids, and Candidatus 'Microthrix parvicella'. Thus, the data on abundance and composition of metabolically active microorganisms obtained by FISH may be used for the technological control of wastewater treatment. PMID:25844473

  19. Aluminium Salts Hydrolysis Products from Industrial Anodising Sludges in Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambino, Teresa; Correia, Anabela; Barany, Sandor

    The wastewaters resulting from industrial aluminium anodising processes must be treated in a wastewater treatment plant usually involving the main operations of neutralisation, flocculation, settling and filtration with a press-filter. In Portugal the annual quantity of sludges, resulting from these wastewaters treatment, is estimated in 15 000 t/year (2002) and in the EU a large quantity is also involved. No use has been found for these sludges and they are sent to landfills or disposed of in uncontrolled places. Recycling is an economical and environmentally friendly way to handle hazardous wastes, reducing the amounts disposed in landfills. So the effect of the anodising sludge as flocculant of municipal wastewaters instead of inorganic salts commonly used was studied.

  20. Two strategies for phosphorus removal from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant using alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

    2009-01-01

    In view of the well recognized need of reject water treatment in MWWTP (municipal wastewater treatment plant), this paper outlines two strategies for P removal from reject water using alum sludge, which is produced as by-product in drinking water treatment plant when aluminium sulphate is used for flocculating raw waters. One strategy is the use of the alum sludge in liquid form for co-conditioning and dewatering with the anaerobically digested activated sludge in MWWTP. The other strategy involves the use of the dewatered alum sludge cakes in a fixed bed for P immobilization from the reject water that refers to the mixture of the supernatant of the sludge thickening process and the supernatant of the anaerobically digested sludge. Experimental trials have demonstrated that the alum sludge can efficiently reduce P level in reject water. The co-conditioning strategy could reduce P from 597-675 mg P/L to 0.14-3.20 mg P/L in the supernatant of the sewage sludge while the organic polymer dosage for the conditioning of the mixed sludges would also be significantly reduced. The second strategy of reject water filtration with alum sludge bed has shown a good performance of P reduction. The alum sludge has P-adsorption capacity of 31 mg-P/g-sludge, which was tested under filtration velocity of 1.0 m/h. The two strategies highlight the beneficial utilization of alum sludge in wastewater treatment process in MWWTP, thus converting the alum sludge as a useful material, rather than a waste for landfill. PMID:19955642

  1. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  2. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step

  3. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation. PMID:22988641

  4. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  5. Characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve. PMID:19373449

  6. ENTEROVIRUSES IN SLUDGE: MULTIYEAR EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...

  7. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  8. Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results The Archaea community was dominated by Methanosaeta-like species. During a 15?month period major changes in the community composition were only observed twice despite seasonal variations in environmental and operating conditions. Water temperature appeared to be the process parameter that affected the community composition the most. Several terminal restriction fragments also showed strong correlations with sludge properties and effluent water properties. The Archaea were estimated to make up 1.6% of total cell numbers in the activated sludge and were present both as single cells and colonies of varying sizes. Conclusions The results presented here show that Archaea can constitute a constant and integral part of the activated sludge and that it can therefore be useful to include Archaea in future studies of microbial communities in activated sludge. PMID:22784022

  9. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Feng, Sha; Bai, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jingchan; Xia, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future. PMID:26145757

  10. Fate of estrogenic hormones in wastewater and sludge treatment: A review of properties and analytical detection techniques in sludge matrix.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Hanna; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2012-11-15

    Estrogenic hormones (estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) are the major contributor to the total estrogenicity in waterways. Presence of these compounds in biosolids is also causing concern in terms of their use as soil amendment. In comparison with wastewater treatment, removal of estrogenic compounds in sewage sludge has received less attention. This paper presents a literature review regarding the source and occurrence of these pollutants in our environment. The removal pathways of estrogenic compounds in engineered systems, such as full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), are also discussed. Review of the fate studies revealed that activated sludge system with nutrient removal shows very high (>90%) removal of estrogenic hormones in most of the cases. Although, aerobic digestion showed better attenuation of estrogenic compounds, anaerobic digestion increased the overall estrogenicity of biosolids. Finally, this paper highlights the challenges involved in analytical determination of these compounds in sewage sludge matrix. PMID:22939851

  11. Rheology measurements for online monitoring of solids in activated sludge reactors of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Piani, Luciano; Rizzardini, Claudia Bruna; Papo, Adriano; Goi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Rheological behaviour of recycled sludge from a secondary clarifier of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was studied by using the rate controlled coaxial cylinder viscometer Rotovisko-Haake 20, system M5-osc., measuring device NV. The tests (hysteresis cycles) were performed under continuous flow conditions and following an ad hoc measurement protocol. Sludge shear stress versus shear rate curves were fitted very satisfactorily by rheological models. An experimental equation correlating the solid concentration of sludge to relative viscosity and fitting satisfactorily flow curves at different Total Suspended Solids (TTS%) was obtained. Application of the empirical correlation should allow the monitoring of the proper functioning of a wastewater treatment plant measuring viscosity of sludge. PMID:24550715

  12. Rheology Measurements for Online Monitoring of Solids in Activated Sludge Reactors of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Papo, Adriano; Goi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Rheological behaviour of recycled sludge from a secondary clarifier of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was studied by using the rate controlled coaxial cylinder viscometer Rotovisko-Haake 20, system M5-osc., measuring device NV. The tests (hysteresis cycles) were performed under continuous flow conditions and following an ad hoc measurement protocol. Sludge shear stress versus shear rate curves were fitted very satisfactorily by rheological models. An experimental equation correlating the solid concentration of sludge to relative viscosity and fitting satisfactorily flow curves at different Total Suspended Solids (TTS%) was obtained. Application of the empirical correlation should allow the monitoring of the proper functioning of a wastewater treatment plant measuring viscosity of sludge. PMID:24550715

  13. Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...

  14. Changes in hormone and stress-inducing activities of municipal wastewater in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowicz, Pola; Yang, Wenbo; Zhou, Hongde; Parker, Wayne J; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-12-01

    Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants do not efficiently remove contaminants of emerging concern, and so are primary sources for contaminant release into the aquatic environment. Although these contaminants are present in effluents at ng-μg/L concentrations (i.e. microcontaminants), many compounds can act as endocrine disrupting compounds or stress-inducing agents at these levels. Chemical fate analyses indicate that additional levels of wastewater treatment reduce but do not always completely remove all microcontaminants. The removal of microcontaminants from wastewater does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in biological activity, as contaminant metabolites or byproducts may still be biologically active. To evaluate the efficacy of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to remove biological activity, we examined the performance of a full scale conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. We assessed reductions in levels of conventional wastewater parameters and thyroid hormone disrupting and stress-inducing activities in wastewater at three phases along the treatment train using a C-fin assay. Wastewater treatment was effective at reducing total suspended solids, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and stress-inducing bioactivity. However, only minimal reduction was observed in thyroid hormone disrupting activities. The present study underscores the importance of examining multiple chemical and biological endpoints in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of wastewater treatment for removal of microcontaminants. PMID:25222330

  15. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants: removal and ecotoxicological impact of wastewater discharges and sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Camacho-Muñoz, D; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence of sixteen pharmaceutically active compounds in influent and effluent wastewater and in primary, secondary and digested sludge in one-year period has been evaluated. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) were calculated to evaluate the efficiency of removal of these compounds from wastewater by sorption onto sludge. The ecotoxicological risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, due to wastewater discharges to the receiving streams and to the application of digested sludge as fertilizer onto soils, was also evaluated. Twelve of the pharmaceuticals were detected in wastewater at mean concentrations from 0.1 to 32 μg/L. All the compounds found in wastewater were also found in sewage sludge, except diclofenac, at mean concentrations from 8.1 to 2206 μg/kg dm. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, gemfibrozil and caffeine were the compounds at the highest concentrations. LogKd values were between 1.17 (naproxen) and 3.48 (carbamazepine). The highest ecotoxicological risk in effluent wastewater and digested sludge is due to ibuprofen (risk quotient (RQ): 3.2 and 4.4, respectively), 17α-ethinylestradiol (RQ: 12 and 22, respectively) and 17β-estradiol (RQ: 12 and 359, respectively). Ecotoxicological risk after wastewater discharge and sludge disposal is limited to the presence of 17β-estradiol in digested-sludge amended soil (RQ: 2.7). PMID:22608399

  16. A comprehensive substance flow analysis of a municipal wastewater and sludge treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Christensen, T H; Guildal, T; Scheutz, C

    2015-11-01

    The fate of total organic carbon, 32 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) and 4 groups of organic pollutants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in a conventional wastewater treatment plant were assessed. Mass balances showed reasonable closures for most of the elements. However, gaseous emissions were accompanied by large uncertainties and show the limitation of mass balance based substance flow analysis. Based on the assessment, it is evident that both inorganic and organic elements accumulated in the sewage sludge, with the exception of elements that are highly soluble or degradable by wastewater and sludge treatment processes. The majority of metals and metalloids were further accumulated in the incineration ash, while the organic pollutants were effectively destroyed by both biological and thermal processes. Side streams from the sludge treatment process (dewatering and incineration) back to the wastewater treatment represented less than 1% of the total volume entering the wastewater treatment processes, but represented significant substance flows. In contrast, the contribution by spent water from the flue gas treatment process was almost negligible. Screening of human and eco-toxicity by applying the consensus-based environmental impact assessment method USEtox addressing 15 inorganic constituents showed that removal of inorganic constituents by the wastewater treatment plant reduced the toxic impact potential by 87-92%. PMID:24231042

  17. Psychoactive pharmaceuticals in sludge and their emission from wastewater treatment facilities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Concern over the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in the environment is mounting due to the potential adverse effects on nontarget organisms. This study draws upon a nationwide survey of psychoactive pharmaceuticals (i.e., antischizophrenics, anxiolytics, and antidepressants) in sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic, industrial, or mixed (domestic plus industrial) wastewaters in Korea. A total of 16 psychoactive pharmaceuticals (0.12-460 ng/g dry weight) and nine of their metabolites (0.97-276 ng/g dry weight) were determined in sludge. The median concentrations of psychoactive drugs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 1.2-3.2 times higher than the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the psychoactive drugs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of alprazolam (APZ) and carbamazepine (CBZ) through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be ? 15.5 ?g/capita/day, followed by quetiapine (QTP; 8.51 ?g/capita/day), citalopram (CLP; 5.45 ?g/capita/day), and venlafaxine (VLF; 3.59 ?g/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of some of the metabolites of psychoactive drugs through WWTP discharges were higher than those calculated for parent compounds. Significant correlations (? = 0.432-0.780, p < 0.05) were found between the concentrations of typically coprescribed antischizophrenics and antidepressants in sludge. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of drugs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, composition of wastewater (domestic versus industrial), and hydraulic retention time can affect the concentrations of psychoactive drugs in sludge. PMID:24164172

  18. Ubiquity of activated sludge ferricyanide-mediated BOD methods: a comparison of sludge seeds across wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Many studies have described alternatives to the BOD5 standard method, with substantial decreases in incubation time observed. However, most of these have not maintained the features that make the BOD5 assay so relevant - a high level of substrate bio-oxidation and use of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge as the biocatalyst. Two recently described ferricyanide-mediated (FM)-BOD assays, one for trade wastes and one for WWTP influents and treated effluents, satisfy these criteria and were investigated further here for their suitability for use with diverse biocatalysts. Both FM-BOD assays responded proportionately to increasing substrate concentration with sludges from 11 different WWTPs and temporally (months to years) using sludges from a single WWTP, confirming the broad applicability of both assays. Sludges from four WWTPs were selected as biocatalysts for each FM-BOD assay to compare FM-BOD equivalent values with BOD5 (three different sludge seeds) measurements for 12 real wastewater samples (six per assay). Strong and significant relationships were established for both FM-BOD assays. This study has demonstrated that sludge sourced from many WWTPs may be used as the biocatalyst in either FM-BOD assay, as it is in the BOD5 assay. The industry potential of these findings is substantial given the widespread use of the BOD5 assay, the dramatically decreased incubation period (3-6h) and the superior analytical range of both assays compared to the standard BOD5 assay. PMID:24840446

  19. Relationship between pollutant content and ecotoxicity of sewage sludges from Spanish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Mart; Mart, Esther; Navaln-Madrigal, Pedro; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, Jos L

    2012-05-15

    Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of 28 sewage sludge samples from Spanish wastewater treatment plants were studied in order to assess their suitability for agricultural purposes. Sludge samples were classified into five categories according to specific treatment processes in terms of digestion (aerobic/anaerobic) and drying (mechanical/thermal). Composted samples, as indicative of the most refined process, were also considered. Sludges were subjected to physical-chemical characterization, being the sludge stabilization degree respirometrically assessed. The concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) and organic substances (phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds) were determined. Finally, two ecotoxicological tests were performed: i) Microtox toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri, and ii) root elongation test with Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus seeds. Significant differences were found in the following parameters: dry matter, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter and its stability, phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity, depending on the sludge treatment. In turn, no significant differences were found between categories in the concentrations of most metals and organic pollutants, with the exception of free phenolic compounds. Furthermore, no correlation between total heavy metal burden and ecotoxicity was observed. However, a good correlation was found between phenolic compounds and most ecotoxicological tests. These results suggest that sludge stability (conditioned by sludge treatment) might have a greater influence on sludge ecotoxicity than the pollutant load. Composting was identified as the treatment resulting in the lowest toxicity. PMID:22483948

  20. EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, started in 1977, clinical and serologic evaluations of workers involved in composting of wastewater treatment plant sludge by the aerated pile method was initiated to evaluate the potential health effects of exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus and other viable and no...

  1. ACTIVATED SLUDGE WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF A DYES AND PIGMENTS PROCESSING WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses completed efforts in the treatment of dyes and pigments processing wastewater utilizing the activated sludge process (ASP) enhanced with powdered activated carbon (PAC). The independent variables of the study were solids retention time (SRT) and PAC dosage. T...

  2. Sludge reduction in a small wastewater treatment plant by electro-kinetic disintegration.

    PubMed

    Chiavola, Agostina; Ridolfi, Alessandra; D'Amato, Emilio; Bongirolami, Simona; Cima, Ennio; Sirini, Piero; Gavasci, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Sludge reduction in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) has recently become a key issue for the managing companies, due to the increasing constraints on the disposal alternatives. Therefore, all the solutions proposed with the aim of minimizing sludge production are receiving increasing attention and are tested either at laboratory or full-scale to evaluate their real effectiveness. In the present paper, electro-kinetic disintegration has been applied at full-scale in the recycle loop of the sludge drawn from the secondary settlement tank of a small WWTP for domestic sewage. After the disintegration stage, the treated sludge was returned to the biological reactor. Three different percentages (50, 75 and 100%) of the return sludge flow rate were subjected to disintegration and the effects on the sludge production and the WWTP operation efficiency evaluated. The long-term observations showed that the electro-kinetic disintegration was able to drastically reduce the amount of biological sludge produced by the plant, without affecting its treatment efficiency. The highest reduction was achieved when 100% return sludge flow rate was subjected to the disintegration process. The reduced sludge production gave rise to a considerable net cost saving for the company which manages the plant. PMID:26204067

  3. Temperature effect on shear flow and thixotropic behavior of residual sludge from wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammadi, L.; Ponton, A.; Belhadri, M.

    2013-08-01

    The temperature and shear rate effects on rheological behavior of residual sludge from wastewater treatment plant was investigated in this work. The model of Herschel-Bulkley was used to fit the shear rate dependence of the shear stress. The temperature increase induced not only an increase in the yield stress and the flow index of sludge but also a decrease of the consistency index of sludge. The temperature dependence of limit viscosity at high shear rate of the residual sludge was fitted by an Arrhenius equation. For constant shear rate applied on the sludge at 20 C a thixotropic behavior was observed and analyzed using a modified model of Herschel-Bulkley in which a structural parameter ? was included in order to account for the time-dependent effect.

  4. [Performance and Factors Analysis of Sludge Dewatering in Different Wastewater Treatment Processes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Li, Ya-ming; Lü, Jian; Wei, Yuan-song; Yang, Min; Yu, Da-wei

    2015-10-01

    Sludge dewatering is one of the keys for sludge disposal and treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the sludge dewaterability, flocculant consumption and costs of sludge dewatering for different wastewater treatment processes including A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes were analyzed, as well as the factors of sludge dewatering were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA) method, based on the data of one municipal wastewater treatment plant of Beijing in 2013. Results showed that both sludge dewaterability and flocculant consumption presented the seasonal variation, which means sludge dewatering was harder and coupled with higher flocculant consumption in the winter. Although the lower moisture content of dewatered sludge was obtained in the A2/O-MBR process (81.92% ± 1.64% ) compared with that in the A2/O process (82.56% ± 1.35%), the consumptions of flocculant [ (8.70 ± 7.25) kg x t(-1) DS] and electric energy (331.82 kW x h x t(-1) DS) in the A2/O-MBR process were higher than those in the A2/O process [(7.42 ± 2.96) kg x t(-1) DS, 121.57 kW x h x t(-1) DS for flocculant consumption and electric energy respectively], resulting in higher operation costs (RMB 204.76 yuan x t(-1) DS of flocculant consumption and RMB 231.61 yuan x t(-1) DS of energy consumption for the A2/O-MBR, RMB 175.00 yuan x t(-1) DS of flocculant consumption and RMB 84.86 yuan x t(-1) DS of energy consumption for the A2/O, respectively). Results of RDA showed that the seasonal variation of sludge dewaterability mainly depended on the content of organic matter in sludge which was related to the seasonal factors such as temperature, and was also impacted by the operating parameters such as SRT in wastewater treatment. PMID:26841614

  5. Integration of microbial fuel cell techniques into activated sludge wastewater treatment processes to improve nitrogen removal and reduce sludge production.

    PubMed

    Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2014-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems are emerging for wastewater treatment, yet little is known about how well they can be integrated with current wastewater treatment processes. In this bench-scale study, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technique was incorporated into the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process (phase I) and later with the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process (phase II) to evaluate the performance of MFC assisted wastewater treatment systems (i.e., MLE-MFC and MBR-MFC). There was no significant difference in the effluent NH4(+)-N concentration between the systems integrating MFC and the open circuit controls. The average effluent COD concentration was significantly lower in the MLE-MFC, but it did not change much in the MBR-MFC because of the already low COD concentrations in MBR operation. The MLE-MFC and MBR-MFC systems increased the NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies by 31% (12%) and 20% (12%), respectively, and reduced sludge production by 11% and 6%, respectively, while generating an average voltage of 0.13 (0.03) V in both systems. Analysis of the bacterial specific oxygen uptake rate, the sludge volume index, and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial population (dominated by Nitrosomonas through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis) indicated that there was no significant difference in sludge activity, settling property, and nitrifying community structure between the MFC assisted systems and the open circuit controls. The results suggest that the wastewater treatment systems could achieve higher effluent water quality and lower sludge production if it is integrated well with MFC techniques. PMID:25014565

  6. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10?s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5?mg?l(-1) over a period of 24?h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  7. Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Orruño, Maite; Garaizabal, Idoia; Bravo, Zaloa; Parada, Claudia; Barcina, Isabel; Arana, Inés

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment reduces environmental contamination by removing gross solids and mitigating the effects of pollution. Treatment also reduces the number of indicator organisms and pathogens. In this work, the fates of two coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, were analyzed in an activated sludge process to determine the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment. These bacteria, modified to express green fluorescent protein, were inoculated in an activated sludge unit and in batch systems containing wastewater. The results suggested that, among the different biological factors implied in bacterial removal, bacterivorous protozoa play a key role. Moreover, a representative number of bacteria persisted in the system as free-living or embedded cells, but their distribution into liquid or solid fractions varied depending on the bacterium tested, questioning the real value of bacterial indicators for the control of wastewater treatment process. Additionally, viable but nonculturable cells constituted an important part of the bacterial population adhered to solid fractions, what can be derived from the competition relationships with native bacteria, present in high densities in this environment. These facts, taken together, emphasize the need for reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis tools for the evaluation of pathogenic microbial composition in sludge, which could represent an undefined risk to public health and ecosystem functions when considering its recycling. PMID:25044599

  8. Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Orruño, Maite; Garaizabal, Idoia; Bravo, Zaloa; Parada, Claudia; Barcina, Isabel; Arana, Inés

    2014-10-01

    Wastewater treatment reduces environmental contamination by removing gross solids and mitigating the effects of pollution. Treatment also reduces the number of indicator organisms and pathogens. In this work, the fates of two coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, were analyzed in an activated sludge process to determine the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment. These bacteria, modified to express green fluorescent protein, were inoculated in an activated sludge unit and in batch systems containing wastewater. The results suggested that, among the different biological factors implied in bacterial removal, bacterivorous protozoa play a key role. Moreover, a representative number of bacteria persisted in the system as free-living or embedded cells, but their distribution into liquid or solid fractions varied depending on the bacterium tested, questioning the real value of bacterial indicators for the control of wastewater treatment process. Additionally, viable but nonculturable cells constituted an important part of the bacterial population adhered to solid fractions, what can be derived from the competition relationships with native bacteria, present in high densities in this environment. These facts, taken together, emphasize the need for reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis tools for the evaluation of pathogenic microbial composition in sludge, which could represent an undefined risk to public health and ecosystem functions when considering its recycling. PMID:25044599

  9. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment. PMID:24777321

  10. Treatment of chemical mechanical polishing wastewater by electrocoagulation: system performances and sludge settling characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chen L; Lin, Sheng H

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor plant by electrocoagulation is investigated. The CMP wastewater was characterized by high suspended solids (SS) content, high turbidity (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration up to 500 mgl(-1) and copper concentration up to 100 mgl(-1). In the present study, electrocoagulation was employed to treat the CMP wastewater with an attempt to simultaneously lower its turbidity, copper and COD concentrations. The test results indicated that electrocoagulation with Al/Fe electrode pair was very efficient and able to achieve 99% copper ion and 96.5% turbidity removal in less than 30 min. The COD removal obtained in the treatment was better than 85%, with an effluent COD below 100 mgl(-1). The effluent wastewater was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. In addition, sludge settling velocities after electrocoagulation were measured and the data were employed to verify the empirical sludge settling velocity models. Finally, the sludge settling characteristic data were also utilized to establish the relation between the solids flux (G) and the initial solids concentration. PMID:14575735

  11. Continuous flow aerobic granular sludge reactor for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bumbac, C; Ionescu, I A; Tiron, O; Badescu, V R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the treatment performance and granule progression over time within a continuous flow reactor. A continuous flow airlift reactor was seeded with aerobic granules from a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and fed with dairy wastewater. Stereomicroscopic investigations showed that the granules maintained their integrity during the experimental period. Laser diffraction investigation showed proof of new granules formation with 100-500 ?m diameter after only 2 weeks of operation. The treatment performances were satisfactory and more or less similar to the ones obtained from the SBR. Thus, removal efficiencies of 81-93% and 85-94% were observed for chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, respectively. The N-NH(+)(4) was nitrified with removal efficiencies of 83-99% while the nitrate produced was simultaneously denitrified - highest nitrate concentration determined in the effluent was 4.2 mg/L. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen was between 52 and 80% depending on influent nitrogen load (39.3-76.2 mg/L). Phosphate removal efficiencies ranged between 65 and above 99% depending on the influent phosphate concentration, which varied between 11.2 and 28.3 mg/L. PMID:25714645

  12. Different options for metal recovery after sludge decontamination at the Montreal Urban Community wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Blais, J F; Louns, M; Tyagi, R D; Sasseville, J L

    2002-01-01

    The MUG (Montreal Urban Community) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (270 tds/day) during the physico-chemical treatment of wastewater. Recently, this treatment plant endowed a system of drying and granulation of sludge for valorization as an agricultural fertilizer having a capacity of 70 tds/day (25% of the daily sludge production). However, the metal content (mainly Cu and Cd) of the sludge surpasses the norms for biosolids valorization. In order to solve this problem, a demonstration project, from the lab scale to the industrial pilot plant, was carried out to test the Metix-AC technology for the removal of metals. A strongly metal-loaded filtrate was generated during the sludge decontamination. Tests concerned the study of the metal recovery by total precipitation and selective precipitation, as well as the use of alternative products for the metal precipitation. Other works consisted to simulate the acid filtrate recirculation from the decontaminated sludge (25% of the total volume) in the untreated sludge (75% of the total volume) intended for the incineration. The total precipitation with hydrated limeappearedeffectivefortherecoveryof metals (87% Cd, 96% Cr, 97% Cu, 98% Fe, 71% Ni, 100% Pb, 98% Zn). However, this option entails the production of an important quantity of metallic residue, which should be disposed of expensively as dangerous material. The selective iron precipitation does not appear to bean interesting option because the iron in solution within the leached sludge was principally present in the form of ferrous iron, which cannot be precipitated at pH lower than five. On the other hand, the use of commercial precipitating agents (TMT-15, CP-33Z, CP-NB and CPX) without pH adjustment of filtrate gave good results for the recovery of Cu and, to a lesser degree for the recovery of Pb. However, the efficiency for the other metals' (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) recovery was weaker (< 25%). Finally, the acid filtrate recirculation containing solubilised metals in untreated sludge destined for incineration appears to be the most interesting option. Metals in solution in the acid filtrate, precipitate or adsorb effectively (97% Cd, 97% Cr, 99% Cu, 82% Ni, 100% Pb and 87% Zn) on the solids of the untreated sludge. Moreover, TCLP tests were done on ashes produced during the incineration of sludge mixed with the acid filtrate produced during sludge decontamination. These tests showed that there were no significant differences, as regards the extractability of metals, between such ashes and those produced during the untreated sludge incineration without addition of filtrate. Therefore, it was predictable that this method can respect the current environmental standards required by the different governmental authorities. PMID:12479450

  13. Concentrations of trace substances in sewage sludge from 28 wastewater treatment works in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vera; Gardner, Mike; Ellor, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of trace substances in sewage sludge have been measured in a survey of 28 wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) in the UK carried out over a period of 12months. Approximately 250 samples were analysed for more than 40 trace contaminants, including trace metals, pharmaceuticals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 'emerging' and regulated organic pollutants. All substances investigated were found to be present in at least some of the sludges sampled. Concentrations were relatively homogenous across all the WwTWs, irrespective of the treatment process, influent and effluent concentrations, and the location of the sludge sampling point within each works. Analysis of the results against existing regulatory and proposed thresholds suggested that levels are mostly below the limits set in the Sewage Sludge Directive, and proposed new limits for sludge used in agriculture. Predicted soil concentrations after application of sewage sludge to land were below the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for all determinands. Predicted concentrations of pharmaceuticals in soil were also below thresholds deemed to indicate negligible environmental risk. PMID:24997955

  14. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge. PMID:26642353

  15. Acidified and ultrafiltered recovered coagulants from water treatment works sludge for removal of phosphorus from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keeley, James; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J; Jarvis, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study used a range of treated water treatment works sludge options for the removal of phosphorus (P) from primary wastewater. These options included the application of ultrafiltration for recovery of the coagulant from the sludge. The treatment performance and whole life cost (WLC) of the various recovered coagulant (RC) configurations have been considered in relation to fresh ferric sulphate (FFS). Pre-treatment of the sludge with acid followed by removal of organic and particulate contaminants using a 2kD ultrafiltration membrane resulted in a reusable coagulant that closely matched the performance FFS. Unacidified RC showed 53% of the phosphorus removal efficiency of FFS, at a dose of 20 mg/L as Fe and a contact time of 90 min. A longer contact time of 8 h improved performance to 85% of FFS. P removal at the shorter contact time improved to 88% relative to FFS by pre-acidifying the sludge to pH 2, using an acid molar ratio of 5.2:1 mol H(+):Fe. Analysis of the removal of P showed that rapid phosphate precipitation accounted for >65% of removal with FFS. However, for the acidified RC a slower adsorption mechanism dominated; this was accelerated at a lower pH. A cost-benefit analysis showed that relative to dosing FFS and disposing waterworks sludge to land, the 20 year WLC was halved by transporting acidified or unacidified sludge up to 80 km for reuse in wastewater treatment. A maximum inter-site distance was determined to be 240 km above the current disposal route at current prices. Further savings could be made if longer contact times were available to allow greater P removal with unacidified RC. PMID:26517789

  16. Effects of chemical sludge disintegration on the performances of wastewater treatment by membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Khee; Lee, Ki-Ryong; Ko, Kwang-Baik; Yeom, Ick-Tae

    2007-06-01

    A new wastewater treatment process combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with chemical sludge disintegration was tested in bench scale experiments. In particular, the effects of the disintegration treatment on the excess sludge production in MBR were investigated. Two MBRs were operated. In one reactor, a part of the mixed liquor was treated with NaOH and ozone gas consecutively and was returned to the bioreactor. The flow rate of the sludge disintegration stream was 1.5% of the influent flow rate. During the 200 days of operation, the MLSS level in the bioreactor with the disintegration treatment was maintained relatively constant at the range of 10,000-11,000 mg/L while it increased steadily up to 25,000 mg/L in the absence of the treatment. In the MBR with the sludge disintegration, relatively constant transmembrane pressures (TMPs) could be maintained for more than 6 months while the MBR without disintegration showed an abrupt increase of TMP in the later phase of the operation. In conclusion, a complete control of excess sludge production in the membrane-coupled bioreactor was possible without significant deterioration of the treated water quality and membrane performances. PMID:17451782

  17. Atomized sludges via spray-drying at low temperatures: an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Cusid, Joan A; Cremades, Lzaro V

    2012-08-30

    Removal of sludges from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) represents a serious worldwide environmental problem for which alternatives other than their simple incineration are investigated. In this work the treatment of raw sludge from urban WWTP by means of a minimization process through spray-drying is analyzed as well as some proposals for revaluating the resulting dry product. Analysis is supported by some experimental results obtained with a laboratory spray dryer. The experimental procedure at laboratory scale is extrapolated to an industrial plant scale. An economic analysis of the proposal in relation to other possible sludge treatments is presented, taking into account in this case the comparison between the costs of the processes of sludge thickening, stabilization and dehydratation and the costs of spray-drying (especially power consumption), minimization of the final waste and reuse options. Finally, an environmental balance of the process is presented. In contrast with the classical treatment line, this alternative allows transforming sludges, i.e., a waste, into a valuable product with several applications. PMID:22525834

  18. Treatment of swine wastewater using chemically modified zeolite and bioflocculant from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-09-01

    Sterilization, alkaline-thermal and acid-thermal treatments were applied to activated sludge and the pre-treated sludge was used as raw material for Rhodococcus R3 to produce polymeric substances. After 60 h of fermentation, bioflocculant of 2.7 and 4.2 g L(-1) were produced in sterilized and alkaline-thermal treated sludge as compared to that of 0.9 g L(-1) in acid-thermal treated sludge. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the treatment process of swine wastewater using the composite of bioflocculant and zeolite modified by calcining with MgO. The optimal flocculating conditions were bioflocculant of 24 mg L(-1), modified zeolite of 12 g L(-1), CaCl2 of 16 mg L(-1), pH of 8.3 and contact time of 55 min, and the corresponding removal rates of COD, ammonium and turbidity were 87.9%, 86.9%, and 94.8%. The use of the composite by RSM provides a feasible way to improve the pollutant removal efficiencies and recycle high-level of ammonium from wastewater. PMID:23810950

  19. Characterization of sulfur in raw and anaerobically digested municipal wastewater treatment sludges.

    PubMed

    Du, Weiwei; Parker, Wayne

    2013-02-01

    A microwave-enhanced acid digestion method that was integrated with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry was developed and validated for determining total, soluble, and precipitated sulfur in wastewater treatment sludges. The coefficient of variation of this method was less than 4.0%. The recovery of dosed sulfur from sludge samples was between 97.1% and 100.5%. The composition of sulfur in primary and waste-activated sludge (WAS) before and after anaerobic digestion at 35 and 55 degrees C was characterized by employing this developed method. There was not an apparent relationship between the precipitated sulfur and nonsoluble iron concentrations in sludges. Raw WAS had a more consistent organic sulfur fractionation because of its relatively homogeneous composition. The organic-sulfur-containing components (proteins) of WAS had reduced degradability as compared with that in primary sludge during anaerobic digestion. Digestion at 55 degrees C increased solubilization but not ultimate conversion of organic sulfur in sludge. PMID:23472328

  20. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Xiao, Ke; Liu, Jiyan; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-08-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were nominated as persistent organic pollutants candidate in the Stockholm Convention in 2011. In this study, the profiles, concentrations and spatial distributions of PCNs were analyzed in 30 sewage sludge samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Concentrations of ?75PCNs in sludge samples were in the range of 1.05-10.9 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 3.98 ng/g dw. The predominant homologues in the sludge were mono- to tetra-CNs, accounting for approximately 85% of total PCNs. The total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of dioxin-like PCN congeners ranged from 0.04 to 2.28 pg/g dw with a mean value of 0.36 pg/g dw, which were lower than the maximum permissible TEQ concentrations in sludge for land application in China. Levels of PCNs and TEQs in sludge were relatively higher in samples from highly industrialized and developed cities in eastern China, implying a possible link between PCN contamination and the local economic development, but more studies are warranted to corroborate this. Industrial sources might be important contributors of PCNs to sewage sludge in China. PMID:24880545

  1. Multimedia sampling for dioxin at a strip mine reclaimed with sludge from bleached kraft wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C. ); Proctor, J.L. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports that mead conducted a two-year dioxin testing program on strip-mined land being reclaimed with sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of its bleached kraft mill. Many different samples were analyzed for both 2,3,7,8-TCDD (or dioxin) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (or furan). The study included biodiversity studies to determine the total environmental impact. The results indicate that the sludge is an excellent reclamation material that improves the biodiversity at the site. The tracer dioxin in the sludge does not exhibit any significant migration or bioavailability when used for reclaiming strip mines. These findings differ from assumptions sometimes used in assessing the environmental risks of dioxin.

  2. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 5. WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE FROM BATCH ORGANIC CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment operation using a sludge generated from organic chemical manufacture. The sludge is applied to a turf farm which contains acidic soil; the sludge reduces the lime addition requirements for...

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of seminatural wetlands and activated sludge wastewater-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered. PMID:17943345

  4. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  5. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. PMID:26439861

  6. Feasibility studies on the treatment of dairy wastewaters with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, E V; Gajalakshmi, S; Sanjeevi, R; Jithesh, M N; Abbasi, S A

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for the treatment of dairy wastewaters was explored. Two types of UASBs were used--one operating on anaerobic sludge granules developed by us from digested cowdung slurry (DCDS) and the other on the granules obtained from the reactors of M/s EID Parry treating sugar industry wastewaters. The reactors were operated at HRT of 3 and 12 h and on COD loading rates ranging from 2.4 kg per m3 of digester volume, per day to 13.5 kg m(-3) d(-1). At the 3 h HRT, the maximum COD reduction in the DCDS-seeded and the industrial sludge-seeded reactors was 95.6% and 96.3%, respectively, better than at 12 h HRT (90% and 92%, respectively). In both the reactors, the maximum, the second best, and the third best COD reduction occurred at the loading rates of 10.8, 8.6 and 7.2 kg m3 d(-1), respectively. At loading rates higher than 10.8 kg, the reactor performance dropped precipitously. Whereas in the first few months the reactors operating on sludge from EID Parry achieved better biodegradation of the waste, compared to the reactors operated on DCDS, the performance of the latter gradually improved and matched with the performance of the former. PMID:15051084

  7. Occurrence, distribution and potential affecting factors of antibiotics in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2013-02-15

    The occurrence and distribution of eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides, and five macrolides were investigated in sewage sludge from 45 wastewater treatment plants in 23 cities in China. Among all the antibiotics considered, quinolones were the dominant antibiotics detected in all samples [total concentrations up to 8905 ?g/kg, dry weight (dw)], followed by macrolides (85.1 ?g/kg, dw), and sulfonamides (22.7 ?g/kg, dw). High concentrations of quinolones in sewage sludge indicated that antibiotics are widely used and extensive pollutants in China. Significant differences were observed for the total concentrations of antibiotics in sludge samples among the 45 WWTPs. To evaluate the potential factors affecting the antibiotic levels in sewage sludge, wastewater and sludge characteristics, as well as the operational conditions and treatment techniques in WWTPs were investigated. The results indicated that the antibiotic levels in sewage sludge depend to a great extent on wastewater characteristics. Significant correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and total concentrations of antibiotics was also found in studied WWTPs, indicating that TOC could affect the sludge adsorption capability to the antibiotics to some extent. Moreover, the relation between treatment techniques and the total concentrations of antibiotics in sludge showed that antibiotic levels in sludge increased with longer solid retention time. PMID:23340024

  8. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion efficiency of wastewater sludge and olive waste: Synergistic effect of co-digestion and ultrasonic/microwave sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Aylin Alagz, B; Yenign, Orhan; Erdinler, Ay?en

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic and microwave pre-treatment on biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of olive pomace and wastewater sludges. It was found that co-digestion of wastewater sludge with olive pomace yielded around 0.21L CH4/g VSadded, whereas the maximum methane yields from the mono-digestion of olive pomace and un-pretreated wastewater sludges were 0.18 and 0.16L CH4/g VSadded. In the same way, compared to mono-digestion of these substrates, co-digestion increased methane production by 17-31%. The microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatments applied to sludge samples prior to co-digestion process led to further increase in the methane production by 52% and 24%, respectively, compared to co-digestion with un-pretreated wastewater sludge. The highest biogas and methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of 30min microwave pre-treated wastewater sludges and olive pomace to be 0.46L/g VSadded and 0.32L CH4/g VSadded, respectively. PMID:26320815

  9. Variations of morphology of activated sludge flocs studied at full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Klepacz-Sm?ka, Anna; Andrzejczak, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Digital image analysis has been intensively developed over the last two decades including its application to describe morphology of activated sludge flocs. However, only few studies concerned the variation of flocs morphology with respect to the operational conditions, particularly oxido-reductive conditions, in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this work, morphology of activated sludge flocs was monitored over one year in two different full-scale WWTPs. The main aim of this study was to find the relationship between the operational parameters and morphology of sludge flocs. Simultaneously, the variations in floc size along activated sludge chamber were studied with respect to the oxido-reductive conditions. It was found that the sludge loading rate was one of the most important operational parameters influencing floc size. It was estimated that its values higher than 0.1?kg?BOD5?kg?TS(-1)?d(-1) contributed to the decrease in floc size. Also, the oxido-reductive conditions influenced the floc size. It was statistically proved that flocs from the anaerobic zone were usually smaller than flocs from the anoxic or aerobic zones. Distribution of floc size in a full-scale WWTP usually could be described by a log-normal model. PMID:25363823

  10. Preparation and characteristics of bacterial polymer using pre-treated sludge from swine wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Yang, Chunping; Peng, Lanyan

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization, alkaline-thermal, and acid-thermal treatments were applied to different suspended sludge solids (SSS) concentrations and the pre-treated sludge was used as raw material for bioflocculant-producing bacteria R3 to produce bioflocculant. After 60 h of fermentation, three forms of bioflocculant (broth, capsular, and slime) were extracted, and maximum broth bioflocculant of 2.9 and 4.1 g L(-1) were produced in sterilized and alkaline-thermal treated sludge as compared to that of 1.8 g L(-1) in acid-thermal treated sludge. Higher bioflocculant quantity was produced in SS of 15, 25, and 35 g L(-1) compared to that produced in SS of 45, 55, and 65 g L(-1). Bioflocculant combined with 0.5 g Ca(2+) in 1.0 L kaolin suspension acted as conditioning agent, and maximum flocculating activity of 94.5% and 92.8% was achieved using broth and slime bioflocculant, respectively. The results demonstrated that wastewater sludge could be used as sources to prepare bioflocculants. PMID:24333626

  11. Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge in Treatment Plants with Different Wastewater Compositions.

    PubMed

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M; Krasnov, George S; Belova, Anastasia A; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kharitonov, Sergey L; Klimina, Kseniya M; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants, and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wastewater, the taxonomic structure of AS biocenosis was found to become stable in time, and each WWTP demonstrated a unique taxonomic pattern. Most pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus, Trichococcus, etc.), which are abundantly represented in incoming sewage, were significantly decreased in AS of all WWTPs, except for the slaughterhouse wastewater. Additional load of bioreactors with influent rich in petroleum products and organic matter was associated with the increase of bacteria responsible for AS bulking and foaming. Here, we present a novel approach enabling the prediction of the metabolic potential of bacterial communities based on their taxonomic structures and MetaCyc database data. We developed a software application, XeDetect, to implement this approach. Using XeDetect, we found that the metabolic potential of the three bacterial communities clearly reflected the substrate composition. We revealed that the microorganisms responsible for AS bulking and foaming (most abundant in AS of slaughterhouse wastewater) played a leading role in the degradation of substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids, and other bioorganic compounds. Moreover, we discovered that the chemical, rather than the bacterial composition of the incoming wastewater was the main factor in AS structure formation. XeDetect (freely available: https://sourceforge.net/projects/xedetect) represents a novel powerful tool for the analysis of the metabolic capacity of bacterial communities. The tool will help to optimize bioreactor performance and avoid some most common technical problems. PMID:26925033

  12. Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge in Treatment Plants with Different Wastewater Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M.; Krasnov, George S.; Belova, Anastasia A.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Kharitonov, Sergey L.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants, and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wastewater, the taxonomic structure of AS biocenosis was found to become stable in time, and each WWTP demonstrated a unique taxonomic pattern. Most pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus, Trichococcus, etc.), which are abundantly represented in incoming sewage, were significantly decreased in AS of all WWTPs, except for the slaughterhouse wastewater. Additional load of bioreactors with influent rich in petroleum products and organic matter was associated with the increase of bacteria responsible for AS bulking and foaming. Here, we present a novel approach enabling the prediction of the metabolic potential of bacterial communities based on their taxonomic structures and MetaCyc database data. We developed a software application, XeDetect, to implement this approach. Using XeDetect, we found that the metabolic potential of the three bacterial communities clearly reflected the substrate composition. We revealed that the microorganisms responsible for AS bulking and foaming (most abundant in AS of slaughterhouse wastewater) played a leading role in the degradation of substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids, and other bioorganic compounds. Moreover, we discovered that the chemical, rather than the bacterial composition of the incoming wastewater was the main factor in AS structure formation. XeDetect (freely available: https://sourceforge.net/projects/xedetect) represents a novel powerful tool for the analysis of the metabolic capacity of bacterial communities. The tool will help to optimize bioreactor performance and avoid some most common technical problems. PMID:26925033

  13. EVALUATION OF HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SLUDGE COMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation included (1) a prospective study of wastewater sludge compost workers, (2) serologic analyses of wastewater-exposed workers, (3) a mortality study of former wastewater employees, and (4) chemical analyses of specimens from a population whose drinking water was c...

  14. Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, N.H.; Torres, C.L.; Speece, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

  15. Effect of microalgae/activated sludge ratio on cooperative treatment of anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Fatemeh Pourasgharian; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Akram; Moayedi, Zohreh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, capability of the green microalga (MA), Chlorella vulgaris, in treating synthetic anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater was investigated. While pure C. vulgaris (100 % MA) provided maximum soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies of 27 and 72 % respectively, addition of activated sludge (AS) to MA in different mass ratios (91, 80, 66.7, 9 % MA) improved wastewater treatment efficiency. Thus giving maximum sCOD and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies 85 and 86.3 % (for MA/AS = 10/1), respectively. Utilizing AS without C. vulgaris, for treating the synthetic wastewater resulted in 87 % maximum sCOD and 42 % maximum N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies. Furthermore, algal growth and specific growth rates were measured in the systems with microalga as the dominant cellular population. As a result, faster algal growth was observed in mixed systems. Specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.14 (day(-1)) in 100 % MA and 0.39 (day(-1)) in 80 % MA. Finally, data gathered by online measurement of dissolved oxygen indicate that algae-activated sludge mixture improves photosynthetic activity of examined microalga strain during anaerobic effluent treatment. PMID:24052335

  16. Integral approaches to wastewater treatment plant upgrading for odor prevention: Activated Sludge and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Jos M; Kraakman, N J R; Lebrero, R; Muoz, R

    2015-11-01

    Traditional physical/chemical end-of-the-pipe technologies for odor abatement are relatively expensive and present high environmental impacts. On the other hand, biotechnologies have recently emerged as cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives but are still limited by their investment costs and land requirements. A more desirable approach to odor control is the prevention of odorant formation before being released to the atmosphere, but limited information is available beyond good design and operational practices of the wastewater treatment process. The present paper reviews two widely applicable and economic alternatives for odor control, Activated Sludge Recycling (ASR) and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling (OAR), by discussing their fundamentals, key operating parameters and experience from the available pilot and field studies. Both technologies present high application potential using readily available plant by-products with a minimum plant upgrading, and low investment and operating costs, contributing to the sustainability and economic efficiency of odor control at wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26316402

  17. Partitioning, Persistence, and Accumulation in Digested Sludge of the Topical Antiseptic Triclocarban During Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heidler, Jochen; Sapkota, Amir; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    The topical antiseptic agent triclocarban (TCC) is a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables, including soaps and other personal care products. Long-term usage of the mass-produced compound and a lack of understanding of its fate during sewage treatment motivated the present mass balance analysis conducted at a typical U.S. activated sludge wastewater treatment plant featuring a design capacity of 680 million liters per day. Using automated samplers and grab sampling, the mass of TCC contained in influent, effluent and digested sludge was monitored by isotope dilution liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry. The average mass of TCC (mean ± standard deviation) entering and exiting the plant in influent (6.1 ± 2.0 μg/L) and effluent (0.17 ± 0.03 μg/L) was 3,737 ± 694 and 127 ± 6 g/d, respectively, indicating an aqueous-phase removal efficiency of 97 ± 1%. Tertiary treatment by chlorination and sand filtration provided no detectable benefit to the overall removal. Due to strong sorption of TCC to wastewater particulate matter (78 ± 11% sorbed), the majority of the TCC mass was sequestered into sludge in the primary and secondary clarifiers of the plant. Anaerobic digestion for 19 days did not promote TCC transformation, resulting in an accumulation of the antiseptic compound in dewatered, digested municipal sludge to levels of 51 ± 15 mg/kg dry weight (2,815 ± 917 g/d). In addition to the biocide mass passing through the plant contained in the effluent (3 ± 1%), 76 ± 30% of the TCC input entering the plant underwent no net transformation and instead partitioned into and accumulated in municipal sludge. Based on the rate of beneficial reuse of sludge produced by this facility (95%), which exceeds the national average (63%), study results suggest that approximately three quarters of the mass of TCC disposed of by consumers in the catchment area of the plant ultimately is released into the environment by application of municipal sludge (biosolids) on land used in part for agriculture. PMID:16786704

  18. Mass and energy balances of sludge processing in reference and upgraded wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mininni, G; Laera, G; Bertanza, G; Canato, M; Sbrilli, A

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary assessment of a platform of innovative upgrading solutions aimed at improving sludge management and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants. The effectiveness of the upgrading solutions and the impacts of their integration in model reference plants have been evaluated by means of mass and energy balances on the whole treatment plant. Attention has been also paid to the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus in sludge processing and to their recycle back to the water line. Most of the upgrading options resulted in reduced production of dewatered sludge, which decreased from 45 to 56 g SS/(PE × day) in reference plants to 14-49 g SS/(PE × day) in the upgraded ones, with reduction up to 79% when wet oxidation was applied to the whole sludge production. The innovative upgrades generally entail an increased demand of electric energy from the grid, but energy recovery from biogas allowed to minimize the net energy consumption below 10 kWh/(PE × year) in the two most efficient solutions. In all other cases the net energy consumption was in the range of -11% and +28% of the reference scenarios. PMID:25598155

  19. Wastewater sludge as a potential raw material for antagonistic fungus (Trichoderma sp.): role of pre-treatment and solids concentration.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mausam; Brar, Satinder K; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2005-09-01

    Feasibility of production of antagonistic Trichoderma sp. conidial spores using wastewater sludge as a raw material employing different suspended solids concentration (10-50 g/l) was investigated in shake flasks. Maximum conidial spore count obtained for raw sludge was 1.98 x 10(4) CFU/ml, which was enhanced by sludge pre-treatments (alkaline and thermal alkaline). Conidial spore count ranging from 1.3 x 10(6) to 2.8 x 10(7) CFU/ml was observed for alkaline and thermal alkaline treated sludges. Optimal suspended solids concentration was 30 g/l (10(7) CFU/ml) whereas, lower (<20 g/l) and higher (>30 g/l) solids concentration were less efficient. Thermal alkaline pre-treated sludge showed diauxic growth due to multiplicity of sludge biodegradability. A simple, modified CFU filtration technique was also developed for fungal spore assessment in sludge. Bioassay of fermented sludge against spruce budworm larvae showed entomotoxicity (15036 SBU/microl), on par with Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides. This study successfully demonstrated potential of wastewater sludge as a raw material for production of value added product, aiding in sludge management and proliferation of eco-friendly and economical biocontrol agents. PMID:16095662

  20. Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review. PMID:20083294

  1. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  2. An evaluation of tannery industry wastewater treatment sludge gasification by artificial neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Ongen, Atakan; Ozcan, H Kurtulus; Aray?c?, Semiha

    2013-12-15

    This paper reports on the calorific value of synthetic gas (syngas) produced by gasification of dewatered sludge derived from treatment of tannery wastewater. Proximate and ultimate analyses of samples were performed. Thermochemical conversion alters the chemical structure of the waste. Dried air was used as a gasification agent at varying flow rates, which allowed the feedstock to be quickly converted into gas by means of different heterogeneous reactions. A lab-scale updraft fixed-bed steel reactor was used for thermochemical conversion of sludge samples. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to observe variations in the syngas related to operational conditions. Modeled outputs showed that temporal changes of model predictions were in close accordance with real values. Correlation coefficients (r) showed that the ANN used in this study gave results with high sensitivity. PMID:23608748

  3. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  4. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  5. Study of the correlation between microfauna and the macrostructure of activated sludge and the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Signorile, G; Molinari, A; Lugoli, F; Sciancalepore, L; Montemurro, P; De Donno, A

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of protozoan populations is an important tool in evaluating the efficiency of activated sludge in the treatment of wastewater. In this process, protozoa play a significant role by grazing on dispersed bacteria, supporting a healthy food web in activated sludge artificial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to verify how the success of the purification process in activated sludge plants, mainly in terms of TSS, BOD, and COD, is related to ciliate protozoa communities and the presence of filamentous bacteria. Samples were collected from five water treatment plants in the Puglia region, in the period May 2007 - April 2008. Microfauna and filamentous bacteria were identified and quantified, and the sludge biotic index calculated. The data show a correlation between the biological components of activated sludge and traditional chemical parameters. Our results indicate that biological analyses represent a valid alternative to traditional chemical testing in assessing the performance of activated sludge systems. PMID:20853671

  6. The fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Yang, Juan; Chen, Shaoyi

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca NBA-1, which was isolated from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment facility. The 90-day survivability of strain NBA-1 after exposure to sludge under anaerobic and aerobic conditions was investigated. The bacterium was inoculated into sludge amended with glucose and p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to compare the bacterial community variations between the modified sludge and nitrobenzene amendment. The results showed that glucose had no obvious effect on nitrobenzene biodegradation in the co-metabolism process, regardless of the presence/absence of oxygen. When p-CNB was added under anaerobic conditions, the biodegradation rate of nitrobenzene remained unchanged although p-CNB inhibited the production of aniline. The diversity of the microbial community increased and NBA-1 continued to be one of the dominant strains. Under aerobic conditions, the degradation rate of both nitrobenzene and p-CNB was only 20% of that under anaerobic conditions. p-CNB had a toxic effect on the microorganisms in the sludge so that most of the DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) bands, including that of NBA-1, began to disappear under aerobic conditions after 90days of exposure. These data show that the bacterial community was stable under anaerobic conditions and the microorganisms, including NBA-1, were more resistant to the adverse environment. PMID:26086561

  7. Sludge dewatering and conveying equipment expands wastewater treatment capabilities to solve refinery's oily waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.; Matlock, M.

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-four years ago, the Sun Refining and Marketing Company refinery in Tulsa, OK installed a large water collection basin to capture storm runoff. Since that time, the refinery has increased its daily capacity to 92,000 bbl - including 52,000 bbl of automotive fuels, 8000 bbl of lubricants, 23,000 bbl of heating oils and LPG products, 200 tons of petro-chemicals, and 110 tons of waxes - to become Oklahoma's second largest refinery. The expansion, coupled with gradual filling of the compartmentalized basin with sludges, required remedial action. In May, 1984, the oil laden basins caught fire. The flames, easily seen from downtown Tulsa (just across the river), were visible from a distance of approximately ten miles. At this point, there was an estimated 16 million gallons of oil sludge present in the 18 million gallon capacity basin complex. Composition was about 20% solids, 10% oil, and 70% water. The EPA immediately issued a cleanup order for the basins; Sun management responded quickly. Replacement of the original sludge treatment equipment, which was both old (installed in the mid-1940s) and too small to handle Sun's subsequent expansion, centered around two highly specialized continuous pressure belt filters and a three dimensional, 85' continuous path sludge transport conveyor. Oily waste from the collection basins is filtered and pumped to the new dewatering facility after an auger-equipped barge churns it into material suitable for pumping. The dewatering facility constructed for the cleanup operations will become the refinery's new sludge treatment plant and will replace the present facility that has been operating since 1945, giving the 73 year old refinery one of the most modern wastewater treatment plants of its type in the industry.

  8. Lime and fly ash stabilization of wastewater treatment sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H.; Gremminger, L.

    1994-01-11

    This invention provides a process meeting the EPA's PFRP standard for WWTS treatment thereby producing a readily usable end-product in either soil-like form or semi-impermeable low load bearing, mass form. The process includes mixing WWTS with lime and fly ash, to cause a temperature increase to above 70 C for at least 30 minutes and to cause the pH to exceed 12 for at least 2 hours. The end-product may be compacted to produce an semi-impermeable, durable mass or the soil-like product may be used as landfill cover material. 3 figs.

  9. Changes in wastewater treatment performance and activated sludge properties of a membrane bioreactor at low temperature operation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chiqian; Wang, Guangzhi; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2014-09-20

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) activated sludge process is being applied more and more for wastewater treatment due to its high treatment efficiency and low space requirement. However, the usefulness of the MBR process in low-temperature zones is less studied than that under normal conditions. This study determined the effect of low temperature (?13 C) operation on MBR performance and activated sludge characteristics. When the wastewater temperature decreased from 22 C to 13 C, the average effluent COD concentration increased from (10 5) to (25 4) mg L(-1) and the nitrogen removal efficiency appeared not to be affected. The abundance and diversity of nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrosospira (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospira (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) in the activated sludge were reduced under low temperature exposure. The total biomass concentration decreased from about 10?000 mg COD L(-1) at room temperature to 8200 mg COD L(-1) at 13 C at the same solid retention time. Furthermore, the sludge became bulking at 13 C with a significant increase in the sludge volume index. The resultant sludge bulking was accompanied by accelerated membrane fouling resulting in a two-fold increase in the frequency of membrane cleaning. The results suggest that the performance of the MBR activated sludge process deteriorated at low wastewater temperatures even though the effluent water quality was still good enough for its applications in low temperature zones. PMID:25003580

  10. Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

  11. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment. PMID:22766882

  12. Wastewater treatment - adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC. PMID:26877044

  13. Metagenomic analyses reveal phylogenetic diversity of carboxypeptidase gene sequences in activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hao; Li, Bailin; Peng, Xu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-01-01

    Activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants carries a diverse microflora. However, up to 80-90% of microorganisms in activated sludge cannot be cultured by current laboratory techniques, leaving an enzyme reservoir largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated carboxypeptidase diversity in activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China, by a culture-independent metagenomic approach. Three sets of consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOPs) targeting conserved domains of public carboxypeptidases have been designed to amplify carboxypeptidase gene sequences in the metagenomic DNA of activated sludge by PCR. The desired amplicons were evaluated by carboxypeptidase sequence clone libraries and phylogenetic analyses. We uncovered a significant diversity of carboxypeptidases present in the activated sludge. Deduced carboxypeptidase amino acid sequences (127-208 amino acids) were classified into three distinct clusters, ?, ?, and ?. Sequences belonging to clusters ? and ? shared 58-97% identity to known carboxypeptidase sequences from diverse species, whereas sequences in the cluster ? were remarkably less related to public carboxypeptidase homologous in the GenBank database, strongly suggesting that novel carboxypeptidase families or microbial niches exist in the activated sludge. We also observed numerous carboxypeptidase sequences that were much closer to those from representative strains present in industrial and sewage treatment and bioremediation. Thermostable and halotolerant carboxypeptidase sequences were also detected in clusters ? and ?. Coexistence of various carboxypeptidases is evidence of a diverse microflora in the activated sludge, a feature suggesting a valuable gene resource to be further explored for biotechnology application. PMID:24860282

  14. Essence of disposing the excess sludge and optimizing the operation of wastewater treatment: rheological behavior and microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Zhang, Zi

    2014-06-01

    Proper disposal of excess sludge and steady maintenance of the high bioactivity of activated sludge in bioreactors are essential for the successful operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Since sludge is a non-Newtonian fluid, the rheological behavior of sludge can therefore have a significant impact on various processes in a WWTP, such as fluid transportation, mixing, oxygen diffusion, mass transfer, anaerobic digestion, chemical conditioning and mechanical dewatering. These are key factors affecting the operation efficiency and the energy consumption of the entire process. In the past decade-due to the production of large quantities of excess sludge associated with the extensive construction of WWTPs and the emergence of some newly-developed techniques for wastewater purification characterized by high biomass concentrations-investigations into the rheology of sludge are increasingly important and this topic has aroused considerable interests. We reviewed a number of investigations into the rheology of sludge, with the purpose of providing systematic and detailed analyses on the related aspects of the rheological behavior of sludge. It is clear that, even though considerable research has focused on the rheology of sludge over a long time period, there is still a need for further thorough investigation into this field. Due to the complex process of bio-treatment in all WWTPs, biological factors have a major influence on the properties of sludge. These influences are however still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the mechanisms involved and magnitude of such impacts. When taking note of the conspicuous biological characteristics of sludge, it becomes important that biological factors, such as the species composition and relative abundance of various microorganisms, as well as the microbial community characteristics that affect relevant operating processes, should be considered. PMID:24462086

  15. Aggregation behavior of engineered nanoparticles and their impact on activated sludge in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-hong; Huang, Bao-cheng; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Yan-chen; Shi, Han-chang

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing daily use of engineered nanoparticles will lead to heightened levels of these materials in the environment. These nanomaterials will eventually go into the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), therefore, resulting into a pressing need for information on their aggregation behavior and kinetics in the wastewater aqueous matrix. In this work, we dispersed two different metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO and TiO2) into the influent of two different WWTPs. Through the time-resolved dynamic light scattering analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were quite stably existed in the wastewater matrix with aggregates of diameter 300-400 nm after 4.5h or more suspension. We confirmed that the dissolved organic matters (DOMs) attributed to the stability of nanoparticles. No propensity of NPs to aggregate were observed in the presence of both monovalent and divalent electrolytes even at high concentrations up to 0.15 M in NaCl or 0.025 M in CaCl2, indicating that the destabilization of nanoparticles in the complicated wastewater matrix was not achieved by the compression of electrical double layer, therefore, their aggregation kinetics cannot be simply predicted by the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory of colloidal stability. However, obvious aggregation of nanoparticles in the Al2(SO4)3 solution system was observed with the likely mechanism of bridging of the metal oxide nanoparticles and aggregates due to the formation of hydrous alumina (Al(OH)3H2O) in the Al2(SO4)3 solution. In the wastewater matrix, we used the noninvasive measurement technology to detect the O2 flux of activated sludge before and after treatment with 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1) NPs. The results confirmed that both ZnO and TiO2 NPs showed an adverse impact on the O2 uptake of activated sludge when the exposure time extended to 4.5 h. PMID:25127355

  16. EFFECT OF AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT ON AMBIENT AIR DENSITIES OF AEROSOLS CONTAINING BACTERIA AND VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria and virus-containing aerosols were studied during late summer and fall in a U.S. midwestern suburb before and during the start up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of in...

  17. Co-treatment of domestic and dairy wastewater in an activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Sparchez, E; Elefsiniotis, P; Wareham, D G; Fongsatitkul, P

    2015-01-01

    This research assesses the potential for co-treatment of a dairy wastewater with a domestic wastewater in a lab-scale, continuous-flow, activated sludge system. To evaluate the influence of the dairy waste contribution, seven runs were conducted with each run being a mixture of dairy wastewater (either cheese or milk) in different ratios ranging from 1:0.01 to 1:0.30 by volume. More than 87% of the carbon was removed for both waste additions; however, while 95% ammonia-nitrogen removal was recorded for the cheese waste, only 75% removal was obtained for the milk. Kinetic studies for carbon consumption revealed a first-order model with lower kinetic constants as the cheese waste proportion increased. Specific carbon consumption rates indicated that the biomass had not reached its maximum potential to degrade carbon. The ability of the biomass to settle was hindered when the Gram negative to Gram positive filamentous bacteria ratio increased to approximately 1.5. PMID:25204524

  18. Nitrification treatment of swine wastewater with acclimated nitrifying sludge immobilized in polymer pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Vanotti, M.B.; Hunt, P.G.

    2000-04-01

    Nitrification of ammonia (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) is a critical component for improved systems of animal wastewater treatment. One of the most effective processes uses nitrifying microorganisms encapsulated in polymer resins. It is used in Japan in municipal wastewater treatment plants for higher nitrification rates, shorter hydraulic retention times (HRT), and lower aeration treatment cost. The authors evaluated whether this technology could be adapted for treatment of higher-strength lagoon swine wastewaters containing {approximately}230 mg NH{sub 4}-N/L and 195 mg BOD{sub 5}/L. A culture of acclimated lagoon nitrifying sludge (ALNS) was prepared from a nitrifying biofilm developed in an overland flow soil using fill-and-draw cultivation. The ALNS was successfully immobilized in 3- to 5-mm polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer pellets by a PVA-freezing method. Swine wastewater was treated in aerated, suspended bioreactors with a 15% (w/v) pellet concentration using batch and continuous flow treatment. Alkalinity was supplemented with inorganic carbon to maintain the liquid pH within an optimum range (7.7--8.4). In batch treatment, only 14 h were needed for nitrification of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Ammonia was nitrified readily, decreasing at a rate of 16.1 mg NH{sub 4}-N/L h. In contrast, it took 10 d for a control (no-pellets) aerated reactor to start nitrification; furthermore, 70% of the N was lost by air stripping. Without alkalinity supplements, the pH of the liquid fell to 6.0--6.2, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} oxidation stopped. In continuous flow treatment, nitrification efficiencies of 95% were obtained with NH{sub 4}{sup +} loading rates of 418 mg-N/L-reactor d (2.73 g-N/g-pellet d) and an HRT of 12 h. The rate of nitrification obtained with HRT of 4 h was 567 mg-N/L d. In all cases, the NH{sub 4}-N removed was entirely recovered in oxidized N forms. Nitrification rates obtained in this work were not greatly affected by high NH{sub 4}{sup +} or BOD concentration of swine wastewater. Thus, immobilized pellet technology can be adapted for fast and efficient removal of NH{sub 4}{sup +} contained in anaerobic swine lagoons using acclimated microorganisms.

  19. [Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered. PMID:25826937

  20. Ozonation effects for excess sludge reduction on bacterial communities composition in a full-scale activated sludge plant for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, C; Gori, R; Tiezzi, A; Brusetti, L; Pucciarelli, S; D'Amato, E; Chiavola, A; Sirini, P; Lubello, C; Petroni, G

    2014-01-01

    Activated sludge process is the most widely diffused system to treat wastewater to control the discharge of pollutants into the environment. Microorganisms are responsible for the removal of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and other emerging contaminants. The environmental conditions of biological reactors significantly affects the ecology of the microbial community and, therefore, the performance of the treatment process. In the last years, ozone has been used to reduce excess sludge production by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), whose disposal represents one of the most relevant operational costs. The ozonation process has demonstrated to be a viable method to allow a consistent reduction in excess sludge. This study was carried out in a full-scale plant treating municipal wastewater in two parallel lines, one ozonated in the digestion tank and another used as a control. Bacterial communities of samples collected from both lines of digestion thanks were then compared to assess differences related to the ozonation treatment. Data were then analysed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis on 16S rRNA gene. Differences between bacterial communities of both treated and untreated line appeared 2 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Results demonstrated that ozonation treatment significantly affected the activated sludge in WWTP. PMID:24701944

  1. Concentrations and distribution of synthetic musks and siloxanes in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Xu, Lin; Cai, Yaqi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the occurrence and distribution patterns of seven synthetic musks (SMs) and 17 siloxanes in anaerobic digested sludge samples collected at the dewatering process from 42 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. SMs in sludge from different WWTPs exhibited similar composition profiles, and their total concentrations ranged from 47.3 ng/g to 68.2 ?g/g dry weight (dw). On average, galaxolide (HHCB, 63.8%) and tonalide (AHTN, 31.7%) accounted for 95.5% of ?SMs. The total concentrations of cyclic siloxanes ranged from sludge indicated that both of them were widely used in China. Among the sludge samples from 42 WWTPs, the concentrations of both ?SMs and ?siloxanes had considerable variations. We investigated the influence of potential factors (wastewater and sludge characteristics, the treatment capacity, serving population, and the treatment techniques of WWTPs) on the levels of target compounds in sludge, and found that SMs were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) of the sludge and the serving population of WWTP. There were also strong correlations (p<0.05) between the treatment capacity of WWTPs and cyclic siloxanes, as well as between the TOC of the sludge and linear siloxanes. In addition, the ecological risks of SMs and siloxanes in sewage sludge addressed to land application were assessed, which suggested that there was a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:24463026

  2. Characteristic of the sludge from the wastewater treatment plants near Varna city and possibilities for use in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Marinova-Garvanska, S

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years numerous stations were built for purification of wastewaters in the country. Such a station was opened in Varna town on the Black sea cost. At purification of wastewaters a huge amount of sludge is received. The sludge is accumulated in the WWTP premises, thus hampering its functioning and polluting the environment. The aim of this investigation was to determine the chemical characteristics of the sludge from this station, considering the different modes of treatment: the sludge compactor and the drying beds after some stay. With the sludge from Varna Purification station a pot experiment was set to determine at what levels of loading with sludge the soils differ from each other by the biomass yield and heavy metals content. During the experiment two crops were grown: rape-fodder and rye-grass harvested in two cuts to follow the effects of the sludge use and the post effect in controlled conditions. The experiment was carried out on four soil units: Calcareous Chernozem, Leached Smolnitsa, Leached Cinnamonic Forest soil and Grey Forest soil (Calcic Chernozem, Haplic Vertisol, and two Chromic Luvisols from South and North Bulgaria, respectively). PMID:16114620

  3. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  5. Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hullenbusch, Eric; Farges, Franois; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; Brown, Gordon E.

    2007-02-01

    Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinc red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  6. Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hullenbusch, Eric van; Farges, Francois; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; Brown, Gordon E. Jr.

    2007-02-02

    Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinc red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  7. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

    1994-12-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  8. Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    van Hullenbusch, Eric; Farges, Francois; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinic red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  9. Demonstration of vitrification of surrogate F006 waste-water treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cicero, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    A demonstration program with the focus on vitrification of surrogate formulations of Savannah River Site M-Area wastewater treatment sludges has been completed. The program utilized commercially available melting equipment, supplied by EnVitCo, Inc., and Stir Melter, Inc., located at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratories. Over 2000 kg of glass was manufactured in a series of five separate tests with four formulations. Glasses were characterized by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT), with all glasses showing leach characteristics better than Land Disposal Requirements (LDR) for corresponding F006 waste (TCLP) and benchmark environmental assessment glasses (PCT). Offgas sampling by EPA Method 5 was conducted, including chemical analysis of filter residue and impinger solution. Data is presented on glass leaching, offgas sampling, phase separation, and melter performance.

  10. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 μg/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 μg/capita/day), acesulfame (90 μg/capita/day), and saccharin (66μg/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 μg/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 μg/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

  11. Fate of surfactants in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants: A model verification study

    SciTech Connect

    Feijtel, T.; Vits, H.; Murray-Smith, R.; Wijk, R. van; Koch, V.; Schroeder, R.; Birch, R.; Ten Berge, W.

    1995-12-31

    The European Chemical Industry has commissioned a joint industry Task Force of the Association International de la Savonnerie et la Detergence (AIS) and the Comite Europeen de Agents de Surface et Intermediares Organiques (CESIO) to develop and apply specific methodology for the environmental monitoring of surfactants. The objectives of the TF was (1) to establish the fate, distribution and concentrations of major surfactants in relevant environmental compartments and (2) to provide the necessary data for checking the applicability of mathematical models to predict their fate and concentrations in these environmental compartments. This presentation will focus on the results of this AIS/CESIO surfactant, monitoring program and how the measured removals, effluent concentrations, and sludge concentrations compare to predicted levels for different wastewater treatment plants across Europe. Mathematical models that predict the fate of chemicals in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPS) are used as an integral part of risk assessment process in many countries. In this paper, the predictive power of two mathematical models, SIMPLETREAT and WWTREAT, is checked against linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) fate data collected at five WWTPs located across Europe. Magnitudes and time-scales of the variability in WWTP streams were identified using statistical methods. In addition, the performance of these models is also checked against measured removal and effluent data for alcohol ethoxylates and alcohol ethoxysulfates.

  12. Performance evaluation of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, C; Sekar, A S S

    2015-11-01

    Investigation on dairy wastewater treatment was undertaken at ambient temperature in 11 l effective volume of laboratory--scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor receiving an average influent chemical oxygen demand of 2100 mg 1(-1) for 3 months of 24 hours, hydraulic retention time. The feeds of the synthetic dairy wastewater operated with HRT of 12 hrs, 16 hrs, 20 hrs and 24 hrs was equivalent to organic loading rates of 1.20 kg COD m(-3) d-7.20 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.9 kg COD m(-3) d-5.40 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.72 kg COD m(-3) d--4.32 kg COD m(-3) d and 0.60 kg COD m(-3) d-3.60 kg COD m(-3) d respectively. After steady state condition was reached, which took about 2 months, the effluent quality parameter were sampled and analysed to quantify treatment efficiencies. The following removal efficiency observed were 73-94.33% COD; 50.04- 56.66% total solids; 45.55-70.63% total dissolved solids; 66-86.67% total nitrogen and 72-94% total phosphorous. Maximum biogas production rate was 383 l kg(-1) COD removed with 260 l of methane gas. Estimation of biogas production was analysed using artificial neural network software model, and the results predicted coincided well with the experimental results. PMID:26688965

  13. Identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors (Blrs) with anaerobic granular sludge and residual activated sludge for brewery wastewater treatment and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu; Huang, Zhenxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-10-01

    Two identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors treating brewery wastewater were inoculated with different types of sludge to compare their operational conditions, sludge characteristics, and kinetic models at a mesophilic temperature. One reactor (R1) started up with anaerobic granular sludge in 12 weeks and obtained a continuously average organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.4 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 80%, and effluent COD of 450 mg/L. The other reactor (R2) started up with residual activated sludge in 30 weeks and granulation accomplished when the reactor reached an average OLR of 8.3 kg COD/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 90%, and effluent COD of 240 mg/L. Differences in sludge characteristics, biogas compositions, and biogas-lift processes may be accounted for the superior efficiency of the treatment performance of R2 over R1. Grau second-order and modified StoverKincannon models based on influent and effluent concentrations as well as hydraulic retention time were successfully used to develop kinetic parameters of the experimental data with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.95), which further showed that R2 had higher treatment performance than R1. These results demonstrated that residual activated sludge could be used effectively instead of anaerobic granular sludge despite the need for a longer time. PMID:24494489

  14. Molecular characterization of activated sludge from a seawater?processing wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    Snchez, Olga; Garrido, Laura; Forn, Irene; Massana, Ramon; Maldonado, Manuel Ignacio; Mas, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The prokaryotic community composition of activated sludge from a seawater?processing wastewater treatment plant (Almeria, Spain) was investigated by using the rRNA approach, combining different molecular techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone libraries and in situ hybridization (FISH and CARD?FISH). Most of the sequences retrieved in the DGGE and the clone libraries were similar to uncultured members of different phyla. The most abundant sequence recovered from Bacteria in the clone library corresponded to a bacterium from the DeinococcusThermus cluster (almost 77% of the clones), and the library included members from other groups such as the Alpha, Gamma and Delta subclasses of Proteobacteria, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Concerning the archaeal clone library, we basically found sequences related to different orders of methanogenic Archaea, in correspondence with the recovered DGGE bands. Enumeration of DAPI (4?,6?diamidino?2?phenylindole) stained cells from two different activated sludge samples after a mechanical flocculation disruption revealed a mean cell count of 1.6??109?ml?1. Around 94% of DAPI counts (mean value from both samples) hybridized with a Bacteria specific probe. Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial group (36% of DAPI counts), while Beta?, Delta? and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes contributed to lower proportions (between 0.55.7% of DAPI counts). Archaea accounted only for 6% of DAPI counts. In addition, specific primers for amplification of the amoA (ammonia monooxygenase) gene were used to detect the presence of Beta, Gamma and archaeal nitrifiers, yielding positive amplifications only for Betaproteobacteria. This, together with negative in situ hybridizations with probes for well?known nitrifiying bacteria, suggests that nitrification is performed by still undetected microorganisms. In summary, the combination of the three approaches provided different and complementary pictures of the real assemblage composition and allowed to get closer to the main microorganisms involved in key processes of seawater?processing activated sludge. PMID:21414181

  15. Horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor for paper industry wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Foresti, E.; Cabral, A.K.A.; Zaiat, M.; Del Nery, V.

    1996-11-01

    Immobilized cell reactors are known to permit the continuous operation without biomass washout and also for increasing the time available for cells` catalytic function in a reaction or in a series of reactions. Several cell immobilization supports have been used in different reactors for anaerobic wastewater treatment, such as: agar gel, acrylamide, porous ceramic, and polyurethane foam besides the self-immobilized biomass from UASB reactors. However, the results are not conclusive as to the advantages of these different reactors with different supports as compared to other anaerobic reactor configurations. This paper describes a new anaerobic attached growth reactor configuration, herein referred as horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor and presents the results of its performance test treating kraft paper industry wastewater. The reactor configuration was conceived aiming to increase the ratio useful volume/total volume by lowering the volume for gas separation. The HAIS reactor conception would permit also to incorporate the reactor hydrodynamic characteristics in its design criteria if the flow pattern could be approximated as plug-flow.

  16. Application of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for treatment of complex wastewaters at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, I.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-10-01

    The feasibility of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for the treatment of potato starch wastewater at low ambient temperatures was demonstrated by operating two 5.65 l reactors at 14 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. The organic space loading rates achieved in these laboratory-scale reactors were 3 kg COD/cubic m/day at 14 degrees C and 4-5 kg COD/cubic m/day at 20 degrees C. The corresponding sludge loading rates were 0.12 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 14 degrees C and 0.16-0.18 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 20 degrees C. These findings are of considerable practical importance because application of anaerobic treatment at low ambient temperatures will lead to considerable savings in energy needed for operating the process. As compared with various other anaerobic wastewater treatment processes, a granular sludge upflow process represents one of the best options developed so far. Although the overall sludge yield under psychrophilic conditions is slightly higher than under optimal mesophilic conditions, this doesn't seriously hamper the operation of the process. The extra sludge yield, due to accumulation of slowly hydrolyzing substrate ingredients, was 4.75% of the COD input at 14 degrees C and 1.22% of the COD input at 20 degrees C. 26 references.

  17. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  18. Temporal evolution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Villar, M; Callejn, M; Villar, P; Fernndez-Torres, R; Bello, M A; Guiram, A

    2011-05-01

    Five homologues of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)-LAS C-10, LAS C-11, LAS C-12, and LAS C-13 and total LAS-were monitored during a one-year period in primary, secondary, and digested sludge to evaluate their presence and temporal evolution. Extraction of LAS was carried out using microwaves energy, and determination was performed using high-performance liquid chromatographic- fluorescence (HPLC-FL). The results showed that concentrations of total LAS were between 9 337 mg/kg(-1) dry matter for primary sludge and 33.3 mg/kg(-1)(DM) for secondary sludge. Concentrations of total LAS were greater than 2 113 mg/kg(-1) in primary and digested sludge and were less than 260 mg/kg(-) in secondary sludge. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of LAS in primary sludge were found in summer, probably because of lack of rain during those months. Concentrations tend to be constant throughout the year in digested sludge. In addition heavy metals also were analyzed. Heavy metals, including zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and chromium are persistent environmental contaminants that cannot be destroyed. Biomagnification through the food-chain and potential accumulation in human tissues can cause both human health and environmental concerns. Concern regarding total heavy metal content of sludge limits sludge recycling for use on agricultural lands. This paper presents a comparative study of wastewater sludge that are going to be used as fertilizer based on the requirements of legislation proposed in the European Union. This research found that concentrations of total LAS in digested sludge are higher than the limits established in the proposed new draft. PMID:21657192

  19. Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Ohm, Jae-Bom; Blonigen, Mark; Khan, Eakalak

    2013-06-01

    A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stage trickling filter (TF) process. A mixed culture bacterial inoculum was used for BDON determination, while a pure cultured algal inoculum (Selenastrum capricornutum) and a combination of the bacterial and alga inocula were used for ABDON determination. Results show that BDON and ABDON varied significantly within the treatment facility and between the two facilities. From after primary clarification to final effluent, the TF facility removed 65% of BDON and 63% of ABDON while the AS facility removed 68% of BDON and 56% of ABDON. For the TF facility, BDON and ABDON were 62% and 71% of the effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), while they were 26% and 47% of the effluent DON for the AS WWTF. BDON and ABDON results, which are based on incubation of samples under different inocula (bacteria only, algae only, and bacteria + algae), further showed that some portions of DON are utilizable by bacteria only or algae only while there is a portion of DON utilizable by either bacteria or algae. DON utilization was the highest when both bacteria and algae were used as a co-inoculum in the samples. This study is the first to investigate the fate of BDON and ABDON along the treatment trains of two different WWTFs. PMID:23579086

  20. GC/MS analysis of triclosan and its degradation by-products in wastewater and sludge samples from different treatments.

    PubMed

    Tohidi, Fatemeh; Cai, Zongwei

    2015-08-01

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method was developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (TCS) and its degradation products including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD), and methyl triclosan (MTCS) in wastewater and sludge samples. The method provides satisfactory detection limit, accuracy, precision and recovery especially for samples with complicated matrix such as sewage sludge. Liquid-liquid extraction and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) methods were applied for the extraction, and column chromatography was employed for the sample cleanup. Analysis was performed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was successfully applied to wastewater and sludge samples from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained as 91(±4)-106(±7)%, 82(±3)-87(±4)%, 86(±6)-87(±8)%, and 88(±4)-105(±3)% in wastewater and 88(±5)-96(±8)%, 84(±2)-87(±3)%, 84(±7)-89(±4)%, and 88(±3)-97(±5)% in sludge samples for TCS, 2,4-DCP, 2,8-DCDD, and MTCS, respectively. TCS degradation products were detected based on the type of the wastewater and sludge treatment. 2,8-DCDD was detected in the plant utilizing UV disinfection at the mean level of 20.3(±4.8) ng/L. 2,4-DCP was identified in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) applying chlorine disinfection at the mean level of 16.8(±4.5) ng/L). Besides, methyl triclosan (MTCS) was detected in the wastewater collected after biological treatment (10.7 ± 3.3 ng/L) as well as in sludge samples that have undergone aerobic digestion at the mean level of 129.3(±17.2) ng/g dry weight (dw). PMID:25810102

  1. Thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge at Hengelo Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Mathijs; Ringoot, Davy; Hendriks, Alexander; Roeleveld, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) is a sludge treatment technique which affects anaerobic biodegradability, viscosity and dewaterability of waste activated sludge (WAS). In 2011 a THP-pilot plant was operated, connected to laboratory-scale digesters, at the water board Regge en Dinkel and in cooperation with Cambi A.S. and MWH Global. Thermal hydrolysis of WAS resulted in a 62% greater volatile solids (VS) reduction compared to non-hydrolysed sludge. Furthermore, the pilot digesters could be operated at a 2.3 times higher solids loading rate compared to conventional sludge digesters. By application of thermal sludge hydrolysis, the overall efficiency of the sludge treatment process can be improved. PMID:25026572

  2. Procedure to screen illicit discharge of toxic substances in septic sludge received at a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Robidoux, P Y; Lopez-Gastey, J; Choucri, A; Sunahara, G I

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an integrative approach, using toxicological and chemical analyses, to screen toxic and illegal substances that could be added to the septic sludge transported by a tanker truck to the wastewater treatment plant of the Montreal Urban Community (MUC). Microtox, lettuce root elongation, and a bacterial respiration test were used to establish the toxicity range of a normal sludge and the determination of threshold limit criteria. Septic sludge samples were spiked with different types and amounts of contaminants (copper, zinc, phenol, industrial sludge). Conservative criteria were applied to detect abnormal toxicity with great reliability while avoiding false positives (i.e., detecting abnormal toxicity in nonspiked sludge). Taken individually, toxicity tests using Microtox were revealed to be the least discriminating toxicological method (efficiency of 45% when the ratio of the IC50 values is considered), whereas lettuce root elongation was relatively the most efficient (80% of spiked samples). As a whole, the battery of toxicity tests detected at least 93% of the spiked sludge samples. This procedure is also very efficient, i.e., easy to apply, cost effective, and rapid. In certain cases, an abnormal toxicity level can be determined within a few hours, whereas a septic sludge can be classified as normal within 5 days. PMID:9515073

  3. Dynamics of the microfauna community in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant experiencing sludge bulking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Qi, Rong; An, Wei; Xu, Muqi; Zhang, Yu; Bai, Xue; Bao, Haipeng; Wen, Yang; Gu, Jian; Yang, Min

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the microfauna community in activated sludge, with special reference to sludge bulking, in two parallel municipal wastewater treatment systems in Beijing, China over a period of 14 months. Annual cyclic changes in microfauna community structures occurred in both systems. RELATE analysis based on Spearman's Rank correlation indicated that microfauna community structures were highly correlated with the sludge volume index (SVI) (p<0.001), which indicates sludge settleability. Nutrient conditions of raw sewage (p<0.01) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) (p<0.05) were also related to microfauna community structures. Abundances of the species Epistylis plicatilis and Vorticella striata increased significantly with an increase in SVI (p<0.001) and decrease in water temperature (p<0.001), suggesting that sludge bulking may have created favorable conditions for the two species, even under unfavorable temperature conditions. Sludge de-flocculation primarily due to the excessive growth of Microthrix parvicella-like filaments could be an important driving force for the microfauna community changes. The release of flocculated non-filamentous bacteria may represent a suitable food source for these species. The two species may be considered as potential bioindicators for sludge bulking. PMID:23628141

  4. Limitation of sludge biotic index application for control of a wastewater treatment plant working with shock organic and ammonium loadings.

    PubMed

    Drzewicki, Adam; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between activated sludge microfauna, the sludge biotic index (SBI) and the effluent quality of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) working with shock organic and ammonium loadings caused by periodic wastewater delivery from septic tanks. Irrespective of high/low effluent quality in terms of COD, BOD5, ammonium and suspended solids, high SBI values (8-10), which correspond to the first quality class of sludge, were observed. High SBI values were connected with abundant taxonomic composition and the domination of crawling ciliates with shelled amoebae and attached ciliates. High SBI values, even at a low effluent quality, limit the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status of an activated sludge system and the effluent quality in municipal WWTP-treated wastewater from septic tanks. It was shown that a more sensitive indicator of effluent quality was a change in the abundance of attached ciliates with a narrow peristome (Vorticella infusionum and Opercularia coarctata), small flagellates and crawling ciliates (Acineria uncinata) feeding on flagellates. PMID:21802913

  5. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.T.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. . Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-05

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGSB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V[sub up]) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K[sub s] value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V[sub up] lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V[sub up] higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L [center dot] d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production.

  6. Sorption of ionized and neutral emerging trace organic compounds onto activated sludge from different wastewater treatment configurations.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Katherine C; Dickenson, Eric R V; Drewes, Jrg E; Higgins, Christopher P

    2012-04-15

    The objective of this study was to examine sorption of a suite of 19 trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) to activated sludge. Compounds examined in this study included neutral, nonionized TOrCs as well as acidic TOrCs which may carry a negative charge and basic TOrCs which may carry a positive charge at the pH of wastewater. These TOrCs were evaluated to examine how sorptive behavior might differ for TOrCs in different states of charge. Additionally, multiple sludges from geographically and operationally different wastewater treatment plants were studied to elicit how solid-phase characteristics influence TOrC sorption. Characterization of sludge solids from 6 full scale treatment facilities and 3 bench-scale reactors showed no significant difference in fraction organic carbon (f(oc)) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Sorption experiments demonstrated that sorption of TOrCs also exhibits little variation between these different sludges. Organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (logK(oc)) were determined as a measure of sorption, and were found to correlate well with octanol-water partition coefficients (logK(ow)) for nonionized TOrCs, and logD(ow) for anionic TOrCs where logD(ow) is greater than 2. These data were used to construct a linear free energy relationship (LFER), which was comparable to existing LFERs for sorption onto sludge. No trend in sorption was apparent for the remaining anionic TOrCs or for the cationic TOrCs. These data suggest that predicting sorption to activated sludge based on K(ow) values is a reasonable approach for neutral TOrCs using existing LFERs, but electrostatic (and likely other) interactions may govern the sorptive behavior of the charged organic chemicals to sludge. PMID:22316557

  7. Toxic influence of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants and synthetic activated sludge associates modeled on its pure cultures.

    PubMed

    Tyupa, Dmitry V; Kalenov, Sergei V; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Khokhlachev, Nikolay S; Baurina, Marina M; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye

    2015-01-01

    Toxic impact of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment facilities has been studied. Some dominating cultures (an active nitrogen fixer Agrobacterium tumifaciens (A.t) and micromyces such as Fusarium nivale, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium glabrum) have been isolated and identified as a result of selection of the activated sludge microorganisms being steadiest under stressful conditions. For these cultures, the lethal doses of silver amounted 1, 600, 50, and 300 µg/l and the lethal doses of uranium were 120, 1,500, 1,000, and 1,000 mg/l, respectively. A.tumifaciens is shown to be more sensitive to heavy metals than micromyces. Synthetic granular activated sludge was formed on the basis of three cultures of the isolated micromyces steadiest against stress. Its granules were much more resistant to silver than the whole native activated sludge was. The concentration of silver causing 50 % inhibition of synthetic granular activated sludge growth reached 160-170 μg/l as far as for the native activated sludge it came only to 100-110 μg/l. PMID:25027236

  8. A comparative study of freeze-thaw processes for conditioning wastewater and water treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Trahern, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    This research effort involved the application of indirect- and direct-contact, freeze-thaw conditioning techniques for improving the dewatering characteristics of both waste water and water treatment sludges. Sludges tested included waste activated sludge, primary sewage sludge, waste activated/primary sewage sludge mixtures and alum sludge. The direct-freeze methods examined were the use of a secondary refrigerant (butane) evaporated in the sludge and the use of gas hydrate or clathrate formation by addition of Freon 12 under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions. Sludges were also frozen solid using indirect freezing methods, thawed and tested for comparative purposes. Particle size distribution and floc density measurements were used to determine changes in particle characteristics; specific resistance values and dewatered dry solids concentration were used to assess dewatering characteristics. Results of direct and indirect-contact, freeze-thaw conditioning were compared to the effects of polymer conditioning. The results indicated that direct-freeze methods do not appear technically or economically competitive with currently accepted conditioning methods. The superior results obtained with the indirect-contact, freeze-thaw process when compared to the direct-contact processes suggested that the extent and rate of freezing may greatly influence the particle characteristics of the conditioned sludge, and thus its dewatering characteristics.

  9. Conversion of activated-sludge reactors to microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment coupled to electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Tomoya; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-11-01

    Wastewater can be treated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with the aid of microbes that oxidize organic compounds using anodes as electron acceptors. Previous studies have suggested the utility of cassette-electrode (CE) MFCs for wastewater treatment, in which rice paddy-field soil was used as the inoculum. The present study attempted to convert an activated-sludge (AS) reactor to CE-MFC and use aerobic sludge in the tank as the source of microbes. We used laboratory-scale (1L in capacity) reactors that were initially operated in an AS mode to treat synthetic wastewater, containing starch, yeast extract, peptone, plant oil, and detergents. After the organics removal became stable, the aeration was terminated, and CEs were inserted to initiate an MFC-mode operation. It was demonstrated that the MFC-mode operation treated the wastewater at similar efficiencies to those observed in the AS-mode operation with COD-removal efficiencies of 75-80%, maximum power densities of 150-200mWm(-2) and Coulombic efficiencies of 20-30%. These values were similar to those of CE-MFC inoculated with the soil. Anode microbial communities were analyzed by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Comparative analyses revealed that anode communities enriched from the aerobic sludge were largely different from those from the soil, suggesting that similar reactor performances can be supported by different community structures. The study demonstrates that it is possible to construct wastewater-treatment MFCs by inserting CEs into water-treatment tanks. PMID:24856588

  10. Occurrence of PBDEs and other alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Song, Geum-Ju; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Studies on the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other alternative brominated flame retardants in the environment are scarce. In this study, PBDEs and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), were measured in sludge collected from three types of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs (∑PBDE) in sludge ranged from 298 to 48,000 (mean: 3240) ng/g dry weight. Among 10 NBFRs analyzed, DBDPE and BTBPE were the only ones detected in sludge samples. Concentrations of DBDPE and BTBPE ranged from sludge were higher than those reported in other countries. The highest concentrations of ∑PBDE and DBDPE were found in sludge samples originated from industrial-WWTPs (I-WWTPs), suggesting that industrial activities are a major source of these contaminants. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that congener profiles of PBDEs in sludge are dependent on the types of WWTPs. Almost all sludge samples contained a low ratio (mean: 0.18) of DBDPE/BDE 209, indicating an on-going contamination by PBDEs in Korea. However, the high ratios (>1) of DBDPE/BDE 209 were found in sludge from I-WWTPs, reflecting a shift in the usage pattern of BFRs by the Korean industry. The nationwide annual emission fluxes of ∑PBDE, DBDPE and BTBPE via WWTPs to the environment were estimated to be 7400, 480, and 3.7 kg/year, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from Korea. PMID:23993837

  11. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting....

  12. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting....

  13. Patulibacter medicamentivorans sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Brbara; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Schumann, Peter; Nunes, Olga C; Carvalho, Gilda; Barreto Crespo, Maria T

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-endospore-forming rod-shaped bacterium with ibuprofen-degrading capacity, designated strain I11(T), was isolated from activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. The major respiratory quinone was demethylmenaquinone DMK-7, C18 : 1 cis9 was the predominant fatty acid, phosphatidylglycerol was the predominant polar lipid, the cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 74.1 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain I11(T) were Patulibacter ginsengiterrae CECT 7603(T) (96.8 % similarity), Patulibacter minatonensis DSM 18081(T) (96.6 %) and Patulibacter americanus DSM 16676(T) (96.6 %). Phenotypic characterization supports the inclusion of strain I11(T) within the genus Patulibacter (phylum Actinobacteria). However, distinctive features and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggest that is represents a novel species, for which the name Patulibacter medicamentivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is I11(T) ( = DSM 25962(T) = CECT 8141(T)). PMID:23264500

  14. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  15. Fate of zinc oxide nanoparticles during anaerobic digestion of wastewater and post-treatment processing of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W; Scheckel, Kirk G

    2012-08-21

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that "native" Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other "conventional" forms of Zn present in sewage sludge. PMID:22816872

  16. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the

  17. DESIGN MANUAL: DEWATERING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual discusses the many factors involved in selecting and designing dewatering equipment for organic sludges produced during primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment. ive-step approach is outlined for the selection and design of the dewatering equipment for eit...

  18. Nitrogen removal in a full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant with activated sludge and trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple. PMID:23710197

  19. Nitrogen Removal in a Full-Scale Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant with Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter

    PubMed Central

    Nourmohammadi, Davood; Esmaeeli, Mir-Bager; Akbarian, Hossein; Ghasemian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF) was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8?mg/L to 0.29?mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8?mg/L to 27?mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple. PMID:23710197

  20. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of metagenomic libraries of phenol degrading sludge from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In petrochemical refinery wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), different concentrations of pollutant compounds are received daily in the influent stream, including significant amounts of phenolic compounds, creating propitious conditions for the development of particular microorganisms that can rapidly adapt to such environment. In the present work, the microbial sludge from a refinery WWTP was enriched for phenol, cloned into fosmid vectors and pyrosequenced. The fosmid libraries yielded 13,200 clones and a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the sequence data set revealed a complex and diverse bacterial community in the phenol degrading sludge. The phylogenetic analyses using MEGAN in combination with RDP classifier showed a massive predominance of Proteobacteria, represented mostly by the genera Diaphorobacter, Pseudomonas, Thauera and Comamonas. The functional classification of phenol degrading sludge sequence data set generated by MG-RAST showed the wide metabolic diversity of the microbial sludge, with a high percentage of genes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of phenol and derivatives. In addition, genes related to the metabolism of many other organic and xenobiotic compounds, such as toluene, biphenyl, naphthalene and benzoate, were found. Results gathered herein demonstrated that the phenol degrading sludge has complex phylogenetic and functional diversities, showing the potential of such community to degrade several pollutant compounds. This microbiota is likely to represent a rich resource of versatile and unknown enzymes which may be exploited for biotechnological processes such as bioremediation. PMID:22452812

  1. Determination of azoles in sewage sludge from Spanish wastewater treatment plants by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garca-Valcrcel, Ana I; Tadeo, Jos L

    2011-06-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of 16 azoles in sewage sludge has been developed and validated. The method was based on ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric detection. The azoles were selected by their intensive usage as biocides (tebuconazole, propiconazole, cyproconazole and thiabendazole), antimycotic pharmaceuticals (ketoconazole, econazole, fluconazole and clotrimazole) or fungicides in agriculture (difenoconazole, flusilazole, hexaconazole, prochloraz, bromuconazole, epoxiconazole and triticonazole). The recoveries of these compounds through the method were between 71.9 and 115.8%, with relative standard deviations lower than 20%. Detection limits were in the range of 0.5-5.0 ng/g. The developed method was applied to the analysis of azoles in sewage sludge samples collected from 19 Spanish wastewater treatment plants. Although azoles used as biocides or agriculture fungicides were present in a few sludge samples, the pharmaceuticals ketoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole were present in all of the analyzed sludge samples, being ketoconazole the one found at the highest level, representing the 68.6% of the total azole content found in the 19 sludge samples studied. PMID:21491590

  2. Wastewater sludge conditioning by fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1998-09-01

    Conditioning wastewater sludge from the City of Regina Wastewater Treatment Plant by fly ash from Boundary Dam Power Station, Saskatchewan, Canada, was studied. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), equilibrium leach test (ELT), and long-term leaching test (LTLT) were used to investigate the leachability of heavy metals. Results from these leaching tests indicated that, on the basis of concentrations of microorganisms and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn), the sludge produced at the Regina Wastewater Treatment Plant conditioned by the locally available fly ash can be disposed of in landfills and used as a soil conditioner for land application. Sorption, and silicate and hydroxide precipitations were considered to be the three important mechanisms in fixation of heavy metals. High pH conditions were considered to be the predominant mechanism in killing microorganisms.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...

  4. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  5. Solidified structure and leaching properties of metallurgical wastewater treatment sludge after solidification/stabilization process.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Dragana Đ; Kamberović, Željko J; Korać, Marija S; Rogan, Jelena R

    2016-01-01

    The presented study investigates solidification/stabilization process of hazardous heavy metals/arsenic sludge, generated after the treatment of the wastewater from a primary copper smelter. Fly ash and fly ash with addition of hydrated lime and Portland composite cement were studied as potential binders. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing, leaching tests (EN 12457-4 and TCLP) and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test. It was found that introduction of cement into the systems increased the UCS, led to reduced leaching of Cu, Ni and Zn, but had a negative effect on the ANC. Gradual addition of lime resulted in decreased UCS, significant reduction of metals leaching and high ANC, due to the excess of lime that remained unreacted in pozzolanic reaction. Stabilization of more than 99% of heavy metals and 90% of arsenic has been achieved. All the samples had UCS above required value for safe disposal. In addition to standard leaching tests, solidificates were exposed to atmospheric conditions during one year in order to determine the actual leaching level of metals in real environment. It can be concluded that the EN 12457-4 test is more similar to the real environmental conditions, while the TCLP test highly exaggerates the leaching of metals. The paper also presents results of differential acid neutralization (d-AN) analysis compared with mineralogical study done by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The d-AN coupled with Eh-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams were proven to be a new effective method for analysis of amorphous solidified structure. PMID:26457922

  6. Enhanced nitrogen removal in the combined activated sludge-biofilter system of the Southpest Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Jobbgy, A; Tardy, G M; Literthy, B

    2004-01-01

    In 1999 the existing activated sludge unit of the Southpest Wastewater Treatment Plant was supplemented by a two-stage biofilter system aiming for nitrification and post-denitrification. In this arrangement excess biomass of the filters is wasted through the activated sludge unit, facilitating backseeding, and recirculation of the nitrate-rich effluent of the N-filter serves for decreasing the methanol demand of the DN-filter and for saving aeration energy at the same time. The paper reports on the development of an ASM1-based mathematical model that proved to be adequate for describing the interactions in the combined system and was used to compare the efficiency of different treatment options. Full-scale results verified that backseeding may considerably improve performance. However, nitrification ability of the activated sludge unit depends on the treatment temperature and, if unexpected, can be limited by insufficient oxygen supply. The upgrading possibilities outlined may serve as a new perspective for implementation of combined activated sludge-biofilter systems. PMID:15553452

  7. A nationwide survey and emission estimates of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Song, Geum-Ju; Ra, Kongtae; Lee, Won-Chan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-11-01

    Siloxanes are widely used in various industrial applications as well as in personal care products. Despite their widespread use and potential toxic effects, few studies have reported on the occurrence of siloxanes in the environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 5 cyclic and 15 linear siloxanes in sludge collected from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of 20 siloxanes (Σsiloxane) in sludge ranged from 0.05 to 142 (mean: 45.7) μg/g dry weight, similar to the concentrations reported in European countries but higher than those reported in China. The concentrations of siloxanes in sludge from domestic WWTPs were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those from industrial WWTPs, indicating higher consumption of siloxanes in various personal care products (e.g. shampoos and conditioners). The major siloxane compounds found in sludge were decamethylcyclopentasilane (D5), docosamethyldecasiloxane (L10) and dodecamethylcyclohexasilane (D6), which collectively accounted for, on average, 62% of the Σsiloxane concentrations. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination of the profiles of siloxanes indicated the existence of different usage patterns of siloxanes between industrial and household activities. Multiple linear regression analysis of siloxane concentrations and WWTP characteristics suggested that D5, D6 and linear siloxane concentrations in sludge were positively correlated with population served by a WWTP. Environmental emission fluxes of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge disposal in Korea were 14,800 and 18,500 kg/year, respectively. This is the first report describing occurrence and environmental emission of siloxanes through sludge in Korea. PMID:25127445

  8. Distributions of polycyclic musk fragrance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and sludges in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Casteel, Kenneth; Dai, Hongjian; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; Kiel, Brian; Federle, Thomas

    2014-09-15

    The polycyclic musks, AHTN and HHCB are fragrance ingredients widely used in consumer products. A monitoring campaign was conducted and collected grab effluent and sludge samples at 40 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) across the United States to understand their occurrence and statistical distribution in these matrices. AHTN concentration in effluent ranged from <0.05 ?g/L (LOQ) to 0.44 ?g/L with a mean and standard deviation of 0.18 0.11 ?g/L. HHCB concentrations in effluent ranged from 0.45 to 4.79 ?g/L with a mean of 1.86 1.01 ?g/L. AHTN concentrations in sludge ranged from 0.65 to 15.0mg/kg dw (dry weight) with a mean and standard deviation being 3.69 2.57 mg/kg dw, while HHCB sludge concentrations were between 4.1 and 91 mg/kg with a mean of 34.0 23.1mg/kg dw. Measured concentrations of AHTN and HHCB were significantly correlated with each other in both effluent and sludge. The concentrations of HHCB in both effluent and sludge were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those for AHTN, consistent with 2011 usage levels. The highest measured effluent concentrations for both AHTN and HHCB were below their respective freshwater PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations), indicating a negligible risk to biological communities below WWTPs, even in the absence of upstream dilution. Moreover, the large number of effluents and sludges sampled provides a statistical distribution of loadings that can be used to develop more extensive probabilistic exposure assessments for WWTP mixing zones and sludge amended soils. PMID:24792690

  9. Simultaneous nitritation-denitritation for the treatment of high-strength nitrogen in hypersaline wastewater by aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Santo Fabio; Capodici, Marco; Morici, Claudia; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2016-01-01

    Fish processing industries produce wastewater containing high amounts of salt, organic matter and nitrogen. Biological treatment of such wastewaters could be problematic due to inhibitory effects exerted by high salinity levels. In detail, high salt concentrations lead to the accumulation of nitrite due to the inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The feasibility of performing simultaneous nitritation and denitritation in the treatment of fish canning wastewater by aerobic granular sludge was evaluated, and simultaneous nitritation-denitritation was successfully sustained at salinities up to 50gNaClL(-1), with a yield of over 90%. The total nitrogen concentration in the effluent was less than 10mgL(-1) at salinities up to 50gNaClL(-1). Nitritation collapsed above 50gNaClL(-1), and then, the only nitrogen removal mechanism was represented by heterotrophic synthesis. In contrast, organic matter removal was not affected by salinity but was instead affected by the organic loading rate (OLR). Both COD and BOD removal efficiencies were over 90%. The COD fractionation analysis indicated that aerobic granules were able to remove more than 95% of the particulate organic matter. Finally, results obtained in this work noted that aerobic granular sludge had an excellent ability to adapt under adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26512811

  10. Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

  11. Sludge Treatment, Utilization, and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Richard I.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers such areas: (1) industrial and hazardous sludges; (2) chemical sludges; (3) stabilization and combustion; (4) ocean disposal; and (5) land application. A list of 411 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Performance of aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch bioreactor for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yali; Kang, Xiaorong; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yixing

    2015-08-01

    Lab-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the formation and characteristics of aerobic granular sludge for biological nutrient removal of slaughterhouse wastewater. Experimental results showed that removal performances of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia and phosphate were enhanced with sludge granulation, and their removal efficiencies reached 95.1%, 99.3% and 83.5%, respectively. The aerobic granular sludge was matured after 90days cultivation, and protein-like substances were the main components. Simultaneously, the mass ratio of proteins and polysaccharides (PN/PS) was enhanced to 2.5 from 1.7. The granules with particle sizes of 0.6-1.2 and 1.2-1.8mm, accounting for 69.6%, were benefit for the growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrate oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and corresponding specific oxygen demand rates (SOUR) of AOB and NOB were 31.4 and 23.3mgO2/gMLSSh, respectively. PMID:25777064

  13. Evaluation of physical stability and leachability of Portland pozzolona cement (PPC) solidified chemical sludge generated from textile wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hema; Pandey, Suneel

    2012-03-15

    The chemical sludge generated from the treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a hazardous waste as per Indian Hazardous Waste Management rules. In this paper, stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge was carried out to explore its reuse potential in the construction materials. Portland pozzolona cement (PPC) was selected as the binder system which is commercially available cement with 10-25% fly ash interground in it. The stabilized/solidified blocks were evaluated in terms of unconfined compressive strength, block density and leaching of heavy metals. The compressive strength (3.62-33.62 MPa) and block density (1222.17-1688.72 kg/m3) values as well as the negligible leaching of heavy metals from the stabilized/solidified blocks indicate that there is a potential of its use for structural and non-structural applications. PMID:21724323

  14. Multi-scale modelling of bioreactor-separator system for wastewater treatment with two-dimensional activated sludge floc dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ofiţeru, Irina D; Bellucci, Micol; Picioreanu, Cristian; Lavric, Vasile; Curtis, Thomas P

    2014-03-01

    A simple "first generation" multi-scale computational model of the formation of activated sludge flocs at micro-scale and reactor performance at macro-scale is proposed. The model couples mass balances for substrates and biomass at reactor scale with an individual-based approach for the floc morphology, shape and micro-colony development. Among the novel model processes included are the group attachment/detachment of micro-flocs to the core structure and the clustering of nitrifiers. Simulation results qualitatively describe the formation of micro-colonies of ammonia and nitrite oxidizers and the extracellular polymeric substance produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, as typically observed in fluorescence in situ hybridization images. These results are the first step towards realistic multi-scale multispecies models of the activated sludge wastewater treatment systems and a generic modelling strategy that could be extended to other engineered biological systems. PMID:24246170

  15. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed and trickling biofilter process for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jiangzheng; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino; Le Bihan, Yann

    2016-05-01

    A combined upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-trickling biofilter (TBF) process was constructed to treat swine wastewater, a typical high-strength organic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio and ammonia toxicity. The results showed that the UASB-TBF system can remarkably enhance the removal of pollutants in the swine wastewater. At an organic loading rate of 2.29 kg/m(3) d and hydraulic retention time of 48 h in the UASB, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), Suspended Solids and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen removals of the combined process reached 83.6%, 84.1% and 41.2%, respectively. In the combined system the UASB served as a pretreatment process for COD removal while nitrification and denitrification occurred only in the TBF process. The TBF performed reasonably well at a surface hydraulic load as high as 0.12 m(3)/m(2) d. Since the ratio of influent COD to total mineral nitrogen was less than 3.23, it is reasonable to suggest that the wood chips in TBF can serve as a new carbon source for denitrification. PMID:26588487

  16. Hungry microbes eat away wastewater sludge problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1995-09-01

    Accumulations of diluted resin solids and sludge in an equalization pond were reducing a White City, Ore., chemical plant`s wastewater treatment capacity by 90%. Dyno Polymers, a division of Norway-based Dyno Industries, manufacturers formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins for the wood products industry. High-solids and biosolids bulking in the plant`s aeration pond overloaded the clarifier, and an overabundance of solids in the excess-wastewater holding pond made pumping nearly impossible. The plant`s drains carry production wastewater, truck washout water and equipment rinsewater flows to a central sump. The wastewater is pumped to the facility`s biological treatment system, where it enters an equalization pond and flows to an aeration pond equipped with two 50-horsepower aerators. The water then flows to a clarifier, where solids are settled out and removed before the water is reused or discharged to a public sewer system.

  17. Pyrolytic kinetics of sludge from a petrochemical factory wastewater treatment plant--a transition state theory approach.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ching-Guan; Chiang, Hung-Lung; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2002-10-01

    The pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich sludge in an oxygen-free environment can provide useful liquefaction products and residues. When applied to sewage sludge, energy and time costs are the major factors that affect the operation. Therefore, it is important to understand how the process is affected by temperature. The pyrolysis kinetics of sludge from a petrochemical factory wastewater treatment plant was studied to reveal the effects of temperature on the reaction rate and the magnitude of deltaH and deltaS of the reaction barrier. Oven-dried sludge samples were pyrolyzed in an isothermal reactor under six different temperatures. The residues were weighed at frequent intervals within a total 30-min experiment period. Data analysis indicated that a first order reaction model could describe the pyrolysis kinetics, across all experimental temperature ranges. When transition state theory was applied, the results indicated that the major reaction barrier came from the entropy term of the activation free energy. Therefore, increasing the pyrolysis temperature to overcome the reaction barrier yielded no apparent improvement, but strategies that reduced the entropy should significantly improve the reaction. PMID:12365840

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR FINAL TREATMENT OF COMBINED MUNICIPAL AND TEXTILE WASTEWATER INCLUDING SLUDGE UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigations were carried out on laboratory scale, employing various mixtures of dyeing and municipal wastewaters. The processes studied were: coagulation, ozonization, chlorination, activated carbon, activated sludge, and anaerobic digestion. Lime appeared to be the best c...

  19. Land treatment field studies. Volume 5. Wastewater treatment sludge from batch organic chemical synthesis. Final report Sep 77-Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.B.; Bysshe, S.E.; Goodwin, B.E.; Harris, J.C.; Land, D.B.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment operation using a sludge generated from organic chemical manufacture. The sludge is applied to a turf farm which contains acidic soil; the sludge reduces the lime addition requirements for pH adjustment. The sub-soils are porous and the quality of the groundwater located at 20-30' below the ground surface is pristine.

  20. CROPPING SYSTEMS FOR TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The efficiency of nitrogen stripping by intercropping forages with corn is evaluated in a three-year study at Muskegon County Wastewater Treatment Facility in Michign. Corn is grown as the major cash crop at the Muskegon treatment facility, but experience has shown that corn is n...

  1. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions. PMID:25837566

  2. Quorum quenching bacteria isolated from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant and their application for controlling biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Leum; Park, Son-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2014-11-28

    Bacteria recognize changes in their population density by sensing the concentration of signal molecules, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). AHL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) plays a key role in biofilm formation, so the interference of QS, referred to as quorum quenching (QQ), has received a great deal of attention. A QQ strategy can be applied to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for advanced wastewater treatment to control biofouling. To isolate QQ bacteria that can inhibit biofilm formation, we isolated diverse AHL-degrading bacteria from a laboratory-scale MBR and sludge from real wastewater treatment plants. A total of 225 AHLdegrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge sample by enrichment culture. To identify the enzyme responsible for AHL degradation in QQ bacteria, AHL-degrading activities were analyzed using cell-free lysate, culture supernatant, and whole cells. Afipia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains produced the intracellular QQ enzyme, whereas Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp. produced the extracellular QQ enzyme that was most likely to produce AHLacylase. AHL-degrading activity was observed in whole-cell assay with the Microbacterium sp. and Rhodococcus sp. strains. There has been no report for AHL-degrading capability in the case of Streptococcus sp. and Afipia sp. strains. Finally, inhibition of biofilm formation by isolated QQ bacteria or enzymes was observed on glass slides and 96-well microtiter plates using crystal violet staining. QQ strains or enzymes not only inhibited initial biofilm development but also reduced established biofilms. PMID:25112313

  3. POLISH/U.S. SYMPOSIUM ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SLUDGE DISPOSAL HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO ON FEBRUARY 10-12, 1976. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication comprises the proceedings of the Polish/U.S. Symposium on Wastewater Treatment and Sludge Disposal, held in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 10 through 12, 1976. Topics included both research work, notably in biodegradability and toxicity, and treatment and disposal met...

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF MUTAGENIC COMPONENTS IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS AND SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both industrially-impacted and domestic municipal sewage treatment plant wastewaters and sludges have been studied to isolate the residue organics for the characterization of their mutagenic properties and for the isolation/identification of the mutagenic components. ethods were ...

  5. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  6. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF SLUDGE AND ASH FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were performed to determine the physical properties and chemical leaching characteristics of the residuals and the stabilized/solidified products from two publicly-owned wastewater treatment works (POTW). The two POTW waste products included in this study were an anaerobic ...

  7. Application of sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants in road's embankments.

    PubMed

    De Oa, J; Osorio, F

    2006-04-17

    While different kinds of compost have been tested for highway revegetation, sewage sludge has only been used for agricultural purposes. In this work, its application for helping vegetation establishment on roads embankments is studied. Testing areas measuring 4x5m were constructed on a new highway embankment in an arid location. Several variables are analyzed: side slope (2); sludge dosage (4); vegetative species (4). Results are presented on growth, survival rate and germination of the plants; colonization of other species; cover crop for the plots; estimation of the erosion. The species planted manually showed satisfactory results although any variable was specially significant in this case. However, in relation to the species planted using hydroseeding, 2:1 side slope presented better results than 3:2 side slope. Using hydroseeding, the performance of different species was significantly different, thyme did not grow if sludge was not applied and the cover crop was higher in plots with 3:2 side slope than in plots with 2:1 side slope, essentially due to the presence of colonizing species. Finally, the costs of the proposed treatments are figured out, being concluded that, so much from the technical as the economic point of view, it is a viable proposal for sewage sludge management. PMID:16233951

  8. Investigation of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge samples from a metropolitan wastewater treatment plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    mero?lu, Seil; Murdoch, Fadime Kara; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) have drawn significant attention within the last decade for both scientific and legislative reasons. In Turkey, the Regulation Regarding the Use of Domestic and Urban Sludges on Land states a limit value for the sum of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) as NPE (NPE=NP+NP1EO+NP2EO). Unfortunately a standard method for the determination of these chemicals has not been yet set by the authorities and no data exists about the concentrations of NP and NPEOs in sewage sludge in Turkey. The aim of this study is to propose simple and easily applicable extraction and measurement techniques for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in sewage sludge samples and investigate the year round concentrations in a Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Turkey. Different extraction techniques and GC/MS methods for sewage sludge were tested. The best extraction method for these compounds was found to be ultrasonication (5 min) using acetone as the solvent with acceptable recovery of analytes suggested by USEPA and other studies. The optimized extraction method showed good repeatability with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6%. The recovery of analytes were within acceptable limits suggested by USEPA and other studies. The limits of detection (LODs) were 6 g kg(-1) for NP and NP1EO, 12 g kg(-1) for NP2EO and 0.03 g kg(-1) for 4-n-NP. The developed method was applied to sewage sludge samples obtained from the Central WWTP in Ankara, Turkey. The sum NPE (NP+NP1EO+NP2EO) was found to be in between 5.5 g kg(-1) and 19.5 g kg(-1), values which are in compliance with Turkish and European regulations. PMID:25281154

  9. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from "negative removal" to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological risk to algae. Therefore, further control of PhACs in effluent and sludge is required before their discharge and application to prevent their introduction into the environment. PMID:24176710

  10. Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N. PMID:19540753

  11. Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate flame retardants/plasticizers in wastewater treatment plant sludges from the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangying; He, Lixiong; Cao, Shuxia; Ma, Shengtao; Yu, Zhiqiang; Gui, Hongyan; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-08-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPs) are widely used as flame retardants or plasticizers and are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of 7 widely used OPs were analyzed in sludge samples collected from 19 municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta, South China. All analytes were detected in these samples, and the total concentration of OPs ranged from 96.7 g/kg to 1312.9 g/kg dry weight, with a mean value of 420.1 g/kg dry weight. In most sludge samples OPs exhibited a similar distribution pattern, for example, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were identified as the dominant compounds. However, the results also indicated significantly higher levels of OPs in specific sludges, such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (804.9 g/kg), TBEP (783.7 g/kg), TPhP (656.7 g/kg), and tritolyl phosphate (265.0 g/kg), which implied different discharge sources in the studied areas. PMID:24729049

  12. Process efficiency and microbial monitoring in MBR (membrane bioreactor) and CASP (conventional activated sludge process) treatment of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Munz, Giulio; Gualtiero, Mori; Salvadori, Laura; Claudia, Barberio; Claudio, Lubello

    2008-12-01

    In this study a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a conventional activated sludge plant (CASP), treating the same tannery wastewaters and in the same operating conditions, have been compared in order to evaluate the overall treatment efficiency, the presence and distribution of Gram negative bacteria and the kinetics of nitrifying bacteria. Process efficiency was evaluated in terms of organic and nitrogen compounds: the MBR showed a higher COD removal (+4%) and a more stable and complete nitrification. The Gram negative bacteria were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with phylogenetic probes monitoring of alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, of the main ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the Nitrobacter and Nitrospira genera. The results showed that the main differences between the two sludges were: the higher abundance of alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria in the MBR bioreactor and the presence of AOB aggregates only on the surfaces of MBR flocs. Finally, the titrimetric (pH-stat, DO-stat) tests showed similar values of the kinetic parameters of the nitrifiers both in MBR and CASP sludge. PMID:18499451

  13. Structure and properties of noncrystalline nano-Al(OH)? reclaimed from carbonized residual wastewater treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinlong; Dai, Ying; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Jiang, Baojiang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Wei; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Xue; Xing, Zipeng; Fu, Honggang

    2012-04-17

    Performance of wastewater treatement sludge-carbon (SC) can be evidently improved by removing the inorganic fractions. A novel investigation for recovery of Al from acid leaching of SC and synthesis of nano-Al(OH)(3) has been conducted. Results show that the sodium aluminates with high purity can be obtained by effectively dissolving the inorganic fractions from SC and by further removing the impurities (Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), S(4+), and P(3+)). Highly dispersed Al(OH)(3) with high S(BET) is obtained at pH = 6. The peaks of -CH(2)- vibration and the C1s peaks (binding energies of 284.6 eV) imply that polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG-1000) is chemically adsorbed on the surface of Al(OH)(3) samples, which is propitious to reduce the hydrogen bonds between water molecules and surface -OH groups to prevent hard agglomeration. The stretching vibration peaks of [AlO(2)](-) and the Na1s peaks confirm that a trace of sodium aluminate (NaAl(OH)(4), Na(+)(H(2)O)(4)[Al(OH)(4)(-)], or the dehydrated monomers) is retained in the prepared Al(OH)(3). The main phase transformation for calcination (?800 C) of the SC-derived Al(OH)(3) is from amorphous Al(OH)(3) to amorphous A1(2)O(3). Here we highlight that production of Al(OH)(3) and SC from sludge provides the potential application in significant quantities that can revolutionize the handling of such kinds of harmful waste. PMID:22417744

  14. [Method for Simultaneous Determination of 11 Veterinary Antibiotics in Piggery Wastewater and Sludge and Its Application in Biological Treatment].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jia-li; Liu, Rui; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Wei-juan; Ye, Zhao-xia; Chen, Lu-jun; Zhang, Yong-ming

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine eleven commonly used veterinary antibiotics (including four tetracyclines, two sulfonamides, three quinolones and two macrolides) in piggery wastewater and activated sludge in the Yangtze River Delta region, the conditions of solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were optimized. The recovery rate and relative standard deviations of the method were confirmed as 73% - 105.2%, 3.1% - 10.2% for piggery wastewater (n = 3) and 57.4% - 104.6%, 1.9% - 10.9% (n = 3) respectively for the activated sludge. Removal of antibiotics was then studied in a membrane bioreactor. The results showed that antibiotics of both tetracycline and sulfonamide species took a large portion in the wastewater, while tetracycline species were the dominant in the sludge. Tetracycline species in the wastewater were removed by 85.2%, mainly through biodegradation (51.9%) and secondly by sludge adsorption (33.2%). By comparison, sulfonamide species was removed by 95.8%, almost all through biodegradation while little by sludge adsorption. Flask tests suggested that the accumulated antibiotics in the sludge give no significant influence on the microbial removal of organics and ammonium. PMID:26841632

  15. Biogas production from pear residues using sludge from a wastewater treatment plant digester. Influence of the feed delivery procedure.

    PubMed

    Arhoun, B; Bakkali, A; El Mail, R; Rodriguez-Maroto, J M; Garcia-Herruzo, F

    2013-01-01

    Clear economic advantages may be obtained from the management of seasonal fruit wastes by codigestion at existing facilities which are working throughout the year with other residues. We have explored the biomethanization of pear residues in a 5L stirred reactor loaded with sludge from the anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Different organic loading rates (OLRs) of fruit waste were tested with two delivery procedures: a discontinuous one (fed once a day) and a pseudocontinuous one. For both procedures, as the OLR increases the pH of the digester drops to acidic values and large OLRs may cause the reactor failure. Nevertheless, the pseudocontinuous delivery allows the treatment of more residue, (10.5 versus 6.0 g of volatile solids per litre of reactor and day), maintaining the specific biogas production (0.44 L of biogas per gram of volatile solids), with some improvement in methane concentration (44% vs 39%). PMID:23131648

  16. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Removal of a broad range of surfactants from municipal wastewater--comparison between membrane bioreactor and conventional activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; Barcel, Dami

    2007-02-01

    Elimination of alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) and their degradation products (alkylphenols and alkylphenoxy carboxylates), as well as linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and coconut diethanol amides (CDEA), was studied in a pilot plant membrane bioreactor (MBR) working in parallel to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using conventional activated sludge (CAS). In the CAS system 87% of parent long ethoxy chain NPEOs were eliminated, but their decomposition yielded persistent acidic and neutral metabolites which were poorly removed. The elimination of short ethoxy chain NPEOs (NP(1)EO and NP(2)EO) averaged 50%, whereas nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) showed an increase in concentrations with respect to the ones measured in influent samples. Nonylphenol (NP) was the only nonylphenolic compound efficiently removed (96%) in the CAS treatment. On the other hand, MBR showed good performance in removing nonylphenolic compounds with an overall elimination of 94% for the total pool of NPEO derived compounds (in comparison of 54%-overall elimination in the CAS). The elimination of individual compounds in the MBR was as follows: 97% for parent, long ethoxy chain NPEOs, 90% for short ethoxy chain NPEOs, 73% for NPECs, and 96% for NP. Consequently, the residual concentrations were in the low mug/l level or below it. LAS and CDEA showed similar elimination in the both wastewater treatment systems that were investigated, and no significant differences were observed between the two treatment processes. Nevertheless, for all studied compounds the MBR effluent concentrations were consistently lower and independent of the influent concentrations. Additionally, MBR effluent quality in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH(4)(+) concentration and total suspended solids (TSS) was always superior to the ones of the CAS and also independent of the influent quality, which demonstrates high potential of MBRs in the treatment of municipal wastewaters. PMID:17123581

  18. Effects of dried wastewater-treatment sludge application on ground-water quality in South Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howie, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Four test fields in the south Dade agricultural area were studied to determine the effects of sludge application on ground-water quality. Two fields had been cultivated for 10 years or more, and two had not been farmed for at least 10 years. The fields were representative of the area's two soil types (Rockdale and Perrine marl) and two major crop types (row crops and groves). Before the application of sludge, wells upgradient of, within, and downgradient of each field were sampled for possible sludge contaminants at the end of wet and dry seasons. Municipal wastewater treatment sludge from the Dade County Water and Sewe Authority Department was then applied to the fields at varying application rates. The wells at each field were sampled over a 2-year period under different hydrologic conditions for possible sludge-related constituents (specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, chloride, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, and sodium). Comparisons were made between water quality in the vicinity of the test fields and Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations, an between water quality upgradient of, beneath, and downgradient of the fields. Comparisons between presludge and postsludge water quality did not indicate any improvement because of retention of agrichemicals by the sludge nor did they indicate any deterioration because of leaching from the sludge. Comparisons of water quality upgradient of the fields to water quality beneath and downgradient of the fields also did not indicate any changes related to sludge. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations wer exceeded at the Rockdale maximum-application field by mercury (9.5 ug/L (micrograms per liter)), and the Perrine marl maximum-application field by manganese (60 ug/L) and lead (85 ug/L), and at the Perrine marl row-crop field by mercury (5.2 ug/L). All other exceedances were either in presludge or upgradient samples, or they were for constituents or properties, such as iron and color, which typically exceed standards in native ground water. Acid-extractable and base-neutral compounds, volatile organic compounds, chlorophenoxy herbicides, organophosphorus insecticides, and organochlorine compounds were analyzed for one shallow well at each field twice annually. Those compounds that equaled or exceeded the detection limit after sludge was applied included benzene (0.3 and 1.2 ug/L), chloroform (0.2 and 0.3 ug/L), bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate (29 and 42 ug/L), methylene chloride (14 ug/L), tolulene (0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 1.3, and 4.4 ug/L), 1, 1,1-trichloroethana (0.6 ug/L), trichloroethylene (0.3 ug/L), 2.4-D (0.01 ug/L), and xylene (0.3 ug/L). It ws not possible to ascertain the origin of these compounds becuase they are available from sources other than sludge.

  19. Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai; Jangkorn, Siriprapha

    2009-04-01

    Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid in the coagulation-flocculation process with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate as a coagulant for the treatment of wastewater collected from the aforementioned industry. The WAS was selected because of its adsorption capability of anionic surfactants and its availability from the wastage stream of biological wastewater treatment process. The effective dosages of both coagulants with and without the WAS additions were determined in this study. Without the WAS addition, the concentrations of 800 mg/L aluminum sulfate at the optimum pH value of 8 and 2208 mg/L ferric chloride at the optimum pH value of 12 were the optimum chemical dosages. It appears that aluminum sulfate was more effective than ferric chloride based on the chemical dosage and removal efficiency. The turbidity, suspended particles, anionic surfactants, COD, and phosphates removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride under the optimum dosage were 95.6, 88.2, 78.4, 73.5, 47.3% and 98.8, 92.0, 72.7, 67.5, 53.1%, respectively. The addition of 200 mg/L WAS was sufficient to reduce the optimum dosages of both chemicals by 200 mg/L. The cationic surfactant existing in the wastewater worked as a flocculating agent leading to the flocculation of waste activated sludge resulting in the enmeshment of the suspended particles and colloids on which the COD, anionic surfactants, and phosphates were adsorbed. However, the substances removal efficiencies of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were slightly enhanced and reduced, respectively. It is possibly explained that the settling time is insufficient to settle the aluminum hydroxide floc when it is compared to the ferric hydroxide floc because the iron floc is normally heavier than the alum floc. PMID:19241265

  20. A study of the relationship among sludge retention time, bacterial communities, and hydrolytic enzyme activities in inclined plate membrane bioreactors for the treatment of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ittisupornrat, Suda; Tobino, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    Inclined plate membrane bioreactors (ip-MBRs) have been proposed as a highly effective method in wastewater treatment. With the help of settling enhancer inclined plates, dense excess sludge can be kept in the mainstream of the process, and consequently, suitable sludge mass can be maintained in the membrane tank. In this study, the relationship among sludge retention time (SRT), bacterial communities, and hydrolytic enzyme activities was investigated. Two identical bench-scale ip-MBRs were operated 1 year in real municipal wastewater treatment. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprints showed similar changes in the bacterial communities in terms of bacterial members and abundance over time in both the reactors, which was primarily caused by the changes of wastewater composition. However, the impact of SRT revealed significant differences in the dominant bacterial communities when both the reactors were operated with a largely different SRT (infinite SRT and SRT of 20 days). The sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were classified into six libraries of A-F. The largest group of sequences belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria. The phylum Bacteroidetes was dominant in the seed sludge retrieved from the conventional activated sludge (CAS) as Flavobacterium-like bacterium was dominantly observed. Under the MBR operation (libraries B-F), bacterial communities belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominant. Most of them may be responsible for protein degradation because aminopeptidase activity increased in proportion with the abundance of these bacteria. PMID:25016344

  1. Self-heating of dried wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Canu, P

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally studied the occurrence of spontaneous self-heating of sludge after drying, to understand its nature, course and remediation. The sludge originates from primary and biological treatment of both municipal and industrial wastewater, the latter largely dominant (approx. 90% total organic carbon, mainly from local tanneries). Dried sludge is collected into big-bags (approx. 1.5m(3)) and landfilled in a dedicated site. After several years of regular operation of the landfill, without any management or environmental issue, indications of local warming emerged, together with smoke and smelling emissions, and local subsidence. During a two year monitoring activity, temperatures locally as high as 80C have been detected, 6-10 m deep. Experiments were carried out on large quantities of dried sludge (? 1t), monitoring the temperature of the samples over long periods of time (months), aiming to reproduce the spontaneous self-heating, under different conditions, to spot enhancing and damping factors. Results demonstrate that air is a key factor to trigger and modulate the self-heating. Water, in addition to air, supports and emphasizes the heating. Unusual drying operation was found to affect dramatically the self-heating activity, up to spontaneous combustion, while ordinary drying conditions yield a sludge with a moderate self-heating inclination. Temperature values as well as heating time scales suggest that the exothermic process nature is mainly chemical and physical, while microbiological activity might be a co-factor. PMID:23046875

  2. UNITED STATES PRACTICE IN SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sludge treatment and disposal problems and costs grow with increased concern about the quality of wastewater treatment. As standards for effluent quality in the United States have become stricter, the problems of sludge treatment and disposal have grown disproportionately. Today ...

  3. The role of stress agents as operating factors in formation and functioning of granular aerobic activated sludge at model domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Khokhlachev, Nikolay S; Kalenov, Sergei V; Zanina, Olga S; Tyupa, Dmitry V; Baurina, Marina M; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye

    2014-09-01

    Maintenance of the wastewater treatment plants and increasing the efficiency of existing aerobic biological reactors depend on the stability of activated sludge characteristics under varying wastewater parameters within significant limits and/or influence of some environmental factors. The steady microbial communities observed in biofilms and anaerobic granules of activated sludge can serve as successful samples of formation of the similar aerobic systems. The granular aerobic sludge obtained in the course of our researches is an ideal "plant" on treatment of biogenic pollution at both low and high concentrations. It demonstrates high ability for treatment and stability to adverse factors. To improve aerobic wastewater treatment characteristics, a possibility of using impact of stress conditions upon activated sludge has been studied. Under conditions of fractional hydrogen peroxide addition at diffused lighting, the granular aerobic activated sludge adapted to hydrogen peroxide has been obtained. This sludge has got good sedimentary properties and it differs from the control sample in the species diversity, improved treatment characteristics and also resistance to the stressor. It also endures an impact of one-time hydrogen peroxide addition up to 1.2-1.5 g H2O2/l. The conditions under which the steady aerobic granules of the diameter from 2 to 5 mm were formed with high treatment ability have been chosen. The granules were being stabilized at passages with hydrogen peroxide treatment and they endured up to 2.4-3.0 g/l of one-time H2O2 addition. PMID:24556977

  4. Algaculture integration in conventional wastewater treatment plants: anaerobic digestion comparison of primary and secondary sludge with microalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Ahmed; Mendez, Lara; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using microalgae biomass as feedstock for anaerobic digestion together with other biomasses (primary and secondary sludge) normally generated in WWTP. Raw microalgae biomass anaerobic biodegradability (33%) was higher than that of secondary sludge (23%). Thermal pretreatment enhanced 62% and 16% methane yield for Chlorellavulgaris and secondary sludge, respectively. When both substrates were codigested, methane yields remained low. On the other hand, primary sludge supported the highest anaerobic biodegradability (97%) and when combined with thermally pretreated C. vulgaris, methane yields were higher (13-17%) than the ones expected theoretically. Despite the high protein content of those substrates and the high nitrogen mineralization, no ammonia inhibition was detected. Thereby, this study showed that algae biomass is a potential cosubstrate for biogas production together with municipal wastewater sludge. PMID:25451781

  5. The re-use of Waste-Activated Sludge as part of a "zero-sludge" strategy for wastewater treatments in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Kalua, Leon; Sutari?, Matej; Rutar, Vera; Zupan?i?, Gregor D

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of introducing the thermo-alkali hydrolysis of Waste-Activated Sludge (WAS) was investigated, in order to enable the use of its solid residue as a raw material in cardboard production and the use of its liquid portion for anaerobic digestion in an UASB reactor. The evaluation of the hydrolysis at pH>12 and T=70C showed that the microbe cells were disrupted with more than 90% efficiency in less than 2h. The solid portion was hygienised, therefore making it possible to integrate it into the cardboard production as a raw material for less demanding cardboards. Up to 6% addition of the liquid portion of hydrolysed WAS to wastewater decreased the specific biogas production in a pilot-scale UASB from 0.236 to 0.212 m(3)/kg(COD), while the efficiency of the COD removal decreased from 80.4% to 76.5%. These values still guarantee an adequate treatment of the wastewater and an increased biogas production by 16%. PMID:24215770

  6. Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.

    PubMed

    Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner. PMID:17506421

  7. Phosphine production potential of various wastewater and sewage sludge sources

    SciTech Connect

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.; Devai, G.; Czegeny, I.

    1999-05-01

    A laboratory incubation procedure followed by gas chromatographic detection was used to measure phosphine production potential in representative wastewater and sewage sludge sources. Phosphine production potential was determined by measuring the rate of phosphine formation in samples incubated under laboratory conditions over a seven day period when both electron donors and the targeted electron acceptor were not limiting factors. Results of their experiments showed that except the primary effluent and secondary effluent wastewater samples all other samples studied (influent wastewater, various type of sludge and sediment sources) produced phosphine. The minimum phosphine production potential value (0.39 pg/ml wastewater/day) was measured in composite influent wastewater samples while the maximum (268 pg/g wet sludge/day) was measured in sediment samples collected from an open-air sewage treatment plant.

  8. Improving the biotreatment of hydrocarbons-contaminated soils by addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Lpine, Franois; Ratheau, Valrie; Beaudet, Rjean; Villemur, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing 50 g of soil to which 0.07% (w/w) of activated sludge was added presented a higher degradation of alkanes (80% vs 24%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (77% vs 49%) as compared to the one receiving only water, after 30 days of incubation at room temperature. Addition of ammonium nitrate or sterile sludge filtrate instead of activated sludge resulted in a similar removal of PAHs but not of alkanes suggesting that the nitrogen contained in the activated sludge plays a major role in the degradation of PAHs while microorganisms of the sludge are active against alkanes. Addition of sludge also stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in 10-kg bioreactors operated during 60 days and in a 50-m3 biopile operated during 126 days. This biopile treatment allowed the use of the soil for industrial purpose based on provincial regulation ("C" criteria). In contrast, the soil of the control biopile that received only water still exceeded C criteria for C10-C50 hydrocarbons, total PAHs, chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene. The stimulation effect of sludge was stronger on the 4-rings than on 2-rings PAHs. The soil of the biopile that received sludge was 4-5 times less toxic than the control. These results suggest that this particular type of activated sludge could be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a biopile. PMID:12801098

  9. Analysis of sludge aggregates produced during electrocoagulation of model wastewater.

    PubMed

    Załęska-Chróst, B; Wardzyńska, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of sludge aggregates produced during electrocoagulation of model wastewater of a composition corresponding to the effluents from the cellulose and paper industry. Wastewater was electrocoagulated statically using aluminium electrodes with a current density of 31.25 A m(-2) and 62.50 A m(-2). In subsequent stages of the treatment, sludge flocs were collected, their size was studied and their floc settling velocity (30-520 μm s(-1)) and fractal dimension (D) were determined. The values of D ranged from 1.53 to 1.95 and were directly proportional to the degree of wastewater treatment. Higher values of D were determined for sludge with lower water content (after 24 hours' settling). Fractal dimension can therefore be used as an additional parameter of wastewater treatment control. PMID:26744947

  10. Probabilistic assessment of environmental exposure to the polycyclic musk, HHCB and associated risks in wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and sludge amended soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas; Sun, Ping; Dyer, Scott; Kiel, Brian

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this work was to conduct an environmental risk assessment for the consumer use of the polycyclic musk, HHCB (CAS No. 1222-05-5) in the U.S. focusing on mixing zones downstream from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sludge amended soils. A probabilistic exposure approach was utilized combining statistical distributions of effluent and sludge concentrations for the U.S. WWTPs with distributions of mixing zone dilution factors and sludge loading rates to soil to estimate HHCB concentrations in surface waters and sediments below WWTPs and sludge amended soils. These concentrations were then compared to various toxicity values. Measured concentrations of HHCB in effluent and sludge from a monitoring program of 40 WWTPs across the U.S. formed the basis for estimating environmental loadings. Based upon a Monte Carlo analysis, the probability of HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for pelagic freshwater organisms was greater than or equal to 99.87% under both mean and low flow regimes. Similarly, the probability of HHCB concentrations being less than the PNEC for freshwater sediment organisms was greater than or equal to 99.98%. Concentrations of HHCB in sludge amended soils were estimated for single and repeated annual sludge applications with tilling of the sludge into the soil, surface application without tilling and a combination reflecting current practice. The probability of soil HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC for soil organisms after repeated sludge applications was 94.35% with current sludge practice. Probabilistic estimates of HHCB exposures in surface waters, sediments and sludge amended soils are consistent with the published values for the U.S. In addition, the results of these analyses indicate that HHCB entering the environment in WWTP effluent and sludge poses negligible risk to aquatic and terrestrial organisms in nearly all exposure scenarios. PMID:24802072

  11. Metagenomic analysis on seasonal microbial variations of activated sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant over 4 years.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Guo, Feng; Ye, Lin; Xia, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2014-02-01

    Metagenomic technique was employed to characterize the seasonal dynamics of activated sludge (AS) communities in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) over 4 years. The results indicated that contrary to Eukaryota (mainly Rotifera and Nematoda), abundances of Bacteria and Archaea (mainly Euryarchaeota) were significantly higher in winter than summer. Two-way analysis of variance and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that many functionally important genera followed strong seasonal variation patterns driven by temperature and salinity gradients; among them, two nitrifying bacteria, Nitrospira and Nitrosomonas, displayed much higher abundances in summer, whereas phosphate-removing genus Tetrasphaera, denitrifier Paracoccus and potential human faecal bacteria, i.e. Bifidobacterium, Dorea and Ruminococcus, showed significantly higher abundances in winter. Particularly, occurrence of dual variation patterns beyond explanation merely by seasonality indicated that multivariables (e.g. dissolved oxygen, sludge retention time, nutrients) participated in shaping AS community structure. However, SEED subsystems annotation showed that functional categories in AS showed no significant difference between summer and winter, indicating that compared with its microbial components, the functional profiles of AS were much more stable. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the microbial community variations in AS and discloses their correlations with influential factors in WWTPs. PMID:24596265

  12. Occurrence and removal of free and conjugated estrogens in wastewater and sludge in five sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifeng; Xu, Nan; Llewellyn, Neville R; Tao, Huchun

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence and fate of free and conjugated estrogens were investigated in wastewater and sludge from five sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Guangdong Province, China. Estrone (E1) and 17?-estradiol (E2) were found in all influent samples at concentrations of 69.3-280 ng L(-1) and 1.3-30 ng L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of conjugated estrogens were from ND (not detected) to 7.6 ng L(-1). High concentrations (27.6-235 ng g(-1)) of E1 were found in sludge of some STPs indicating that sorption was an important estrogen removal mechanism. According to the mass flux analyses for estrogens in STP-A, E2 was mainly removed in the anaerobic process and E1 removal was the combined efforts of biodegradation and sorption. Abnormally high concentrations of EE2 (42.6-246 ng L(-1)), detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were found in all influent samples of the STPs, therefore interlaboratory analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was conducted for confirmation, which detected no EE2 at all. In consideration of the rather lower estimated EE2 concentration than the measured value, it was speculated that the presence of interfering substances like tetracosanic acid in the matrix could lead to overestimation of EE2 concentration. Overall, the effluents still pose potential estrogenic effect to the downstream aquatic organisms. PMID:24323382

  13. Metagenomic analysis of cadmium and copper resistance genes in activated sludge of a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuyu; Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Li, Weixin; Cheng, Shupei

    2013-04-01

    In order to comprehensively characterize the copper and cadmium resistance in activated sludge of a tannery wastewater treatment plant, a resistance protein database of the two heavy metals was manually created by retrieving annotated sequences and related information from the public databases and published literatures. The metagenomic DNA was extracted from the activated sludge for Illumina high-throughput sequencing, and the obtained 11,973,394 clean reads (1.61 Gb) were compared against the established databases using BLAST tool. Annotations of the BLAST hits showed that 222 reads (0.019 per thousand) and 197 reads (0.016 per thousand) were identified as copper and cadmium resistance genes, respectively. Among the identified cadmium resistance genes, czcA encoding cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein had the highest abundance (83 reads, 0.0069 per thousand), which was further confirmed by annotation of the open reading frames predicted with the assembly contigs. Among the copper resistance genes, copA (66 reads, 0.0055 per thousand) was most abundant, followed by copK and cusR. Alignment against the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) database also suggested that 87.26% of the matched reads were grouped in COG0474 (cation transport ATPase). This study may be practically helpful for exploring various functional genes in the environment using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods. PMID:24620608

  14. Bacterial assembly and temporal dynamics in activated sludge of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental and biological influences on the dynamics of microbial communities has received great attention in microbial ecology. Here, utilizing large time-series 16S rRNA gene data, we show that in activated sludge of an environmentally important municipal wastewater treatment plant, 5-year temporal dynamics of bacterial community shows no significant seasonal succession, but is consistent with deterministic assemblage by taxonomic relatedness. Biological interactions are dominant drivers in determining the bacterial community assembly, whereas environmental conditions (mainly sludge retention time and inorganic nitrogen) partially explain phylogenetic and quantitative variances and indirectly influence bacterial assembly. We demonstrate a correlation-based statistical method to integrate bacterial association networks with their taxonomic affiliations to predict community-wide co-occurrence and co-exclusion patterns. The results show that although taxonomically closely related bacteria tend to positively co-occur (for example, out of a cooperative relationship), negative co-excluding correlations are deterministically observed between taxonomically less related species, probably implicating roles of competition in determining bacterial assembly. Overall, disclosures of the positive and negative species–species relations will improve our understanding of ecological niches occupied by unknown species and help to predict their biological functions in ecosystems. PMID:25180966

  15. [Evaluation of bacterial and polluting loads of effluent from activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in Yaounde, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Njin, T; Monkidj, A; Nola, M; Foko, V S

    2001-01-01

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in Yaounde are plagued by failures in their operation. A microbiological and physico-chemical study was carried out on wastewater effluent of an hospital, university campus, and two residential areas made up of more than 2,000 apartments connected to two collective sewase systems. Wastewater sampling was performed in the form of daily cycles during which composite samples were made every two hours with samples collected every half hour. Variables measured included incoming flow rates, suspended solids, pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (combination of ammonia and organic nitrogen) and total reactive phosphorus, BOD5 and COD. Microorganisms were isolated on selective culture media using membrane filter procedures. The results obtained show that effluent discharged in receiving waters are, in general, not treated. The suspended solids contents of raw sewage range from 120 to 2,600 mg/l. In General Hospital a mean value of suspended solids of 31.8 mg/l was obtained for treated wastewater. pH values of both raw and treated sewage range from 6 to 8.5 units. Mean values of the conductivity of treated and raw wastewater range from 449.7 to 1,038.3 microseconds/cm. The TKN contents of untreated wastewater are comprised between 36 and 259.2 mg/l. These values range from 5 to 20 mg/l for treated effluent in the General Hospital plant. Large amounts of total hydrolysable phosphorus varying from 3.8 to 27.9 mg/l are present in wastewater from the plants. Influent BOD5 of Grand Messa, Cite Verte and university campus wastewater range from 110 to 530 mgO2/l. Values recorded indicate an important input of organic matter to receiving waters. In the case of biotic components, test germs densities registered in the influent of Grand Messa and those of Cite Verte are comprised between 9 x 106 and 88 x 107 CFU/100 ml for fecal coliforms, and between 9 x 105 and 74 x 107 CFU/100 ml for fecal streptococci. The densities of Aeromonas hydrophila in Grand Messa and Cite Verte influent fluctuate between 30 x 106 and 65 x 108 CFU/100 ml. Influent of university campus harbour 10 x 105. Densities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain below 70 x 105 CFU/100 ml. Treated effluent BOD5 values range from 48 to 150 mgO2/l. Such values indicate an inefficient treatment. The decrease in bacterial densities is limited to 2 logarithmic units. Treated effluent still harbour 10 x 103 to 10 x 105 CFU/100 ml for fecal coliforms, and 20 x 102 to 12 x 104 CFU/100 ml for fecal streptococci. These values range from 10 x 104 to 50 x 105 CFU/100 ml for Aeromonas hydrophila. Pseudomonas aeruginosa densities remain in general below 40 x 104 CFU/100 ml. Discharges from these wastewater treatment plants are responsible for the permanent fecal contamination of the environment and a lack of proper hygiene. Furthermore, they produce overfertilization of receiving waters. PMID:11440881

  16. Three degradation pathways of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cation by activated sludge from wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Woong; Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kim, Sok; Song, Myung-Hee; Chung, Yun-Jo; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-03-01

    The biodegradability and degradation pathways of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [OMIM](+) by microbial community of wastewater treatment plant in Jeonju city, Korea were investigated. It was found that [OMIM](+) could be easily degraded by the microbial community. New degradation products and pathways of [OMIM](+) were identified, which are partially different from previous results (Green Chem. 2008, 10, 214-224). For the analysis of the degradation pathways and intermediates, the mass peaks observed in the range m/z of 50-300 were screened by using a tandem mass spectrometer (MS), and their fragmentation patterns were investigated by MS/MS. Surprisingly, we found three different degradation pathways of [OMIM](+), which were separated according to the initially oxidized position i.e. middle of the long alkyl chain, end of the long alkyl chain, and end of the short alkyl chain. The degradation pathways showed that the long and short alkyl chains of [OMIM](+) gradually degraded by repeating oxidation and carbon release. The results presented here shows that [OMIM](+) can be easily biodegraded through three different degradation pathways in wastewater treatment plants. PMID:26748207

  17. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  18. [Amelioration effects of wastewater sludge biochars on red soil acidity and their environmental risk].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zai-Liang; Li, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2012-10-01

    Biochars were prepared from wastewater sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Nanjing using a pyrolysis method at 300, 500 and 700 degrees C. The properties of the biochars were measured, and their amelioration effects on the acidity of a red soil and environmental risk of application of sludge biochars were examined to evaluate the possibility of agricultural application of wastewater sludge biochars in red soils. Results indicated that incorporation of both sludge and sludge biochar increased soil pH due to the alkalinity of sludge and sludge biochar, and the mineralization of organic N and nitrification of ammonium N from wastewater sludge induced soil pH fluctuated during incubation. The amelioration effects of biochars generated at 500 and 700 degrees C on the soil were significantly greater than that of sludge significantly. Sludge and sludge biochar contain ample base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ and thus incorporation of sludge and sludge biochar increased the contents of soil exchangeable base cations and decreased soil exchangeable aluminum and H+. Contents of heavy metals in sludge biochars were greater than these in their feedstock sludge, while the contents of Cu, Pb, Ni and As in sludge biochars were lower than the standard values of heavy metals were wastewater sludge for agricultural use in acid soils in China except for Zn and Cd. The contents of available forms of heavy metals in the biochars generated from sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant was lower than these in the corresponding sludge, suggesting that pyrolysis proceed decreased the activity of heavy metals in wastewater sludge. After 90-day incubation of the soil with sludge and sludge biochar, the differences in the contents of soil available heavy metals were not significant between the biochars and their feedstock sludge from Jiangxizhou wastewater treatment plant, and the contents in the treatments with biochars added was lower than these in the treatments with the corresponding sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant for most of heavy metals. It can be concluded that the biochars from wastewater sludge could be used as soil amendments to adjust soil acidity. Application of sludge biochars did not increase activity and availability of heavy metals compared with direct incorporation of the sludge. PMID:23233992

  19. Constructed wetlands for wastewater and activated sludge treatment in north Greece: a review.

    PubMed

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Gikas, G D

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater have become very popular treatment systems all over the world. In Greece, these systems are not very common, although the climate is favourable for their use. During recent years, there have been several attempts for the implementation of these systems in Greece, which include, among others, pilot-scale systems used for research, and full-scale systems designed and/or constructed to serve settlements or families. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of systems operating in Northern Greece, which have been studied by the Laboratory of Ecological Engineering and Technology of Democritus University of Thrace and others. A comparison is made of different system types, and the effect of various design and operational parameters is presented. Current research shows the good and continuous performance of these systems. PMID:20453340

  20. Basis for the development of sustainable optimisation indicators for activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gordon, G T; McCann, B P

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the basis of a stakeholder-based sustainable optimisation indicator (SOI) system to be developed for small-to-medium sized activated sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Key technical publications relating to best practice plant operation, performance audits and optimisation, and indicator and benchmarking systems for wastewater services are identified. Optimisation studies were developed at a number of Irish AS WwTPs and key findings are presented. A national AS WwTP manager/operator survey was carried out to verify the applied operational findings and identify the key operator stakeholder requirements for this proposed SOI system. It was found that most plants require more consistent operational data-based decision-making, monitoring and communication structures to facilitate optimised, sustainable and continuous performance improvement. The applied optimisation and stakeholder consultation phases form the basis of the proposed stakeholder-based SOI system. This system will allow for continuous monitoring and rating of plant performance, facilitate optimised operation and encourage the prioritisation of performance improvement through tracking key operational metrics. Plant optimisation has become a major focus due to the transfer of all ROI water services to a national water utility from individual local authorities and the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. PMID:25607680

  1. Predicting concentrations of trace organic compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge and biosolids using the PhATE model.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Virginia L; D'Aco, Vincent J; Pfeiffer, Danielle; Anderson, Paul D; Buzby, Mary E; Hannah, Robert E; Jahnke, James; Parke, Neil J

    2012-07-01

    This article presents the capability expansion of the PhATE (pharmaceutical assessment and transport evaluation) model to predict concentrations of trace organics in sludges and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PhATE was originally developed as an empirical model to estimate potential concentrations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in US surface and drinking waters that could result from patient use of medicines. However, many compounds, including pharmaceuticals, are not completely transformed in WWTPs and remain in biosolids that may be applied to land as a soil amendment. This practice leads to concerns about potential exposures of people who may come into contact with amended soils and also about potential effects to plants and animals living in or contacting such soils. The model estimates the mass of API in WWTP influent based on the population served, the API per capita use, and the potential loss of the compound associated with human use (e.g., metabolism). The mass of API on the treated biosolids is then estimated based on partitioning to primary and secondary solids, potential loss due to biodegradation in secondary treatment (e.g., activated sludge), and potential loss during sludge treatment (e.g., aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting). Simulations using 2 surrogate compounds show that predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated by PhATE are in very good agreement with measured concentrations, i.e., well within 1 order of magnitude. Model simulations were then carried out for 18 APIs representing a broad range of chemical and use characteristics. These simulations yielded 4 categories of results: 1) PECs are in good agreement with measured data for 9 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, 2) PECs are greater than measured data for 3 compounds with high analytical detection frequencies, possibly as a result of as yet unidentified depletion mechanisms, 3) PECs are less than analytical reporting limits for 5 compounds with low analytical detection frequencies, and 4) the PEC is greater than the analytical method reporting limit for 1 compound with a low analytical detection frequency, possibly again as a result of insufficient depletion data. Overall, these results demonstrate that PhATE has the potential to be a very useful tool in the evaluation of APIs in biosolids. Possible applications include: prioritizing APIs for assessment even in the absence of analytical methods; evaluating sludge processing scenarios to explore potential mitigation approaches; using in risk assessments; and developing realistic nationwide concentrations, because PECs can be represented as a cumulative probability distribution. Finally, comparison of PECs to measured concentrations can also be used to identify the need for fate studies of compounds of interest in biosolids. PMID:22162313

  2. Fossil energy environmental research including innovative concepts for wastewater, sludge, and product treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the components of the waste stream, including hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and phenol, may be present in sufficiently high concentrations to be recoverable by stripping processes or solvent extraction. However, the dephenolated liquors may require further treatment before the aqueous stream can be released or recycled. Biooxidation processes are under development for this application. At first, activated sludge systems with large, stirred-tank reactors were used. However, this method required many hours of residence time, and thus large tanks, to achieve the very low phenol levels that were required. More efficient fluidized-bed bioreactor systems, using microorganisms immobilized as a fixed film on suspended particles, seem to be much more appropriate for this application. Typically, microorganisms such as the commercial preparation PHENOBAC (Polybac Corporation, Berlin, NJ), are used to initiate the active bioreactor system. This immobilized biocatalyst is effectively retained in the bioreactor at high microbial concentration, and when oxygen or air is also introduced in sufficient quantities, the bioreactor system is much more efficient than the conventional stirred tank. For example, phenol degradation in the fluidized bed generally ranged from 10 to 50 kg/(m/sup 3/ . d) with inlet phenol concentrations of 20 to 200 g/m/sup 3/. This rate is 10 to 50 times higher than conventional activated sludge systems in stirred-tank bioreactors. Effluent phenol levels as low as 25 mg/m/sup 3/ were observed and other hazardous organic chemicals were also oxidized, including thiocyanates which were removed at a rate about 0.1 that of phenol. This type of bioreactor has exhibited stable biological activity for periods of several months with few operating problems. 9 refs.

  3. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY : CONTROL OF PATHOGENS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 71 - page Technology Transfer Environmental Regulations and echnology publication describes the Federal requirements promulgated in 1979 for reducing pathogens n wastewater sludge and provides guidance in determining whether individual sludge treatment andated or particular ...

  4. EVALUATION OF PROCESS SYSTEMS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF ALUMINUM FINISHING WASTEWATERS AND SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative processes for use in treatment of wastewaters and sludges produced in anodizing, etching and painting extruded aluminum were investigated. Results of the research can be immediately implemented at many aluminum-finishing plants where sludge disposal restrictions and co...

  5. Organochlorine pesticides removal from wastewater by pine bark adsorption after activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Srgio; Jimnez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ruiz, Antonio; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-04-01

    Pesticides have been responsible for strong environmental impacts, mainly due to their persistence in the environment. Removal technologies are usually combined, because degradation of organic matter is needed prior to a tertiary treatment to guarantee pesticides elimination to levels below legal limits (normally 0.1 microg L(-1)). Pine bark was studied as an alternative to activated carbon, for organochlorine pesticides removal. A combination of technologies based on biodegradation with activated sludge followed by pine bark adsorption treatment was used for lindane (LIN) and heptachlor (HEP) removal from contaminated waters. Pesticides were quantified throughout the process by GC-ECD preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). An experimental set-up was maintained for 4 months, by feeding a standard solution with pesticides concentration of 1 microg L(-1) each and known organic matter (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, -563 mg O2 L(-1)) on a daily basis. COD suffered a reduction of about 81% in the biological step and no increase was detected in the subsequent adsorption treatment. Overall removal efficiency was 76.6% and above 77.7% for LIN and HEP, respectively. PMID:21877548

  6. INVESTIGATIONS OF HEAT TREATMENT FOR PAPER MILL SLUDGE CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of oxidative and nonoxidative heat treatment processes for the conditioning of hydrous sludges originating in pulp and paper industry manufacturing or wastewater treatment operations was defined on the basis of laboratory scale investigation. Sludges employed in th...

  7. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF VERMICOMPOSTING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vermicomposting -- the biological degradation of organic matter that occurs as earthworms feed on waste materials -- has been advocated by some as a means of stabilizing and disposing of municipal wastewater sludges. Vermicomposting is being attempted on an experimental scale, th...

  8. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation. PMID:23500587

  9. Investigation into cyclic utilization of carbon source in an advanced sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal (SIPER) wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously reduce sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The ability to recover organic substance from excess sludge to enhance nutrient removal (especially nitrogen) and its performance as a C-source were evaluated in this study. The chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) and volatile fatty acids/total phosphorus (VFA/TP) ratios for the supernatant of the alkaline-treated sludge were 3.1 times and 2.7 times those of the influent, respectively. The biodegradability of the supernatant was much better than that of the influent. The system COD was increased by 91 mg/L, and nitrogen removal was improved by 19.6% (the removal rate for TN reached 80.4%) after the return of the alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source. The C-source recovered from the excess sludge was successfully used to enhance nitrogen removal. The internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source, and the cyclic utilization of the system C-source was achieved by recirculation of alkaline-treated sludge in the sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery (SIPER) process. PMID:26524455

  10. Use of an aerobic selector to overcome filamentous bulking in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vânia; Martins, Catarina; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Nicolau, Ana

    2014-01-01

    An urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with two different parallel lines of treatment and located in the north of Portugal was studied during four months, following recurrent episodes of filamentous bulking caused by Sphaerotilus natans and eventual occurrences of Nocardioforms and Type 1863. An aerobic selector was introduced in both lines in the beginning of the studied period, suppressed in one of the lines during six weeks, and then put into operation again until the end of the study. A total of 14 filamentous bacteria morphotypes were identified. The results showed that the presence of an aerobic biological selector in continuous operation prevented the overgrowth of the filamentous Type 1863, of Nocardioforms and, in particular, of S. natans. Simultaneously, it allowed lowering the oxygen levels in the aeration tanks without negative consequences in the overall performance of the WWTP, namely bulking occurrence. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the aeration tank varied initially between 2 and 3 mg/L, but the introduction of the selector enabled to lower it to 1-1.5 mg/L in the aeration tank and around 0.5 mg/L in the selector. A significant energy save was allowed, even considering the aeration of the selector. The results are more relevant if one considers the fact that the main cause of the bulking problems in this WWTP was the overgrowth of S. natans, a filamentous bacterium known to be stimulated by low DO levels. PMID:24701952

  11. An integrated approach for monitoring efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based wastewater treatment plants at large spatial scale.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Sabia, Gianpaolo; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    WISE, the Water Information System for Europe, is the web-portal of the European Commission (EU) that disseminates the quality state of the receiving water bodies and the efficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in order to monitor advances in the application of both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as well as the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD). With the intention to develop WISE applications, the aim of the work was to define and apply an integrated approach capable of monitoring the efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based WWTPs located in a large spatial area, providing the following outcomes useful to the decision-makers: (i) the identification of critical facilities and their critical processes by means of a Performance Assessment System (PAS), (ii) the choice of the most suitable upgrading actions, through a scenario analysis. (iii) the assessment of the investment costs to upgrade the critical WWTPs and (iv) the prioritization of the critical facilities by means of a multi-criteria approach which includes the stakeholders involvement, along with the integration of some technical, environmental, economic and health aspects. The implementation of the proposed approach to a high number of municipal WWTPs highlighted how the PAS developed was able to identify critical processes with a particular effectiveness in identifying the critical nutrient removal ones. In addition, a simplified approach that considers the cost related to a basic-configuration and those for the WWTP integration, allowed to link the critical processes identified and the investment costs. Finally, the questionnaire for the acquisition of data such as that provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the PAS defined and the database on the costs, if properly adapted, may allow for the extension of the integrated approach on an EU-scale by providing useful information to water utilities as well as institutions. PMID:25863511

  12. Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal by an advanced simultaneous sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Wen-juan

    2015-05-01

    An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously decrease sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The feasibility of simultaneous enhanced nutrient removal along with sludge reduction as well as the potential for enhanced nutrient removal via this process were further evaluated. The results showed that the denitrification potential of the supernatant of alkaline-treated sludge was higher than that of the influent. The system COD and VFA were increased by 23.0% and 68.2%, respectively, after the return of alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source, and the internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source. A total of 74.5% of phosphorus from wastewater was recovered as a usable chemical crystalline product. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal were improved by 19.6% and 23.6%, respectively, after incorporation of the side-stream system. Sludge minimization and excellent nutrient removal were successfully coupled in the SIPER process. PMID:25735007

  13. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Yang, Jingjing; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-03-01

    In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems. PMID:25600011

  14. Preparation of ceramic filler from reusing sewage sludge and application in biological aerated filter for soy protein secondary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated sewage sludge (DSS) and clay used as raw materials for preparation of novel media-sludge ceramic filler (SCF) and SCF employed in a lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF) were investigated for soy protein secondary wastewater treatment. Single factor experiments were designed to investigate the preparation of SCF, and the characteristics (microstructure properties, toxic metal leaching property and other physical properties) of SCF prepared under the optimum conditions were examined. The influences of media height, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and air-liquid ratio (A/L) on chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) removal rate were studied. The results showed that the optimum addition of DSS was approximately 25.0 wt% according to the physical properties of SCF (expansion ratio of 53.0%, v/v, water absorption of 8.24 wt%, bulk density of 350.4 kg m(-3) and grain density of 931.5 kg m(-3)), and the optimum conditions of BAF system were media height of 75.0 cm, HRT of 10.0 h and A/L of 15:1 in terms of CODcr and NH4(+)-N removal rate (91.02% and 90.48%, respectively). Additionally, CODcr and NH4(+)-N (81.6 and 15.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the final effluent of BAF system met the national standard (CODcr ≤ 100 mg L(-1), NH4(+)-N ≤ 25.0 mg L(-1), GB 18918-2002, secondary standard). PMID:25464302

  15. Bacteriophage-based biocontrol of biological sludge bulking in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    In a previous paper, the first ever application of lytic bacteriophage (virus)-mediated biocontrol of biomass bulking in the activated sludge process using Haliscomenobacter hydrossis as a model filamentous bacterium was demonstrated. In this work we extended the biocontrol application to another predominant filamentous bacterium, Sphaerotilus natans, notoriously known to cause filamentous bulking in wastewater treatment systems. Very similar to previous study, one lytic bacteriophage was isolated from wastewater that could infect S. natans and cause lysis. Significant reduction in sludge volume index and turbidity of the supernatant was observed in batches containing S. natans biomass following addition of lytic phages. Microscopic examination confirmed that the isolated lytic phage can trigger the bacteriolysis of S. natans. This extended finding further strengthens our hypothesis of bacteriophage-based biocontrol of overgrowth of filamentous bacteria and the possibility of phage application in activated sludge processes, the world's widely used wastewater treatment processes. PMID:21829092

  16. Study of the viscosity behaviour of glasses obtained from urban wastewater treatment sludges from Egypt using hot stage microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Valles, M.

    2012-04-01

    The volume of sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants in Egypt is becoming more important; this paper studied the chemical composition of sludge from four treatment plants located around Nile delta and valley: El-Sadat City (E-01), Alexandria (E-02), Abo-Rawash (E-03) and Minufiya (E-04), and is suggested as a possible solution, the vitrification of these sludges. Another important objective for obtaining correct this glass is to know the viscosity temperature curve, including developing a prototype of hot stage microscopy (HSM) and development of software suitable for the analysis of images. Each image has different morphology related to different viscosity, can that way determine the viscosity at the temperature of heating. The chemical composition of these sludges is close to a basalt rock except that the phosphorus content is higher, and sometimes with a certain proportion of heavy metals. Cr, Zn and Pb exceeds the limit allowed to be used in agriculture, this is one of the solutions actually used. In general, major oxides to sludges ranging from: SiO2 (36-48 wt %), Al2O3 (9-16 wt %), CaO (5-25 wt %), P2O5 (1.5-11 wt %) and Fe2O3 (~ 9 wt %), this composition. Since of them are formulated and prepared by four different glasses, in some cases being necessary to incorporate a quantity of raw materials. The sludge combustion heat, the thermal evolution, vitreous transition temperature (Tg) and crystal growth temperature of the glasses were obtained by carrying out a differential thermal analysis. Tg of the four glasses vary between 650 and 725 °C and the growth occurs between 938 and 1033 °C. The vitreous transition temperature was also determined with a dilatometer. Each original glass has been characterized mineralogically by X-ray diffraction: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and calcite. Two samples contained gypsum and some clay mineral traces. We also obtained the viscosity - temperature curves with the aid of the hot stage microscopy that has allowed us to determine the working temperatures of the four glasses, ranging from 926 and to 1419 °C, depending on the type of forming process used. In all glass samples the viscosity-temperature curves have similar characteristics, but for higher viscosities a separation among the different viscosity-temperature curves occurs. This different behaviour is associated to chemical composition: Ca-rich silica aluminum melt, present low viscosity at low temperatures, > P2O5 content, the nucleation of a more refractory phosphate phase occurs. In order to obtain the original glasses working conditions (necessary for possible industrial applications) are used the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation: a) upper and lower annealing temperatures of the samples are similar for the different glasses and ranging between 595-641 °C and 671-701 °C respectively; b) working temperature range from 917-1307 °C for the sample E-02, and 925-1503 °C for the sample E-04, depending on the conformation system used. Finally, the forming and melting temperatures of the samples vary between 1307-1403 °C (E-02) and 1503-1550 °C (E-04). The results confirm that HSM is a good technique for studying the sludge vitrification process, and could provide important information for the possible industrial application. Acknowledgements This study is a contribution of the bilateral project A/030032/10 and CICYT TIN2008-02903. The analytical work was conducted at Research Consolidated Groups 2009SGR-0044 (Mineral Resources). Wastewater treatment plants at El-Sadat City, Alexandria, Abo-Rawash and Minufiya are acknowledged for sampling authorization and facilities. We express our acknowledgement to the technical support of the Scientific-Technical Service Unit of the University of Barcelona and the additional support of the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC).

  17. DEWATERING WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE BY CLATHRATE FREEZING: A BENCH-SCALE FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies were performed to prove the concept and feasibility for a novel technology to dewater sludges. This involves the formation of solid hydrate crystals of water and specific clathrate-forming agents followed by separation of the hydrate crystal solids from the slu...

  18. Effective water content reduction in sewage wastewater sludge using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna

    2014-02-01

    The present work compares the use of three flocculants for sedimentation of sludge and sludge water content from sewage wastewater i.e. magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), ferrous sulfate (chemical) and Moringa crude extract (protein). Sludge water content, wet/dry weight, turbidity and color were performed for, time kinetics and large-scale experiment. A 30% reduction of the sludge water content was observed when the wastewater was treated with either protein or chemical coagulant. The separation of sludge from wastewater treated with MION was achieved in less than 5min using an external magnet, resulted in 95% reduction of sludge water content. Furthermore, MION formed denser flocs and more than 80% reduction of microbial content was observed in large volume experiments. The results revealed that MION is efficient in rapid separation of sludge with very low water content, and thus could be a suitable alternative for sludge sedimentation and dewatering in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:24378779

  19. A pilot-scale study on PVA gel beads based integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) plant for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar Singh, Nitin; Singh, Jasdeep; Bhatia, Aakansha; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a pilot-scale reactor incorporating polyvinyl alcohol gel beads as biomass carrier and operating in biological activated sludge mode (a combination of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and activated sludge) was investigated for the treatment of actual municipal wastewater. The results, during a monitoring period of 4 months, showed effective removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and NH3-N at optimum conditions with 91%, ∼92% and ∼90% removal efficiencies, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) values of activated sludge varied in the range of 25-72 mL/g, indicating appreciable settling characteristics. Furthermore, soluble COD and BOD in the effluent of the pilot plant were reduced to levels well below discharge limits of the Punjab Pollution Control Board, India. A culture dependent method was used to enrich and isolate abundant heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. In addition to this, 16S rRNA genes analysis was performed to identify diverse dominant bacterial species in suspended and attached biomass. Results revealed that Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Nitrosomonas communis played a significant role in biomass carrier, while Acinetobactor sp. were dominant in activated sludge of the pilot plant. Identification of ciliated protozoa populations rendered six species of ciliates in the plant, among which Vorticella was the most dominant. PMID:26744941

  20. Alum recovery and wastewater sludge stabilization with sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Jimnez, B; Martnez, M; Vaca, M

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation-flocculation is used to remove helminth ova from wastewater intended for agricultural reuse. Nevertheless, it has the drawback of producing a large amount of sludge which together with the chemicals used to treat the wastewater increases the operating cost. This can be overcome by recovering and recycling the aluminium contained in the sludge. This paper presents how an acid recovery process was applied to an Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) sludge to partially treat it and to reduce its quantity. This is a method applied several decades ago in water sludge that has not been used in secondary wastewater sludge to recover aluminium and to inactivate microorganisms. By adding sulphuric acid to a 6%TS sludge, more than 70% of the aluminium added during the coagulation flocculation process was recovered when a pH of 2 was maintained during 30 minutes and at 300 rpm of mixing conditions. This way the sludge was reduced by 45% in volume and by 63% by mass, inactivating 5 logs of faecal coliforms and 68% of helminth ova. Due to the lower alum consumption, the operating cost of the APT is reduced by 3.78 US$/1,000 m(3). PMID:17978441

  1. A potential resource for bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Molla, A H; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Abd-Aziz, S; Hanafi, M M; Roychoudhury, P K; Alam, M Z

    2002-12-01

    Twenty seven filamentous fungal strains representing five genera; Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Myriodontium and Pleurotus were isolated from four sources; domestic wastewater sludge cake (SC) from IWK (Indah Water Konsortium) wastewater treatment plant, palm oil mill effluent compost from Sri Ulu palm Oil Processing Mill, compost of plant debris, and fungal fruiting bodies from a rotten wood stump. Thirty-three strains/isolates were tested for their ability to convert domestic wastewater sludge into compost by assessing biomass production and growth rate on sludge enriched media. The strains/isolates Aspergillus niger, SS-T2008, WW-P1003 and RW-P1 512 produced the highest dry biomass at higher sludge supplemented culture media from their respective group (Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Basidiomycetes, respectively). This implied these strains are better adapted for growth at higher sludge rich substances, and subsequently may be efficient in bioconversion/biodegradation of sludge. The fungi isolated from ecological closely related sources were more amendable to adaptation in a sludge rich culture media. PMID:12365494

  2. Transport and fate of silver as polymer-stabilised nanoparticles and ions in a pilot wastewater treatment plant, followed by sludge digestion and disposal of sludge/soil mixtures: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Jonas; Baresel, Christian; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-01-01

    A case study of transport and changes in properties of polymer-stabilised Ag NPs is presented in this paper investigating their interaction in different treatment steps within a fully realistic pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), in anaerobic digested sludge, and in soil/sludge mixtures. The fate of the same Ag NPs was tracked in these environments, hence taking the history of the Ag NPs into account. The results show that most of the Ag NPs end up in the sludge (80-100%), also after anaerobically digestion. Furthermore, the fraction of silver in the supernatant was very low after 48 h incubation with silver-containing digested sludge mixed with different soil types. However, when Ag NPs were added directly to the sludge/soil mixture, soluble silver was present in the supernatant with sandy soil, but not with clayey soil. In all, generated findings show that risk assessments and toxicological studies of Ag NPs suspensions must take into account possible chemical and particle transformations upon environmental entry, as silver in general become less soluble when transported to WWTPs and interacting with sludge, and soil. PMID:25072774

  3. Psychrophilic (6--15 {degree}C) high-rate anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater in a two-module expanded granular sludge bed system

    SciTech Connect

    Rebac, S.; Lier, J.B. van; Lens, P.; Cappellen, J. van; Vermeulen, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Dekkers, F.; Swinkels, K.T.M.

    1998-11-01

    Psychrophilic (6--15 C) anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater was investigated. A two-module expanded granular sludge bed reactor system with a total volume of 140 dm{sup 3} was used to treat malting wastewater having a soluble and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 233 and 1778 mg dm{sup {minus}3} and between 317 and 4422 mg dm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. The removal efficiencies at 6 C were 47 and 71% of the soluble and volatile fatty acids (VFA) COD, at organic loading rates (OLR) ranging between 3.3 and 5.8 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The removal efficiencies at 10--15 C were 67--78 and 90--96% of the soluble and VFA COD at an OLR between 2.8 and 12.3 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The specific methanogenic activity of the sludge present in each module increased 2--3-fold during system operation for 400 days. The relatively high concentration of suspended solids in the influent (25% of the total COD) caused a deterioration of the sludge bed in the first reactor module. This was aggravated by excessive growth of acidifying biomass, which persisted in the first module sludge bed and resulted in granular sludge flotation. However, the second module could accommodate the increased OLR, this providing a very high effluent quality (soluble COD < 200 mg dm{sup {minus}3}) of the total system. The stability of module 1 concerning suspended solids could be restored by presettling the wastewater.

  4. OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

  5. Influence of influent wastewater communities on temporal variation of activated sludge communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2015-04-15

    Continuously feeding influent wastewater containing diverse bacterial species to a wastewater treatment activated sludge bioreactor may influence the activated sludge bacterial community temporal dynamics. To explore this possibility, this study tracked influent wastewater and activated sludge bacterial communities by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes from four full-scale wastewater treatment plants over a 9-month period. The activated sludge communities showed significantly higher richness and evenness than the influent wastewater communities. Furthermore, the two communities were different in composition and temporal dynamics. These results demonstrate that the impact of the influent wastewater communities on the activated sludge communities was weak. Nevertheless, 4.3-9.3% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the activated sludge were shared with the influent wastewater, implying contribution from influent wastewater communities to some extent. However, the relative OTU abundance of the influent wastewater was not maintained in the activated sludge communities (i.e., weak neutral assembly). In addition, the variability of the communities of the shared OTUs was moderately correlated with abiotic factors imposed to the bioreactors. Taken together, temporal dynamics of activated sludge communities appear to be predominantly explained by species sorting processes in response to influent wastewater communities. PMID:25655320

  6. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication describes and evaluates the various municipal sludge combustion systems. It also emphasizes the necessity for considering and evaluating the costs involved in the total sludge management train, including dewatering, combustion, air pollution control, and ash dispo...

  7. A combined approach for a better understanding of wastewater treatment plants operation: statistical analysis of monitoring database and sludge physico-chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Avella, A C; Grner, T; Yvon, J; Chappe, P; Guinot-Thomas, P; de Donato, Ph

    2011-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are complex systems to assess. Many parameters are recorded daily in WWTP to monitor and control the treatment process, providing huge amounts of registered data. A combined approach of extracting information from the WWTP databases by statistical methods and from the sludge physico-chemical characterization was used here for a better understanding of the WWTP operation. The monitored parameters were analysed by multivariate statistical methods: Principal Components Analysis and multiple partial linear regression. The WWTP operational conditions determine the sludge characteristics. The bacterial activity of the sludge in terms of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) production was assessed using size exclusion chromatography and the internal structure of sludge flocs was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The diagnosis of three paper mill WWTP enabled the identification of an important EPS production, the presence of the nitrification process and the presence of PO(4)(3-) nutrient in WWTP-A. These three main characteristics of WWTP-A were related with a systematically good sludge settling. In WWTP-B and C with bad settling, the bacterial activity was weak. PMID:21168182

  8. The effect of chemical composition on the PCT durability of mixed waste glasses from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-25

    An experimental program has been designed to examine the chemical durability of glass compositions derived from the vitrification of simulated wastewater treatment sludges. These sludges represent the majority of low-level mixed wastes currently in need of treatment by the US DOE. The major oxides in these model glasses included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, CaO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, three minor oxides, BaO, NiO, and PbO, were added as hazardous metals. The major oxides were each varied at two levels resulting in 32 experimental glasses. The chemical durability was measured by the 7-Day Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized sodium release rates (NRR{sub Na}) of these glasses ranged from 0.01 to 4.99 g/m{sup 2}. The molar ratio of the glass-former to glass-modifier (F/M) was found to have the greatest effect on PCT durability. Glass-formers included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Na{sub 2}O, CaO, BaO, NiO, and PbO were glass-modifiers. As this ratio increased from 0.75 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} was found to decrease between one and two orders of magnitude. Another important effect on NRR{sub Na} was the Na{sub 2}O/CaO ratio. As this ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} increased up to two orders of magnitude for the glasses with the low F/M ratio but almost no effect was observed for the glasses with the high F/M ratio. Increasing the iron oxide content from 2 to 18 mole% was found to decrease NRR{sub Na} one order of magnitude for the glasses with low F/M but iron had little effect on the glasses with the high F/M ratio. The durability also increased when 10 mole percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was included in low iron oxide glasses but no effect was observed with the high iron glasses. The addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} had little effect on durability. The effects of other composition parameters on durability are discussed as well.

  9. Restoring a sludge holding tank at a wastewater treatment plant using high-performance coatings

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, V.

    2005-11-01

    Faced with a serious hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion problem in two sludge holding tanks in 1993, the city of Concord, New Hampshire, repaired the deteriorating substrate by using a conventional acrylic-modified cementitious resurfacer and a coal tar epoxy (CTE) coating system. CTE failure occurred within 2 years, leading to more severe coating delamination. Restoration was delayed for 10 years, which caused extensive chemical attack on the concrete substrate-upwards of 2 in. (50 mm) of concrete loss. This article explains how one of these tanks was restored and prepared for another 15+ years of service.

  10. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Qu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Ruoren; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater reuse, wastewater treatment plants, wastewater disposal, and sludge and biosolids. PMID:26420105

  11. Treatment of a chocolate industry wastewater in a pilot-scale low-temperature UASB reactor operated at short hydraulic and sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, M; Arzate-Archundia, O; Solís-Morelos, C; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a 244-L pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (18 ± 0.6 °C) for approximately 250 d. The applied organic loading rate (OLR) was varied between 4 and 7 kg/m(3)/d by varying the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (6.4 ± 0.3 h). The CODsol removal efficiency was low (59-78%). The measured biogas production increased from 240 ± 54 to 431 ± 61 L/d during the experiments. A significant linear correlation between the measured biogas production and removed OLR indicated that 81.69 L of biogas were produced per kg/m(3) of CODsol removed. Low average reactor volatile suspended solids (VSS) (2,700-4,800 mg/L) and high effluent VSS (177-313 mg/L) were derived in a short sludge retention time (SRT) (4.9 d). The calculated SRT was shorter than those reported in the literature, but did not affect the reactor's performance. Average sludge yield was 0.20 kg-VSS/kg-CODsol. The low-temperature anaerobic treatment was a good option for the pre-treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater. PMID:23508162

  12. Recovery of volatile fatty acids from fermentation of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Longo, S; Katsou, E; Malamis, S; Frison, N; Renzi, D; Fatone, F

    2014-10-01

    This work investigated the pilot scale production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from sewage sludge through alkaline fermentation and the subsequent membrane filtration. Furthermore, the impact of the fermentation liquid on nutrient bioremoval was examined. The addition of wollastonite in the fermenter to buffer the pH affected the composition of the carbon source produced during fermentation, resulting in higher COD/NH4-N and COD/PO4-P ratios in the liquid phase and higher content of propionic acid. The addition of wollastonite decreased the capillary suction time (CST) and the time to filter (TTF), resulting in favorable dewatering characteristics. The sludge dewatering characteristics and the separation process were adversely affected from the use of caustic soda. When wollastonite was added, the permeate flux increased by 32%, compared to the use of caustic soda. When fermentation liquid was added as carbon source for nutrient removal, higher removal rates were obtained compared to the use of acetic acid. PMID:25459853

  13. Characterization of refractory matters in dyeing wastewater during a full-scale Fenton process following pure-oxygen activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Bae, Wookeun; Won, Hosik; Hwang, Byungho; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Chung, Jinwook; Kwon, Kiwook; Shim, Hojae

    2015-04-28

    Refractory pollutants in raw and treated dyeing wastewaters were characterized using fractional molecular weight cut-off, Ultraviolet-vis spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS). Significant organics and color compounds remained after biological (pure-oxygen activated sludge) and chemical (Fenton) treatments at a dyeing wastewater treatment plant (flow rate ∼100,000m(3)/d). HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed that some organic compounds disappeared after the biological treatment but reappeared after the chemical oxidation process, and some of that were originally absent in the raw dyeing wastewater was formed after the biological or chemical treatment. It appeared that the Fenton process merely impaired the color-imparting bonds in the dye materials instead of completely degrading them. Nevertheless, this process did significantly reduce the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD, 66%) and color (73%) remaining after initial biological treatment which reduced SCOD by 53% and color by 13% in raw wastewater. Biological treatment decreased the degradable compounds substantially, in such a way that the following Fenton process could effectively remove recalcitrant compounds, making the overall hybrid system more economical. In addition, ferric ion inherent to the Fenton reaction effectively coagulated particulate matters not removed via biological and chemical oxidation. PMID:25682369

  14. Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?

    PubMed

    Escol Casas, Mnica; Bester, Kai

    2015-02-15

    The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m(3)m(2)h(-1) the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25460965

  15. Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2007-08-25

    The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators. PMID:17331640

  16. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, K. H.; Cheah, W. L.; Tan, C. F.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  17. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Daz, Carlos; Martnez-Barrera, Gonzalo; Gencel, Osman; Bernal-Martnez, Lina A; Brostow, Witold

    2011-08-15

    Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete. PMID:21616593

  18. Current levels and composition profiles of emerging halogenated flame retardants and dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Haidong; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Yawei; Lam, Paul K S; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-11-01

    Occurrence of new toxic chemicals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is of concern for the environment and human health. Alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a group of potentially harmful organic contaminants in the environment. In this study, a nationwide survey was carried out to identify the occurrence of HFRs and their potential dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from 62 WWTPs in China. Of all 20 target chemicals analyzed, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1, 2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE) were detected in all sludge samples, and the concentrations were in the range of 0.82-215, 0.09-65.8, and 0.10-2.26 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP) was found in 60 of 62 samples, and the concentration ranged from nd-298 ng g(-1) with a mean of 18.9 ng g(-1) d.w. The anti-DP fractional abundance fanti (0.79) in the samples was much higher than the commercial DP composition (fanti=0.59), indicating a stereoselective degradation. Comparison with global sludge concentrations of HFRs indicate that China is at the medium pollution level in the world. Principal components analysis revealed that strong correlations existed between ln-transformed concentrations (natural logarithm) of the dominant BFRs and total organic carbon (TOC) as well as industrial wastewater proportion, influent volume and serving population. Significant linear relationships (R=0.360-0.893, p<0.01) were found among emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs), suggesting their common commercial applications and release sources to the environment. Two kinds of dehalogenated products, pentabromocyclododecane (PBCD) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl11-DP), derived from HBCD and DP, were also identified in sewage sludge for the first time. PMID:25286358

  19. Temporal microbial diversity changes in solvent-degrading anaerobic granular sludge from low-temperature (15 degrees C) wastewater treatment bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Enright, Anne-Marie; Collins, Gavin; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2007-09-01

    Anaerobic sludge granules were obtained from laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactors used to treat pharmaceutical-like (methanol-, acetone- and propanol-contaminated) wastewater under low-temperature conditions (15 degrees C). The microbial diversity and diversity changes of the sludge samples were ascertained by applying 16S rRNA gene cloning and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses, respectively, and using sludge samples from the inoculum, throughout and at the conclusion of the bioreactor trial. Data from genetic fingerprinting correlated well with those from physiological activity assays of the reactor biomass. Specifically, for example, TRFLP profiles indicated the dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the archaeal community, thus supporting the findings of specific methanogenic activity measurements. TRFLP data supported the hypothesis that the deviation between the replicated reactors, in terms of treatment efficiency, was associated with succession within the microbial communities present, and indicated that community development was linked to both operating temperature and wastewater composition. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was also applied, to quantitatively assess the abundance of selected microbial groups, and revealed the underestimation of the abundance Methanosarcina by gene cloning analysis and demonstrated the spatial arrangement of these organisms within the architecture of the low-temperature solvent-degrading anaerobic biofilms. PMID:17475432

  20. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...

  1. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2014-10-22

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (<100°C) thermal pre-treatments were investigated to improve the present efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) carried out on waste activated sludge (WAS) in the largest Italian wastewater treatment plant (2,300,000p.e.). Thermal pre-treatments returned disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. PMID:25459836

  2. Biotechnology to separate and treat metals in sludge and wastewater: A literature review. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.; Cha, D.K.; Song, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    Army industrial sludge may be classified as a hazardous waste when it contains oil and grease, metals, and energetic compounds. Biologic separation/treatment of metals from industrial sludge has been identified as a possible alternative to conventional technologies for treating industrial sludge. Biologic treatment of sludge uses naturally occurring biochemical reactions in which pollutants can be used as resources. The process offers a low-cost, highly efficient alternative to existing sludge treatment methods. This report summarizes a literature review that examined the development and status of biotechnology to separate and treat metals in sludge and wastewater.

  3. Biodegradability of wastewater and activated sludge organics in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ikumi, D S; Harding, T H; Ekama, G A

    2014-06-01

    The investigation provides experimental evidence that the unbiodegradable particulate organics fractions of primary sludge and waste activated sludge calculated from activated sludge models remain essentially unbiodegradable in anaerobic digestion. This was tested by feeding the waste activated sludge (WAS) from three different laboratory activated sludge (AS) systems to three separate anaerobic digesters (AD). Two of the AS systems were Modified Ludzack - Ettinger (MLE) nitrification-denitrification (ND) systems and the third was a membrane University of Cape Town (UCT) ND and enhanced biological P removal system. One of the MLE systems and the UCT system were fed the same real settled wastewater. The other MLE system was fed raw wastewater which was made by adding a measured constant flux (gCOD/d) of macerated primary sludge (PS) to the real settled wastewater. This PS was also fed to a fourth AD and a blend of PS and WAS from settled wastewater MLE system was fed to a fifth AD. The five ADs were each operated at five different sludge ages (10-60d). From the measured performance results of the AS systems, the unbiodegradable particulate organic (UPO) COD fractions of the raw and settled wastewaters, the PS and the WAS from the three AS systems were calculated with AS models. These AS model based UPO fractions of the PS and WAS were compared with the UPO fractions calculated from the performance results of the ADs fed these sludges. For the PS, the UPO fraction calculated from the AS and AD models matched closely, i.e. 0.30 and 0.31. Provided the UPO of heterotrophic (OHO, fE_OHO) and phosphorus accumulating (PAO, fE_PAO) biomass were accepted to be those associated with the death regeneration model of organism "decay", the UPO of the WAS calculated from the AS and AD models also matched well - if the steady state AS model fE_OHO=0.20 and fE_PAO=0.25 values were used, then the UPO fraction of the WAS calculated from the AS models deviated significantly from those calculated with the AD models. Therefore in plant wide wastewater treatment models the characterization of PS and WAS as defined by the AS models can be applied without modification in AD models. The observed rate limiting hydrolysis/acidogenesis rates of the sludges are listed. PMID:24699419

  4. Treatment of coal-conversion wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated-sludge process. First semiannual technical progress report, August 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pirbazari, M.; Gee, C.S.; Deady, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The treatment of coal conversion wastewaters has traditionally been accomplished through the use of the activated sludge process and its various modifications. General observations have been that phenol was degraded efficiently; however, very poor removal efficiencies of thiocyanate, cyanide, and ammonia were obtained. The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to the activated sludge process has been reported to result in a number of distinct advantages. Generally, however, improving the effluent water quality beyond the capabilities of conventional biological treatment and enhancing the treatability of wastewaters that inhibit or toxify biological treatment systems are the primary objectives of utilizing PAC in secondary biological treatment. The focus of the present research project is to assess the effectiveness of the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process in the treatment of a coking wastewater. The purpose of the contact tank in such a process will be to provide sufficient time for the adsorbable constituents of the coking wastewater to adsorb onto the PAC. The liquor leaving the contact tank is then clarified with the concentratrated underflow receiving treatment in the stabilization tank. After stabilization the sludge is returned to the contact tank. The clarifier supernatant is then nitrified in an activated sludge-type nitrification process and the nitrified effluent is subsequently denitrified in an anoxic filter.

  5. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes. PMID:26690464

  6. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes. PMID:26690464

  7. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF OPEN TANK OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pilot plant for this study consisted of one oxygenation basin and two clarifiers. The system treated primary clarifier effluent from the Englewood, Colorado, treatment facility. The influent flow rate was adjusted to attain average aeration reactor detention times ranging fro...

  8. Quantification of Hyphomicrobium Populations in Activated Sludge from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment System as Determined by 16S rRNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Layton, A. C.; Karanth, P. N.; Lajoie, C. A.; Meyers, A. J.; Gregory, I. R.; Stapleton, R. D.; Taylor, D. E.; Sayler, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of the activated sludge from a 25 million-gal-per-day industrial wastewater treatment plant was investigated using rRNA analysis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries were created from three sludge samples taken on different dates. Partial rRNA gene sequences were obtained for 46 rDNA clones, and nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for 18 clones. Seventeen of these clones were members of the beta subdivision, and their sequences showed high homology to sequences of known bacterial species as well as published 16S rDNA sequences from other activated sludge sources. Sixteen clones belonged to the alpha subdivision, 7 of which showed similarity to Hyphomicrobium species. This cluster was chosen for further studies due to earlier work on Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 isolated from this treatment plant. A nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequence was obtained from Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 was 99% similar to Hyphomicrobium denitrificans DSM 1869T in Hyphomicrobium cluster II. Three of the cloned sequences from the activated sludge samples also grouped with those of Hyphomicrobium cluster II, with a 96% sequence similarity to that of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. The other four cloned sequences from the activated sludge sample were more closely related to those of the Hyphomicrobium cluster I organisms (95 to 97% similarity). Whole-cell fluorescence hybridization of microorganisms in the activated sludge with genus-specific Hyphomicrobium probe S-G-Hypho-1241-a-A-19 enhanced the visualization of Hyphomicrobium and revealed that Hyphomicrobium appears to be abundant both on the outside of flocs and within the floc structure. Dot blot hybridization of activated sludge samples from 1995 with probes designed for Hyphomicrobium cluster I and Hyphomicrobium cluster II indicated that Hyphomicrobium cluster II-positive 16S rRNA dominated over Hyphomicrobium cluster I-positive 16S rRNA by 3- to 12-fold. Hyphomicrobium 16S rRNA comprised approximately 5% of the 16S rRNA in the activated sludge. PMID:10698787

  9. Quantification of Hyphomicrobium populations in activated sludge from an industrial wastewater treatment system as determined by 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Layton, A C; Karanth, P N; Lajoie, C A; Meyers, A J; Gregory, I R; Stapleton, R D; Taylor, D E; Sayler, G S

    2000-03-01

    The bacterial community structure of the activated sludge from a 25 million-gal-per-day industrial wastewater treatment plant was investigated using rRNA analysis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries were created from three sludge samples taken on different dates. Partial rRNA gene sequences were obtained for 46 rDNA clones, and nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for 18 clones. Seventeen of these clones were members of the beta subdivision, and their sequences showed high homology to sequences of known bacterial species as well as published 16S rDNA sequences from other activated sludge sources. Sixteen clones belonged to the alpha subdivision, 7 of which showed similarity to Hyphomicrobium species. This cluster was chosen for further studies due to earlier work on Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 isolated from this treatment plant. A nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequence was obtained from Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 was 99% similar to Hyphomicrobium denitrificans DSM 1869(T) in Hyphomicrobium cluster II. Three of the cloned sequences from the activated sludge samples also grouped with those of Hyphomicrobium cluster II, with a 96% sequence similarity to that of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. The other four cloned sequences from the activated sludge sample were more closely related to those of the Hyphomicrobium cluster I organisms (95 to 97% similarity). Whole-cell fluorescence hybridization of microorganisms in the activated sludge with genus-specific Hyphomicrobium probe S-G-Hypho-1241-a-A-19 enhanced the visualization of Hyphomicrobium and revealed that Hyphomicrobium appears to be abundant both on the outside of flocs and within the floc structure. Dot blot hybridization of activated sludge samples from 1995 with probes designed for Hyphomicrobium cluster I and Hyphomicrobium cluster II indicated that Hyphomicrobium cluster II-positive 16S rRNA dominated over Hyphomicrobium cluster I-positive 16S rRNA by 3- to 12-fold. Hyphomicrobium 16S rRNA comprised approximately 5% of the 16S rRNA in the activated sludge. PMID:10698787

  10. Examining sludge production in bioelectrochemical systems treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert Keith; Harnisch, Falk; Dockhorn, Thomas; Schrder, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Sludge production in microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) was assessed in conjunction with anaerobic and aerobic control reactors. Effluent after primary settling tank (EAPS) and depleted EAPS spiked with acetate were treated. The reactors were loaded with total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) at average loading rates of 22mgTSSd(-1)L(-1) and 86mgCODd(-1)L(-1), respectively. Carbon cloth anode equipped BES reactors delivered the highest performance. They achieved on average a COD removal of 80%, a Coulomb efficiency of 77% for EAPS, a maximum current density of 39?Acm(-)(3)/175?Acm(-)(2) for EAPS and a TSS removal of 59%, yielding a sludge production of only 80mg TSS per g ?COD. This study provides further evidence that BES can improve the economics of wastewater treatment via lower sludge production as well as providing a framework for understanding sludge production in BES. PMID:26442641

  11. Electricity generation using chocolate industry wastewater and its treatment in activated sludge based microbial fuel cell and analysis of developed microbial community in the anode chamber.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunil A; Surakasi, Venkata Prasad; Koul, Sandeep; Ijmulwar, Shrikant; Vivek, Amar; Shouche, Y S; Kapadnis, B P

    2009-11-01

    Feasibility of using chocolate industry wastewater as a substrate for electricity generation using activated sludge as a source of microorganisms was investigated in two-chambered microbial fuel cell. The maximum current generated with membrane and salt bridge MFCs was 3.02 and 2.3 A/m(2), respectively, at 100 ohms external resistance, whereas the maximum current generated in glucose powered MFC was 3.1 A/m(2). The use of chocolate industry wastewater in cathode chamber was promising with 4.1 mA current output. Significant reduction in COD, BOD, total solids and total dissolved solids of wastewater by 75%, 65%, 68%, 50%, respectively, indicated effective wastewater treatment in batch experiments. The 16S rDNA analysis of anode biofilm and suspended cells revealed predominance of beta-Proteobacteria clones with 50.6% followed by unclassified bacteria (9.9%), alpha-Proteobacteria (9.1%), other Proteobacteria (9%), Planctomycetes (5.8%), Firmicutes (4.9%), Nitrospora (3.3%), Spirochaetes (3.3%), Bacteroides (2.4%) and gamma-Proteobacteria (0.8%). Diverse bacterial groups represented as members of the anode chamber community. PMID:19539465

  12. Mainstream wastewater treatment in integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor by partial nitritation/anammox process.

    PubMed

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-12-01

    In this study the system based on the combination of biofilm and activated sludge (IFAS - integrated fixed film activated sludge) was tested and compared with a system that relies only on biofilm (MBBR - moving bed biofilm reactor) for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater by deammonification process. By introduction of suspended biomass into MBBR the nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 363% to 704% with simultaneous 3-fold increase of nitrogen removal rate. Results of batch tests and continuous reactor operation showed that organotrophic nitrate reduction to nitrite, followed by anammox reaction contributed to this high removal efficiency. After sCOD/NH4-N ratio decreased from 1.80.2 to 1.30.1 removal efficiency decreased to 524%, while still maintaining 150% higher removal rate, comparing to MBBR. Activity tests revealed that affinity of NOB to oxygen is higher than affinity of AOB with half-saturation constants of 0.05 and 0.41mg/L, respectively. PMID:26425997

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,

  14. Transformation of Four Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater and Post-processing of Sewage Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing use of silver (Ag) nanoparticles [containing either elemental Ag (Ag-NPs) or AgCl (AgCl-NPs)] in commercial products such as textiles will most likely result in these materials reaching wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies indicate that a conversion of Ag-...

  15. Quantification of wastewater sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Samuel J; Studer, Lindsay J; Dixon, David R; Hillis, Peter; Rees, Catherine A; Wall, Rachael C; Cavalida, Raul G; Usher, Shane P; Stickland, Anthony D; Scales, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Quantification and comparison of the dewatering characteristics of fifteen sewage sludges from a range of digestion scenarios are described. The method proposed uses laboratory dewatering measurements and integrity analysis of the extracted material properties. These properties were used as inputs into a model of filtration, the output of which provides the dewatering comparison. This method is shown to be necessary for quantification and comparison of dewaterability as the permeability and compressibility of the sludges varies by up to ten orders of magnitude in the range of solids concentration of interest to industry. This causes a high sensitivity of the dewaterability comparison to the starting concentration of laboratory tests, thus simple dewaterability comparison based on parameters such as the specific resistance to filtration is difficult. The new approach is demonstrated to be robust relative to traditional methods such as specific resistance to filtration analysis and has an in-built integrity check. Comparison of the quantified dewaterability of the fifteen sludges to the relative volatile solids content showed a very strong correlation in the volatile solids range from 40 to 80%. The data indicate that the volatile solids parameter is a strong indicator of the dewatering behaviour of sewage sludges. PMID:26003332

  16. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process. PMID:16635546

  17. Evaluating sedimentation problems in activated sludge treatment plants operating at complete sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Pekridis, George; Taousanidis, Nikolaos

    2015-02-01

    Zero net sludge growth can be achieved by complete retention of solids in activated sludge wastewater treatment, especially in high strength and biodegradable wastewaters. When increasing the solids retention time, MLSS and MLVSS concentrations reach a plateau phase and observed growth yields values tend to zero (Yobs?0). In this work, in order to evaluate sedimentation problems arised due to high MLSS concentrations and complete sludge retention operational conditions, two identical innovative slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants were studied. Measurements of wastewaters' quality characteristics, treatment plant's operational conditions, sludge microscopic analysis and state point analysis were conducted. Results have shown that low COD/Nitrogen ratios increase sludge bulking and flotation phenomena due to accidental denitrification in clarifiers. High return activated sludge rate is essential in complete retention systems as it reduces sludge condensation and hydraulic retention time in the clarifiers. Under certain operational conditions sludge loading rates can greatly exceed literature limit values. The presented methodology is a useful tool for estimation of sedimentation problems encountered in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with complete retention time. PMID:25463928

  18. Impact of ozone pre-treatment on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treating pre-treated grain distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L; Britz, T J; Sigge, G O

    2014-01-01

    Two 2 L laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were operated for 277 days. The substrate of the control reactor (Rc) contained grain distillery wastewater (GDWW) that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment, and the substrate of the second UASB reactor consisted of GDWW that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment and ozone pre-treatment (Ro). Both reactors treated pre-treated GDWW successfully at ca. 9 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions of ca. 96% for Rc and 93% for Ro were achieved. Fats, oils and grease (FOG) reductions (%) showed variations throughout the study, and reductions of ca. 88 and 92% were achieved for Rc and Ro, respectively. Rc produced more biogas, and the methane percentage was similar in both reactors. UASB granule washout in Rc suggested possible toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids present in non-ozonated substrate. The feasibility of FOG removal was demonstrated as both reactors successfully treated pre-treated GDWW. Better results were obtained for Ro effluent during post-ozonation. The ozone pre-treatment possibly led to easier degradable wastewater, and better results could potentially be obtained when other post-treatment steps are applied. Ozone pre-treatment did not, however, show an added benefit in the reactor performance results. PMID:25429461

  19. Effects of sludge retention time and biosurfactant on the treatment of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in a petrochemical industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sponza, D T; Gok, O

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of sludge retention time (SRT) on the removal of three polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with low benzene rings [(acenaphthene (ACT), fluorene (FLN) and phenanthrene (PHE)] and six PAHs with high benzene rings [(benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP)] in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. This study showed that biosurfactants enhance the PAH biodegradation by increasing the biomass growth. RD exhibits a better performance than the other biosurfactants in the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and PAHs. At a RD concentration of 15 mg/L aerobic treatment for 25 days, SRT was enough to remove over 95% of total PAHs, and COD(dis). Under the same conditions 75% of COD originating from the inert organics (COD(inert)) and 96% of COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD(imp)) were removed. At 25 days SRT and 15 mg/L RD concentration, about 88% of PAHs were biodegraded by the AASR system, 4% were accumulated in the system, 3% were released in the effluent, and 5% remained in the waste sludge. PMID:22156134

  20. PARASITES IN SOUTHERN SLUDGES AND DISINFECTION BY STANDARD SLUDGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Major objectives were to: (a) assess types and densities of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges in the southern United States, (b) investigate the inactivation of parasites by lime stabilization of sewage sludges seeded with selected intestinal parasites, (c) assess convent...

  1. Aerobic versus anaerobic wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; White, J.E.; Callier, A.J.

    1997-04-01

    Biological wastewater treatment facilities are designed to emulate the purification process that occurs naturally in rivers, lakes and streams. In the simulated environment, conditions are carefully manipulated to spur the degradation of organic contaminants and stabilize the residual sludge. Whether the treatment process is aerobic or anaerobic is determined by a number of factors, including the composition of the wastewater, the degree of stabilization required for environmental compliance and economic viability. Because anaerobic digestion is accomplished without oxygen in a closed system, it is economical for pretreatment of high-strength organic sludge. Before the effluent can be discharged, however, followup treatment using an aerobic process is required. Though it has the drawback of being energy intensive, aerobic processing, the aeration of organic sludges in an open tank, is the primary method for treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Aerobic processes are more stable than anaerobic approaches and can be done rather simply, particularly with trickling filters. Gradually, the commercialization of modular systems that are capable of aerobic and anaerobic digestion will blur the distinctions between the two processes. Systems that boast those capabilities are available now.

  2. Effect of sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) on synthetic wastewater treatment in an A/O combined biological aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuxin; Yue, Qinyan; Yue, Min; Gao, Baoyu; Zhao, Yaqin; Cheng, Wenjing

    2009-02-01

    Novel media-sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) employed in an upflow lab-scale A/O BAF were investigated for synthetic wastewater treatment. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT), air-liquid ratio (A/L) and recirculation on the removals of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr), ammonia (NH(4)(+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN) were discussed. The optimum operation conditions were obtained as HRT of 2.0 h, A/L of 15:1 and 200% recirculation. Under the optimal conditions, 90% CODcr, more than 98% NH(3)-N and approximately 70% TN were removed. The average consumed volumetric loading rates for CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and TN with 200% recirculation were 4.06, 0.36 and 0.29 kg(m(3)d)(-1), respectively. The CODcr and TN removal mainly occurred in the anoxic zone, while nitrification was completed at the height of 70 cm from the inlet of the bottom due to a suitable column layout of biological aerated filter (BAF). The characteristics of wastewater and backwashing affected TN removal to a large degree. In addition, the features of media (SFCP) and synthetic wastewater contributed to a strong buffer capacity in the BAF system so that the effluent pH at different media height fluctuated slightly and was insensitive to recirculation. PMID:18828988

  3. Modeling the performance of "up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket" reactor based wastewater treatment plant using linear and nonlinear approaches--a case study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Basant, Nikita; Malik, Amrita; Jain, Gunja

    2010-01-18

    The paper describes linear and nonlinear modeling of the wastewater data for the performance evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate polynomial regression (MPR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methods were applied to predict the levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the UASB reactor effluents using four input variables measured weekly in the influent wastewater during the peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours over a period of 48 weeks. The performance of the models was assessed through the root mean squared error (RMSE), relative error of prediction in percentage (REP), the bias, the standard error of prediction (SEP), the coefficient of determination (R(2)), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E(f)), and the accuracy factor (A(f)), computed from the measured and model predicted values of the dependent variables (BOD, COD) in the WWTP effluents. Goodness of the model fit to the data was also evaluated through the relationship between the residuals and the model predicted values of BOD and COD. Although, the model predicted values of BOD and COD by all the three modeling approaches (PLSR, MPR, ANN) were in good agreement with their respective measured values in the WWTP effluents, the nonlinear models (MPR, ANNs) performed relatively better than the linear ones. These models can be used as a tool for the performance evaluation of the WWTPs. PMID:20082768

  4. Preparation of ultra-lightweight sludge ceramics (ULSC) and application for pharmaceutical advanced wastewater treatment in a biological aerobic filter (BAF).

    PubMed

    Wu, Suqing; Yue, Qinyan; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Baoyu; Han, Shuxin; Yue, Min

    2011-02-01

    Novel media-ultra-lightweight sludge ceramics (ULSC) employed in an upflow lab-scale biological aerobic filter (BAF) were investigated for pharmaceutical advanced wastewater treatment. The influences of the volume ratio of pharmaceutical wastewater to domestic wastewater (PW/DW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and air-liquid ratio (A/L) on chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) of the effluent were investigated. When PW/DW of 4:1, HRT of 6 h, and A/L of 5:1 were applied, the mean effluent concentration of NH(4)(+)-N was 6.2 mg L(-1), and the maximum CODCr concentration in the effluent was 96 mg L(-1). Both NH(4)(+)-N and CODCr did not exceed the limits of the national discharge standards (NH(4)(+)-N ? 15 mg L(-1), CODCr ? 100 mg L(-1)). In addition, the BAF system showed a strong capacity of further removal from NH(4)(+)-N of the effluent. PMID:21055922

  5. Sludge treatment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  6. Analysis of the usefulness of biological parameters for the control of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in an interlaboratory study context.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Luca; Libana, Raquel; Rodrguez, Eva; Murciano, Antonio; Conejero, Francisco; Prez-Uz, Blanca; Serrano, Susana

    2012-05-01

    The quality of the sludge in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) depends on the suitable colonization of the flocs by microorganisms. Due to the functional importance of these biological constituents, several biological or biological-related parameters have been commonly used for the control of depuration efficiency. According to national and international water regulation recommendations, interlaboratory studies have a great relevance to determine which parameters are more reliable for their extensive application in routine control. However, these studies are also very useful to demonstrate consistency in results from multiple laboratories and to develop reliable and reproducible methodologies which might be necessary for protocol validation and also for accreditation issues to meet regulatory environmental requirements. The main purpose of this work was to assess the results obtained in consecutive interlaboratory assays in order to determine the concordance degree in the application of biological parameters by participating laboratories. Following the international recommendations about these studies, a common working protocol was proposed. Statistical tests indicated that Sludge Index and several routine physical-chemical analyses [V30, Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS), Mixed Liquor Volatile Solids (MLVS) and Sludge Volumetric Index (SVI)] show low variability and therefore are suitable tools for laboratory control. Shannon Index and Sludge Biotic Index also presented low variability although a more precise protocol would be necessary, in particular the methodology to count small flagellates. The abundance and identification of protist species showed low concordance among laboratories and three factors were responsible for the low reliability of data: population density, size and morphological distinguishable characters of the specimens. PMID:22481149

  7. Use of dewatered alum sludge as main substrate in treatment reed bed receiving agricultural wastewater: long-term trial.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Q; Zhao, X H; Babatunde, A O

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore a novel application of dewatered alum sludge cakes (DASC) as the main medium in a single model reed bed to treat phosphorus-rich animal farm wastewater under "tidal flow" operation on a long-term basis. It is expected that the cakes act as the carrier for developing biofilm and also serve as adsorbent to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Results have demonstrated that average removal efficiencies of 73.3+/-15.9% for COD, 82.9+/-12.3% for BOD(5), 86.4+/-6.0% for RP (reactive P), 88.6+/-7.2% for soluble reactive P (SRP) and 77.6+/-17.5% for SS can be achieved during the two year's operation. More significantly, the "P-adsorption proportion" by DASC in the reed bed is 42% of the overall P removal. The remaining removal of P may be contributed by the trapping and filtration process of DASC. Therefore, the lifetime of the DASC in reed bed is reasonably longer than that determined from the batch isotherm test. PMID:18762417

  8. Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated sludge) and primary sludge is still in its infancy. Current research is mainly focused on developing efficient pretreatment methods that enable fast hydrolysis of complex organic matter, shorter sludge residence times and as a consequence, smaller sludge digesters. Previous experimental studies indicate that the anaerobic digestibility of non-pretreated biosludge from pulp and paper mills varies widely, with volatile solids (VS) removal rates of 21-55% and specific methane yields ranging between 40 and 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Pretreatment can increase the digestibility to some extent, however in almost all reported cases, the specific methane yield of pretreated biosludge did not exceed 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Increases in specific methane yield mostly range between 0 and 90% compared to non-pretreated biosludge, whereas larger improvements were usually achieved with more difficult-to-digest biosludge. Thermal treatment and microwave treatment are two of the more effective methods. The heat required for the elevated temperatures applied in both methods may be provided from surplus heat that is often available at pulp and paper mills. Given the large variability in specific methane yield of non-pretreated biosludge, future research should focus on the links between anaerobic digestibility and sludge properties. Research should also involve mill-derived primary sludge. Although biosludge has been the main target in previous studies, primary sludge often constitutes the bulk of mill-generated sludge, and co-digestion of a mixture between both types of sludge may become practical. The few laboratory studies that have included mill primary sludge indicate that, similar to biosludge, the digestibility can range widely. Long-term studies should be conducted to explore the potential of microbial adaptation to lignocellulosic material which can constitute more than half of the organic matter in pulp and paper mill sludge. PMID:25150519

  10. Candida aquaetextoris sp. nov., a new species of yeast occurring in sludge from a textile industry wastewater treatment plant in Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vallini, G; Frassinetti, S; Scorzetti, G

    1997-04-01

    We describe Candida aquaetextoris, a new yeast species isolated from sludge that accumulates at the main wastewater treatment facility which processes discharges from textile factories located in the Prato metropolitan district, northern Tuscany, Italy. This yeast degrades 4-(1-nonyl)phenol, a toxic intermediate originating from the microbial attack of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are nonionic surfactants largely used in leather and textile industries. In the investigation we employed conventional and molecular taxonomy techniques to compare the new isolate to strains of physiologically similar species, such as Candida maltosa and Candida tropicalis, as well as strains of quite phenotypically different species, such as Candida haemulonii. The results demonstrate that the yeast which we identified represents a separate taxon. The type strain of C. aquaetextoris is strain Lmar1, which has been deposited in the Industrial Yeast Collection of the Division of Applied Microbiology, Department of Plant Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy, as strain DBVPG 6732. PMID:9103618

  11. Upgrading of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant by adding a moving bed biofilm reactor as pre-treatment and ozonation followed by biofiltration for enhanced COD reduction: design and operation experience.

    PubMed

    Kaindl, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    A paper mill producing 500,000 ton of graphic paper annually has an on-site wastewater treatment plant that treats 7,240,000 m of wastewater per year, mechanically first, then biologically and at last by ozonation. Increased paper production capacity led to higher COD load in the mill effluent while production of higher proportions of brighter products gave worse biodegradability. Therefore the biological capacity of the WWTP needed to be increased and extra measures were necessary to enhance the efficiency of COD reduction. The full scale implementation of one MBBR with a volume of 1,230 m was accomplished in 2000 followed by another MBBR of 2,475 m in 2002. An ozonation step with a capacity of 75 kg O?/h was added in 2004 to meet higher COD reduction demands during the production of brighter products and thus keeping the given outflow limits. Adding a moving bed biofilm reactor prior to the existing activated sludge step gives: (i) cost advantages when increasing biological capacity as higher COD volume loads of MBBRs allow smaller reactors than usual for activated sludge plants; (ii) a relief of strain from the activated sludge step by biological degradation in the MBBR; (iii) equalizing of peaks in the COD load and toxic effects before affecting the activated sludge step; (iv) a stable volume sludge index below 100 ml/g in combination with an optimization of the activated sludge step allows good sludge separation--an important condition for further treatment with ozone. Ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration pre-treated waste water provide: (i) reduction of hard COD unobtainable by conventional treatment; (ii) controllable COD reduction in a very wide range and therefore elimination of COD-peaks; (iii) reduction of treatment costs by combination of ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration; (iv) decrease of the color in the ozonated wastewater. The MBBR step proved very simple to operate as part of the biological treatment. Excellent control of the COD-removal rate in the ozone step allowed for economical usage and therefore acceptable operation costs in relation to the paper production. PMID:21099060

  12. LAND APPLICATION AND SLUDGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal matter potentially containing pathogenic microorganisms and chemical contaminants enters community wastewater collection systems from hospitals, funeral homes, animal slaughtering operations, and dwellings. While these wastewaters are cleansed in the wastewater treatment p...

  13. Cultivation and characterization of bacterial isolates capable of degrading pharmaceutical and personal care products for improved removal in activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nicolette A; Lutovsky, April C; Andaker, Greta L; Gough, Heidi L; Ferguson, John F

    2013-11-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are an emerging surface water quality concern. Biological transformation has been identified as an important removal mechanism during wastewater treatment. The aim of this research was the identification of bacteria with characteristics for potential bioaugmentation to enhance PPCP removal. We report here the cultivation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading PPCPs to ng/L concentrations. An isolation approach was developed using serial enrichment in mineral medium containing 1 mg/L of an individual PPCP as the sole organic carbon source available to heterotrophs until the original activated sludge inocula was diluted to ~10(-8) of its initial concentration, followed by colony growth on solid R2A agar. Eleven bacteria were isolated, eight that could remove triclosan, bisphenol A, ibuprofen, or 17β-estradiol to below 10 ng/L, one that could remove gemfibrozil to below 60 ng/L, and two that could remove triclosan or E2, but not to ng/L concentrations. Most bacterial isolates degraded contaminants during early growth when grown utilizing rich carbon sources and were only able to degrade the PPCPs on which they were isolated. Seven of the bacterial isolates were sphingomonads, including all the triclosan and bisphenol A degraders and the ibuprofen degrader. The study results indicate that the isolated bacteria may have a positive influence on removal in WWTPs if present at sufficient concentrations and may be useful for bioaugmentation. PMID:23455956

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 1. SLUDGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: lime stabilization, anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, thermal sludge conditioning, thickening, dewatering, and landfilling. The discussion of each ...

  15. IMPACT OF INFLUENT MICROORGANISMS UPON POOR SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE QUIESCENT ZONE OF AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most common biological treatment systems used to clean wastewater is suspended growth activated sludge wastewater treatment (AS). When AS is adapted for the treatment of wastewater from industrial manufacturing processes, unanticipated difficulties can arise. For the s...

  16. Reuse of treated wastewater and sewage sludge for fertilization and irrigation.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Gonalo; Fangueiro, David; Duarte, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to assess the short-term potential of treated wastewater and sewage sludge for ornamental lawn fertilization and irrigation. A field experiment was performed and the following treatments were considered: sewage sludge application + irrigation with public water; sewage sludge application + irrigation with treated wastewater; irrigation with public water; irrigation with treated wastewater (TW). Irrigation with treated wastewater showed a positive effect on lawn installation through higher growth of grass (1,667 cm) and higher dry matter yield (18,147 g m(-2)). These results represent a significant increase in the grass yield compared with public water irrigation. The grass height (2,606 cm) and dry matter yield (23,177 g m(-2)) increased even more, when sewage sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was applied to soil, which proves once more its benefits as an organic fertilizer. At the end of the experiment, an increase of some soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+) was observed, indicating that treated wastewater irrigation can cause a soil sodization. This short-term study indicated that use of treated wastewater and sewage sludge for ornamental lawn fertilization and irrigation is an environmentally sustainable option for re-use of the WWTP by-products. PMID:22097073

  17. Dewatering in biological wastewater treatment: A review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    2015-10-01

    Biological wastewater treatment removes organic materials, nitrogen, and phosphorus from wastewater using microbial biomass (activated sludge, biofilm, granules) which is separated from the liquid in a clarifier or by a membrane. Part of this biomass (excess sludge) is transported to digesters for bioenergy production and then dewatered, it is dewatered directly, often by using belt filters or decanter centrifuges before further handling, or it is dewatered by sludge mineralization beds. Sludge is generally difficult to dewater, but great variations in dewaterability are observed for sludges from different wastewater treatment plants as a consequence of differences in plant design and physical-chemical factors. This review gives an overview of key parameters affecting sludge dewatering, i.e. filtration and consolidation. The best dewaterability is observed for activated sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances. Polyvalent ions such as calcium ions improve floc strength and dewaterability, whereas sodium ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion, and industry) reduce dewaterability because flocs disintegrate at high conductivity. Dewaterability dramatically decreases at high pH due to floc disintegration. Storage under anaerobic conditions lowers dewaterability. High shear levels destroy the flocs and reduce dewaterability. Thus, pumping and mixing should be gentle and in pipes without sharp bends. PMID:25959073

  18. Filtration properties of activated sludge in municipal MBR wastewater treatment plants are related to microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Bugge, Thomas V; Larsen, Poul; Saunders, Aaron M; Kragelund, Caroline; Wybrandt, Lisbeth; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten L; Nielsen, Per H

    2013-11-01

    In the conventional activated sludge process, a number of important parameters determining the efficiency of settling and dewatering are often linked to specific groups of bacteria in the sludge--namely floc size, residual turbidity, shear sensitivity and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In membrane bioreactors (MBRs) the nature of solids separation at the membrane has much in common with sludge dewaterability but less is known about the effect of specific microbial groups on the sludge characteristics that affect this process. In this study, six full-scale MBR plants were investigated to identify correlations between sludge filterability, sludge characteristics, and microbial community structure. The microbial community structure was described by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and sludge filterability by a low-pressure filtration method. A strong correlation between the degree of flocculation (ratio between floc size and residual turbidity) and sludge filterability at low pressure was found. A good balance between EPS and cations in the sludge correlated with good flocculation, relatively large sludge flocs, and low amounts of small particles and single cells in the bulk phase (measured as residual turbidity), all leading to a good filterability. Floc properties could also be linked to the microbial community structure. Bacterial species forming strong microcolonies such as Nitrospira and Accumulibacter were present in plants with good flocculation and filtration properties, while few strong microcolonies and many filamentous bacteria in the plants correlated with poor flocculation and filtration problems. In conclusion this study extends the hitherto accepted perception that plant operation affects floc properties which affects fouling. Additionally, plant operation also affects species composition, which affects floc properties and in the end fouling propensity. PMID:24094729

  19. Alternatives for energy production in aerobic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B

    2013-01-01

    Using technologies such as anaerobic digestion for energy generation from wastewater demands a change in infrastructure that several treatment works are not prepared to immediately implement. This works explores the use of energy production technologies to increase the sustainability of conventional aerobic wastewater treatment plants. The first option considered sludge (a by-product from wastewater treatment) as raw material for biodiesel production as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). The second option consisted of the addition of microalgae during aerobic wastewater treatment and subsequent harvesting of combined microalgae-sludge to produce biodiesel. Results showed that microalgae were able to grow in aerobic wastewater treatment reactors, reaching maximum growth after 6 days. The use of microalgae did not statistically affect chemical oxygen demand removal but provided benefits on ammonia removal (100% removal vs 68 9% when microalgae were not added). Activated sludge contained fewer lipids (13 3%, by dry weight) than the microalgae-sludge mixture (20.8 4.5%). Hence, FAME production when using microalgae-sludge was higher (51.12 12 mg of FAME/g of dry microalgae-sludge) than when using activated sludge (25.6 7 mg of FAME/g of dry activated sludge). This work showed that producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in conjunction with bacteria during aerobic wastewater treatment can reduce energy use and carbon emissions produced by 18.6 and 26.5%, respectively. PMID:23787329

  20. Destruction and formation of PCDD/Fs in a fluidised bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue with refuse derived fuel and wastewater treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, J; Vermeulen, I; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Van Royen, P; Jaspers, M; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

    2012-03-15

    During an eight day trial automotive shredder residue (ASR) was added to the usual waste feed of a Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) for waste-to-energy conversion; the input waste mix consisted of 25% ASR, 25% refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and 50% wastewater treatment (WWT) sludge. All inputs and outputs were sampled and the concentration of the 17 PCDD/Fs with TEF-values was determined in order to obtain "PCDD/F fingerprints". The ASR contained approximately 9000 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), six times more than the RDF and 10 times more than the WWT sludge. The fingerprint of ASR and RDF was dominated by HpCDD and OCDD, which accounted for 90% of the total PDDD/F content, whereas the WWT sludge contained relatively more HpCDFs and OCDF (together 70%). The flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR) and fly and boiler ash contained approximately 30,000 and 2500 ng PCDD/Fs/kg(DW), respectively. The fingerprints of these outputs were also dominated by HpCDFs and OCDF. The bottom ash contained only OCDD and OCDF, in total 8 ng PCDD/Fs/kg (DW). From the comparison of the bottom ash fingerprints with the fingerprints of the other output fractions and of the inputs, it could be concluded that the PCDD/Fs in the waste were destroyed and new PCDD/Fs were formed in the post combustion process by de novo synthesis. During the ASR-co-incineration, the PCDD/F congener concentrations in the fly and boiler ash, FGCR and flue gas were 1.25-10 times higher compared to the same output fractions generated during incineration of the usual waste mix (70% RDF and 30% WWT sludge). The concentration of the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs increased most. As these congeners have the lowest TEF-factors, the total PCDD/F output, expressed in kg TEQ/year, of the FBC did not increase significantly when ASR was co-incinerated. Due to the relatively high copper levels in the ASR, the copper concentrations in the FBCs outputs increased. As copper catalysis the de novo syntheses, this could explain the increase in PCDD/F concentrations in these outputs. PMID:21621915

  1. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  2. Improved compaction of dried tannery wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Della Zassa, M; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Santomaso, A C; Canu, P

    2015-12-01

    We quantitatively studied the advantages of improving the compaction of a powder waste by several techniques, including its pelletization. The goal is increasing the mass storage capacity in a given storage volume, and reducing the permeability of air and moisture, that may trigger exothermic spontaneous reactions in organic waste, particularly as powders. The study is based on dried sludges from a wastewater treatment, mainly from tanneries, but the indications are valid and useful for any waste in the form of powder, suitable to pelletization. Measurements of bulk density have been carried out at the industrial and laboratory scale, using different packing procedures, amenable to industrial processes. Waste as powder, pellets and their mixtures have been considered. The bulk density of waste as powder increases from 0.64 t/m(3) (simply poured) to 0.74 t/m(3) (tapped) and finally to 0.82 t/m(3) by a suitable, yet simple, packing procedure that we called dispersion filling, with a net gain of 28% in the compaction by simply modifying the collection procedure. Pelletization increases compaction by definition, but the packing of pellets is relatively coarse. Some increase in bulk density of pellets can be achieved by tapping; vibration and dispersion filling are not efficient with pellets. Mixtures of powder and pellets is the optimal packing policy. The best compaction result was achieved by controlled vibration of a 30/70 wt% mixture of powders and pellets, leading to a final bulk density of 1t/m(3), i.e. an improvement of compaction by more than 54% with respect to simply poured powders, but also larger than 35% compared to just pellets. That means increasing the mass storage capacity by a factor of 1.56. Interestingly, vibration can be the most or the least effective procedure to improve compaction of mixtures, depending on characteristics of vibration. The optimal packing (30/70 wt% powders/pellets) proved to effectively mitigate the onset of smouldering, leading to self-heating, according to standard tests, whereas the pure pelletization totally removes the self-heating hazard. PMID:26337963

  3. Bioremediation of wastewaters with decabromodiphenyl ether by anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Wang, Zhibin; Lv, Lu; Liang, Xueyou; Ren, Longfei; Zhou, Qingxin

    2015-04-01

    Facilities adopting anaerobic granular sludge are widely used for the treatment of high strength wastewater, and hence collect many polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). We initiated a detailed investigation to gain insight into the bioremoval of BDE-209 by anaerobic granules. Influenced by solution pH, ionic strength and temperature, the equilibrium time was ?6 h and the biosorption amount increased from 0.099 to 1.25 mg/g suspended sludge with the increase of BDE-209 concentrations. Kinetic studies indicate that BDE-209 biosorption on anaerobic granules follows the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Isotherm analysis exhibits that the Langmuir model fits the data at low temperature, while the Freundlich model is appropriate at room temperature. Thermodynamic analysis shows that biosorption followed an endothermic path and was nonspontaneous with negative value of ?G0. XPS and FTIR spectra confirmed that oxygen and nitrogen atoms notably contributed to BDE-209 binding. PMID:25784301

  4. The sludge loading rate regulates the growth and release of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six types of antibiotics in wastewater activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are considered as hot reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. However, the fates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during biological treatment processes and relevant influencing factors have not been fully understood. This study evaluated the effects of the sludge loading rate on the growth and release of six kinds of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in an activated sludge system. The results indicated that higher sludge loading rates amplified the growth of all six types of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The release of most antibiotic-resistant bacteria through both the effluent and biosolids was amplified with increased sludge loading rate. Biosolids were the main pattern for all antibiotic-resistant bacteria release in an activated sludge system, which was determined primarily by their growth in the activated sludge. A higher sludge loading rate reactor tended to retain more antibiotic resistance. An activated sludge system with lower sludge loading rates was considered more conducive to the control of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25502931

  5. Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

    1983-03-01

    Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

  6. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  7. IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

  8. Elimination of aromatic surfactants from municipal wastewaters: comparison of conventional activated sludge treatment and membrane biological reactor.

    PubMed

    Terzic, S; Matosic, M; Ahel, M; Mijatovic, I

    2005-01-01

    Behaviour of anionic surfactants of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) type and non-ionic surfactants of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPnEO) type was studied in the conventional mechanical/biological sewage treatment plant (STP) as well as using a membrane biological reactor (MBR). LAS and NPnEO were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with spectrofluorimetric detection. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used for identification and quantification of stable metabolites, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) and nonylphenoxy carboxylic acids (NPnEC). The study showed that aromatic surfactants belong to the most prominent constituents in the examined municipal wastewaters with typical LAS and NPnEO concentrations of 2-10 mg/L and 0.1-0.5 mg/L, respectively. The removal of aromatic surfactants in conventional STP showed well-known features reported in the literature, including an efficient microbial transformation of the parent molecules and formation of stable metabolic products. The elimination efficiency of aromatic surfactants using the MBR unit was higher than that in the conventional STP, while the composition of recalcitrant nonylphenolic residues in the effluent seems to be ecotoxicologically more favourable due to the lower contributions of the lipophilic metabolites. PMID:16004007

  9. UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

  10. Treatment of biomass-gasification wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Maxham, J.V.

    1981-03-01

    One way of utilizing biomass as a renewable energy resource is to thermochemically convert it into a gaseous fuel. During conversion, wastewaters are generated that will require treatment prior to reuse in the production process or discharge to the environment. Development of cost-effective wastewater treatment technologies is necessary at the pilot plant stage of production technology development. The principal task of this research effort has been to assess the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of several promising process technologies for the treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) by conducting bench-scale treatability studies. In addition to conventional treatment process options, innovative process technologies have been investigated that promise to dramatically reduce treatment time, cost, energy consumption, and/or sludge production while preserving the simplicity of operation and mechanical reliability of conventional treatment process options. This paper reports results obtained recently in innovative biological wastewater treatment process studies.

  11. SEPARATION OF METALS IN WASTEWATER SLUDGE BY CENTRIFUGAL CLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal wastewater sludges frequently contain undesirably high concentrations of heavy metals and/or organic pollutants which interfere with beneficial use of sludge on farmland and with some disposal practices such as ocean disposal. Centrifugal classification is a low-cost pr...

  12. HEALTH EFFECTS OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data obtained as part of a comprehensive community health study conducted during 1965-1971 were utilized to examine the incidence of acute illness in a population surrounding an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and a control location in Tecumseh, Michigan. Study partic...

  13. MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

  14. METALS REMOVALS AND PARTITIONING IN CONVENTIONAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metals removal and partitioning to primary and secondary sludge during treatment of domestic wastewater by conventional sewage treatment processes was studied. Raw wastewater entering the Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, was fed to a 0.1 l/s (1.6 gpm) pilot tr...

  15. Characterization, Recovery Opportunities, and Valuation of Metals in Municipal Sludges from U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants Nationwide.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Lee, Sungyun; Yang, Yu; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Hristovski, Kiril; Halden, Rolf U; Herckes, Pierre

    2015-08-18

    U.S. sewage sludges were analyzed for 58 regulated and nonregulated elements by ICP-MS and electron microscopy to explore opportunities for removal and recovery. Sludge/water distribution coefficients (KD, L/kg dry weight) spanned 5 orders of magnitude, indicating significant metal accumulation in biosolids. Rare-earth elements and minor metals (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) detected in sludges showed enrichment factors (EFs) near unity, suggesting dust or soils as likely dominant sources. In contrast, most platinum group elements (i.e., Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt) showed high EF and KD values, indicating anthropogenic sources. Numerous metallic and metal oxide colloids (<100-500 nm diameter) were detected; the morphology of abundant aggregates of primary particles measuring <100 nm provided clues to their origin. For a community of 1 million people, metals in biosolids were valued at up to US$13 million annually. A model incorporating a parameter (KD × EF × $Value) to capture the relative potential for economic value from biosolids revealed the identity of the 13 most lucrative elements (Ag, Cu, Au, P, Fe, Pd, Mn, Zn, Ir, Al, Cd, Ti, Ga, and Cr) with a combined value of US $280/ton of sludge. PMID:25581264

  16. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE APPLICATION OF ANAEROBIC SLUDGE DIGESTION AT THE BLUE PLAINS WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mesophilic-thermophilic digestion process is a new two-step concept for treating municipal wasterwater sludges. The first step operates under mesophilic process conditions (digestion with anaerobic microorganisms that thrive at 90 to 100F). The second step operates under ther...

  17. Environmental biodegradability of [?C] single-walled carbon nanotubes by Trametes versicolor and natural microbial cultures found in New Bedford Harbor sediment and aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Ferguson, P Lee

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible biotransformations (i.e., biodegradation) in environmental media. In the present study, [(14)C]SWNT were utilized to track biodegradation over 6 mo by pure liquid culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor and mixed bacterial isolates from field-collected sediment or aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge. The mixed cultures were chosen as more environmentally relevant media where SWNT will likely be deposited under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Activity of [(14)C] was assessed in solid, aqueous, and (14)CO2 gaseous phases to determine amounts of intact SWNT, partially soluble SWNT degradation products, and mineralized SWNT, respectively, during the 6 mo of the experiment. Mass balances based on radiocarbon activity were approximately 100% over 6 mo, and no significant degradation of SWNT was observed. Approximately 99% of the [(14)C] activity remained in the solid phase, 0.8% in the aqueous phase, and less than 0.1% was mineralized to (14)CO2, regardless of culture type. These results suggest that SWNT are not readily biodegraded by pure fungal cultures or environmental microbial communities, and are likely persistent in environmental media. PMID:25352477

  18. Start-up of a granular sludge sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Milia, S; Porcu, R; Rossetti, S; Carucci, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (GSBR) was started-up for the biological aerobic treatment of wastewater containing highly toxic 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), in presence of readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as the growth substrate. Different influent concentrations of NaAc (420-800 mg/L) and 2,4-DCP (0-20 mg/L), as well as different operating conditions (i.e. cycle length), were tested in order to determine the optimal strategy for successful GSBR start-up: stable granulation and complete 2,4-DCP removal were achieved only when high NaAc influent concentration and volumetric organic loading rates (800 mg/L and 1.9 kgCOD/(m(3)d), respectively), prolonged reaction phase (cycle time of 4 hours) and gradual increase of 2,4-DCP concentration in the influent were applied, thus providing useful information for process optimization in view of future scale-up. Granules were initially colonized by fungi which progressively disappeared during the start-up process, and complete 2,4-DCP removal was mostly due to bacterial activity, in particular Betaproteobacteria, as shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PMID:24292461

  19. Microbial structures and community functions of anaerobic sludge in six full-scale wastewater treatment plants as revealed by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Shu, Duntao; He, Yanling; Yue, Hong; Wang, Qingyi

    2015-06-01

    The microbial communities and abundance in anaerobic sludge from 4 industrial and 2 municipal wastewater treatment plants were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology in this study. A total of 5482-8692 high-quality reads of 16S rRNA V3-V5 regions were obtained. Taxonomic analysis using QIIME and RDP classifier found that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in these samples. Furthermore, real-time PCR was used to validate the absolute abundance of these 16S rRNAs and some functional genes, including total bacteria, anammox bacteria, NOB (Nitrobacter, Nitrospira), AOA amoA, AOB amoA, nosZ, nirS, nirK, narG, napA, nrfA, mcrA and dsrA. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that AOA might be mixotrophic. Finally, redundancy analysis was used to reveal the relationships between operation parameters and microbial communities. Results showed that the coexistence of anammox, denitrification and DNRA could be useful for the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and organic matter. PMID:25817026

  20. Novel technique for internal structure and elemental distribution analyses of granular sludge from reactors for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolei; Cao, Hongbin; Sheng, Yuxing; You, Haixia; Zhang, Yi

    2013-03-01

    A novel technique for internal structure and elemental distribution analyses of granular sludge is presented. Sludge samples were freeze-dried and embedded in epoxy resin to form a module, which were then ground and polished to obtain sequential cross-sections. The cross-sections were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). SEM observations showed that one granule was formed having several cores with different inorganic minerals, rather than a single core. EDX results indicate that the main elements of the granules are O, Ca, Mg, and P. In addition, the distribution areas of calcium and magnesium in the granule do not coincide. PMID:23160739

  1. Co-digestion of food and garden waste with mixed sludge from wastewater treatment in continuously stirred tank reactors.

    PubMed

    Fitamo, T; Boldrin, A; Boe, K; Angelidaki, I; Scheutz, C

    2016-04-01

    Co-digestions of urban organic waste were conducted to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio between sludge, food waste, grass clippings and green waste at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Compared to the digestion of 100% sludge, the methane yield increased by 48% and 35%, when co-digesting sludge with food waste, grass clippings and garden waste with a corresponding %VS of 10:67.5:15.75:6.75 (R1) and 10:45:31.5:13.5 (R2), respectively. The methane yield remained constant at around 425 and 385NmL CH4/g VS in R1 and R2, respectively, when the reactors were operated at HRTs of 15, 20 and 30days. However, the methane yield dropped significantly to 356 (R1) and 315 (R2) NmL CH4/g VS when reducing the HRT to 10days, indicating that the process was stressed. Since the methane production rate improved significantly with decreasing HRT, the trade-off between yield and productivity was obtained at 15days HRT. PMID:26866760

  2. Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Muga, Helen E; Mihelcic, James R

    2008-08-01

    A set of indicators that incorporate environmental, societal, and economic sustainability were developed and used to investigate the sustainability of different wastewater treatment technologies, for plant capacities of <5 million gallons per day (MGD) or 18.9 x 10(3) cubic meters (m(3)/day). The technologies evaluated were mechanical (i.e., activated sludge with secondary treatment), lagoon (facultative, anaerobic, and aerobic), and land treatment systems (e.g., slow rate irrigation, rapid infiltration, and overland flow). The economic indicators selected were capital, operation and management, and user costs because they determine the economic affordability of a particular technology to a community. Environmental indicators include energy use, because it indirectly measures resource utilization, and performance of the technology in removing conventional wastewater constituents such as biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, and pathogens. These indicators also determine the reuse potential of the treated wastewater. Societal indicators capture cultural acceptance of the technology through public participation and also measure whether there is improvement in the community from the specific technology through increased job opportunities, better education, or an improved local environment. While selection of a set of indicators is dependent on the geographic and demographic context of a particular community, the overall results of this study show that there are varying degrees of sustainability with each treatment technology. PMID:17467148

  3. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

  4. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  5. Concentrations and inactivation of Ascaris eggs and pathogen indicator organisms in wastewater stabilization pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K L

    2003-01-01

    During treatment in wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) many pathogens, in particular helminth eggs, are concentrated in the sludge layer. Because periodic removal of the sludge is often required, information is needed on the concentrations and inactivation of pathogens in the sludge layer to evaluate the public health risk they pose upon removal of the sludge. In this paper, previous reports on the sludge concentrations of various pathogen indicator organisms and helminth eggs are reviewed and results from our own recent experiments are reported. The advantages and disadvantages of several methods for studying inactivation in the sludge layer are discussed, as well as implications for the management of WSP sludge. In our recent experiments, which were conducted at three WSPs in central Mexico, sludge cores, dialysis chambers, and batch experiments were used to measure the inactivation rates of fecal coliform bacteria, fecal enterococci, F+ coliphage, somatic coliphage, and Ascaris eggs. The first-order inactivation rate constants were found to be approximately 0.1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, and 0.001 d(-1), respectively. The concentrations of all the organisms were found to vary both vertically and horizontally in the sludge layer; therefore, to determine the maximum and average concentration of organisms in the sludge layer of a WSP, complete sludge cores must be collected from representative locations throughout the pond. PMID:14510198

  6. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A., III; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  7. COLLECTION, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGE FROM SMALL COMMUNITIES: U.S. EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sludge treatment represents almost half the cost of wastewater treatment at many facilities in the U.S. Although sludge problems are of serious concern everywhere, they are different for different locations. The approach to sludge handling and the solution to problems depends on ...

  8. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:26420081

  9. Capital and Operating Costs of Full-Scale Fecal Sludge Management and Wastewater Treatment Systems in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A financial comparison of a parallel sewer based (SB) system with activated sludge, and a fecal sludge management (FSM) system with onsite septic tanks, collection and transport (C&T) trucks, and drying beds was conducted. The annualized capital for the SB ($42.66 capita1 year1) was ten times higher than the FSM ($4.05 capita1 year1), the annual operating cost for the SB ($11.98 capita1 year1) was 1.5 times higher than the FSM ($7.58 capita1 year1), and the combined capital and operating for the SB ($54.64 capita1 year1) was five times higher than FSM ($11.63 capita1 year1). In Dakar, costs for SB are almost entirely borne by the sanitation utility, with only 6% of the annualized cost borne by users of the system. In addition to costing less overall, FSM operates with a different business model, with costs spread among households, private companies, and the utility. Hence, SB was 40 times more expensive to implement for the utility than FSM. However, the majority of FSM costs are borne at the household level and are inequitable. The results of the study illustrate that in low-income countries, vast improvements in sanitation can be affordable when employing FSM, whereas SB systems are prohibitively expensive. PMID:22413875

  10. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  11. Prospects and problems of sludge pre-treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Müller, J A

    2001-01-01

    Pre-treatment processes have been developed in order to improve subsequent sludge treatment and disposal. Disintegration of sludge solids in the aqueous phase changes the sludge structure and solubilizes organic matter. This paper provides an overview of the applications of wet disintegration in wastewater and sludge treatment. Applied disintegration techniques such as mechanical, thermal, chemical and biological methods are briefly described. The methods are compared regarding energy consumption, operational reliability and stage of development for application on wastewater treatment plants. Mechanical and thermal methods appear to be most suitable at this stage. The effects of pre-treatment on subsequent sludge treatment processes and the wastewater treatment are described. The performance of various methods is assessed. For the improvement of stabilization, mechanical and ozone treatment as well as thermal treatment perform best. Dewatering can be enhanced by thermal and freeze/thaw treatment. All methods show positive effects in the reduction of the number of pathogens. Pre-treatment leads to secondary effects like the generation of recalcitrant compounds and odor, which is mainly a problem of thermal and ozone treatment. The evaluation of capital and operational costs is difficult, because of the lack of full-scale experience. Especially thermal, freeze/thaw and biological treatments can be realized at low costs if the conditions are appropriate. Nevertheless, the economic efficiency has to be investigated critically for each individual application. PMID:11794642

  12. Influence of wastewater sludge treatment using combined peroxyacetic acid oxidation and inorganic coagulants re-flocculation on characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Cao, Bingdi; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Teng; Xia, Hua; Yu, Dehong

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are highly hydrated biopolymers and play important roles in bioflocculation, floc stability, and solid-water separation processes. Destroying EPS structure will result in sludge reduction and release of trapped water. In this study, the effects of combined process of peracetic acid (PAA) pre-oxidation and chemical re-flocculation on morphological properties and distribution and composition of EPS of the resultant sludge flocs were investigated in detail to gain insights into the mechanism involved in sludge treatment. It was found that sludge particles were effectively solubilized and protein-like substances were degraded into small molecules after PAA oxidation. A higher degradation of protein-like substances was observed at acid environments under PAA oxidation. Microscopic analysis revealed that no integral sludge floc was observed after oxidation with PAA at high doses. The floc was reconstructed with addition of inorganic coagulants (polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and PACl performed better in flocculation due to its higher charge neutralization and bridging ability. Combined oxidative lysis and chemical re-flocculation provide a novel solution for sludge treatment. PMID:26584344

  13. Bioflocculant from pre-treated sludge and its applications in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Ma, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Potentials of alkaline-thermal (ALT) pre-treated sludge as a bioflocculant were studied in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment. When incubated with this ALT pre-treated sludge, dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of typical wastewater activated sludge reached 22.5% and 3.4×10(12)m/kg, respectively, which were much better than that obtained with conventional chemical flocculants. Sludge dewatering was further improved when both the bioflocculant and conventional polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used simultaneously. Charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging were proposed as the reasons for the enhanced performance in the case of the combined use. With swine wastewater, the bioflocculant could remove COD, ammonium and turbidity by 45.2%, 41.8% and 74.6% when incubated with 20mg/L at pH 8.0. This study suggested that the ALT pre-treated sludge has a great potential as an alternative bioflocculant to conventional flocculants in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment. PMID:26259686

  14. Feasibility study: Codisposal with energy recovery from wastewater sludge and municipal refuse. Phase 2, Gloucester County, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The feasibility of thermal reduction of dewatered sludge and mixed municipal refuse with steam recovery for generation of electricity is investigated. The Gloucester County Utilities Authority wastewater treatment complex would produce the sludge and benefit from the generated electricity from a waste to energy system located on adjacent property.

  15. Production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge production of bioplastics using dairy residues.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca; Chiampo, Fulvia

    2010-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable plastics, was studied using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge to define a suitable C/N ratio, the pre-treatments required to reduce the protein content, and the effect of pH correction. The results show good production of PHAs at a C/N=50 and without pH correction. The use of dairy wastewater activated sludge has the advantage of not requiring aseptic conditions. PMID:20226388

  16. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)-SPONSORED EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1975 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored 11 epidemiological studies of the potential health effects associated with the treatment and disposal of sewage and sewage sludge. Three of these have been occupational exposure studies: One of sewage treatment pla...

  17. UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND SLUDGE ON LAND, PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1983 WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop on Utilization of Municipal Wastewater and Sludge on Land was held in Denver, Colorado from February 23 through 25, 1983. Researchers and practioners of land treatment, totaling 203 in number and from the United States and other countries were invited to attend and eva...

  18. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  19. Trace organic contaminants in biosolids: Impact of conventional wastewater and sludge processing technologies and emerging alternatives.

    PubMed

    Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Huang, Xia; Ball, Andrew S; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2015-12-30

    This paper critically reviews the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in biosolids, with emphasis on identifying operation conditions that impact the accumulation of TrOCs in sludge during conventional wastewater and sludge treatment and assessing the technologies available for TrOC removal from biosolids. The fate of TrOCs during sludge thickening, stabilisation (e.g. aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, alkaline stabilisation, and composting), conditioning, and dewatering is elucidated. Operation pH, sludge retention time (SRT), and temperature have significant impact on the sorption and biodegradation of TrOCs in activated sludge that ends up in the sludge treatment line. Anaerobic digestion may exacerbate the estrogenicity of sludge due to bioconversion to more potent metabolites. Application of advanced oxidation or thermal pre-treatment may minimise TrOCs in biosolids by increasing the bioavailability of TrOCs, converting TrOCs into more biodegradable products, or inducing complete mineralisation of TrOCs. Treatment of sludge by bioaugmentation using various bacteria, yeast, or fungus has the potential to reduce TrOC levels in biosolids. PMID:26151380

  20. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this manual is to present a contemporary review of sludge processing technology and the specific procedures to be considered, modified, and applied to meet unique conditions. he manual emphasizes the operational considerations and interrelationships of the various ...

  1. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production. PMID:19937154

  2. Application of ionic liquids for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater and activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Fuerhacker, Maria; Haile, Tadele Measho; Kogelnig, Daniel; Stojanovic, Anja; Keppler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of adsorption studies on the removal of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) from standard solutions, real wastewater samples and activated sewage sludge using a new technique of liquid-liquid extraction using quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs). Batch sorption experiments were conducted using the ILs [PR4][TS], [PR4][MTBA], [A336][TS] and [A336][MTBA]. Removal of these heavy metals from standard solutions were not effective, however removal of heavy metals from the industrial effluents/wastewater treatment plants were satisfactory, indicating that the removal depends mainly on the composition of the wastewater and cannot be predicted with standard solutions. Removal of heavy metals from activated sludge proved to be more successful than conventional methods such as incineration, acid extraction, thermal treatment, etc. For the heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn, ?90% removal was achieved. PMID:22546790

  3. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  4. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  5. Integrating anaerobic processes into wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    McAdam, E J; Lffler, D; Martin-Garcia, N; Eusebi, A L; Lester, J N; Jefferson, B; Cartmell, E

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, the concept of anaerobic processes for the treatment of low temperature domestic wastewater has been introduced. This paper uses a developed wastewater flowsheet model and experimental data from several pilot scale studies to establish the impact of integrating anaerobic process into the wastewater flowsheet. The results demonstrate that, by integrating an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor to treat settled wastewater upstream of the activated sludge process, an immediate reduction in imported electricity of 62.5% may be achieved for a treated flow of c. 10,000 m(3) d(-1). This proposed modification to the flowsheet offers potential synergies with novel unit processes including physico-chemical ammonia removal and dissolved methane recovery. Incorporating either of these unit operations can potentially further improve the flowsheet net energy balance to between +0.037 and +0.078 kWh m(-3) of produced water. The impact of these secondary unit operations is significant as it is this contribution to the net energy balance that facilitates the shift from energy negative to energy positive wastewater treatment. PMID:21508551

  6. [Treatment of drilling wastewater from oil field by using yeast].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanming; Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui; Zhou, Xiangyu; Shen, Zhemin

    2002-09-01

    Two strains of yeast, namely Wickerhamiella domercqii and Candida boidinii, were acquired through screening from soil samples contaminated by drilling wastewater. A TOC removal of 40.5% was acquired when the mixture of the two yeast strains was used for drilling wastewater treatment, a little higher than that with activated sludge acclimated with wastewater (35.2%). Some organic compounds in the fraction of molecular weight above 60,000 were found to be biodegradable. PMID:12533930

  7. EMISSIONS OF METALS AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of metals and organics from a series of four wastewater sludge incinerators were determined. hree multiple hearth units and one fluidized bed combustor were tested. missions were controlled with a combination of venturi and/or tray impingement scrubbers. ne site incorpo...

  8. ELECTROPLATING PLANT OPERATING CONDITIONS RELATED TO WASTEWATER SLUDGE LEACHABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to characterize the operating variables and wastewater sludges from six electroplating plants conducting a wide variety of plating operations so that the information developed would be applicable on an industry-wide basis. The results of the stud...

  9. A STUDY OF FORCED AERATION COMPOSTING OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall study objective was to make an independent assessment of the forced aeration wastewater sludge composting method as practiced at Beltsville, Maryland and Bangor, Maine. A number of visits were made to both sites to observe operations under all weather conditions and t...

  10. Two Devices for Removing Sludge From Bioreactor Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Shivaun; Hitchens, G. DUncan; Jabs, Harry; Cross, Jennifer; Pilkinton, Michelle; Taylor, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Two devices a magnetic separator and a special filter denoted a self-regenerating separator (SRS) have been developed for separating sludge from the stream of wastewater from a bioreactor. These devices were originally intended for use in microgravity, but have also been demonstrated to function in normal Earth gravity. The magnetic separator (see Figure 1) includes a thin-walled nonmagnetic, stainless-steel cylindrical drum that rotates within a cylindrical housing. The wastewater enters the separator through a recirculation inlet, and about 80 percent of the wastewater flow leaves through a recirculation outlet. Inside the drum, a magnet holder positions strong permanent magnets stationary and, except near a recirculation outlet, close to the inner drum surface. To enable magnetic separation, magnetite (a ferromagnetic and magnetically soft iron oxide) powder is mixed into the bioreactor wastewater. The magnetite becomes incorporated into the sludge by condensation, onto the powder particles, of microbe flocks that constitute the sludge. As a result, the magnets inside the drum magnetically attract the sludge onto the outer surface of the drum.

  11. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  12. Packaged wastewater treatment: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.

    1993-06-17

    The paper presents an overview of wastewater treatment problems and solutions for industrial plants which discharge their wastewater to a publicly-owned treatment works (POTW). Since POTWs have limitations on the amount and type of wastes they can effectively treat, many require that their industrial customers limit concentrations of some effluent wastes and eliminate others. Characterizing plant wastewater becomes very important in the selection process for packaged wastewater treatment. Other considerations are also discussed.

  13. Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks.

    PubMed

    Abusam, A; Keesman, K J

    2009-01-01

    The double exponential settling model is the widely accepted model for wastewater secondary settling tanks. However, this model does not estimate accurately solids concentrations in the settler underflow stream, mainly because sludge compression and consolidation processes are not considered. In activated sludge systems, accurate estimation of the solids in the underflow stream will facilitate the calibration process and can lead to correct estimates of particularly kinetic parameters related to biomass growth. Using principles of compaction and consolidation, as in soil mechanics, a dynamic model of the sludge consolidation processes taking place in the secondary settling tanks is developed and incorporated to the commonly used double exponential settling model. The modified double exponential model is calibrated and validated using data obtained from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Good agreement between predicted and measured data confirmed the validity of the modified model. PMID:19280899

  14. Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-04-01

    Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

  15. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission. PMID:22564037

  16. Treatment and reuse of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Luthy, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of recent experimental activities to evaluate processing characteristics of coal conversion wastewaters. Treatment studies have been performed with high-BTU coal gasification process quench waters to assess enhanced removal of organic compounds via powdered activated carbon-activated sludge treatment, and to evaluate a coal gasification wastewater treatment train comprised of sequential processing by ammonia removal, biological oxidation, lime-soda softening, granular activated carbon adsorption, and reverse osmosis. In addition, treatment studies are in progress to evaluate solvent extraction of gasification process wastewater to recover phenolics and to reduce wastewater loading of priority organic pollutants. Biological oxidation of coal gasification wastewater has shown excellent removal efficiencies of major and trace organic contaminants at moderate loadings, addition of powdered activated carbon provides lower effluent COD and color. Gasification process wastewater treated through biological oxidation, lime-soda softening and activated carbon adsorption appears suitable for reuse as cooling tower make-up water. Solvent extraction is an effective means to reduce organic loadings to downstream processing units. In addition, preliminary results have shown that solvent extraction removes chromatographable organic contaminants to low levels.

  17. Persistence of Pathogenic Prion Protein during Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hinckley, Glen T.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Kurt H.; Bartholomay, Christian; McMahon, Katherine D.; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPTSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment. Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 10-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most of the agent would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. PMID:18754377

  18. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  19. USER ACCEPTANCE OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMPOST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study involved visits to several composting and composting distribution operations, extensive literature review, and interviews with users in several metropolitan areas. Existing and past compost and sludge product distribution operations were analyzed to determine the chara...

  20. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  1. Screening wastewater for toxicity to activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Several toxicity tests were compared to define their utility for prediction of toxicity to activated sludge. The tests included: (1) oxygen uptake rates in batch tests with activated sludge, (2) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements in the same batch tests, (3) Warburg respirometer studies with activated sludge, and (4) a luminescent bacteria test (Microtox/sup TM/). An evaluation of the toxicity tests was made with several toxicants; nickel (II), mercury (II), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC). Because of differences in toxic mechanism, some of the toxicants produced greater toxic effects in some tests than in other tests. The ATP levels decreased significant when uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation were studied (DCP and DNOC). Several procedures for measuring ATP were investigated and were found to be unsatisfactory when applied to activated sludge. A new method for extraction of ATP, which incorporated a sonic bath and trichloroacetic acid, was developed. The improved ATP method was used in the toxicity tests and for the additional studies. Current practice in environmental engineering relies on volatile suspended solids (VSS) as a measure of active biomass in activated sludge. After an improved ATP procedure was developed, ATP was investigated for estimation of active biomass. The fate of DCP in the toxicity tests was studied and an adsorptive mechanism was proposed that was based on membrane solubility. This mechanism explained the fate of DCP in the toxicity tests and is useful for understanding the fate of DCP in activated sludge.

  2. Increased biogas production in a wastewater treatment plant by anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and sewer sludge - a full scale study.

    PubMed

    Park, Nathan D; Thring, Ronald W; Garton, Randy P; Rutherford, Michael P; Helle, Steve S

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a well established technology for the reduction of organic matter and stabilization of wastewater. Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced as a useful by-product of the process. Current solid waste management at the city of Prince George is focused on disposal of waste and not on energy recovery. Co-digestion of fresh fruit and vegetable waste with sewer sludge can improve biogas yield by increasing the load of biodegradable material. A six week full-scale project co-digesting almost 15,000 kg of supermarket waste was completed. Average daily biogas production was found to be significantly higher than in previous years. Digester operation remained stable over the course of the study as indicated by the consistently low volatile acids-to-alkalinity ratio. Undigested organic material was visible in centrifuged sludge suggesting that the waste should have been added to the primary digester to prevent short circuiting and to increase the hydraulic retention time of the freshly added waste. PMID:22020478

  3. Characterization of Domestic Wastewater Sludge in Oman from Three Different Regions and Recommendations for Alternative Reuse Applications

    PubMed Central

    BAAWAIN, Mahad S.; AL-JABRI, Mohsin; CHOUDRI, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background There are more than 350 wastewater treatment plants distributed across different parts of Oman. Some of them produce large quantities of domestic sewage sludge, particularly this study focused on characterizing domestic sludge of six treatment plants that may contain various pollutants, therefore the proper management of domestic sewage sludge is essential. Methods Samples of domestic sewage sludge were collected for each month over a period of one year in 2010. Samples of retained/recycled activated sludge (RAS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were analyzed for elec-trical conductivity (EC), potential of hydrogen (pH), cations, anions and volatile content. All tests were conducted according to the Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Results Monitoring ofelectrical conductivity, nitrite and nitrate, the presence of chloride, sulfate and phosphate were higher than the other anions, the phosphate was found very high in all domestic STPs. The average obtained values of the cations in both domestic RAS and WAS samples were within the Omani Standards. Conclusion The study showed the very high concentration of phosphate, it might be worth to further investigate on the sources of phosphate. Cations in both domestic RAS and WAS samples were low and suggest that the domestic sludge can be re used in agriculture. A regular maintenance should be performed to prevent any accumulation of some harmful substances which may affect the sludge quality and the sludge drying beds should be large enough to handle the produced sludge for better management. PMID:26060740

  4. ORGANIC CHEMICAL FATE PREDICTION IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results from a broadly-based effort to determine the feasibility of predicting the fates of organic chemicals in diffused air, activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. The three conversion/removal mechanisms emphasized in the work were stripping, sorp...

  5. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J.; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages - GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1 - had very similar ~76?kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43?kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 515 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  6. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages--GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1--had very similar ~76?kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43?kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5-15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  7. Occurrence of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in sewage sludge and effluent samples of a wastewater-treatment plant in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P; Olujimi, Olanrewaju O

    2012-04-01

    The reuse of treated effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as alternative water source for sport-field or landscape irrigation, agricultural, and other industrial purposes is growing significantly. Similarly, the application of treated sludge (biosolid) to agricultural soils is now being considered globally as the most economic means of sludge disposal. However, the presence of emerging organic contaminants in these matrices, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are potential endocrine disruptors, portends a high health risk to humans and the environment in general. In this study, effluent and sewage sludge samples collected from a WWTP were analysed for some selected PBDE congeners (BDE congeners 28, 47, 99 100 153 154 183, and 209) as well as BB-153 using a high-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The sum of the eight PBDE congeners ranged from 369 to 4370, 19.2 to 2640, and 90.4 to 15,100 ng/l for raw water, secondary effluent, and final effluent, respectively. A similar result was observed for sewage sludge samples, which ranged between 13.1 and 652 ng/g dry weight (dw). The results obtained for BB-153 were generally lower compared with those found for most PBDE congeners. These ranged from ND to 18.4 ng/l and ND to 9.97 ng/g dw for effluents and sewage sludge, respectively. In both matrices, BDE 47 and 209 congeners were found to contribute significantly to the overall sum of PBDEs. The reuse of the treated effluent, particularly for agricultural purposes, could enhance the possibility of these contaminants entering into the food chain, thus causing undesirable health problems in exposed subjects. PMID:22002787

  8. Effects of the incorporation of drinking water sludge on the anaerobic digestion of domestic wastewater sludge for methane production.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lozada, Patricia; Daz-Granados, Jos Snchez; Parra-Orobio, Brayan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Water purification and wastewater treatment generate sludge, which must be adequately handled to prevent detrimental effects to the environment and public health. In this study, we examined the influence of the application of settled sludge from a drinking water treatment plant (S(DWTP)) on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of the thickened primary sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (S(WWTP)) which uses chemically assisted primary treatment (CAPT). On both plants the primary coagulant is ferric chloride. The study was performed at laboratory scale using specific methanogenic activity (SMA) tests, in which mixtures of S(WWTP)-S(DWTP) with the ratios 100:00, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30 and 00:100 were evaluated. Methane detection was also performed by gas chromatography for a period of 30 days. Our results show that all evaluated ratios that incorporate S(DWTP), produce an inhibitory effect on the production of methane. The reduction in methane production ranged from 26% for the smallest concentration of S(DWTP) (20%) to more than 70% for concentrations higher than 25%. The results indicated that the hydrolytic stage was significantly affected, with the hydrolysis constant Kh also reduced by approximately 70% (0.24-0.26 day(-1) for the different ratios compared with 0.34 day(-1) for the S(WWTP) alone). This finding demonstrates that the best mixtures to be considered for anaerobic co-digestion must contain a fraction of S(DWTP) below 20%. PMID:26360763

  9. Activated sludge systems removal efficiency of veterinary pharmaceuticals from slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Pirra, Antnio; Basto, M Clara P; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge on the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from animal food production industry for the removal of both hormones and antibiotics of veterinary application is still very limited. These compounds have already been reported in different environmental compartments at levels that could have potential impacts on the ecosystems. This work aimed to evaluate the role of activated sludge in the removal of commonly used veterinary drugs, enrofloxacin (ENR), tetracycline (TET), and ceftiofur, from wastewater during a conventional treatment process. For that, a series of laboratory-controlled experiments using activated sludge were carried out in batch reactors. Sludge reactors with 100 ?g/L initial drug charge presented removal rates of 68 % for ENR and 77 % for TET from the aqueous phase. Results indicated that sorption to sludge and to the wastewater organic matter was responsible for a significant percentage of drugs removal. Nevertheless, these removal rates still result in considerable concentrations in the aqueous phase that will pass through the WWTP to the receiving environment. Measuring only the dissolved fraction of pharmaceuticals in the WWTP effluents may underestimate the loading and risks to the aquatic environment. PMID:23740304

  10. Fluorochemical Mass Flows in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Huset, Carin A.; Luthy, Richard G.; Barofsky, Douglas F.; Field, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorochemicals have widespread applications and are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants via domestic wastewater. A field study was conducted at a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant to determine the mass flows of selected fluorochemicals. Flow-proportional, 24-h samples of raw influent, primary effluent, trickling filter effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent and grab samples of primary, thickened, activated, and anaerobically-digested sludge were collected over ten days and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Significant decreases in the mass flows of perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorodecanoate occurred during trickling filtration and primary clarification, while activated sludge treatment decreased the mass flow of perfluorohexanoate. Mass flows of the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate were unchanged as a result of wastewater treatment, which indicates that conventional wastewater treatment is not effective for removal of these compounds. A net increase in the mass flows for perfluorooctane and perfluorodecane sulfonates occurred from trickling filtration and activated sludge treatment. Mass flows for perfluoroalkylsulfonamides and perfluorononanoate also increased during activated sludge treatment and are attributed to degradation of precursor molecules. PMID:17180988

  11. Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, David

    1992-01-01

    Cites a recycling success story involving sludge production from wastewater and transformation into an effective plant fertilizer. Discusses related concerns such as dealing with pollutants like heavy metals and PCBs often found in sludge. Provides an example of an application of sludge produced in Chicago to an area reclamation site. (MCO)

  12. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Pathogen survival during forced aeration composting of municipal wastewater sludge. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, P.L.; Chesbro, W.R.

    1982-12-01

    This research investigated the potential for survival of pathogens during and after composting of municipal wastewater sludge by forced aeration, static pile composting method. Both primary and combined primary/secondary sludges were composted.

  14. DENSITY LEVELS OF PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a critical review of the literature from laboratory and full scale studies regarding density levels of indicator and pathogenic organisms in municipal wastewater sludges and septage. The effectiveness of conventional municipal sludge stabilization processes (...

  15. Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, W

    2001-09-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh alum dosage, of which one third of the fresh alum can be saved. The back-diffusion of residued dye from the recycling sludge is detected but is easily controlled as long as a small amount of fresh alum is added to the system. The use of RAS is not recommended for the removal of hydrophilic dyes, since the high solubility characteristics of such dyes can cause deterioration in the water quality during recycling. PMID:11487111

  16. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of 'fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10-17C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids - SS, BOD, nitrogen - N and phosphorus - P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  17. A direct comparison amongst different technologies (aerobic granular sludge, SBR and MBR) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Carucci, Alessandra; Milia, Stefano; Cappai, Giovanna; Muntoni, Aldo

    2010-05-15

    Environmental concern on chlorinated phenols is rising due to their extreme toxicity even at low concentrations and their persistency in water and soils. Since the high amount of published data often lacks in terms of uniformity, direct comparisons amongst different treatment technologies are very difficult, or even impossible. In this study, granular sludge developed in an acetate-fed Granular sludge Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) was used for the aerobic degradation of low chlorinated 4-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as growth substrate. A conventional Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and a Membrane BioReactor (MBR) were operated in parallel under the same 4CP influent concentrations and/or 4CP volumetric organic loading rates as the GSBR, in order to carry out a direct comparison in terms of 4CP removal efficiencies and specific removal rates, effluent quality, waste sludge production, system simplicity, land area requirement, start-up times, NaAc dosage as growth substrate and maximum applied 4CP volumetric organic loading rate. A decision matrix was built to define the best technology to suit different scenarios: the GSBR was proved to be the most suitable technology when system simplicity, low land area requirement and short start-up times were considered as critical parameters for decision making. PMID:20116174

  18. Reuse of wastewater sludge with marine clay as a new resource of construction aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Lee, D J; Hong, S Y

    2004-01-01

    The disposal of sludge from wastewater treatment presents highly complex problems to any municipality. Most of the sludge disposal methods have varying degrees of environmental impact. Hence, it is necessary to explore potential areas of reuse in order to alleviate sludge disposal problems and to conserve natural resources. Industrial sludge and marine clay are two forms of high-volume wastes. Using these wastes as a resource of raw materials to produce construction aggregates would enable large-scale sludge reuse. The aggregates were produced at various sludge-clay combinations containing 0, 20, 50, 80 and 100% clay contents, respectively. The pelletized aggregates displayed lower particle densities ranged between 1.48 and 2.25 g/cm3, compared to the density of granite at 2.56 g/cm3. Good 28-day concrete compressive strength of 38.5 N/mm2 achieved by the 100% sludge aggregate was comparable to the value of 38.0 N/mm2 achieved of the granite control specimens. The leachate contamination levels from the aggregates after 150 days were found acceptable when used in concrete, indicating insignificant environmental contamination. The heat flow study showed increases in heat flow at the temperatures of 480 degrees C and between 660 degrees C and 900 degrees C, indicating a need for the extension of heating time around these temperatures. PMID:15581012

  19. Innovative wastewater treatment using reversing anaerobic upflow system (RAUS)

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic processes are widely popular in the treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters since the development of such high rate treatment processes like upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic filter, and the fluidized-bed process. In order to devise a low cost/high technology system so that it would provide an economical solution to environmentally sound pollution control, the Reversing Anaerobic Upflow System (RAUS) was developed. The system consists of two anaerobic reactors connected to each other. At the beginning, one reactor is fed upwards with wastewater while the other acts as a settling tank. After a set interval of time, the flow is reversed such that the second reactor is fed with wastewater and the first one acts as the settler. This particular feeding pattern had shown improved settling characteristics and granulation of methanogenic biomass from research carried out at the Hannover University with different wastewaters. The biological reaction vessels to which wastewater is introduced intermittently functions basically as a sludge blanket type reactor although the costly integrated settling devices present in a typical UASB system are avoided. The RAUS combines three principle reactor configurations: (1) conventional with sludge recycling; (2) fill and draw or sequential batch, inflow maintained constant during feeding; (3) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket. A pilot scale RAUS was operated for 400 days using distillery wastewater consisting of molasses slop and bottle washing water mixed in the ratio 1:1. This paper discusses the results of pilot scale experiments.

  20. Characterization of a bioflocculant from potato starch wastewater and its application in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Zhang, Yuzhe; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Bin; Shu, Bi

    2015-07-01

    A bioflocculant was produced by using potato starch wastewater; its potential in sludge dewatering and potato starch wastewater treatment was investigated. Production of this bioflocculant was positively associated with cell growth, and a highest value of 0.81 g/L was obtained. When incubated with this bioflocculant, dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of typical wastewater activated sludge reached 20.8% and 3.9 × 10(12) m/kg, respectively, which were much better than the ones obtained with conventional chemical flocculants. Sludge dewatering was further improved when both the bioflocculant and conventional polyacrylamide (PAM) were used simultaneously. With potato starch wastewater, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal rates could reach 52.4 and 81.7%, respectively, at pH value of 7.5 when the bioflocculant dose was adjusted to 30 mg/L; from a practical standpoint, the removal of COD and turbidity reached 48.3 and 72.5%, respectively, without pH value adjustment. PMID:25851719

  1. Polyelectrolyte conditioning for iron-hydroxide-containing sludge produced from electroflocculation of fermentation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jang; Chen, Tson-Nan; Cheng, Yang-Chu

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the application of chemical conditioning method for the post-electroflocculation wastewater sludge treatment with polyelectrolytes of varying ionic characters, namely anionic, cationic and nonionic flocculating agents. Electroflocculation, a combination of the processes of electroflotation and electroprecipitation, was found effective to remove the organic and color components in monosodium glutamate fermentation wastewater. The settleability and dewaterability of the separated sludge, containing 15-20% of iron hydroxides, increased 35% and 60% due to polymer conditioning through a jar-test apparatus. The influence of shear conditions and polymer dose on the floc size, zeta potential, filterability and dewatering performance, and shear resistance of sludges was investigated. Experimental results showed that the anionic polymer acts as a better flocculating agent than both cationic and nonionic polymers, and the optimal polymer doses fall between 4.0 and 10.0 mg/g Fe sludge under corresponding shear rates of 200 300 rpm. This study also indicated that both charge neutralization and polymer bridging mechanisms operate in the sludge conditioning process. PMID:15328692

  2. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: SIDESTREAMS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance problems at publicly-owned treatment works are often attributed to the recycling of sidestreams generated in the wastewater treatment and sludge handling systems. Although the volumes of these sidestreams are generally small compared to plant influent flows, sidestrea...

  3. Process Control Manual for Aerobic Biological Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is an operations manual for activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment facilities. The stated purpose of the manual is to provide an on-the-job reference for operators of these two types of treatment plants. The overall objective of the manual is to aid the operator in

  4. Integration of a microbial fuel cell with activated sludge process for energy-saving wastewater treatment: taking a sequencing batch reactor as an example.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Huang, Yu-Xi; Sun, Xue-Fei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J; Li, Feng; Dong, Fang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-06-01

    In the research and application of microbial fuel cell (MFC), how to incorporate MFCs into current wastewater infrastructure is an importance issue. Here, we report a novel strategy of integrating an MFC into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to test the energy production and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The membrane-less biocathode MFC is integrated with the SBR to recover energy from the aeration in the form of electricity and thus reduce the SBR operation costs. In a lab-scale integrated SBR-MFC system, the maximum power production of the MFC was 2.34 W/m(3) for one typical cycle and the current density reached up to 14 A/m(3) . As a result, the MFC contributed to the 18.7% COD consumption of the integrated system and also recovered energy from the aeration tank with a volume fraction of only 12% of the SBR. Our strategy provides a feasible and effective energy-saving and -recovering solution to upgrade the existing activated sludge processes. PMID:21290383

  5. Characterization of drinking water treatment sludge after ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic technology alone or the combination of ultrasound with alkaline or thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of activated sludge has been extensively documented. However, there are few reports on ultrasound as pretreatment of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), and thereby the characteristic variability of sonicated DWTS has not been fully examined. This research presents a lab-scale study on physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a DWTS sample collected from a water plant after ultrasonic treatment via a bath/probe sonoreactor. By doing this work, we provide implications for using ultrasound as pretreatment of enhanced coagulation of recycling sludge, and for the conditioning of water and wastewater mixed sludge by ultrasound combined with polymers. Our results indicate that the most vigorous DWTS disintegration quantified by particles' size reduction and organic solubilization is achieved with 5 W/ml for 30 min ultra-sonication (specific energy of 1590 kWh/kg TS). The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area of sonicated DWTS flocs increase as ultra-sonication prolongs at lower energy densities (0.03 and 1 W/ml), while decrease as ultra-sonication prolongs at higher energy densities (3 and 5 W/ml). Additionally, the pH and zeta potential of sonicated DWTS slightly varies under all conditions observed. A shorter sonication with higher energy density plays a more effective role in restraining microbial activity than longer sonication with lower energy density. PMID:25443278

  6. Phosphorus recycling potential assessment by a biological test applied to wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Braak, Etienne; Auby, Sarah; Piveteau, Simon; Guilayn, Felipe; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling as mineral fertilizer from wastewater activated sludge (WAS) depends on the amount that can be dissolved and separated from the organic matter before the final crystallization step. The aim of the biological phosphorus dissolution potential (BPDP) test developed here was to assess the maximum amount of P that could be biologically released from WAS prior that the liquid phase enters the recovery process. It was first developed for sludge combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride. Because carbohydrates are known to induce acidification during the first stage of anaerobic digestion, sucrose was used as a co-substrate. Best results were obtained after 24-48 h, without inoculum, with a sugar/sludge ratio of 0.5 gCOD/gVS and under strict anaerobic conditions. Up to 75% of the total phosphorus in sludge from a wastewater treatment plant combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride phosphorus removal could be dissolved. Finally, the test was applied to assess BPDP from different sludge using alum compounds for P removal. No dissolution was observed when alum polychloride was used and less than 20% when alum sulphate was used. In all the cases, comparison to chemical acidification showed that the biological process was a major contributor to P dissolution. The possibility to crystallize struvite was discussed from the composition of the liquids obtained. The BPDP will be used not only to assess the potential for phosphorus recycling from sludge, but also to study the influence of the co-substrates available for anaerobic digestion of sludge. PMID:26786893

  7. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

  8. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."

  9. SLUDGE DEWATERING AND DRYING ON SAND BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dewatering of water and wastewater treatment sludges was examined through mathematical modeling and experimental work. The various components of the research include: (1) chemical analyses of water treatment sludges, (2) drainage and drying studies of sludges, (3) a mathematical ...

  10. REVIEW OF TECHNIQUES FOR TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF PHOSPHORUS-LADEN CHEMICAL SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the effects of phosphorus removal by chemical addition on sludge handling and disposal options at full-scale wastewater treatment plants. American and Canadian plants which generate phosphorus-laden chemical sludges were surveyed by questionnaire, and 174 re...

  11. AMMONIUM-CARBONATE LEACHING OF METAL VALUES FROM WATER-TREATMENT SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was undertaken to explore and develop processes based on ammoniacal leaching to recover metal values from metal-finishing wastewater treatment sludges. The objective was to eliminate or to reduce sufficiently the heavy metal content of the sludge so that it would no ...

  12. PAPERMILL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MICROSTRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An original treatment system was designed, constructed, and operated for removal of suspended solids, turbidity, color, and BOD from the wastewaters of two paper mills which produce technical and other fine papers. The treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation follo...

  13. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  14. Technical, economic and environmental assessment of sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Molist, Jordi; Garca, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) emerge as a promising sustainable technology with low energy requirements and operational costs. In this study, technical, economic and environmental aspects of STW are investigated and compared with other alternatives for sludge management in small communities (<2000 population equivalent). The performance of full-scale STW was characterised during 2 years. Sludge dewatering increased total solids (TS) concentration by 25%, while sludge biodegradation lead to volatile solids around 45% TS and DRI(24h) between 1.1 and 1.4 gO(2)/kgTS h, suggesting a partial stabilisation of biosolids. In the economic and environmental assessment, four scenarios were considered for comparison: 1) STW with direct land application of biosolids, 2) STW with compost post-treatment, 3) centrifuge with compost post-treatment and 4) sludge transport to an intensive wastewater treatment plant. According to the results, STW with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario, which is also characterised by the lowest environmental impact. The life cycle assessment highlights that global warming is a significant impact category in all scenarios, which is attributed to fossil fuel and electricity consumption; while greenhouse gas emissions from STW are insignificant. As a conclusion, STW are the most appropriate alternative for decentralised sludge management in small communities. PMID:20932543

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 2. SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: incineration, pyrolysis, composting, land utilization, and landfilling. The discussion of each process includes, where possible, a presentation of perfor...

  16. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukhareva, N.; Korotchenko, T.; Yurkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing treatment methods.

  17. Optimization of a biological wastewater treatment process at a petrochemical plant using process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.M.; Dold, P.L.; Baker, A.J.; Briggs, T.

    1996-12-31

    A research study was conducted on the activated sludge process treating the wastewater from a petrochemical manufacturing facility in Ontario, Canada. The objective of the study was to improve the level of understanding of the process and to evaluate the use of model-based simulation tools as an aid in the optimization of the wastewater treatment facility. Models such as the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) have previously been developed and applied to assist in designing new systems and to assist in the optimization of existing systems for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, However, due to significant differences between the characteristics of the petrochemical plant wastewater and municipal wastewaters, this study required the development of a mechanistic model specifically to describe the behavior of the activated sludge treatment of the petrochemical wastewater. This paper outlines the development of the mechanistic model and gives examples of how plant performance issues were investigated through process simulation.

  18. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application. PMID:24617077

  19. SAFETY MANUAL FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH OXYGEN AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This safety manual provides design, operating, and safety personnel of municipal wastewater treatment plants which use oxygen aeration of activated sludge systems with the knowledge to prevent hazards due to the interaction of the oxygen with combustibles and other hazardous mate...

  20. Self-heating of dried industrial tannery wastewater sludge induced by pyrophoric iron sulfides formation.

    PubMed

    Bertani, R; Biasin, A; Canu, P; Della Zassa, M; Refosco, D; Simionato, F; Zerlottin, M

    2016-03-15

    Similarly to many powders of solids, dried sludge originated from tannery wastewater may result in a self-heating process, under given circumstances. In most cases, it causes a moderate heating (reaching 70-90°C), but larger, off-design residence times in the drier, in a suboxic atmosphere, extremely reactive solids can be produced. Tannery waste contains several chemicals that mostly end up in the wastewater treatment sludge. Unexpected and uncontrolled self heating could lead to a combustion and even to environmental problems. Elaborating on previous studies, with the addition of several analytical determinations, before and after the self-heating, we attempted to formulate a mechanism for the onset of heating. We demonstrated that the system Fe/S/O has been involved in the process. We proved that the formation of small quantities of pyrophoric iron sulfides is the key. They are converted to sulfated by reaction with water and oxygen with exothermic processes. The pyrite/pyrrhotite production depends on the sludge drying process. The oxidation of sulfides to oxides and sulfates through exothermic steps, reasonably catalyzed by metals in the sludge, occurs preferentially in a moist environment. The mechanism has been proved by reproducing in the laboratory prolonged heating under anoxic/suboxic atmosphere. PMID:26651067

  1. Techno-economic analysis of wastewater sludge gasification: a decentralized urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Nicholas P G; Ramey, Dotti F; Prieto, Ana L; Braun, Robert J; Cath, Tzahi Y; Porter, Jason M

    2014-06-01

    The successful management of wastewater sludge for small-scale, urban wastewater treatment plants, (WWTPs), faces several financial and environmental challenges. Common management strategies stabilize sludge for land disposal by microbial processes or heat. Such approaches require large footprint processing facilities or high energy costs. A new approach considers converting sludge to fuel which can be used to produce electricity on-site. This work evaluated several thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies from the perspective of small urban WWTPs. Among TCC technologies, air-blown gasification was found to be the most suitable approach. A gasification-based generating system was designed and simulated in ASPEN Plus to determine net electrical and thermal outputs. A technical analysis determined that such a system can be built using currently available technologies. Air-blown gasification was found to convert sludge to electricity with an efficiency greater than 17%, about triple the efficiency of electricity generation using anaerobic digester gas. This level of electricity production can offset up to 1/3 of the electrical demands of a typical WWTP. Finally, an economic analysis concluded that a gasification-based power system can be economically feasible for WWTPs with raw sewage flows above 0.093m(3)/s (2.1 million gallons per day), providing a profit of up to $3.5 million over an alternative, thermal drying and landfill disposal. PMID:24727699

  2. Fractionation of heavy metals in sludge from anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds in southern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, E.

    2006-07-01

    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to assess the potential environmental and health risk associated with the sludge coming from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, it is necessary to apply sequential extraction techniques to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability or toxicity. In this paper, a sequential extraction scheme according to the Standard, Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission was applied to sludge samples collected from ten anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) located in southern Spain. Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn were determined in the sludge extracts by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In relation to current international legislation for the use of sludge for agricultural purposes, none of the metal concentrations exceeded maximum permitted levels. Overall, heavy metals were mainly associated with the two less-available fractions (34% oxidizable metal and 55% residual metal). Only Mn and Zn showed the highest share of the available (exchangeable and reducible) fractions (25-48%)

  3. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  4. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  5. Application of Sludges and Wastewaters on Agricultural Land: A Planning and Educational Guide, MCD-35. Research Bulletin 1090.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezek, Bernard D., Ed.; Miller, Robert H., Ed.

    This report addresses the application of agricultural processing wastes, industrial and municipal wastes on agricultural land as both a waste management and resource recovery and reuse practice. The document emphasizes the treatment and beneficial utilization of sludge and wastewater as opposed to waste disposal. These objectives are achieved…

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  7. Prevalence of antiviral antibodies in workers handling wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Iftimovici, R; Iacobescu, V; Copelovici, Y; Dinc?, A; Iordan, L; Niculescu, R; Telegu??, L; Chelaru, M

    1980-01-01

    Serological investigations were performed between 1977-1978 with 972 serum samples from 243 subjects having either direct (group A) or sporadic (group B) occupational contact with wastewater or sludge. the control group (C) was represented by 100 persons having no contact with such material. The sera were tested against influenza, parainfluenza, adeno-, herpes, coronavirus, rickettsial and chlamydial antigens, as well as for the presence of HBsAg and anti-HBs. Statistically significant differences between group A and groups B and C were found as regards the prevalence of antibodies to adenovirus and parainfluenza virus type 1 antigens. PMID:7434563

  8. EVALUATION OF THE TWO-ZONE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS AT NORRISTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Economic and practical considerations compel today's designers to investigate alternatives to conventional strategies for wastewater treatment systems. One such alternative is the Two-Zone process, a novel activated sludge process which combines the aerobic biological reactor and...

  9. Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.

    PubMed

    Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer. PMID:24647181

  10. Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-02-01

    The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen. PMID:25192669

  11. Is your wastewater toxic to the municipal treatment plant?

    SciTech Connect

    Havash, J.; Oster, J.

    1998-03-01

    For many reasons, it is beneficial to know whether or not wastewater generated from a manufacturing process is toxic or can inhibit the microorganisms in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. One simple way to test the wastewater is by using a laboratory respirometer, which can evaluate both toxicity and treatability. In some cases, respirometer use may save an industry thousands or even millions of dollars by proving that certain chemicals previously perceived to be detrimental are actually treatable in the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Because these chemicals will not cause any harm, the cost of a pretreatment plant is avoided. Of course, the reverse could be true when a municipality suspects wastewater discharged from an industry is causing an upset condition to its activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. Because toxicity and treatability are both functions of the respiration rate of microbial cells, a method that measures the respiration rate of microbial cells also can be used to measure toxicity. This article discusses several situations in which a respirometer was used to measure the toxicity and treatability of wastewater suspected to have a toxic effect on the municipal activated sludge plant.

  12. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  13. CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DIGESTED, HEAT-CONDITIONED, AND PURIFAX-TREATED SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater sludges were stabilized by Purifax treatment, anaerobic digestion and heat conditioning. The processed sludges from the Purifax process at chlorine dosages normally used in processing wastewater sludges contained 2 to > 14 times the total organic chlorine content of th...

  14. Biological treatment of a seafood processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Robertson, R.R. II

    1998-07-01

    The seafood industry in Tampa is a multi-million dollar-per-year industry which heavily impacts the environment with large volumes of wastewater containing high concentrations of suspended solids and nitrogen. A 10 liter per day, bench-scale, wastewater treatment facility was designed, constructed, and operated for approximately eight (8) months to collect treat ability data on a seafood-processing wastewater. The bench-scale reactor consisted of a single-sludge, extended aeration, modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process for biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the wastewater. Influent and effluent data collected on the system included: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), pH, total phosphorus (TP), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, and temperature. All analyses were performed in accordance with Standard Methods (1992). Typical influent characteristics were: 900--4,000 mg/L COD, 45--110 mg/L TKN, 150--2,000 mg/L TSS, and 40--80 mg/L TP. Solids residence time (SRT) served as the primary control parameter with average STR's of 4.5, 6.4, 8.5, and 30.9 days observed during the study. The following biokinetic constants were determined from the data: a yield coefficient (Y) of 0.49 mg TSS/mg COD and an endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub e}) of 0.11 days{sup {minus}1}.

  15. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a general introductory overview of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Photographs show a wide range of applications and sizes. Summary data on cost and performance from previously published documents by WERF and EPA is presented. Previously pre...

  16. Treatment of dredged sludge by mechanical dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, T.

    1992-03-01

    Sludge deposits in the water area damage the ecosystems and environments; their elimination has always been an urgent task for human communities. Generally, sludge deposits are dredged out of the bottom of the water area, transported to, and discharged at a large disposal area on land. Recently, however, it has become increasingly difficult to secure disposal areas and routes of speedy transportation for disposal of dredged sludge. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water that can be returned to the water area through mechanical centrifugal dehydration. Sludge deposits are distributed thin and wide on the bottom of the water area, and a pump dredge has been proved effective in many cases for dredging the upper layers of sludge deposits accurately and without creating turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers the following advantages: (a) It requires smaller space for treatment and disposal of dredged sludge than the conventional method. (b) Facilities and costs for transportation can be reduced. (c) Various systems can be adopted for transportation of sludge cakes. (d) This system is transportable and compact and can be constructed anywhere either on land or on water.

  17. Removal of phosphorus from wastewater using ferroxysorb sorption media produced from amd sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Tucker, T.W.; Kehler, T.; Fletcher, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD), whether with lime, limestone, caustic or simple aeration, nearly always results in generation of a metal hydroxide sludge. Disposal of the sludge often constitutes a significant fraction of the operating cost for the AMD treatment plant. Research at the USGS - Leetown Science Center has shown that AMD sludge, with its high content of aluminum and iron oxides, has a high affinity of phosphorus (P). Anthropogenic sources of P are associated with eutrophication and degradation of aquatic environments, resulting in anoxic dead zones in certain sensitive waterways. In this paper, we describe a method of converting the AMD sludge from a liability into an asset - Ferroxysorb P removal media - which can be used to remove excess P from wastewater. Three different Ferroxysorb media samples were produced from differing AMD sources and tested for P removal. Adsorption isotherms confirmed that the media had a high sorption capacity for P, as high as 19,000 mg/kg. The technology was demonstrated at an active fish hatchery, where the media remained in service for over three months without stripping or regeneration. Over that period of time, the calculated P removal was 50%, even at a very low influent P concentration of 60 parts per billion. In summary, use of the AMD-derived Ferroxysorb sorption media will reduce AMD treatment costs while at the same time helping to resolve the pressing environmental issue of eutrophication and degradation of sensitive waterways.

  18. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. PMID:26776150

  19. Bacteriophage biocontrol in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jassim, Sabah A A; Limoges, Richard G; El-Cheikh, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Waterborne bacterial pathogens in wastewater remains an important public health concern, not only because of the environmental damage, morbidity and mortality that they cause, but also due to the high cost of disinfecting wastewater by using physical and chemical methods in treatment plants. Bacteriophages are proposed as bacterial pathogen indicators and as an alternative biological method for wastewater treatment. Phage biocontrol in large scale treatment requires adaptive and aggressive phages that are able to overcome the environmental forces that interfere with phage-host interactions while targeting unwanted bacterial pathogens and preventing biofilms and foaming. This review will shed light on aspects of using bacteriophage programming technology in wastewater plants to rapidly target and reduce undesirable bacteria without harming the useful bacteria needed for biodegradation. PMID:26941243

  20. Evaluation of reusing alum sludge for the coagulation of industrial wastewater containing mixed anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Jangkorn, Siriprapha; Kuhakaew, Sinchai; Theantanoo, Suwapee; Klinla-or, Harit; Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation-flocculation process is typically employed to treat the industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry manufacturing detergents, soaps, and others. The expenditure of chemicals including coagulants and chemicals for pH adjustment is costly for treating this wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing the aluminum sulfate (alum) sludge as a coagulant or as a coagulation aid so that the fresh alum dosage can be minimized or the removal efficiency can be enhanced. The experiments were conducted in a jar-test apparatus simulating the coagulation-flocculation process for simultaneous removals of organic matters, anionic surfactants, suspended solids, and turbidity. At the optimum initial pH value of 10 and the fresh alum concentration of 400 mg/L, the total suspended solids (TSS), total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total anionic surfactants, and turbidity removal efficiencies were 71.5%, 76.4%, 95.4%, and 98.2%, respectively. The addition of alum sludge as a coagulant alone without any fresh alum addition could significantly remove the turbidity, TCOD, and anionic surfactants. The TSS was left in the supernatants after the settling period, but would subsequently be removed by adding the fresh alum. The TSS, TCOD, and turbidity removal efficiencies were also enhanced when both the alum sludge and the fresh alum were employed. The TCOD removal efficiency over 80% has been accomplished, which has never fulfilled by using the fresh alum alone. It is concluded that the alum sludge could be reused for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry. PMID:21793400

  1. Phosphorus removal from synthetic and municipal wastewater using spent alum sludge.

    PubMed

    Georgantas, D A; Grigoropoulou, H P

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, phosphorus removal was studied using as coagulant spent alum sludge from a water treatment plant of EYDAP (Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company) and compared to alum (Al2(SO4)3.18H2O), iron chloride (FeCl3.7H2O), iron sulfate (Fe2(S04).10H2O) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at a constant pH (equal to 6). The comparison was based on their efficiency to remove phosphorus in synthetic wastewater consisting of 10 mg/L P as potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 50 mg/L N as ammonium chloride, The experiments were carried out using a jar-test apparatus and the measurements were performed according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Pure alum, iron chloride and iron sulfate were much more efficient in phosphorus removal than the spent alum sludge but in the case of calcium hydroxide, phosphorus removal was very low in pH = 6. Specifically, orthophosphate were totally removed by alum using 15 mg/L as Al, by alum sludge using 75 mg/L as Al and by FeCl3.7H2O or Fe2(SO4).10H2O using 30 mg/L of Fe while in the case of calcium hydroxide P removal was actually zero. pH measurements showed that the uptake of phosphates is associated to the release of OH ions in the solution and that the end of P uptake is accompanied by the stabilization of pH. Finally this spent alum sludge was tested on municipal wastewater and proved to be effective as apart from phosphorus it was shown to remove turbidity and COD. PMID:16459830

  2. Design concepts for biological treatment of industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, R.W.; Mantelli, G.N.; Bradford, M.L.

    1995-02-01

    Wastewater treatment systems have an operating envelope bounded by upper and lower operating limits. The design criteria should therefore include upper and lower operating limits. Upper limits are generally dictated by the effluent permit, whereas lower limits are the result of design. The design challenge for an industrial wastewater treatment system is to create a process which is capable of responding to extreme variations in flow and pollutant concentration, yet maintain the effluent within permit limitations. Industrial wastewater is contaminated with oil, aromatics, ammonia, phenols, sulfide, and heavy metals. Because the operating loads (flow, pollutant concentration, toxics, pH, and salinity) are largely unpredictable, maximum flexibility and controllability should be incorporated into the design. Since the heart of the wastewater treating system is the biological oxidation process, particular attention should be given to its specifications. A biological oxidation system that is too large can cause as many problems as one that is too small. This paper focuses on design considerations for the activated sludge process for industrial wastewater. Case Study 1 is an example of how to design a grass roots wastewater treatment plant for a new refinery. This design provides for the maximum efficiency and operability within permit limits. However, Case Study 2 is an example of how not to design an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Typically wastewater treatment systems like Case Study 2 are over-designed, which causes many operability problems that lead to permit excursions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Extracellular polymeric substances production kinetics of 13 sludge isolates using wastewater sludge as raw material and its flocculation potential.

    PubMed

    More, Tanaji; Mahmoudi, Amine; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal

    2015-12-01

    The kinetics of batch fermentation of 13 extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains (9 Bacillus, 2 Serratia and 2 Yersinia) were carried out using sterilized sludge as a raw material. The most of Bacillus (max: 0.11-0.27?h(-1)), Serratia (max: 0.23-0.27?h(-1)) and Yersinia (max: 0.18-0.19?h(-1)) strains had capability to grow and produce EPS (1.36-2.12?g/L) in the sterilized sludge. In general, EPS production was mixed growth associated for all the bacterial strains cultivated independently. Bacillus sp. 7, Serratia sp. 2 and Yersinia sp. 2 produced higher concentration (1.95-2.12?g/L) of EPS than the other remaining bacterial strains. Protein and carbohydrate contents of EPS remained constant during fermentation. Broth EPS (B-EPS) exhibited high kaolin flocculation activity (?75%) in most of the cases except Bacillus sp. 1, Bacillus sp. 5 and Bacillus sp. 9, respectively. In general, high flocculation activities (FAs) (?75%), were attained using 1.31-1.70?mg B-EPS/g kaolin, 0.45-0.97?mg protein/g kaolin and 0.11-0.21?mg carbohydrates/g kaolin. The study suggests that further systematic exploration is required for optimizing the process of EPS production. EPS produced in the sludge can potentially be used for different water and wastewater treatments. PMID:25196662

  4. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies. PMID:24457302

  5. Characterization of Industrial Wastewater Sludge in Oman from Three Different Regions and Recommendations for Alternate Reuse Applications

    PubMed Central

    BAAWAIN, Mahad S.; AL-JABRI, Mohsin; CHOUDRI, B.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Domestic and industrial wastewaters are mostly treated by biological process such as activated sludge, aerobic pond, and anaerobic treatment. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of sewage sludge in the Sultanate of Oman chosen from three industrial sewage treatment plants (STPs): Rusayl Industrial Estate (RSL.IE); Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE); and Raysut Industrial Estate (RIE). Methods: Samples of recycled activated sludge (RAS) and wasted activated sludge (WAS) were collected over a period of 12 months across above mentioned STPs. Parameters analyzed are electrical conductivity (EC), potential of hydrogen (pH), cations, anions and volatile content (VC). Results: The obtained values for pH and EC were low for both RAS and WAS samples, except EC values of RIE that was more than 1000 μS/cm. The range of VC percentages in RAS and WAS samples were 44 to 86% and 41 to 77%, respectively. The measured values for chloride, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate were higher than the other anions. Conclusion: The average values of the cations in RAS and WAS samples were within the Omani Standards, suitable for the re-use of sludge in agriculture except for Cd in RSL.IE. The study recommends that a regular maintenance should be performed at the studied STPs to prevent any accumulation of some harmful substances, which may affect the sludge quality, and the sludge drying beds should be large enough to handle the produced sludge for better management. PMID:26744704

  6. Anaerobic wastewater treatment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Fraser, J.; Klepp, B.E.; Mueller, P.A.

    1987-11-01

    This project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of wastewater dilution, GAC (granular activated carbon) replacement rate, GAC particle size, operating temperature, and reactor configuration on the treatment of coal gasification wastewater with the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic bioreactor. Coal gasification wastewater used was generated in a low BTU, elevated pressure, stirred fixed-bed, gasifier operated by Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The treatability of another wastewater generated in a full-scale, slagging fixed-bed modification of a conventional dry-ash, pressurized gasifier located at the Great Plains gasification Association (GPGA) facility in North Dakota was also evaluated. Full-strength METC wastewater was found to be effectively treated at chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates as high as 19.4 g/kg GAC-day. At this rate, an excess of 50% of the applied COD was converted to methane, and a carbon utilization rate of 10 g GAC per liter of wastewater treated was employed. At these operating conditions, COD removal efficiencies across the treatment system exceeded 95%. Good COD removal and efficient COD conversion to methane were attainable at loading rates exceeding 70 g COD/kg GAC-day. Wastewater generated at the GPGA facility was found to be treatable at full-strength in the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor at COD loading rates as high as 48 g COD/kg GAC-day. COD removal efficiencies at this loading rate exceeded 90%. Coal gasification wastewater was found to resist treatment under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. The thermophilic expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor affected very poor conversion efficiencies of phenol, even when fed a synthetically prepared phenol bearing wastewater. 29 refs., 77 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge in the United States: Regulatory Considerations for Risk Reduction and Determining Treatment Process Equivalency

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, municipal wastewater includes discharges from households, commercial businesses and various industries. Microorganisms associated with these wastes can be concentrated in the solids (sludge) which are removed during treatment operations. Beneficial reuse a...

  8. Comparative effectiveness of membrane bioreactors, conventional secondary treatment, and disinfection to remove microorganisms from municipal wastewaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Log removals of bacterial indicators, coliphage, and enteric viruses were studied in three membrane bioreactor activated-sludge (MBR) and two conventional secondary activated-sludge municipal wastewater treatment plants during three disinfection seasons (May–Oct.). In total, 73 regular samples were ...

  9. MATERIAL BALANCES OF ESTROGENIC EDCS IN PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pair of pilot scale conventional wastewater treatment plants have been constructed and are online. These plants differ only in the sludge digestion step. One uses aerobic and the other uses anaerobic sludge digestion. Estrogenic EDCs are being measured in the liquid stream at e...

  10. Effect of ambient temperatures on disinfection efficiency of various sludge treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeld, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge produced during municipal wastewater treatment has to be treated efficiently in order to reduce impacts on the environment and on public health. In Germany and many countries, large quantities of sludge are reused in agriculture in order to recycle nutrients and organic material. In order to quantify the effect of different ambient temperatures on conventional and advanced sludge treatment technologies as well as on disinfection efficiency, a comprehensive research study was performed at Braunschweig Institute of Technology. The detailed results show that ambient temperature has a strong effect on biological liquid sludge stabilization and on natural dewatering and drying technologies, although microbiological quality of treated sludge, indicated by Escherichia coli concentration, does not meet the requirements for unrestricted reuse in agriculture. Composting and lime treatment of sludge are most efficient on reducing E. coli, as high temperatures and high pH values arise in the material respectively. PMID:24434963

  11. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  12. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams. PMID:23657583

  13. Solar-thermic sewage sludge treatment in extreme alpine environments.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Schoen, M A; Wett, B

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of a program for environmental protection conducted by the German mountaineers' club (DAV) problems emerging from residual solids accumulating in on-site wastewater treatment plants of mountain refuges were investigated. To handle these problems in an ecologically and economically reasonable way two devices for solar-supported treatment of sludge and bio-solids have been developed. These units support gravity-filtration and evaporation of liquid sludge as well as thermal acceleration of composting processes. Two solar sludge dryers were installed and operated without external energy supply at alpine refuges treating primary and secondary sludge, respectively. Batch-filling during the season could increase load capacity and a total solids concentration of up to 40% could be achieved before discharge at the beginning of the next season. The promising results from the solar sludge dryer encouraged for the development of a solar composter. The period of temperature levels suitable for composting biosolids in mountain areas can be extended considerably by application of this technology--measured temperature distribution indicated no freezing at all. PMID:18057635

  14. Extending the use of dewatered alum sludge as a P-trapping material in effluent purification: Study on two separate water treatment sludges.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Q; Yang, Y

    2010-08-01

    The generation of alum sludge from drinking water purification process remains inevitable when aluminium sulphate is used as primary coagulant for raw water coagulation. Sustainable managing such the sludge becomes an increasing concern in water industry. Its beneficial reuse is therefore highly desirable and has attracted considerable research efforts. In view of the novel development of alum sludge as a value-added raw material for beneficial reuse for wastewater treatment, this study examined the maximum phosphorus-adsorption capacity of two dewatered alum sludges sampled from two largest water treatment works in Dublin, Ireland. The objective lies in clarifying the change of alum sludge characteristics and its P-adsorption capacity over the location of the alum sludge produced and the raw water being treated. Experiments have demonstrated that the two alum sludges have the similar P adsorption capacity (14.3 mg P/g sludge for Ballymore-Eustace sludge and 13.1 mg P/g sludge for Leixlip sludge at pH 7.0). However, the study supports that alum sludge beneficial reuse as a low cost adsorbent for P immobilization should study its P-adsorption capacity before any decision of large application is made since the raw water quality will affect the sludge characteristics and therefore influence its adsorption ability. PMID:20623402

  15. Using wastewater for cooling: Increasing water reuse poses treatment challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Lutey, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    Technologies for control of biofouling, scale, corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems are discussed. Techniques involving water reuse and using wastewater as makeup are emphasized, and associated problems are identified. Appropriate chemical treatments, including biocides and biostats, biodispersants, sludge dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and supplementary chemical treatments, are outlined. New and developing technologies reviewed include microorganism control based on biodispersants and on enzymes.

  16. The nitrite-oxidizing community in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant determined by fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Myriam; Zumbrgel, Sabine; Bakker, Evert; Spieck, Eva; Eggers, Till; Lipski, Andr

    2013-10-01

    Metabolically-active autotrophic nitrite oxidizers from activated sludge were labeled with (13)C-bicarbonate under exposure to different temperatures and nitrite concentrations. The labeled samples were characterized by FAME-SIP (fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing). The compound cis-11-palmitoleic acid, which is the major lipid of the most abundant nitrite oxidizer in activated sludge, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii, showed (13)C-incorporation in all samples exposed to 3 mM nitrite. Subsequently, the lipid cis-7-palmitoleic acid was labeled, and it indicated the activity of a nitrite oxidizer that was different from the known Nitrospira taxa in activated sludge. The highest incorporation of cis-7-palmitoleic acid label was found after incubation with a nitrite concentration of 0.3 mM at 17 and 22C. While activity of Nitrobacter populations could not be detected by the FAME-SIP approach, an unknown nitrite oxidizer with the major lipid cis-9 isomer of palmitoleic acid exhibited (13)C-incorporation at 28C with 30 mM nitrite. These results indicated flexibility of nitrite-oxidizing guilds in a complex community responding to different conditions. Labeled lipids so far not described for activated sludge-associated nitrifiers indicated the presence of unknown nitrite oxidizers in this habitat. The FAME-SIP-based information can be used to define appropriate conditions for the enrichment of nitrite-oxidizing guilds from complex samples. PMID:23921154

  17. Land Application of Wastewater Sludges: A National Science Foundation Student-Originated Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Timothy J.; Barnard, Walther M.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes a student-originated studies project, funded by the National Science Foundation, on land application of wastewater sludges. Describes the students' proposal, research methods, and evaluation of the project. (DS)

  18. EMISSIONS OF METALS, CHROMIUM AND NICKEL SPECIES, AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide data to support regulations on municipal wastewater sludge incineration, emissions of metals, hexavalent chromium, nickel subsulfide, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs), semivolatile and volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO)...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - AUTOTHERMAL THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a promising technology autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion for meeting the current and proposed U.S. federal requirements for pathogen controJ and land application of municipal wastewater sludge. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, or AT...

  20. REDUCTION OF INTERFERING CYTOTOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER SLUDGE CONCENTRATES ASSAYED FOR INDIGENOUS ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Washing, freon extraction, and cationic polyelectrolyte precipitation were compared for their ability to reduce cytotoxicity associated with virus concentrates derived from beef extract eluates of wastewater sludges. Eluates concentrated by hydroextraction were usually much more ...

  1. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B

    2008-05-30

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91+/-2% and 84+/-4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75+/-10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 microm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m2/h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria. PMID:17976906

  2. Use of wastewater sludge as a raw material for production of L-lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Akakura, Naoki; Adachi, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    This study utilizes wastewater sludges to produce L-lactic acid, a precursor of biodegradable plastic. The high concentrations of cellulose contained in the sludge, derived from a paper manufacturing facility, have been found to be convertible to L-lactic acid at a rate as high as 6.91 g/L. To achieve such a high conversion rate, the sludge must be pretreated with cellulase. This pretreatment includes inoculation of the sludge with lactic acid bacteria, strain LA1, after the sludge has been subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis.

  3. Polyelectrolytes: Wastewater and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning polyelectrolytes in wastewater and water treatment. Topics include flocculation, coagulation, separation techniques, pollutant identification, water pollution sources, and sludge dehydration. Hospital wastewater processing, methods of synthesizing polyelectrolyte complexes, and performance evaluations of polyelectrolytes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Use of sanitary sewers as wastewater pre-treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warith, M.A.; Kennedy, K.; Reitsma, R.

    1998-12-31

    As wastewater travels through a sewer system it undergoes changes in composition. The changes in composition may be caused by chemical, physical and/or biological processes. At present engineers do not take into consideration the impacts of these processes on the wastewater quality when designing wastewater treatment systems. However, the impact of these processes on the chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus content of the wastewater can be significant. In the case of the biological processes, microorganisms present in the water as it travels through the sewer system are similar to those found in an activated sludge process. Given that the microorganism population and the hydraulic retention time often resembles that of an activated sludge process, it would seem only reasonable to look further into the possibility of using sewers as wastewater treatment systems. Furthermore, the plug flow regime of a sanitary sewer is inherently beneficial in terms of wastewater treatment as it is not subject to short-circuiting. The first part of this paper provides a technical review of the processes which take place in a sewer system and the resulting degradation of some of the more significant substances found in wastewater. The contribution of both the suspended biomass and the attached biomass to the degradation of substrate is also examined. The second part of this paper examines the use of the Toxchem computer model to predict the processes which are taking place in the sewer under a variety of conditions. The goal being to determine the magnitude of the degradation of substrate and dissolved oxygen depletion in a sewer system. In obtaining a better understanding of the processes that are taking place in sewer systems, engineers will be able to more accurately predict the degradation of substrates in sanitary sewer systems. This will result in a reduction in the size of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs).

  5. ENZYME ADDITION TO THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER PRIMARY SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates the effects of enzyme augmentation on municipal wastewater (MWW) sludge anaerobic digestion. The primary objective was to examine the impact of using enzymes to enhance the degradation of the cellulosic and the oil- and grease-rich sludge fractions. The additi...

  6. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  7. Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2014-06-01

    Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

  8. Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

  9. Sludge quality after 10-20 years of treatment in reed bed systems.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen; Bruun, Esben Wilson

    2015-09-01

    The effect on the environment of the operation of sludge treatment in reed beds (STRB) system is seen as quite limited compared to traditional sludge treatment systems such as mechanical dewatering, drying and incineration with their accompanying use of chemicals and energy consumption. There are several STRB systems in Denmark receiving sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Stabilization and mineralization of the sludge in the STRB systems occur during a period between 10 and 20 years, where after the basins are emptied and the sludge residue typically is spread on agricultural land. In the present study, the sludge residue quality after treatment periods of 10-20 years from four Danish STRBs is presented. After reduction, dewatering and mineralization of the feed sludge (dry solid content of 0.5-3 %) in the STRB systems, the sludge residue achieved up to 26 % dry solid, depending on the sludge quality and dimensioning of the STRB system. The concentration of heavy metals and hazardous organic compounds in the sludge residue that are listed in the Danish and EU legislation for farmland application of sludge was below the limit values. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations as an average in the sludge residue were 28 and 36 g/kg dry solid (DS), respectively. In addition, mineralization on average across the four STRB systems removed up to 27 % of the organic solids in the sludge. The investigation showed that the sludge residue qualities of the four STRBs after a full treatment period all complied with the Danish and European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. PMID:25422113

  10. Occurrence of polycyclic musks in wastewater and receiving water bodies and fate during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Clara, M; Gans, O; Windhofer, G; Krenn, U; Hartl, W; Braun, K; Scharf, S; Scheffknecht, C

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of cashmerane (DPMI), celestolide, phantolide, traesolide (ATII), galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) in sewage and surface waters and their fate during wastewater treatment and anaerobic sludge digestion is investigated. AHTN and HHCB are the most important representatives and influent concentrations of 0.41-1.8 and 0.9-13 ?gL(-1) are observed. DPMI is detected in influent and effluent samples but in notably lower concentrations than AHTN and HHCB. Major sources of polycyclic musks are households, whereas industrial emitters seem to be of minor importance. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of selected industrial wastewaters (metal, textile and paper industry). Specific emissions of 0.36 0.19 and 1.6 1.0 mg cap(-1)d(-1) for AHTN and HHCB are calculated. Overall removal efficiencies between approx 50% and more than 95% are observed during biological wastewater treatment and removal with the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. Log K(D) values of 3.73-4.3 for AHTN, 3.87-4.34 for HHCB and 2.42-3.22 for DPMI are observed in secondary sludge. During sludge digestion no or only slight removal occurred. Mean polycyclic musk concentrations in digested sludge amounted to 1.9 0.9 (AHTN), 14.2 5.8 (HHCB), 0.8 0.4 (ATII) and 0.2 0.09 (DPMI) mgkg(-1) dry matter. In the receiving water systems a comparable distribution as during wastewater treatment is observed. AHTN, HHCB and DPMI are detected in surface waters (ND (not detected) - <0.04, ND - 0.32 and ND - 0.02 ?g L(-1)) as well as AHTN and HHCB in sediments (ND - 20, ND - 120 ?g kg(-1)). For HHCB an apparent K(OC) value of 4.1-4.4 is calculated for sediments. Major source for polycyclic musks in surface waters are discharges from wastewater treatment plants. For HHCB and DPMI 100% of the load observed in the sampled surface waters derive from discharges of treated wastewater. PMID:21144551

  11. Recycle of Alum recovered from water treatment sludge in chemically enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, Y C; Wang, N

    2009-01-30

    An investigation was made to study the feasibility of recovering the Alum from coagulation sludges and reusing it in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process to make the CEPT more cost-effective and recover the resource (Alum) efficiently. The optimum condition and efficiency of the acidification method for Alum recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated in the test. The results show that when the recovery rate of Alum reaches its highest level, 84.5%, the reduction rate of sludge is 35.5%. It turns out that the capability of recovered coagulant to remove turbidity, UV(254) and COD are 96%, 46% and 53%, respectively. The results prove that the recovered coagulants could be used in CEPT and the efficiency of recovered coagulant to remove pollutants is similar to that of fresh coagulant. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on the quality of treated wastewater. The experiments verify that it would be an advisable and cost-effective way to recover Alum from coagulation sludges in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and it could be then recycled to CEPT as well as reduce sludge volume. PMID:18486332

  12. Fate of diclofenac in municipal wastewater treatment plant - a review.

    PubMed

    Vieno, Niina; Sillanp, Mika

    2014-08-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a common anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical that is often detected in waste wasters, effluents and surface waters. Recently, DCF was included in the watch list of substances in EU that requires its environmental monitoring in the member states. DCF is also known to harmfully affect several environmental species already at concentrations of ? 1 ?g/l. This review focuses on the occurrence and fate of DCF in conventional wastewater treatment processes. Research done in this area was gathered and analyzed in order to find out the possibilities to enhance DCF elimination during biological wastewater treatment. More precisely, human metabolism, concentrations in wastewater influents and effluents, elimination rates in the treatment train, roles of sorption and biotransformation mechanisms during the treatment as well as formation of transformation products are reported. Additionally, the effect of process configuration, i.e. conventional activated sludge (CAS), biological nutrient removal (BNR), membrane bioreactor (MBR) and attached-growth bioreactor, and process parameters, i.e. solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) are presented. Generally, DCF is poorly biodegradable which often translates into low elimination rates during biological wastewater treatment. Only a minor portion is sorbed to sludge. MBR and attached-growth bioreactors may result in higher elimination of DCF over CAS or BNR. Long SRTs (>150 d) favor the DCF elimination due to sludge adaptation. Longer HRTs (>2-3d) could significantly increase the elimination of DCF during biological wastewater treatment. Bioaugmentation could be used to enhance DCF elimination, however, this requires more research on microbial communities that are able to degrade DCF. Also, further research is needed to gain more information about the deconjugation processes and biotic and abiotic transformation and the nature of transformation products. PMID:24791707

  13. Fate of silica nanoparticles in simulated primary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Helen P; Al-Obaidi, Hisham; King, Stephen M; Bowes, Michael J; Lawrence, M Jayne; Drake, Alex F; Green, Mark A; Dobson, Peter J

    2009-11-15

    Through novel application of small-angle neutron scattering, we examined the fate of silica nanoparticles (SiO(2)NPs) during simulated primary wastewater treatment, by measuring, in real time, the colloidal behavior of SiO(2)NPs in wastewater (sewage). We examined the effects of surface functionality on SiO(2)NP fate in wastewater, by comparing both unfunctionalized (uncoated or "bare") SiO(2)NPs and SiO(2)NPs functionalized with a thin coating of a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20), which is widely used in personal care and household product formulations containing engineered oxide nanoparticles. Our results show new evidence that the surface functionality of SiO(2)NPs plays a crucial role in their flocculation and sedimentation behavior in wastewater, and thus the likely efficacy of their removal from the effluent stream during primary wastewater treatment. Uncoated SiO(2)NPs did not flocculate in wastewater over typical residence times for primary treatment. Conversely, surface-functionalized (Tween-coated) SiO(2)NPs underwent rapid flocculation in wastewater. Our results show that the surface-functionalized SiO(2)NPs are likely to be removed by sedimentation to sewage sludge (typically recycled to land), whereas uncoated SiO(2)NPs will continue through the effluent stream. While nanoparticle design is driven by use purpose, this study shows new potential for exploiting surface functionalization of nanoparticles to modify their environmental pathways. PMID:20028062

  14. Real-time optical monitoring of the wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Koivuranta, Elisa; Kuokkanen, Anna; Juuso, Esko; Leivisk, Kauko

    2016-02-01

    One activated sludge process line was optically monitored in situ by a novel image analysis equipment. The results of the image analysis were studied to find out dependencies to the process variables of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and to the quality of the treated wastewater. The quality parameter of the treated wastewater, suspended solids, was modelled using the image analysis results. The model can be used for evaluating the performance of the WWTP and for the better control for stable effluent quality. It was shown that the results of the online optical monitoring reveal useful information from the process and can be used in forecasting the quality of biologically treated wastewater. The optical monitoring method together with process measurements has an important role in keeping the process in stable operating conditions and avoiding environmental risks. PMID:26238162

  15. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  16. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  17. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.

  18. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  19. Cogeneration at wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Oyler, A. . Wastewater Utilities Dept.); Klem, E.

    1993-11-01

    This article describes an energy saving wastewater treatment plant incorporating cogeneration through powering of gas driven engine-generators by methane collected from the plants anaerobic digester system. The topics of the article include a description of the plant, gas storage and explosion protection, generating electricity, and energy expense savings.

  20. WINERY WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been prepared to fulfill a Research, Development and Demonstration Grant. The grant was awarded to investigate a method of treatment for winery wastewaters. In brief - the grapes are harvested in the fall and are immediately pressed of their juice. The juice is fe...

  1. Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Dieu, B

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

  2. Sorption behavior of a synthetic antioxidant, polycyclic musk, and an organophosphate insecticide in wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S M; Bodour, A A; Murray, K E; Inniss, E C

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) are chemicals that are currently unregulated due to limited understanding of health effects and limited data regarding occurrence. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) receive many ECs as components of influent waste and the removal of organic contaminants, such as ECs, occurs primarily by sorption to sludge. Therefore, it is important to develop measures of sorption behavior by ECs to sludge. This study evaluates sorption of three ECs: 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) a synthetic antioxidant, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyrane (HHCB) a polycyclic musk, and chlorpyrifos a organophosphate insecticide. Twenty-four hour laboratory-scale sorption experiments were conducted for each compound individually and then in combination, which allowed the quantification of sorption onto wastewater sludge and the affects of multiple compounds. ECs in both the liquid and solid phases were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Isotherms of individual sorption behavior followed a linear trend (R2 > 0.9) for individual ECs, while K(d) averaged 2,689 L kg(-1), 27,786 L kg(-1) and 31,402 L kg(-1) for BHA, chlorpyrifos and HHCB, respectively. Sorption behavior for BHA was linear during combined studies with K(d) of 1,766 L kg(-1) or a decrease of 34%, while HHCB and chlorpyrifos followed non-linear isotherm models. Synergistic effects were observed with spike concentrations > or =25 mg L(-1) for HHCB and > or =20 mg L(-1) for chlorpyrifos. K(d) values ranged from 16,984-6,000,000 L kg(-1) for HHCB and 19,536-3,000,000 L kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos. These distribution coefficients differed substantially from previously published values, mainly because few studies used sludge as the sorption media. Results suggest that HHCB and chlorpyrifos may be contained in the sludge unlike BHA, which is more available in the aqueous phase. Future investigations should evaluate WWTP processes for degrading ECs to harmless products and releases of ECs from sludge. PMID:19587412

  3. Sludge minimization technologies--an overview.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, H

    2004-01-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more than the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In this paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). PMID:15259935

  4. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  5. Use of wastewater ER sludges for the immobilization of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Macha, S.; Murray, D.; Urasa, I.T.

    1996-10-01

    The distribution, mobility, and bioavailability of heavy metals in soils, surface water, and ground water have been of major interest and concern from both environmental and geochemical standpoints. Wastewater sludges represent an important anthropogenic factor whose impact on these processes is not fully understood. In the past, incineration and landfilling were common practices for discarding wastewater sludges. However, as local and state laws governing the disposal of these materials have become more stringent, land application has been used as an alternative. Reported studies have shown that the impact of land application of sludges can vary widely and is influenced by a number of factors, including the source of the sludge; the organic matter content of the sludge; the form in which the sludge is applied; and the prevailing conditions of the receiving soils. It has also been shown that sewage sludge can have solubilizing effects on solid-phase heavy metals, thereby causing geochemical shifts of the insoluble fractions of metals to the more soluble forms. The work presented in this paper utilized synthetic minerals, standard solutions, sludges, and agricultural soils obtained from different sources to determine the mechanisms involved in the mineralization of heavy metals by sludge; the influence of soil conditions; interelemental effects; the influence of natural organic matter; and possible microbial activity that may come into play. Several types of sludge were evaluated for lead binding capacity.

  6. Optimization of Ozonation Process for the Reduction of Excess Sludge Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    PubMed Central

    Subha, B.; Muthukumar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2) of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction. PMID:22593666

  7. Enrichment and activity of methanotrophic microorganisms from municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Vale, Isabel Campante; Dell'Isola, Jssica; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; Calabria Araujo, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, methanotrophic microorganisms were enriched from a municipal wastewater sludge taken from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor. The enrichment was performed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an autotrophic medium containing nitrite and nitrate. The microbial community composition of the inoculum and of the enrichment culture after 100 days of SBR operation was investigated and compared with the help of data obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analyses. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies were 68% and 53%, respectively, probably due to heterotrophic denitrification. Archaeal cells of the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaic (ANME)-I and ANME-II groups were detected by polymerase chain reaction throughout the whole cultivation period. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that community composition was different among the two samples analysed. The dominant phyla found in the inoculum were Synergistestes, Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota, while Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria prevailed in the enriched biomass. The cultivation conditions decreased Methanobacterium abundance from 8% to 1%, and enriched for methanotrophic bacteria such as Methylocaldum, Methylocistis and Methylosinus. Sequences of Methylocaldum sp. accounted for 2.5% of the total reads. The presence and high predominance of Verrucomicrobia in the enriched biomass suggested that other unknown methanotrophic species related to that phylum might also have occurred in the reactor. Anaerobic methane oxidation activity was measured for both samples, and showed that the activity of the enrichment culture was nearly three times higher than the activity of the inoculum. Taken together, these results showed that the inoculum type and cultivation conditions were properly suited for methanotrophic enrichment. PMID:25495866

  8. A simple empirical model for the clarification-thickening process in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y K; Wang, H C; Qi, L; Liu, G H; He, Z J; Fan, H T

    2015-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), activated sludge is thickened in secondary settling tanks and recycled into the biological reactor to maintain enough biomass for wastewater treatment. Accurately estimating the activated sludge concentration in the lower portion of the secondary clarifiers is of great importance for evaluating and controlling the sludge recycled ratio, ensuring smooth and efficient operation of the WWTP. By dividing the overall activated sludge-thickening curve into a hindered zone and a compression zone, an empirical model describing activated sludge thickening in the compression zone was obtained by empirical regression. This empirical model was developed through experiments conducted using sludge from five WWTPs, and validated by the measured data from a sixth WWTP, which fit the model well (R = 0.98, p < 0.001). The model requires application of only one parameter, the sludge volume index (SVI), which is readily incorporated into routine analysis. By combining this model with the conservation of mass equation, an empirical model for compression settling was also developed. Finally, the effects of denitrification and addition of a polymer were also analysed because of their effect on sludge thickening, which can be useful for WWTP operation, e.g., improving wastewater treatment or the proper use of the polymer. PMID:25714635

  9. Distribution and characterization of anammox in a swine wastewater activated sludge facility.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Takao; Takeuchi, Mio; Wakiya, Yuichiro; Waki, Miyoko

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a novel biological nitrogen removal process that oxidizes NH4(+) to N2 with NO2(-) as an electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential activity and characteristics of anammox in a conventional swine wastewater treatment facility, which uses an activated sludge system consisting of three cascade aeration tanks equipped with ceramic support material. Anammox activity was estimated by a (15)N tracer assay method and was detected in all the sludge and biofilm samples in each aeration tank. Biofilm taken from the third aeration tank, in which the dissolved oxygen concentration was 7.5 mg/L and the wastewater included a high concentration of NO3(-), showed by far the highest anammox activity. A clone library analysis showed the existence of anammox bacteria closely related to 'Candidatus Jettenia asiatica' and 'Ca. Brocadia caroliniensis'. The optimum conditions for anammox activity were a pH of 6.7-7.2, a temperature of 35 C, a NO2(-) concentration of 10 mmol/L or less, and an NH4(+) concentration of 32 mmol/L or less. PMID:23676406

  10. Distribution, partition and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coking wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; An, Guanfeng

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we report the performance of a full-scale conventional activated sludge (A-O1-O2) treatment in eliminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Both aqueous and solid phases along with the coking wastewater treatment processes were analyzed for the presence of 18 PAHs. It was found that the target compounds occurred widely in raw coking wastewater, treated effluent and sludge samples. In the coking wastewater treatment system, 4-5 ring PAHs were the dominant compounds, while 4 rings PAHs predominated in the sludge samples. Over 98% of the PAH removal was achieved in the coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with the total concentration of PAHs being 21.3 1.9 ?g L(-1) in the final effluent. During the coking wastewater treatment processes, the association of the lower molecular weight PAH with suspended solids was generally less than 60%, while the association of higher molecular weight PAHs was greater than 90%. High distribution efficiencies (Kdp and Kds) were found, suggesting that adsorption was the potential removal pathway of PAHs. Finally, the mass balances of PAHs in various stages of the coking WWTP were obtained, and the results indicated that adsorption to sludge was the main removal pathway for PAHs in the coking wastewater treatment processes. PMID:25865172

  11. Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simes, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed. PMID:20107281

  12. Fate of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the wastewater from six textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Rui-Jing; Wen, Wei-Bin; Chen, Chang-Min; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and isopropylbenzene (BTEXSI) from 6 textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants (TDWTPs) were investigated in this study. The practical capacities of the 6 representative plants, which used the activated sludge process, ranged from 1200 to 26000 m(3) d(-1). The results indicated that BTEXSI were ubiquitous in the raw textile dyeing wastewater, except for isopropylbenzene, and that toluene and xylenes were predominant in raw wastewaters (RWs). TDWTP-E was selected to study the residual BTEXSI at different stages. The total BTEXSI reduction on the aerobic process of TDWTP-E accounted for 82.2% of the entire process. The total BTEXSI concentrations from the final effluents (FEs) were observed to be below 1 μg L(-1), except for TDWTP-F (2.12 μg L(-1)). Volatilization and biodegradation rather than sludge sorption contributed significantly to BTEXSI removal in the treatment system. BTEXSI were not found to be the main contaminants in textile dyeing wastewater. PMID:25930124

  13. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. PMID:23410857

  14. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by a hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas).

    PubMed

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Litty, Klaus; Christensson, Magnus; Kragelund, Caroline; Andersen, Henrik R; Bester, Kai

    2015-10-15

    Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process (hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™)) has been suggested as a possible solution for hospital wastewater treatment. To investigate the potential of such a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series of one activated sludge reactor, two Hybas™ reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been established and adapted during 10 months of continuous operation. After this adaption phase batch and continuous experiments were performed for the determination of degradation of pharmaceuticals. Removal of organic matter and nitrification mainly occurred in the first reactor. Most pharmaceuticals were removed significantly. The removal of pharmaceuticals (including X-ray contrast media, β-blockers, analgesics and antibiotics) was fitted to a single first-order kinetics degradation function, giving degradation rate constants from 0 to 1.49 h(-1), from 0 to 7.78 × 10(-1)h(-1), from 0 to 7.86 × 10(-1)h(-1) and from 0 to 1.07 × 10(-1)h(-1) for first, second, third and fourth reactors respectively. Generally, the highest removal rate constants were found in the first and third reactors while the lowest were found in the second one. When the removal rate constants were normalized to biomass amount, the last reactor (biofilm only) appeared to have the most effective biomass in respect to removing pharmaceuticals. In the batch experiment, out of 26 compounds, 16 were assessed to degrade more than 20% of the respective pharmaceutical within the Hybas™ train. In the continuous flow experiments, the measured removals were similar to those estimated from the batch experiments, but the concentrations of a few pharmaceuticals appeared to increase during the first treatment step. Such increase could be attributed to de-conjugation or formation from other metabolites. PMID:26057543

  15. Characterization of bacterial communities in hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process for berberine antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guanglei; Song, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiao, Shuhu

    2013-08-01

    Biodegradation of berberine antibiotic was investigated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process. After 118days of operation, 99.0%, 98.0% and 98.0% overall removals of berberine, COD and NH4(+)-N were achieved, respectively. The detailed composition of the established bacterial communities was studied by using 16S rDNA clone library. Totally, 400 clones were retrieved and grouped into 186 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UASB was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while Proteobacteria, especially Alpha- and Beta-proteobacteria were prevalent in the MBRs. Clostridium, Eubacterium and Synergistes in the UASB, as well as Hydrogenophaga, Azoarcus, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Shinella and Alcaligenes in the MBRs were identified as potential functional species in biodegradation of berberine and/or its metabolites. The bacterial community compositions in two MBRs were significantly discrepant. However, the identical functions of the functional species ensured the comparable pollutant removal performances in two bioreactors. PMID:23735790

  16. Anaerobic filters for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Suidan, M T; Siekerka, G L; Kao, S W; Pfeffer, J T

    1983-06-01

    A process train consisting of the following sequence of unit processes, a berl-saddle-packed anaerobic filter, an expanded bed, granular activated carbon anaerobic filter, and an activated sludge nitrification system was evaluated for the treatment of a synthetically prepared coal gasification wastewater. The first-stage anaerobic filter resulted in very little removal of organic matter and no methane production. Excellent reduction in organic matter occurred in the granular activated carbon anaerobic filter. The removal mechanism was initially adsorptive and near the end of the study, removal of organic matter was primarily through conversion to methane gas. It is felt that the success of the activated carbon anaerobic filter was due to the ability of the activated carbon to sequester some components of the wastewater that were toxic to the mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The activated sludge nitrification system resulted in complete ammonia oxidation and was very efficient in final effluent polishing. PMID:18551442

  17. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    SciTech Connect

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

  18. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  19. Rapid detection of multiple class pharmaceuticals in both municipal wastewater and sludge with ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiangjuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Ben, Weiwei; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Junxin

    2014-09-01

    This work described the development, optimization and validation of an analytical method for rapid detection of multiple-class pharmaceuticals in both municipal wastewater and sludge samples based on ultrasonic solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification. The results indicated that the developed method could effectively extract all the target pharmaceuticals (25) in a single process and analyze them within 24min. The recoveries of the target pharmaceuticals were in the range of 69%-131% for wastewater and 54%-130% for sludge at different spiked concentration levels. The method quantification limits in wastewater and sludge ranged from 0.02 to 0.73ng/L and from 0.02 to 1.00μg/kg, respectively. Subsequently, this method was validated and applied for residual pharmaceutical analysis in a wastewater treatment plant located in Beijing, China. All the target pharmaceuticals were detected in the influent samples with concentrations varying from 0.09ng/L (tiamulin) to 15.24μg/L (caffeine); meanwhile, up to 23 pharmaceuticals were detected in sludge samples with concentrations varying from 60ng/kg (sulfamethizole) to 8.55mg/kg (ofloxacin). The developed method demonstrated its selectivity, sensitivity, and reliability for detecting multiple-class pharmaceuticals in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater and sludge. PMID:25193847

  20. Physical-chemical treatment of tar-sand processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.H.

    1982-07-01

    This final report for Phase I summarizes work done to determine the ability of several coagulants to contribute significantly in the treatment of selected tar sand wastewaters. The coagulation process must be considered as one possible step in a treatment scheme to reduce pollutants in these wastewaters and lead to a water quality acceptable for reuse or disposal. Two wastewaters were provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC). The primary emphasis in this study was focused on a representative steam flooding wastewater designated in the report as TARSAND 1S. The coagulation study in which treatment of this wastewater was the prime goal is described in full detail in the thesis entitled Chemical Coagulation of Steam Flooding Tar Sand Wastewaters. This thesis, written by Mr. Omar Akad, is included as Appendix A in this report. A representative combustion wastewater, designated as TARSAND 2C, was also provided by LETC. This wastewater was characteristically low in suspended solids and after initial screening experiments were conducted, it was concluded that coagulation was relatively ineffective in the treatment of TARSAND 2C. Hence, efforts were concentrated on the parametric evaluation of coagulation of TARSAND 1S. The objectives for the research conducted under Phase I were: (1) to compare the effectiveness of lime, alum, ferric chloride and representative synthetic organic polymers in reducing suspended solids and total organic carbon (TOC) from TARSAND 1S wastewater; (2) to determine the effects of pH, coagulant aids, and mixing conditions on the coagulation process; (3) to determine the relative volume of sludge produced from each selected coagulation process.