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Optimization of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. The activated-sludge process is a biological method of wastewater treatment not only for the removal of organic matter but also for nitrification and nitrogen removal by biological denitrification. In this project, a model based on activated sludge wastewater treatment systems was carried

SUI Hong; LI Xin-gang; XU Shi-min; QIU Duan


Minimization of excess sludge production for biological wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess sludge treatment and disposal currently represents a rising challenge for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to economic, environmental and regulation factors. There is therefore considerable impetus to explore and develop strategies and technologies for reducing excess sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes. This paper reviews current strategies for reducing sludge production based on these mechanisms: lysis-cryptic growth, uncoupling

Yuansong Wei; Renze T. Van Houten; Arjan R. Borger; Dick H. Eikelboom; Yaobo Fan



Microwave Irradiation Technology In Waste Sludge And Wastewater Treatment Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pursuit of a green and sustainable world, wastewater remediation and sludge treatment have equally become a growing global environmental concern. Several innovative treatment processes have been designed throughout the last few decades for treating wastewaters and sludges but many of them are very costly and operate at low efficiencies. In view to find novel treatment processes, active research is

Ackmez Mudhoo; Sanjay Kumar Sharma



40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment... § 721.10667 Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment...identified generically as slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater...



40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment... § 721.10667 Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment...identified generically as slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater...



Activated sludge biofilm wastewater treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic nets were fitted vertically inside the aeration tank of a conventional activated sludge process in a laboratory scale model. The aeration tank thus became a hybrid growth reactor combining both suspended and fixed biomass. The addition of nets resulted in considerable improvements in BOD5 removal efficiency and sludge settling efficiency for a synthetic wastewater. Theoretical mathematical models predicting the

Fadi Gebara



Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.  


Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25381111

Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed




EPA Science Inventory

This report is a systems engineering handbook for the automation of activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. Process control theory and application are discussed to acquaint the reader with terminology and fundamentals. Successful unit process control strategies currently...


Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sludge and municipal wastewater treatment.  


Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polyesters with comparable properties to some petroleum-based polyolefins. PHA production can be achieved in open, mixed microbial cultures and thereby coupled to wastewater and solid residual treatment. In this context, waste organic matter is utilised as a carbon source in activated sludge biological treatment for biopolymer synthesis. Within the EU project Routes, the feasibility of PHA production has been evaluated in processes for sludge treatment and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and municipal wastewater treatment. This PHA production process is being investigated in four units: (i) wastewater treatment with enrichment and production of a functional biomass sustaining PHA storage capacity, (ii) acidogenic fermentation of sludge for VFA production, (iii) PHA accumulation from VFA-rich streams, and (iv) PHA recovery and characterisation. Laboratory- and pilot-scale studies demonstrated the feasibility of municipal wastewater and solid waste treatment alongside production of PHA-rich biomass. The PHA storage capacity of biomass selected under feast-famine with municipal wastewater has been increased up to 34% (g PHA g VSS(-1)) in batch accumulations with acetate during 20 h. VFAs obtained from waste activated sludge fermentation were found to be a suitable feedstock for PHA production. PMID:24434985

Morgan-Sagastume, F; Valentino, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Karabegovic, L; Gerardin, F; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Magnusson, P; Alexandersson, T; Bengtsson, S; Majone, M; Werker, A




EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the disposal of waste alum sludge from a water treatment plant to a municipal wastewater treatment plant and is submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. 803336-01 by Novato Sanitary District and North Marin County Water Distr...


Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.  


With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions. PMID:25851807

Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M



A nonlinear observer design for an activated sludge wastewater treatment process  

E-print Network

A nonlinear observer design for an activated sludge wastewater treatment process B. Boulkrounea , M : Activated sludge, wastewater treatment process, Lyapunov function, Lips- chitz singular discrete the recent results of [2] and [5]. In the last decades, the modeling of the activated sludge wastewater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Method for lime stabilization of wastewater treatment plant sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the lime stabilization of wastewater sludge, includes the steps of dewatering sludge so as to produce a sludge cake containing from about 10 to 60% by weight of dry solids and rapidly and intimately mixing and reacting the sludge cake with calcium oxide so as to produce stabilized sludge pellets. An apparatus for performing the process is





EPA Science Inventory

Data for estimating average construction costs and operation and maintenance requirements are presented for thermal treatment of municipal wastewater sludges; for handling, treatment, and disposal of the strong liquor generated; and for controlling odors produced. Size ranges cov...


Performance of azotobacter supplemented activated sludge in biological treatment of nitrogen deficient wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

External addition of nitrogenous compounds is the most common practice used in biological treatment of nitrogen deficient wastewaters. However, this method adds an extra cost to the treatment. As an alternative for effective biological treatment of nitrogen deficient wastewaters, nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azotobacter vinelandii was used in activated sludge culture in this study. COD removal performance of Azotobacter-supplemented activated sludge

Fikret Kargi; Serpil Özm?hç?



Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone  

E-print Network

Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated, Dominic Frigon Department of Civil EngineeringINTRODUCTION Activated sludge treatment processes produce

Barthelat, Francois



EPA Science Inventory

A computer-aided design procedure for the preliminary synthesis of wastewater treatment and sludge disposal systems is developed. It selects the components in the wastewater treatment and sludge disposal trains from a list of candidate process units with fixed design characterist...


Batch biological treatment of nitrogen deficient synthetic wastewater using Azotobacter supplemented activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of nitrogen deficient wastewaters are usually accomplished by external addition of nitrogen sources to the wastewater which is an extra cost item. As an alternative for effective biological treatment of nitrogen deficient wastewaters, the nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii, was used in activated sludge and also in pure culture. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal performances of Azotobacter-added and

Fikret Kargi; Serpil Ozm?hç?



Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.  


The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined. PMID:21764417

Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar



Production of biodegradable plastics from activated sludge generated from a food processing industrial wastewater treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the excess sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (60%) is disposed by landfill. As a resource utilization of excess sludge, the production of biodegradable plastics using the sludge has been proposed. Storage polymers in bacterial cells can be extracted and used as biodegradable plastics. However, widespread applications have been limited by high production cost. In the present study,

M Suresh Kumar; S. N Mudliar; K. M. K Reddy; T Chakrabarti



Hydrogen production from sludge of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant pretreated with microwave  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to produce hydrogen from sludge of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant (5% total solid) by anaerobic batch fermentation with Enterobactor aerogenes or mixed cultures from hot spring sediment as the inoculums. Sludge was heated in microwave at 850 W for 3 min. Results indicated that a soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) of pretreated sludge was higher than that of

Patcharaporn Thungklin; Alissara Reungsang; Sureewan Sittijunda




EPA Science Inventory

The seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal wastewater sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. C...


Application of vibration milling for advanced wastewater treatment and excess sludge reduction.  


As a new sludge reduction technology with a phosphorus removal mechanism, a vibration milling technology that uses iron balls have been applied to the wastewater treatment process. Three anaerobic-aerobic cyclic activated sludge processes: one without sludge disintegration; one disintegrated sludge by ozonation; and the other disintegrated sludge with the vibrating ball mill were compared. Ozonation achieved the best sludge reduction performance, but milling had the best phosphorus removal. This is because iron was mixed into the wastewater treatment tank due to abrasion of the iron balls, leading to settling of iron phosphates. Thus, the simple means of using iron balls as the medium in a vibrating ball mill can achieve both a sludge reduction of half and excellent phosphorus removal. Material balances in the processes were calculated and it was found that carbon components in disintegrated sludge were more resistant to biological treatment than nitrogen. PMID:22173418

Sano, Akira; Senga, Akira; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiroki; Xu, Kai-Qin; Inamori, Yuhei




EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of secondary wastewater treatment sludge from a synthetics manufacturing plant. The waste, composed of 8.5% solids, contained a large concentration of cellulose and...


Continuous treatment of textile wastewater by combined coagulation, electrochemical oxidation and activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of text wastewaters from a large dyeing and finishing mill by a continuous process of combined chemical coagulation, electrochemical oxidation and activated sludge treatment is investigated. The experimental results are assessed in terms of COD and color (turbidity) reductions to determine the overall treatment efficiency of the combined process. Operating variables, such as the wastewater flow rate, conductivity, pH,

Sheng H. Lin; Chi F. Peng



Evaluation of thickening and dewatering characteristics of SRC-I wastewater treatment sludges. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky, will generate several different sludges as a result of providing extensive wastewater treatment. Because construction of this plant has been postponed indefinitely, there has been an opportunity to generate additional data pertinent to waste treatment. Accordingly, this report presents the results of a study on the thickening and dewatering characteristics of several of the wastewater treatment sludges. The study included: evaluation of chemical conditioning agents; aerobic digestion of biological sludges; gravity thickening; and the relative effectiveness of dewatering by centrifuge, vacuum filter, belt filter, and pressure filter. Sludges were tested individually and in combination. The results indicated that the biological sludge could be best dewatered by pressure filtration. The chemical sludges should be combined prior to dewatering, which should be provided by a belt filter. The tar acid sludge will be kept separate, due to its low pH, and ultimate disposal will be by incineration. The tar acid sludge was more concentrated than had been expected. As a result, thickening, rather than centrifuging, is the recommended treatment for this sludge. All sludges were tested for leachate toxicity by the extraction procedure method. The results were negative, indicating the sludges are non-hazardous in heavy metal concentrations, according to RCRA classification. The test results have identified design changes for the proposed wastewater treatment facilities.

Not Available




EPA Science Inventory

Research emphasis by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in wastewater treatment has focussed on control of toxics and sludge management. The paper describes highlights of the Environmental Protection Agency's research in these areas. The research on toxics control ...



EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the landfilling of wastewater treatment plant sludge for purposes of describing current practices, determining environmental and public health impacts, describing available control technology, and evaluating management options. The potential environmental/pu...



EPA Science Inventory

Personnel employed at wastewater treatment plant sludge composting operations are exposed to a variety of viable gram-negative bacteria, and fungi as well as microbial products such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in their work environment. This investigation was designed...


Use of dewatered alum sludge as a substrate in reed bed treatment systems for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two laboratory-scale simulated reed beds were investigated for the purpose of assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of using dewatered alum sludge as a possible substrate for wastewater treatment reed bed systems. One horizontal subsurface flow setup and one vertical flow setup were used. The horizontal flow system was planted with Phragmites australis while the vertical flow system

Y. Q. Zhao; A. O. Babatunde; M. Razali; F. Harty



How does the entering of copper nanoparticles into biological wastewater treatment system affect sludge treatment for VFA production.  


Usually the studies regarding the effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), which are released to wastewater treatment plant, on sludge anaerobic treatment in the literature have been conducted by directly adding NPs to sludge treatment system. Actually, NPs must enter into the wastewater treatment facility from influent before sludge being treated. Thus, the documented results can not reflect the real situations. During sludge anaerobic treatment for producing volatile fatty acids (VFA, the preferred carbon source for wastewater biological nutrient removal), it was found in this study that the entering of CuNPs to biological wastewater treatment system had no significant effect on sludge-derived VFA generation, while direct addition of CuNPs to sludge fermentation reactor caused a much lower VFA production, when compared to the control test. Further investigation revealed that the entering of CuNPs into wastewater biological treatment system improved sludge solubilization due to the decline of sludge particle size and the increase of sludge microorganism cells breakage. In addition, there was no obvious influence on hydrolysis, while significant inhibition was observed on acidification, resulting in the final VFA production similar to the control. When CuNPs were directly added to the fermentation system, the solubilization was little influenced, however the hydrolysis and acidification were seriously inhibited, causing the ultimate VFA generation decreased. Therefore, selecting proper method close to the real situation is vital to accurately assess the toxicity of nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation. PMID:25000195

Chen, Hong; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jingyang



Optimization of diclofenac quantification from wastewater treatment plant sludge by ultrasonication assisted extraction.  


A rapid quantification method of diclofenac from sludge samples through ultrasonication assisted extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed and used for the quantification of diclofenac concentrations in sludge samples with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the concentration of diclofenac in sludge samples taken from different units of wastewater treatment plants in Istanbul was below the limit of quantification (LOQ; 5ng/g), an optimized method for sludge samples along with the total mass balances in a wastewater treatment plant can be used to determine the phase with which diclofenac is mostly associated. Hence, the results will provide information on fate and transport of diclofenac, as well as on the necessity of alternative removal processes. In addition, since the optimization procedure is provided in detail, it is possible for other researchers to use this procedure as a starting point for the determination of other emerging pollutants in wastewater sludge samples. PMID:24704687

Topuz, Emel; Sari, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Gamze; Aydin, Egemen; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif; Okutman Tas, Didem



Aerobic granular sludge: a promising technology for decentralised wastewater treatment.  


In order to evaluate the characteristics of aerobic granular sludge, a sequencing batch reactor, feeding with synthetic wastewater at the organic loading rate of 8 kg COD/m3 d, was employed on the laboratory scale. Granules occurred in the reactor within 1 week after the inoculation from conventional flocculent sludge. Aerobic granular sludge was characterised by the outstanding settling properties and considerable contaminates removal efficiencies. The SVI30 values were in the range of 20 to 40 ml g(-1). However, the sludge volume index of short settling time (e.g. SVI10--10 min) is suggested to describe the fast settling properties of aerobic granular sludge. The potential application in the decentralised system is evaluated from the point view of footprint and high bioactivity. The occurrence of sloughing, resulting from the outgrowth of filamentous organisms, would be responsible for the instability of aerobic granules. The starvation phase should therefore be carefully controlled for the maintenance and stability of aerobic granular sludge system. PMID:16841730

Li, Z H; Kuba, T; Kusuda, T



On Simplified Model for Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Process and Simulation Based on Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the complex structure and the numerous parameters of existing models for the activated sludge wastewater treatment process (WWTP), there are great difficulties to directly apply the models in simulation systems. In order to enhance the practicality of the models for the WWTP, a simplified model is developed based on the activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1), which is

Yu Guangping; Yuan Mingzhe; Wang Hong



Electrokinetic Separation of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Treatment Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, a preliminary experiment on the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater sludge was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of electrokinetic separation. Four different types of processing fluid—tap water, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA), and 0.1 M nitric acid—were tested. EDTA was found to be the most effective agent within the set of chemicals tested for

Seon-Young Park; Geun-Yong Park; Do-Hyung Kim; Jung-Seok Yang; Kitae Baek




Microsoft Academic Search

The predenitrification, postdenitrification and combined pre-postdentrification are the most used basic activated sludge wastewater treatment plant configurations for biological nitrogen removal from municipal and industrial wastewaters. In general, the denitrification schemes may require an external carbon source dosage since the influent easily biodegradable COD is consumed by aerobic microorganisms, resulting in a shortage of easily biodegradable COD for denitrification. This

M. C. Mussati; S. F. Mussati; N. Alasino; P. Aguirre; N. Scenna


Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.  


Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. PMID:24045213

Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg



A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

Schwing, Carl M.


Treatment of winery wastewater in a conventional municipal activated sludge process: five years of experience.  


A full-scale wastewater treatment plant where municipal and winery wastewaters were co-treated was studied for five years. The experimental results showed that suspended solids, COD, nitrogen and phosphorous were effectively removed both during the treatment of municipal wastewater and the cotreatment of municipal and winery wastewater. The sludge production increase from 4 tons to 5.5 tons per day during the harvesting and wine making period. In any case the specific sludge production was 0.2 kgMLVSS per kgCOD(removed) despite the organic loading increasing. About 70% of the COD was removed through respiration. Also the energy demand increased from 6,000 to 7,000 kWh per day. The estimated costs for the treatment of the winery wastewater was 0.2-0.3 Euros per m3 of treated wastewater. With reference to the process efficiency, the nitrogen removal was just 20%. The co-treatment of municipal and winery wastewater in conventional activated sludge processes can be a feasible solution for the treatment of these streams at relatively low costs. PMID:17849981

Bolzonella, D; Zanette, M; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F



Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.




Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant  

PubMed Central

Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results The Archaea community was dominated by Methanosaeta-like species. During a 15?month period major changes in the community composition were only observed twice despite seasonal variations in environmental and operating conditions. Water temperature appeared to be the process parameter that affected the community composition the most. Several terminal restriction fragments also showed strong correlations with sludge properties and effluent water properties. The Archaea were estimated to make up 1.6% of total cell numbers in the activated sludge and were present both as single cells and colonies of varying sizes. Conclusions The results presented here show that Archaea can constitute a constant and integral part of the activated sludge and that it can therefore be useful to include Archaea in future studies of microbial communities in activated sludge. PMID:22784022




EPA Science Inventory

The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...


Aeration control in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant: impact on performances, energy consumption  

E-print Network

Aeration control in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant: impact strategy on energy consumption and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant for stratospheric ozone [1]. In biological wastewater treatment, microbial processes such as hydroxylamine oxidation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Changes in hormone and stress-inducing activities of municipal wastewater in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.  


Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants do not efficiently remove contaminants of emerging concern, and so are primary sources for contaminant release into the aquatic environment. Although these contaminants are present in effluents at ng-?g/L concentrations (i.e. microcontaminants), many compounds can act as endocrine disrupting compounds or stress-inducing agents at these levels. Chemical fate analyses indicate that additional levels of wastewater treatment reduce but do not always completely remove all microcontaminants. The removal of microcontaminants from wastewater does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in biological activity, as contaminant metabolites or byproducts may still be biologically active. To evaluate the efficacy of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to remove biological activity, we examined the performance of a full scale conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. We assessed reductions in levels of conventional wastewater parameters and thyroid hormone disrupting and stress-inducing activities in wastewater at three phases along the treatment train using a C-fin assay. Wastewater treatment was effective at reducing total suspended solids, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and stress-inducing bioactivity. However, only minimal reduction was observed in thyroid hormone disrupting activities. The present study underscores the importance of examining multiple chemical and biological endpoints in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of wastewater treatment for removal of microcontaminants. PMID:25222330

Wojnarowicz, Pola; Yang, Wenbo; Zhou, Hongde; Parker, Wayne J; Helbing, Caren C



Characterizing hydrocyclone performance for grit removal from wastewater treatment activated sludge plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, 15–45% of the mixed liquor (sludge) in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consists of inorganic (fixed) suspended solids. A portion of these inorganic compounds is grit (sand) originating from the influent. Grit accumulation impacts WWTP design and operating costs as these unbiodegradable solids reduce the effective treatment capacity of the bioreactor and other unit operations that must be sized

Majdala Mansour-Geoffrion; Peter L. Dold; Daniel Lamarre; Alain Gadbois; Stéphane Déléris; Yves Comeau



Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...



E-print Network

treatment plants, consists basically of a biological reactor followed by a sedi- mentation tank, which has, u = underflow, r = recycle and w = waste. A conventional model for the biological reactions consistsCONTROL OF AN IDEAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT VIA AN ODE-PDE MODEL STEFAN

Diehl, Stefan


Rheology Measurements for Online Monitoring of Solids in Activated Sludge Reactors of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Rheological behaviour of recycled sludge from a secondary clarifier of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was studied by using the rate controlled coaxial cylinder viscometer Rotovisko-Haake 20, system M5-osc., measuring device NV. The tests (hysteresis cycles) were performed under continuous flow conditions and following an ad hoc measurement protocol. Sludge shear stress versus shear rate curves were fitted very satisfactorily by rheological models. An experimental equation correlating the solid concentration of sludge to relative viscosity and fitting satisfactorily flow curves at different Total Suspended Solids (TTS%) was obtained. Application of the empirical correlation should allow the monitoring of the proper functioning of a wastewater treatment plant measuring viscosity of sludge. PMID:24550715

Papo, Adriano; Goi, Daniele



Engineering properties of water\\/wastewater-treatment sludge modified by hydrated lime, fly ash and loess  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to present engineering properties of modified sludge from water\\/wastewater treatment by modifiers such as hydrated lime, loess, and fly ash. The proper mixing ratio was determined to hold the pH of the modified sludge above 12.0 for 2h. Laboratory tests carried out in this research included particle analysis, compaction and CBR, SEM and X-ray

Sungjin Lim; Wangi Jeon; Jaebok Lee; Kwanho Lee; Namho Kim




EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses completed efforts in the treatment of dyes and pigments processing wastewater utilizing the activated sludge process (ASP) enhanced with powdered activated carbon (PAC). The independent variables of the study were solids retention time (SRT) and PAC dosage. T...



EPA Science Inventory

In this study, started in 1977, clinical and serologic evaluations of workers involved in composting of wastewater treatment plant sludge by the aerated pile method was initiated to evaluate the potential health effects of exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus and other viable and no...


Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sludge from wastewater treatment basins.  


Screening by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been carried out on sludge extracts of wastewater treatment basins. Soxhlet extraction with trichlorotrifluoroethane was applied. The yields for petroleum hydrocarbons and PAH recovery were high, usually in excess of 90%. The proposed investigations permit a quick assessment of petroleum pollutants in the environment. PMID:12729275

Pavlova, A; Ivanova, R



40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

(1) The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-501; CAS No. 1392095-50-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this...



Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.  


The effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation as physico-chemical pre-treatment processes on the change of rheology of wastewater sludge was investigated in this study. Pre-treated and raw sludges displayed non-Newtonian rheological behaviour with shear thinning as well as thixotropic properties for total solids ranging from 10 g/L to 40 g/L. The rheological models, namely, Bingham plastic, Casson law, NCA/CMA Casson, IPC Paste, and power law were also studied to characterize flow of raw and pre-treated sludges. Among all rheological models, the power law was more prominent in describing the rheology of the sludges. Pre-treatment processes resulted in a decrease in pseudoplasticity of sludge due to the decrease in consistency index K varying from 42.4 to 1188, 25.6 to 620.4 and 52.5 to 317.9; and increase in flow behaviour index n changing from 0.5 to 0.35, 0.62 to 0.55 and 0.63 to 0.58, for RS, UlS and FS, respectively at solids concentration 10-40 g/L. The correlation between improvement of biodegradability and dewaterability, decrease in viscosity, and change in particle size as a function of sludge pre-treatment process was also investigated. Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. Biodegradability was also enhanced by the pre-treatment processes and the maximum value was obtained (64%, 77% and 73% for raw, ultrasonicated and Fenton oxidized sludges, respectively) at total solids concentration of 25 g/L. Hence, pre-treatment of wastewater sludge modified the rheological properties so that: (1) the flowability of sludge was improved for transport through the treatment train (via pipes and pumps); (2) the dewaterability of wastewater sludge was enhanced for eventual disposal and; (3) the assimilation of nutrients by microorganisms for further value-addition was increased. PMID:19574083

Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y



Wastewater sludge management options for Honduras  

E-print Network

Sludge management is a fundamental area of concern across wastewater treatment systems in Honduras. The lack of timely sludge removal has led to declining plant performance in many facilities throughout the country. In ...

Bhattacharya, Mahua, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.



Integration of microbial fuel cell techniques into activated sludge wastewater treatment processes to improve nitrogen removal and reduce sludge production.  


Bioelectrochemical systems are emerging for wastewater treatment, yet little is known about how well they can be integrated with current wastewater treatment processes. In this bench-scale study, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technique was incorporated into the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process (phase I) and later with the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process (phase II) to evaluate the performance of MFC assisted wastewater treatment systems (i.e., MLE-MFC and MBR-MFC). There was no significant difference in the effluent NH4(+)-N concentration between the systems integrating MFC and the open circuit controls. The average effluent COD concentration was significantly lower in the MLE-MFC, but it did not change much in the MBR-MFC because of the already low COD concentrations in MBR operation. The MLE-MFC and MBR-MFC systems increased the NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies by 31% (±12%) and 20% (±12%), respectively, and reduced sludge production by 11% and 6%, respectively, while generating an average voltage of 0.13 (±0.03) V in both systems. Analysis of the bacterial specific oxygen uptake rate, the sludge volume index, and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial population (dominated by Nitrosomonas through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis) indicated that there was no significant difference in sludge activity, settling property, and nitrifying community structure between the MFC assisted systems and the open circuit controls. The results suggest that the wastewater treatment systems could achieve higher effluent water quality and lower sludge production if it is integrated well with MFC techniques. PMID:25014565

Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Hu, Zhiqiang



Formation of abiological granular sludge - a facile and bioinspired proposal for improving sludge settling performance during heavy metal wastewater treatment.  


Heavy metal contamination in wastewater poses a severe threat to the environment and public health. Chemical precipitation is the most conventional process for heavy metal wastewater treatment. However, the flocculent structure of chemical precipitation sludge raises the problem of poor sludge settling performance that is difficult to overcome. Inspired by the biological granular sludge (BGS) formation process, we report here a facile and effective strategy to produce abiological granular sludge (ABGS) to solve this problem. In this procedure, controlled double-jet precipitation was performed to simulate the cell multiplication process in BGS formation by controlling the solution supersaturation. Meanwhile, ZnO seeds and flocculant polyacrylamide were added to simulate the role of nuclei growth and extracellular polymeric substances in BGS formation process, respectively. This procedure generates ABGS with a dense structure, large size and regular spherical morphology. The settling velocity of ABGS can reach up to 3.0cms(-1), significantly higher than that of flocculent sludge (<1cms(-1)). PMID:25065787

Yan, Xu; Li, Qingzhu; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Bentao; Wang, Qingwei



Sludge Reduction by Predatory Activity of Aquatic Oligochaetes in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Science or Fiction? A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological aerobic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce a lot of excess sludge. The costs for handling this residual\\u000a product are increasing, so the search for alternative techniques to reduce the amount of sludge has to be continued. Activated\\u000a sludge consists of inorganic and organic substances, bacteria, protozoa and metazoa. Due to incomplete biomass conversion,\\u000a sludge consumption yields less oligochaete biomass.

Christa H. Ratsak; Jaap Verkuijlen



Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment.  


Wastewater treatment reduces environmental contamination by removing gross solids and mitigating the effects of pollution. Treatment also reduces the number of indicator organisms and pathogens. In this work, the fates of two coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, were analyzed in an activated sludge process to determine the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment. These bacteria, modified to express green fluorescent protein, were inoculated in an activated sludge unit and in batch systems containing wastewater. The results suggested that, among the different biological factors implied in bacterial removal, bacterivorous protozoa play a key role. Moreover, a representative number of bacteria persisted in the system as free-living or embedded cells, but their distribution into liquid or solid fractions varied depending on the bacterium tested, questioning the real value of bacterial indicators for the control of wastewater treatment process. Additionally, viable but nonculturable cells constituted an important part of the bacterial population adhered to solid fractions, what can be derived from the competition relationships with native bacteria, present in high densities in this environment. These facts, taken together, emphasize the need for reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis tools for the evaluation of pathogenic microbial composition in sludge, which could represent an undefined risk to public health and ecosystem functions when considering its recycling. PMID:25044599

Orruño, Maite; Garaizabal, Idoia; Bravo, Zaloa; Parada, Claudia; Barcina, Isabel; Arana, Inés



Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment  

PubMed Central

Wastewater treatment reduces environmental contamination by removing gross solids and mitigating the effects of pollution. Treatment also reduces the number of indicator organisms and pathogens. In this work, the fates of two coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, were analyzed in an activated sludge process to determine the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment. These bacteria, modified to express green fluorescent protein, were inoculated in an activated sludge unit and in batch systems containing wastewater. The results suggested that, among the different biological factors implied in bacterial removal, bacterivorous protozoa play a key role. Moreover, a representative number of bacteria persisted in the system as free-living or embedded cells, but their distribution into liquid or solid fractions varied depending on the bacterium tested, questioning the real value of bacterial indicators for the control of wastewater treatment process. Additionally, viable but nonculturable cells constituted an important part of the bacterial population adhered to solid fractions, what can be derived from the competition relationships with native bacteria, present in high densities in this environment. These facts, taken together, emphasize the need for reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis tools for the evaluation of pathogenic microbial composition in sludge, which could represent an undefined risk to public health and ecosystem functions when considering its recycling. PMID:25044599

Orruño, Maite; Garaizabal, Idoia; Bravo, Zaloa; Parada, Claudia; Barcina, Isabel; Arana, Inés



Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.  


In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment. PMID:24777321

Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor



Life cycle assessment of processes for the treatment of wastewater urban sludge: energy and global warming analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares six wastewater sludge treatment scenarios applied to a 300,000 equivalent-inhabitant (eq. inh) wastewater treatment plant: agricultural spreading, fluidised bed incineration, wet oxidation, pyrolysis, incineration in cement kilns and landfill. The study focuses on energy and emissions contributing to global warming over the whole treatment life cycle. As a result, avoided burdens by coproducts are very important in

G. Houillon; O. Jolliet



Treatment of chemical mechanical polishing wastewater by electrocoagulation: system performances and sludge settling characteristics.  


Treatment of copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor plant by electrocoagulation is investigated. The CMP wastewater was characterized by high suspended solids (SS) content, high turbidity (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration up to 500 mgl(-1) and copper concentration up to 100 mgl(-1). In the present study, electrocoagulation was employed to treat the CMP wastewater with an attempt to simultaneously lower its turbidity, copper and COD concentrations. The test results indicated that electrocoagulation with Al/Fe electrode pair was very efficient and able to achieve 99% copper ion and 96.5% turbidity removal in less than 30 min. The COD removal obtained in the treatment was better than 85%, with an effluent COD below 100 mgl(-1). The effluent wastewater was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard. In addition, sludge settling velocities after electrocoagulation were measured and the data were employed to verify the empirical sludge settling velocity models. Finally, the sludge settling characteristic data were also utilized to establish the relation between the solids flux (G) and the initial solids concentration. PMID:14575735

Lai, Chen L; Lin, Sheng H



Optimisation of long-term activated-sludge treatment of winery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results obtained in work carried out in order to verify the overall efficiency of full-scale, long-term, activated-sludge treatment of winery wastewater are presented. The analytical data showed the high removal of COD (average 98%; min. 97.6; max. 99.1) during the whole experimentation period and with various working parameters. The effluent had chemico-physical values in conformity with Table A of

R. Marchetti



A novel approach to the anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in temperate climates through primary sludge fortification  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in temperate climates is attainable through the fortification of wastewater with primary sewage sludge to enhance the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Three bench?scale up?flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactors (0.5 L) were operated to provide a preliminary verification of this approach. Mass and energy balances were modelled using the GPS?X (COST

J. N. Lester; A. Soares; D. San Martin; P. Harper; B. Jefferson; J. Brigg; E. Wood; E. Cartmell



Atomized sludges via spray-drying at low temperatures: an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment plants.  


Removal of sludges from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) represents a serious worldwide environmental problem for which alternatives other than their simple incineration are investigated. In this work the treatment of raw sludge from urban WWTP by means of a minimization process through spray-drying is analyzed as well as some proposals for revaluating the resulting dry product. Analysis is supported by some experimental results obtained with a laboratory spray dryer. The experimental procedure at laboratory scale is extrapolated to an industrial plant scale. An economic analysis of the proposal in relation to other possible sludge treatments is presented, taking into account in this case the comparison between the costs of the processes of sludge thickening, stabilization and dehydratation and the costs of spray-drying (especially power consumption), minimization of the final waste and reuse options. Finally, an environmental balance of the process is presented. In contrast with the classical treatment line, this alternative allows transforming sludges, i.e., a waste, into a valuable product with several applications. PMID:22525834

Cusidó, Joan A; Cremades, Lázaro V



Polychlorinated naphthalenes in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in China.  


Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were nominated as persistent organic pollutants candidate in the Stockholm Convention in 2011. In this study, the profiles, concentrations and spatial distributions of PCNs were analyzed in 30 sewage sludge samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Concentrations of ?75PCNs in sludge samples were in the range of 1.05-10.9 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 3.98 ng/g dw. The predominant homologues in the sludge were mono- to tetra-CNs, accounting for approximately 85% of total PCNs. The total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of dioxin-like PCN congeners ranged from 0.04 to 2.28 pg/g dw with a mean value of 0.36 pg/g dw, which were lower than the maximum permissible TEQ concentrations in sludge for land application in China. Levels of PCNs and TEQs in sludge were relatively higher in samples from highly industrialized and developed cities in eastern China, implying a possible link between PCN contamination and the local economic development, but more studies are warranted to corroborate this. Industrial sources might be important contributors of PCNs to sewage sludge in China. PMID:24880545

Zhang, Haiyan; Xiao, Ke; Liu, Jiyan; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin




EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment operation using a sludge generated from organic chemical manufacture. The sludge is applied to a turf farm which contains acidic soil; the sludge reduces the lime addition requirements for...


A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele




EPA Science Inventory

This publication provides an updated status report on the number and type of oxygen-activated sludge facilities in operation, under construction, and being designed. It describes in detail the latest EPA supported oxygenation research and demonstration project, an evaluation of t...


Integrated production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with municipal wastewater and sludge treatment at pilot scale.  


A pilot-scale process was operated over 22months at the Brussels North Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in order to evaluate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production integration with services of municipal wastewater and sludge management. Activated sludge was produced with PHA accumulation potential (PAP) by applying feast-famine selection while treating the readily biodegradable COD from influent wastewater (average removals of 70% COD, 60% CODsol, 24% nitrogen, and 46% phosphorus). The biomass PAP was evaluated to be in excess of 0.4gPHA/gVSS. Batch fermentation of full-scale WWTP sludge at selected temperatures (35, 42 and 55°C) produced centrate (6-9.4gCODVFA/L) of consistent VFA composition, with optimal fermentation performance at 42°C. Centrate was used to accumulate PHA up to 0.39gPHA/gVSS. The centrate nutrients are a challenge to the accumulation process but producing a biomass with 0.5gPHA/gVSS is considered to be realistically achievable within the typically available carbon flows at municipal waste management facilities. PMID:25638407

Morgan-Sagastume, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Gérardin, F; Lacroix, S; Gaval, G; Karabegovic, L; Alexandersson, T; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Bengtsson, S; Arcos-Hernández, M V; Magnusson, P; Werker, A



Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process  

SciTech Connect

The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

Tang, N.H. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico); Torres, C.L. [Puerto Rico Water and Sewer Authority, Ponce (Puerto Rico); Speece, R.E. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)



Variations of morphology of activated sludge flocs studied at full-scale wastewater treatment plants.  


Digital image analysis has been intensively developed over the last two decades including its application to describe morphology of activated sludge flocs. However, only few studies concerned the variation of flocs morphology with respect to the operational conditions, particularly oxido-reductive conditions, in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this work, morphology of activated sludge flocs was monitored over one year in two different full-scale WWTPs. The main aim of this study was to find the relationship between the operational parameters and morphology of sludge flocs. Simultaneously, the variations in floc size along activated sludge chamber were studied with respect to the oxido-reductive conditions. It was found that the sludge loading rate was one of the most important operational parameters influencing floc size. It was estimated that its values higher than 0.1?kg?BOD5?kg?TS(-1)?d(-1) contributed to the decrease in floc size. Also, the oxido-reductive conditions influenced the floc size. It was statistically proved that flocs from the anaerobic zone were usually smaller than flocs from the anoxic or aerobic zones. Distribution of floc size in a full-scale WWTP usually could be described by a log-normal model. PMID:25363823

Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Klepacz-Smó?ka, Anna; Andrzejczak, Olga




EPA Science Inventory

The investigation included (1) a prospective study of wastewater sludge compost workers, (2) serologic analyses of wastewater-exposed workers, (3) a mortality study of former wastewater employees, and (4) chemical analyses of specimens from a population whose drinking water was c...


40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636...automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and...automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-501; CAS No....



Partitioning, Persistence, and Accumulation in Digested Sludge of the Topical Antiseptic Triclocarban During Wastewater Treatment  

PubMed Central

The topical antiseptic agent triclocarban (TCC) is a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables, including soaps and other personal care products. Long-term usage of the mass-produced compound and a lack of understanding of its fate during sewage treatment motivated the present mass balance analysis conducted at a typical U.S. activated sludge wastewater treatment plant featuring a design capacity of 680 million liters per day. Using automated samplers and grab sampling, the mass of TCC contained in influent, effluent and digested sludge was monitored by isotope dilution liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry. The average mass of TCC (mean ± standard deviation) entering and exiting the plant in influent (6.1 ± 2.0 ?g/L) and effluent (0.17 ± 0.03 ?g/L) was 3,737 ± 694 and 127 ± 6 g/d, respectively, indicating an aqueous-phase removal efficiency of 97 ± 1%. Tertiary treatment by chlorination and sand filtration provided no detectable benefit to the overall removal. Due to strong sorption of TCC to wastewater particulate matter (78 ± 11% sorbed), the majority of the TCC mass was sequestered into sludge in the primary and secondary clarifiers of the plant. Anaerobic digestion for 19 days did not promote TCC transformation, resulting in an accumulation of the antiseptic compound in dewatered, digested municipal sludge to levels of 51 ± 15 mg/kg dry weight (2,815 ± 917 g/d). In addition to the biocide mass passing through the plant contained in the effluent (3 ± 1%), 76 ± 30% of the TCC input entering the plant underwent no net transformation and instead partitioned into and accumulated in municipal sludge. Based on the rate of beneficial reuse of sludge produced by this facility (95%), which exceeds the national average (63%), study results suggest that approximately three quarters of the mass of TCC disposed of by consumers in the catchment area of the plant ultimately is released into the environment by application of municipal sludge (biosolids) on land used in part for agriculture. PMID:16786704

Heidler, Jochen; Sapkota, Amir; Halden, Rolf U.



Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.  


Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review. PMID:20083294

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y



An evaluation of tannery industry wastewater treatment sludge gasification by artificial neural network modeling.  


This paper reports on the calorific value of synthetic gas (syngas) produced by gasification of dewatered sludge derived from treatment of tannery wastewater. Proximate and ultimate analyses of samples were performed. Thermochemical conversion alters the chemical structure of the waste. Dried air was used as a gasification agent at varying flow rates, which allowed the feedstock to be quickly converted into gas by means of different heterogeneous reactions. A lab-scale updraft fixed-bed steel reactor was used for thermochemical conversion of sludge samples. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to observe variations in the syngas related to operational conditions. Modeled outputs showed that temporal changes of model predictions were in close accordance with real values. Correlation coefficients (r) showed that the ANN used in this study gave results with high sensitivity. PMID:23608748

Ongen, Atakan; Ozcan, H Kurtulus; Aray?c?, Semiha



Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang



Anaerobic digestion and gasification coupling for wastewater sludge treatment and recovery.  


Sewage sludge management is an energy intensive process. Anaerobic digestion contributes to energy efficiency improvement but is limited by the biological process. A review has been conducted prior to experimentation in order to evaluate the mass and energy balances on anaerobic digestion followed by gasification of digested sludge. The purpose was to improve energy recovery and reuse. Calculations were based on design parameters and tests that are conducted with the anaerobic digester of a local wastewater treatment plant and a small commercial gasification system. Results showed a very significant potential of energy recovery. More than 90% of the energy content from sludge was extracted. Also, approximately the same amount of energy would be transferred in both directions between the digester (biogas) and the gasifier (thermal energy). This extraction resulted in the same use of biogas as the reference scenario but final product was a totally dry biochar, which represented a fraction of the initial mass. Phosphorus was concentrated and significantly preserved. This analysis suggests that anaerobic digestion followed by dehydration, drying and gasification could be a promising and viable option for energy and nutrient recovery from municipal sludge in replacement of conventional paths. PMID:24972600

Lacroix, Nicolas; Rousse, Daniel R; Hausler, Robert



Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.  


Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y



Integration of aerobic granular sludge and mesh filter membrane bioreactor for cost-effective wastewater treatment.  


Conventional MBR has been mostly based on floc sludge and the use of costly microfiltration membranes. Here, a novel aerobic granule (AG)-mesh filter MBR (MMBR) process was developed for cost-effective wastewater treatment. During 32-day continuous operation, a predominance of granules was maintained in the system, and good filtration performance was achieved at a low trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of below 0.025 m. The granules showed a lower fouling propensity than sludge flocs, attributed to the formation of more porous biocake layer at mesh surface. A low-flux and low-TMP filtration favored a stable system operation. In addition, the reactor had high pollutant removal efficiencies, with a 91.4% chemical oxygen demand removal, 95.7% NH(4)(+) removal, and a low effluent turbidity of 4.1 NTU at the stable stage. This AG-MMBR process offers a promising technology for low-cost and efficient treatment of wastewaters. PMID:22370232

Li, Wen-Wei; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Gui, Yong-Xin; Yu, Lei; Xie, Tong-Qing; Yu, Han-Qing



Anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater using UASB reactors seeded with activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors seeded with aerobic activated sludge were used to treat brewery wastewater. The reactors were identical in design and were continuously operated at 19–24°C. Reactor A was seeded with 1·98 g volatile suspended solids (VSS) per liter of acclimatized activated sludge, while Reactor B was seeded with 1·98 g VSS l?1

C. Cronin; K. V. Lo



Assessment of the environmental hazard from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge by employing chemical and biological methods.  


Chemical analyses and toxicity testing were employed in conjunction to evaluate the environmental hazard from the wasted sludge generated during the biological treatment of urban and industrial wastewaters. Chemical analyses included determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total organic carbon (TOC), and seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) in sludge and sludge leachates deriving from two standard leaching procedures: (a) the mild leaching test EN-12457-2 proposed by EC and (b) the relatively aggressive toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leaching test proposed by US EPA. Acute toxicity measurements were performed in aqueous sludge elutriates and leachates by using bioluminescence bacteria. The urban sludge was found to be more enriched with PAHs than the industrial sludge, however, at levels below the EU limits for sludge application. The total PCB content (Sigma7PCBs) in both sludges, particularly in the industrial sludge, exceeded the proposed European limit for sludge use as soil amendment. With regards to their heavy metal content, both sludges met the requirements for use in agriculture. The urban sludge exhibited high ecotoxicity, while the industrial sludge with almost two times lower toxicity was classified as not toxic to slightly toxic. The EN and the TCLP leaching procedures resulted in different sludge characterizations both from chemical and from ecotoxicological points of view. The EN procedure appeared to be more sensitive to the potential environmental risk from sludge disposal. The results of the study revealed the necessity for combining chemical with ecotoxicological criteria for integrated characterization of wasted sludge and the need for harmonization of the methods employed for waste classification. PMID:16216634

Mantis, I; Voutsa, D; Samara, C



Short-Term Effects of Low pH on the Microfauna of an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum pH for biological (e.g., activated sludge) wastewater treatment is stat- ed to lie between pH 6.5 and 8.0; however, the pH of processed effluent from thermomechanical pulp mills is closer to 4.5 and 5.5. Consequently, pH adjust- ment of effluent is required with associated costs. The ability of the microfaunal community (protozoa and metazoa) of activated sludge to survive




[Determination of kinetic parameters of activated sludge in an MBR wastewater treatment plant].  


One of the main problems in application of MBR technology is lack of reliable kinetic parameters for process design. The activated sludge in the aerobic tank of an MBR municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated therefore. Using oxygen utilization rate method, following kinetic parameters were measured: heterotrophic yield coefficient YH = 0.693, autotrophic yield coefficient Y(A) = 0.263, heterotrophic decay coefficient KdH, = 0.108 d(-1), autotrophic yield coefficient KdA = 0.089 d(-1), specific maximum COD removal rate v(mS), = 1.94 mg x (mg x d)(-1), half saturation constant for COD removal K(S) = 34.6 mg x L(-1), specific maximum ammonia removal rate vmN = 0.18 mg x (mg x d)(-1), half saturation constant for ammonia removal K(N) = 1.06 mg x L(-1). Compared with the normal reported data of conventional activated sludge process (CAS), Y(H), KdH obtained are higher and vmS, vmN are lower. The high sludge concentration condition of MBR process may account for those differences. PMID:21717743

Xue, Tao; Yu, Kai-Chang; Guan, Jing; Huang, Xia; Wen, Xiang-Hua; Miao, Xue-Na; Cui, Zhi-Guang




EPA Science Inventory

There are potential environmental concerns from the disposal of municipal wastewater effluents and sewage treatment plant sludges. This report summarizes the microbial mutagenic evaluation and chemical analysis of 13 sewage sludge samples from various sewage treatment plants loca...


Essence of disposing the excess sludge and optimizing the operation of wastewater treatment: rheological behavior and microbial ecosystem.  


Proper disposal of excess sludge and steady maintenance of the high bioactivity of activated sludge in bioreactors are essential for the successful operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Since sludge is a non-Newtonian fluid, the rheological behavior of sludge can therefore have a significant impact on various processes in a WWTP, such as fluid transportation, mixing, oxygen diffusion, mass transfer, anaerobic digestion, chemical conditioning and mechanical dewatering. These are key factors affecting the operation efficiency and the energy consumption of the entire process. In the past decade-due to the production of large quantities of excess sludge associated with the extensive construction of WWTPs and the emergence of some newly-developed techniques for wastewater purification characterized by high biomass concentrations-investigations into the rheology of sludge are increasingly important and this topic has aroused considerable interests. We reviewed a number of investigations into the rheology of sludge, with the purpose of providing systematic and detailed analyses on the related aspects of the rheological behavior of sludge. It is clear that, even though considerable research has focused on the rheology of sludge over a long time period, there is still a need for further thorough investigation into this field. Due to the complex process of bio-treatment in all WWTPs, biological factors have a major influence on the properties of sludge. These influences are however still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the mechanisms involved and magnitude of such impacts. When taking note of the conspicuous biological characteristics of sludge, it becomes important that biological factors, such as the species composition and relative abundance of various microorganisms, as well as the microbial community characteristics that affect relevant operating processes, should be considered. PMID:24462086

Tang, Bing; Zhang, Zi




EPA Science Inventory

Bacteria and virus-containing aerosols were studied during late summer and fall in a U.S. midwestern suburb before and during the start up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of in...


Aggregation behavior of engineered nanoparticles and their impact on activated sludge in wastewater treatment.  


The ever-increasing daily use of engineered nanoparticles will lead to heightened levels of these materials in the environment. These nanomaterials will eventually go into the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), therefore, resulting into a pressing need for information on their aggregation behavior and kinetics in the wastewater aqueous matrix. In this work, we dispersed two different metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO and TiO2) into the influent of two different WWTPs. Through the time-resolved dynamic light scattering analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were quite stably existed in the wastewater matrix with aggregates of diameter 300-400 nm after 4.5h or more suspension. We confirmed that the dissolved organic matters (DOMs) attributed to the stability of nanoparticles. No propensity of NPs to aggregate were observed in the presence of both monovalent and divalent electrolytes even at high concentrations up to 0.15 M in NaCl or 0.025 M in CaCl2, indicating that the destabilization of nanoparticles in the complicated wastewater matrix was not achieved by the compression of electrical double layer, therefore, their aggregation kinetics cannot be simply predicted by the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory of colloidal stability. However, obvious aggregation of nanoparticles in the Al2(SO4)3 solution system was observed with the likely mechanism of bridging of the metal oxide nanoparticles and aggregates due to the formation of hydrous alumina (Al(OH)3·H2O) in the Al2(SO4)3 solution. In the wastewater matrix, we used the noninvasive measurement technology to detect the O2 flux of activated sludge before and after treatment with 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1) NPs. The results confirmed that both ZnO and TiO2 NPs showed an adverse impact on the O2 uptake of activated sludge when the exposure time extended to 4.5 h. PMID:25127355

Zhou, Xiao-hong; Huang, Bao-cheng; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Yan-chen; Shi, Han-chang



Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.  


Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 ?g/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 ?g/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 ?g/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 ?g/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 ?g/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 ?g/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17?-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non-effect concentration, were lower than 1 for all the pharmaceutically active compounds so no significant risks are expected to occur due to the application of sewage sludge onto soils, except for 17?-ethinylestradiol when chronic toxicity was considered. PMID:24909712

Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban



Co-treatment of domestic and dairy wastewater in an activated sludge system.  


This research assesses the potential for co-treatment of a dairy wastewater with a domestic wastewater in a lab-scale, continuous-flow, activated sludge system. To evaluate the influence of the dairy waste contribution, seven runs were conducted with each run being a mixture of dairy wastewater (either cheese or milk) in different ratios ranging from 1:0.01 to 1:0.30 by volume. More than 87% of the carbon was removed for both waste additions; however, while 95% ammonia-nitrogen removal was recorded for the cheese waste, only 75% removal was obtained for the milk. Kinetic studies for carbon consumption revealed a first-order model with lower kinetic constants as the cheese waste proportion increased. Specific carbon consumption rates indicated that the biomass had not reached its maximum potential to degrade carbon. The ability of the biomass to settle was hindered when the Gram negative to Gram positive filamentous bacteria ratio increased to approximately 1.5. PMID:25204524

Sparchez, E; Elefsiniotis, P; Wareham, D G; Fongsatitkul, P



Monitoring of activated sludge settling ability through image analysis: validation on full-scale wastewater treatment plants.  


In recent years, a great deal of attention has been focused on the research of activated sludge processes, where the solid-liquid separation phase is frequently considered of critical importance, due to the different problems that severely affect the compaction and the settling of the sludge. Bearing that in mind, in this work, image analysis routines were developed in Matlab environment, allowing the identification and characterization of microbial aggregates and protruding filaments in eight different wastewater treatment plants, for a combined period of 2 years. The monitoring of the activated sludge contents allowed for the detection of bulking events proving that the developed image analysis methodology is adequate for a continuous examination of the morphological changes in microbial aggregates and subsequent estimation of the sludge volume index. In fact, the obtained results proved that the developed image analysis methodology is a feasible method for the continuous monitoring of activated sludge systems and identification of disturbances. PMID:18726121

Mesquita, D P; Dias, O; Amaral, A L; Ferreira, E C



[Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].  


Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered. PMID:25826937

Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping



Ozonation effects for excess sludge reduction on bacterial communities composition in a full-scale activated sludge plant for domestic wastewater treatment.  


Activated sludge process is the most widely diffused system to treat wastewater to control the discharge of pollutants into the environment. Microorganisms are responsible for the removal of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and other emerging contaminants. The environmental conditions of biological reactors significantly affects the ecology of the microbial community and, therefore, the performance of the treatment process. In the last years, ozone has been used to reduce excess sludge production by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), whose disposal represents one of the most relevant operational costs. The ozonation process has demonstrated to be a viable method to allow a consistent reduction in excess sludge. This study was carried out in a full-scale plant treating municipal wastewater in two parallel lines, one ozonated in the digestion tank and another used as a control. Bacterial communities of samples collected from both lines of digestion thanks were then compared to assess differences related to the ozonation treatment. Data were then analysed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis on 16S rRNA gene. Differences between bacterial communities of both treated and untreated line appeared 2 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Results demonstrated that ozonation treatment significantly affected the activated sludge in WWTP. PMID:24701944

Chiellini, C; Gori, R; Tiezzi, A; Brusetti, L; Pucciarelli, S; D'Amato, E; Chiavola, A; Sirini, P; Lubello, C; Petroni, G



Concentrations and distribution of synthetic musks and siloxanes in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.  


In this study, we assessed the occurrence and distribution patterns of seven synthetic musks (SMs) and 17 siloxanes in anaerobic digested sludge samples collected at the dewatering process from 42 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. SMs in sludge from different WWTPs exhibited similar composition profiles, and their total concentrations ranged from 47.3 ng/g to 68.2 ?g/g dry weight (dw). On average, galaxolide (HHCB, 63.8%) and tonalide (AHTN, 31.7%) accounted for 95.5% of ?SMs. The total concentrations of cyclic siloxanes ranged from sludge indicated that both of them were widely used in China. Among the sludge samples from 42 WWTPs, the concentrations of both ?SMs and ?siloxanes had considerable variations. We investigated the influence of potential factors (wastewater and sludge characteristics, the treatment capacity, serving population, and the treatment techniques of WWTPs) on the levels of target compounds in sludge, and found that SMs were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) of the sludge and the serving population of WWTP. There were also strong correlations (p<0.05) between the treatment capacity of WWTPs and cyclic siloxanes, as well as between the TOC of the sludge and linear siloxanes. In addition, the ecological risks of SMs and siloxanes in sewage sludge addressed to land application were assessed, which suggested that there was a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:24463026

Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Xu, Lin; Cai, Yaqi



XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

Ragsdale, R.G., Jr



Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinc red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

Hullenbusch, Eric van [Laboratoire des Geomateriaux, Universite de Marne la Vallee (France); Farges, Francois [Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States); USM 201 'Mineralogie', UMR CNRS 7160, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, (France); Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet [Sub-dept. of Environmental Technology, Wageningen Universitaet, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Brown, Gordon E. Jr. [Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, SLAC, MS 69, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)



Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinic red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

van Hullenbusch, Eric; /Marne la Vallee U.; Farges, Francois; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur., Paris; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; /Wageningen U.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL



Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.  


Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 ?g/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 ?g/capita/day), acesulfame (90 ?g/capita/day), and saccharin (66?g/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 ?g/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 ?g/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam



Bacillus licheniformis proteases as high value added products from fermentation of wastewater sludge: pre-treatment of sludge to increase the performance of the process.  


Wastewater sludge is a complex raw material that can support growth and protease production by Bacillus licheniformis. In this study, sludge was treated by different thermo-alkaline pre-treatment methods and subjected to Bacillus licheniformis fermentation in bench scale fermentors under controlled conditions. Thermo-alkaline treatment was found to be an effective pre-treatment process in order to enhance the proteolytic activity. Among the different pre-treated sludges tested, a mixture of raw and hydrolysed sludge caused an increase of 15% in the protease activity, as compared to the untreated sludge. The benefit of hydrolysis has been attributed to a better oxygen transfer due to decrease in media viscosity and to an increase in nutrient availability. Foam formation was a major concern during fermentation with hydrolysed sludge. The studies showed that addition of a chemical anti-foaming agent (polypropylene glycol) during fermentation to control foam could negatively influence the protease production by increasing the viscosity of sludge. PMID:18309222

Drouin, M; Lai, C K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y



Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007  

E-print Network

Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Model calculations and cost "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet.DK under the PSO-F&U projects having National Laboratory, Rambøll, the Estate of Overgaard and SamRas. The wastewater treatment plant Esbjerg


Influence of bioselector processes on 17?-ethinylestradiol biodegradation in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems.  


The removal of the potent endocrine-disrupting estrogen hormone, 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) activated sludge (AS) processes can occur through biodegradation by heterotrophic bacteria growing on other organic wastewater substrates. Different kinetic and metabolic substrate utilization conditions created with AS bioselector processes can affect the heterotrophic population composition in AS. The primary goal of this research was to determine if these changes also affect specific EE2 biodegradation kinetics. A series of experiments were conducted with parallel bench-scale AS reactors treating municipal wastewater with estrogens at 100-300 ng/L concentrations to evaluate the effect of bioselector designs on pseudo first-order EE2 biodegradation kinetics normalized to mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (VSS). Kinetic rate coefficient (kb) values for EE2 biodegradation ranged from 5.0 to 18.9 L/g VSS/d at temperatures of 18 °C to 24 °C. EE2 kb values for aerobic biomass growth at low initial food to mass ratio feeding conditions (F/Mf) were 1.4 to 2.2 times greater than that from growth at high initial F/Mf. Anoxic/aerobic and anaerobic/aerobic metabolic bioselector reactors achieving biological nutrient removal had similar EE2 kb values, which were lower than that in aerobic AS reactors with biomass growth at low initial F/Mf. These results provide evidence that population selection with growth at low organic substrate concentrations can lead to improved EE2 biodegradation kinetics in AS treatment. PMID:24810975

Ziels, Ryan M; Lust, Mariko J; Gough, Heidi L; Strand, Stuart E; Stensel, H David



Advanced sludge treatment affects extracellular polymeric substances to improve activated sludge dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of wastewater sludge, now often referred to as biosolids, accounts for a major portion of the cost of the wastewater treatment process and represents significant technical challenges. In many wastewater treatment facilities, the bottleneck of the sludge handling system is the dewatering operation. Advanced sludge treatment (AST) processes have been developed in order to improve sludge dewatering and

Elisabeth Neyens; Jan Baeyens; Raf Dewil; Bart De heyder



Temporal evolution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plant.  


Five homologues of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)-LAS C-10, LAS C-11, LAS C-12, and LAS C-13 and total LAS-were monitored during a one-year period in primary, secondary, and digested sludge to evaluate their presence and temporal evolution. Extraction of LAS was carried out using microwaves energy, and determination was performed using high-performance liquid chromatographic- fluorescence (HPLC-FL). The results showed that concentrations of total LAS were between 9 337 mg/kg(-1) dry matter for primary sludge and 33.3 mg/kg(-1)(DM) for secondary sludge. Concentrations of total LAS were greater than 2 113 mg/kg(-1) in primary and digested sludge and were less than 260 mg/kg(-) in secondary sludge. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of LAS in primary sludge were found in summer, probably because of lack of rain during those months. Concentrations tend to be constant throughout the year in digested sludge. In addition heavy metals also were analyzed. Heavy metals, including zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and chromium are persistent environmental contaminants that cannot be destroyed. Biomagnification through the food-chain and potential accumulation in human tissues can cause both human health and environmental concerns. Concern regarding total heavy metal content of sludge limits sludge recycling for use on agricultural lands. This paper presents a comparative study of wastewater sludge that are going to be used as fertilizer based on the requirements of legislation proposed in the European Union. This research found that concentrations of total LAS in digested sludge are higher than the limits established in the proposed new draft. PMID:21657192

Villar, M; Callejón, M; Villar, P; Fernández-Torres, R; Bello, M A; Guiraúm, A



Sorption of Perfluorinated Compounds onto different types of sewage sludge and assessment of its importance during wastewater treatment.  


The distribution coefficient (Kd) and the organic carbon distribution coefficient (KOC) were determined for four Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) to three different types of sludge taken from a conventional Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). Batch experiments were performed in six different environmental relevant concentrations (200ngL(-1)to 5?gL(-1)) containing 1gL(-1) sludge. Kd values ranged from 330 to 6015, 329 to 17432 and 162 to 11770Lkg(-1) for primary, secondary and digested sludge, respectively. The effects of solution's pH, ionic strength and cation types on PFCs sorption were also evaluated. Sorption capacities of PFCs significantly decreased with increased pH values from 6 to 8. Furthermore, the divalent cation (Ca(2+)) enhanced PFCs sorption to a higher degree in comparison with the monovalent cation (Na(+)) at the same ionic strength. The obtained Kd values were applied to estimate the sorbed fractions of each PFC in different stages of a typical STP and to calculate their removal through treated wastewater and sludge. In primary settling tank, the predicted sorbed fractions ranged from 3% for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) to 55% for Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA), while in activated sludge tank and anaerobic digester sorption was more than 50% for all target compounds. Almost 86% of initial PFOA load is expected to be detected in treated wastewater; while Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFUdA and Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) can be significantly removed (>49%) via sorption to primary and excess secondary sludge. In anaerobic digester, the major part (>76%) of target PFCs is expected to be sorbed to sludge, while almost 3% of initial PFOA load will be detected in sludge leachates. PMID:24997945

Arvaniti, Olga S; Andersen, Henrik R; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S



Procedure to screen illicit discharge of toxic substances in septic sludge received at a wastewater treatment plant.  


This paper presents an integrative approach, using toxicological and chemical analyses, to screen toxic and illegal substances that could be added to the septic sludge transported by a tanker truck to the wastewater treatment plant of the Montreal Urban Community (MUC). Microtox, lettuce root elongation, and a bacterial respiration test were used to establish the toxicity range of a normal sludge and the determination of threshold limit criteria. Septic sludge samples were spiked with different types and amounts of contaminants (copper, zinc, phenol, industrial sludge). Conservative criteria were applied to detect abnormal toxicity with great reliability while avoiding false positives (i.e., detecting abnormal toxicity in nonspiked sludge). Taken individually, toxicity tests using Microtox were revealed to be the least discriminating toxicological method (efficiency of 45% when the ratio of the IC50 values is considered), whereas lettuce root elongation was relatively the most efficient (80% of spiked samples). As a whole, the battery of toxicity tests detected at least 93% of the spiked sludge samples. This procedure is also very efficient, i.e., easy to apply, cost effective, and rapid. In certain cases, an abnormal toxicity level can be determined within a few hours, whereas a septic sludge can be classified as normal within 5 days. PMID:9515073

Robidoux, P Y; Lopez-Gastey, J; Choucri, A; Sunahara, G I



Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD\\/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100

Mario T. Kato; Jim A. Field; Paul Versteeg; Gatze Lettinga



Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGSB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V[sub up]) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K[sub s] value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V[sub up] lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V[sub up] higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L [center dot] d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production.

Kato, M.T.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology)



Empirical Model for Predicting Concentrations of Refractory Hydrophobic Organic Compounds in Digested Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

An empirical model is presented allowing for the prediction of concentrations of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) prone to accumulate and persist in digested sludge (biosolids) generated during conventional municipal wastewater treatment. The sole input requirements of the model are the concentrations of the individual HOCs entering the wastewater treatment plant in raw sewage, the compound’s respective pH-dependent octanol-water partitioning coefficient (DOW), and an empirically determined fitting parameter (pfit) that reflects persistence of compounds in biosolids after accounting for all potential removal mechanisms during wastewater treatment. The accuracy of the model was successfully confirmed at the 99% confidence level in a paired t test that compared predicted concentrations in biosolids to empirical measurements reported in the literature. After successful validation, the resultant model was applied to predict levels of various HOCs for which occurrence data in biosolids thus far are lacking. PMID:20161626

Deo, Randhir P.; Halden, Rolf U.



Toxic influence of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants and synthetic activated sludge associates modeled on its pure cultures.  


Toxic impact of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment facilities has been studied. Some dominating cultures (an active nitrogen fixer Agrobacterium tumifaciens (A.t) and micromyces such as Fusarium nivale, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium glabrum) have been isolated and identified as a result of selection of the activated sludge microorganisms being steadiest under stressful conditions. For these cultures, the lethal doses of silver amounted 1, 600, 50, and 300 µg/l and the lethal doses of uranium were 120, 1,500, 1,000, and 1,000 mg/l, respectively. A.tumifaciens is shown to be more sensitive to heavy metals than micromyces. Synthetic granular activated sludge was formed on the basis of three cultures of the isolated micromyces steadiest against stress. Its granules were much more resistant to silver than the whole native activated sludge was. The concentration of silver causing 50?% inhibition of synthetic granular activated sludge growth reached 160-170??g/l as far as for the native activated sludge it came only to 100-110??g/l. PMID:25027236

Tyupa, Dmitry V; Kalenov, Sergei V; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Khokhlachev, Nikolay S; Baurina, Marina M; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye



Treatment of wastewater from a monosodium glutamate manufacturing plant using successive yeast and activated sludge systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive systems using yeast and activated sludge (AS) were developed to treat monosodium glutamate manufacturing wastewater (MSGW). The yeast system allowed over 80% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a rise of pH from 2.5 to 6.5 on treating MSGW directly (COD 25,000mg\\/l and NH4+–N 19,000mg\\/l). Observation of the microbial community using a scanning electron microscope indicated that the

Qingxiang Yang; Min Yang; Shujun Zhang; Wenzhou Lv



Examination of the operator and compensator tank role in urban wastewater treatment using activated sludge method  

Microsoft Academic Search

No doubt, operator is one of the main fundaments in wastewater treatment plants. By identifying the inadequacies, the operator\\u000a could be considered as an important key in treatment plant. Several methods are used for wastewater treatment that requires\\u000a spending a lot of cost. However, all investments of treatment facilities are useable when the expected efficiency of the treatment\\u000a plant was

Akbar Mokhtari Azar; Ali Ghadirpour Jelogir; Gholam Reza Nabi Bidhendi; Narges Zaredar



Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge  

SciTech Connect

The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G. (U. South Australia); (EPA); (Monash)



Recovery of Iron Coagulants From Tehran Water-Treatment-Plant Sludge for Reusing in Textile Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the water treatment plants in Iran discharge their sludge to the environment whithout consideration of possible side effects. Since this kind of sludge is generally considered pollutant, the sludge treatment of water industry seems to be an essential task. Obviously theweight and volume of solids produced during the coagulation process are much more than other wastes of water

F Vaezi; F Batebi; Gh Moosavi


Occurrence of PBDEs and other alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.  


Studies on the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other alternative brominated flame retardants in the environment are scarce. In this study, PBDEs and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), were measured in sludge collected from three types of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs (?PBDE) in sludge ranged from 298 to 48,000 (mean: 3240) ng/g dry weight. Among 10 NBFRs analyzed, DBDPE and BTBPE were the only ones detected in sludge samples. Concentrations of DBDPE and BTBPE ranged from sludge were higher than those reported in other countries. The highest concentrations of ?PBDE and DBDPE were found in sludge samples originated from industrial-WWTPs (I-WWTPs), suggesting that industrial activities are a major source of these contaminants. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that congener profiles of PBDEs in sludge are dependent on the types of WWTPs. Almost all sludge samples contained a low ratio (mean: 0.18) of DBDPE/BDE 209, indicating an on-going contamination by PBDEs in Korea. However, the high ratios (>1) of DBDPE/BDE 209 were found in sludge from I-WWTPs, reflecting a shift in the usage pattern of BFRs by the Korean industry. The nationwide annual emission fluxes of ?PBDE, DBDPE and BTBPE via WWTPs to the environment were estimated to be 7400, 480, and 3.7 kg/year, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from Korea. PMID:23993837

Lee, Sunggyu; Song, Geum-Ju; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang



A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

Mason, George J.


Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Mark Laposata



EPA Science Inventory

This manual discusses the many factors involved in selecting and designing dewatering equipment for organic sludges produced during primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment. ive-step approach is outlined for the selection and design of the dewatering equipment for eit...



EPA Science Inventory

A wastewater aerosol monitoring program was conducted at an advanced wastewater treatment facility using the activated sludge process. This plant was recently constructed next to an elementary school in Tigard, Oregon. Wastewater aerosols containing pathogenic organisms are gener...


Phylogenetic and functional diversity of metagenomic libraries of phenol degrading sludge from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system  

PubMed Central

In petrochemical refinery wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), different concentrations of pollutant compounds are received daily in the influent stream, including significant amounts of phenolic compounds, creating propitious conditions for the development of particular microorganisms that can rapidly adapt to such environment. In the present work, the microbial sludge from a refinery WWTP was enriched for phenol, cloned into fosmid vectors and pyrosequenced. The fosmid libraries yielded 13,200 clones and a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the sequence data set revealed a complex and diverse bacterial community in the phenol degrading sludge. The phylogenetic analyses using MEGAN in combination with RDP classifier showed a massive predominance of Proteobacteria, represented mostly by the genera Diaphorobacter, Pseudomonas, Thauera and Comamonas. The functional classification of phenol degrading sludge sequence data set generated by MG-RAST showed the wide metabolic diversity of the microbial sludge, with a high percentage of genes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of phenol and derivatives. In addition, genes related to the metabolism of many other organic and xenobiotic compounds, such as toluene, biphenyl, naphthalene and benzoate, were found. Results gathered herein demonstrated that the phenol degrading sludge has complex phylogenetic and functional diversities, showing the potential of such community to degrade several pollutant compounds. This microbiota is likely to represent a rich resource of versatile and unknown enzymes which may be exploited for biotechnological processes such as bioremediation. PMID:22452812



Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge.  


The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes. PMID:23397107

Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena



Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

Brar, Satinder K., E-mail: satinder.brar@ete.inrs.c [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Verma, Mausam [Department of Biological Engineering, Sexton Campus, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 2X4 (Canada); Tyagi, R.D. [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Surampalli, R.Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. Box 17-2141, Kansas City, KS 66117 (United States)



Aerobic granular sludge formation for high strength agro-based wastewater treatment.  


The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment. PMID:21524907

Abdullah, Norhayati; Ujang, Zaini; Yahya, Adibah



A nationwide survey and emission estimates of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.  


Siloxanes are widely used in various industrial applications as well as in personal care products. Despite their widespread use and potential toxic effects, few studies have reported on the occurrence of siloxanes in the environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 5 cyclic and 15 linear siloxanes in sludge collected from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of 20 siloxanes (?siloxane) in sludge ranged from 0.05 to 142 (mean: 45.7) ?g/g dry weight, similar to the concentrations reported in European countries but higher than those reported in China. The concentrations of siloxanes in sludge from domestic WWTPs were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those from industrial WWTPs, indicating higher consumption of siloxanes in various personal care products (e.g. shampoos and conditioners). The major siloxane compounds found in sludge were decamethylcyclopentasilane (D5), docosamethyldecasiloxane (L10) and dodecamethylcyclohexasilane (D6), which collectively accounted for, on average, 62% of the ?siloxane concentrations. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination of the profiles of siloxanes indicated the existence of different usage patterns of siloxanes between industrial and household activities. Multiple linear regression analysis of siloxane concentrations and WWTP characteristics suggested that D5, D6 and linear siloxane concentrations in sludge were positively correlated with population served by a WWTP. Environmental emission fluxes of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge disposal in Korea were 14,800 and 18,500 kg/year, respectively. This is the first report describing occurrence and environmental emission of siloxanes through sludge in Korea. PMID:25127445

Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Song, Geum-Ju; Ra, Kongtae; Lee, Won-Chan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam



Distributions of polycyclic musk fragrance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and sludges in the United States.  


The polycyclic musks, AHTN and HHCB are fragrance ingredients widely used in consumer products. A monitoring campaign was conducted and collected grab effluent and sludge samples at 40 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) across the United States to understand their occurrence and statistical distribution in these matrices. AHTN concentration in effluent ranged from <0.05 ?g/L (LOQ) to 0.44 ?g/L with a mean and standard deviation of 0.18 ± 0.11 ?g/L. HHCB concentrations in effluent ranged from 0.45 to 4.79 ?g/L with a mean of 1.86 ± 1.01 ?g/L. AHTN concentrations in sludge ranged from 0.65 to 15.0mg/kg dw (dry weight) with a mean and standard deviation being 3.69 ± 2.57 mg/kg dw, while HHCB sludge concentrations were between 4.1 and 91 mg/kg with a mean of 34.0 ± 23.1mg/kg dw. Measured concentrations of AHTN and HHCB were significantly correlated with each other in both effluent and sludge. The concentrations of HHCB in both effluent and sludge were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those for AHTN, consistent with 2011 usage levels. The highest measured effluent concentrations for both AHTN and HHCB were below their respective freshwater PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations), indicating a negligible risk to biological communities below WWTPs, even in the absence of upstream dilution. Moreover, the large number of effluents and sludges sampled provides a statistical distribution of loadings that can be used to develop more extensive probabilistic exposure assessments for WWTP mixing zones and sludge amended soils. PMID:24792690

Sun, Ping; Casteel, Kenneth; Dai, Hongjian; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; Kiel, Brian; Federle, Thomas



Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.  


Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N



Sludge Treatment, Utilization, and Disposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers such areas: (1) industrial and hazardous sludges; (2) chemical sludges; (3) stabilization and combustion; (4) ocean disposal; and (5) land application. A list of 411 references is also presented. (HM)

Dick, Richard I.



The role of stress agents as operating factors in formation and functioning of granular aerobic activated sludge at model domestic wastewater treatment.  


Maintenance of the wastewater treatment plants and increasing the efficiency of existing aerobic biological reactors depend on the stability of activated sludge characteristics under varying wastewater parameters within significant limits and/or influence of some environmental factors. The steady microbial communities observed in biofilms and anaerobic granules of activated sludge can serve as successful samples of formation of the similar aerobic systems. The granular aerobic sludge obtained in the course of our researches is an ideal "plant" on treatment of biogenic pollution at both low and high concentrations. It demonstrates high ability for treatment and stability to adverse factors. To improve aerobic wastewater treatment characteristics, a possibility of using impact of stress conditions upon activated sludge has been studied. Under conditions of fractional hydrogen peroxide addition at diffused lighting, the granular aerobic activated sludge adapted to hydrogen peroxide has been obtained. This sludge has got good sedimentary properties and it differs from the control sample in the species diversity, improved treatment characteristics and also resistance to the stressor. It also endures an impact of one-time hydrogen peroxide addition up to 1.2-1.5 g H2O2/l. The conditions under which the steady aerobic granules of the diameter from 2 to 5 mm were formed with high treatment ability have been chosen. The granules were being stabilized at passages with hydrogen peroxide treatment and they endured up to 2.4-3.0 g/l of one-time H2O2 addition. PMID:24556977

Khokhlachev, Nikolay S; Kalenov, Sergei V; Zanina, Olga S; Tyupa, Dmitry V; Baurina, Marina M; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye



Influence d'une alimentation séquentielle sur l'épuration par boues activées d'un effluent fortement chargé Influence of cyclic feeding on high strength wastewater treatment by activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The overall efficiency of an activated sludge wastewater treatment System dépends both on the ability of the activated sludge culture to remove the solu- ble organic pollution and on the efficiency of the séparation of the treated water from the biomass. In the treatment of a high-strength wastewater (COD > li kgm -3 ), ultrafiltrati on or crossflow filtration




EPA Science Inventory

The efficiency of nitrogen stripping by intercropping forages with corn is evaluated in a three-year study at Muskegon County Wastewater Treatment Facility in Michign. Corn is grown as the major cash crop at the Muskegon treatment facility, but experience has shown that corn is n...


The effect of nutrient deficiency on removal of organic solvents from textile manufacturing wastewater during activated sludge treatment.  


Textile manufacturing wastewater is often deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus and contains hazardous solvents, including methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), toluene (TOL), and xylenes (XYL). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of a short-term batch assay for predicting when a nutrient deficient condition exists in textile wastewater activated sludge, and to determine if nutrient deficiency affects biodegradation of MEK, MIBK, TOL,and p-XYL to a greater or lesser extent than bulk soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). Addition of N + P significantly improved sCOD removal during treatment of textile wastewater in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Batch tests using mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) from the SBRs correctly predicted the nutrient deficiency in the reactors that received unamended wastewater. During batch tests in sealed containers (to prevent volatilization) when N + P were added, the solvents biodegraded faster and to a greater extent than the bulk wastewater sCOD. MEK and MIBK were also completely consumed in MLSS from the SBR that received unamended wastewater, indicating that a shortage of nutrients did not significantly impact biodegradation of these ketones. However, nutrient deficient conditions significantly decreased the rate of TOL and p-XYL biodegradation. The difference in biodegradability of the ketones and monoaromatics under nutrient deficient conditions may be related to loss of plasmids required for aerobic catabolism of TOL and p-XYL. These results demonstrate that N + P addition to nutrient-deficient textile wastewater improves bulk sCOD removal and also significantly improves the biodegradability of TOL and p-XYL, thereby reducing the amount released to the atmosphere by volatilization. PMID:15791799

Freedman, D L; Payauys, A M; Karanfil, T




EPA Science Inventory

The investigations were carried out on laboratory scale, employing various mixtures of dyeing and municipal wastewaters. The processes studied were: coagulation, ozonization, chlorination, activated carbon, activated sludge, and anaerobic digestion. Lime appeared to be the best c...


Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.  


Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions. PMID:25837566

Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys




EPA Science Inventory

Both industrially-impacted and domestic municipal sewage treatment plant wastewaters and sludges have been studied to isolate the residue organics for the characterization of their mutagenic properties and for the isolation/identification of the mutagenic components. ethods were ...


Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.



Microfiltration of activated sludge using submerged membrane with air bubbling (application to wastewater treatment)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor is one of the applications of membrane technology to wastewater treatment. In this study we present the results obtained using hollow fiber microfiltration membranes directly immersed in the bioreactor. Two sizes of equipment were used: laboratory scale with a specially designed set of microfiltration hollow fibers (filtration area 0.016 m2) and pilot scale with a bundle of

El Hani Bouhabila; Roger Ben Aïm; Herve Buisson




EPA Science Inventory

Tests were performed to determine the physical properties and chemical leaching characteristics of the residuals and the stabilized/solidified products from two publicly-owned wastewater treatment works (POTW). The two POTW waste products included in this study were an anaerobic ...


Emergy analysis of municipal wastewater treatment and generation of electricity by digestion of sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines and evaluates, by using emergy analysis, the use of environmental resources for wastewater treatment in a Swedish town. Emergy analysis was applied, while it facilitates the comparison of resource use of substantially different kind. In the emergy analysis, all resources are assessed on the basis of the amount of direct and indirect solar energy required in their

Johanna Björklund; Ulrika Geber; Torbjörn Rydberg



Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.  


The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from "negative removal" to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological risk to algae. Therefore, further control of PhACs in effluent and sludge is required before their discharge and application to prevent their introduction into the environment. PMID:24176710

Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Jin-Song



Wastewater Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.



Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).  


Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N. PMID:19540753

Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui



Microbiology: wastewater treatment. [Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with the microbiology of the wastewater treatment process is presented. Microbiological oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds in aerobic wastewater treatment processes and particularly the conditions that lead to inhibition of such oxidation were among the topics. Interactions among microoganisms in anaerobic sludge digestion were also reported.(KRM)

Pipes, W.O.; Minnaugh, H.A.



Occurrence and distribution of organophosphate flame retardants/plasticizers in wastewater treatment plant sludges from the Pearl River Delta, China.  


Organophosphate esters (OPs) are widely used as flame retardants or plasticizers and are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of 7 widely used OPs were analyzed in sludge samples collected from 19 municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Pearl River Delta, South China. All analytes were detected in these samples, and the total concentration of OPs ranged from 96.7 µg/kg to 1312.9 µg/kg dry weight, with a mean value of 420.1 µg/kg dry weight. In most sludge samples OPs exhibited a similar distribution pattern, for example, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were identified as the dominant compounds. However, the results also indicated significantly higher levels of OPs in specific sludges, such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (804.9 µg/kg), TBEP (783.7 µg/kg), TPhP (656.7 µg/kg), and tritolyl phosphate (265.0 µg/kg), which implied different discharge sources in the studied areas. PMID:24729049

Zeng, Xiangying; He, Lixiong; Cao, Shuxia; Ma, Shengtao; Yu, Zhiqiang; Gui, Hongyan; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo



Effect of aluminium and sulphate on anaerobic digestion of sludge from wastewater enhanced primary treatment.  


The combined and individual effects of aluminium and sulphate at concentrations of 1,000 mg/l as Al(OH)3, and 150 mgSO4(2-)/L as K2SO4, respectively, on the anaerobic digestion of sludge from enhanced primary treatment (EPT) were evaluated in 1 L capacity semi continuous reactors. It was found that at 59 days, aluminium inhibits the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria resulting in a 50% to 72% decrease. Sulphate also inhibits (48% to 65%) the SMA of the same type of bacteria. Methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria were able to adapt, to a different extent, to the assayed concentrations of aluminium and sulphate. However, the combination of aluminium and sulphate resulted in a higher inhibition, especially of the hydrogenophilic methanogenic bacteria. Indeed, this effect remained during the time of the experiment, maintaining an inhibition of 44% at 114 days. Feeding with EPT sludge led to a bigger decrease in SMA of each bacterial group, with respect to the other treatments with time. It is concluded that the acidification of anaerobic reactors fed with EPT sludge is due, among other causes, to the concurrent presence of aluminium and sulphate. PMID:14640223

Cabirol, N; Barragán, E J; Durán, A; Noyola, A



Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  


Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J



Kalman filter for updating the coefficients of regression models. A case study from an activated sludge waste-water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Kalman filter was developed to overcome the problems caused by process drifting. Different types of models were used to predict response variables of an activated sludge waste-water treatment plant. These models were constructed using MLR, PCR, and PLS. The MLR-type regression coefficients were calculated for both the PCR and PLS models. After that, the Kalman filter was used to

Pekka Teppola; Satu-Pia Mujunen; Pentti Minkkinen



Structure and properties of noncrystalline nano-Al(OH)? reclaimed from carbonized residual wastewater treatment sludge.  


Performance of wastewater treatement sludge-carbon (SC) can be evidently improved by removing the inorganic fractions. A novel investigation for recovery of Al from acid leaching of SC and synthesis of nano-Al(OH)(3) has been conducted. Results show that the sodium aluminates with high purity can be obtained by effectively dissolving the inorganic fractions from SC and by further removing the impurities (Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), S(4+), and P(3+)). Highly dispersed Al(OH)(3) with high S(BET) is obtained at pH = 6. The peaks of -CH(2)- vibration and the C1s peaks (binding energies of 284.6 eV) imply that polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG-1000) is chemically adsorbed on the surface of Al(OH)(3) samples, which is propitious to reduce the hydrogen bonds between water molecules and surface -OH groups to prevent hard agglomeration. The stretching vibration peaks of [AlO(2)](-) and the Na1s peaks confirm that a trace of sodium aluminate (NaAl(OH)(4), Na(+)(H(2)O)(4)[Al(OH)(4)(-)], or the dehydrated monomers) is retained in the prepared Al(OH)(3). The main phase transformation for calcination (?800 °C) of the SC-derived Al(OH)(3) is from amorphous Al(OH)(3) to amorphous A1(2)O(3). Here we highlight that production of Al(OH)(3) and SC from sludge provides the potential application in significant quantities that can revolutionize the handling of such kinds of harmful waste. PMID:22417744

Zou, Jinlong; Dai, Ying; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Jiang, Baojiang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Wei; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Xue; Xing, Zipeng; Fu, Honggang



Fate of aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian municipal wastewater systems: an overview of wastewater treatment using conventional activated-sludge processes (CASP) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs).  


We studied the occurrence, removal, and fate of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Italian municipal wastewater treatment systems in terms of their common contents and forms, and their apparent and actual removal in both conventional activated-sludge processes (CASP) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs). We studied five representative full-scale CASP treatment plants (design capacities of 12,000 to 700,000 population-equivalent), three of which included MBR systems (one full-scale and two pilot-scale) operating in parallel with the conventional systems. We studied the solid-liquid partitioning and fates of these substances using both conventional samples and a novel membrane-equipped automatic sampler. Among the VOCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 4-chlorotoluene were ubiquitous, whereas naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene were the most common PAHs. Both PAHs and aromatic VOCs had removal efficiencies of 40-60% in the headworks, even in plants without primary sedimentation. Mainly due to volatilization, aromatic VOCs had comparable removal efficiencies in CASP and MBRs, even for different sludge ages. MBRs did not enhance the retention of PAHs sorbed to suspended particulates compared with CASPs. On the other hand, the specific daily accumulation of PAHs in the MBR's activated sludge decreased logarithmically with increasing sludge age, indicating enhanced biodegradation of PAHs. The PAH and aromatic VOC contents in the final effluent are not a major driver for widespread municipal adoption of MBRs, but MBRs may enhance the biodegradation of PAHs and their removal from the environment. PMID:20804998

Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Bolzonella, David; Cecchi, Franco



Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008  

E-print Network

selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system . The Esbjerg system is based on the fact, that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment enhances digester technology .l'he plant treats combined household and industrial wastewater with a considerable


Membrane bioreactors for waste water treatment: reduction of sludge production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the excess sludge produced by Activated Sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants, studies have been carried out with a Membrane BioReactor (MBR) to study the maintenance and cryptic growth phenomena of Pseudomonas fluorescens cultures. Experiments with various imposed wasting rates showed that viability and sludge production yield decreased when sludge age increased.A continuous sludge thermal treatment system

Gérard Goma; Jean Luc Rols; Alain Pareilleux



Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).  


In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable. PMID:21123926

Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James



Study of the viscosity behaviour of glasses obtained from urban wastewater treatment sludges from Egypt using hot stage microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants in Egypt is becoming more important; this paper studied the chemical composition of sludge from four treatment plants located around Nile delta and valley: El-Sadat City (E-01), Alexandria (E-02), Abo-Rawash (E-03) and Minufiya (E-04), and is suggested as a possible solution, the vitrification of these sludges. Another important objective for obtaining correct this glass is to know the viscosity temperature curve, including developing a prototype of hot stage microscopy (HSM) and development of software suitable for the analysis of images. Each image has different morphology related to different viscosity, can that way determine the viscosity at the temperature of heating. The chemical composition of these sludges is close to a basalt rock except that the phosphorus content is higher, and sometimes with a certain proportion of heavy metals. Cr, Zn and Pb exceeds the limit allowed to be used in agriculture, this is one of the solutions actually used. In general, major oxides to sludges ranging from: SiO2 (36-48 wt %), Al2O3 (9-16 wt %), CaO (5-25 wt %), P2O5 (1.5-11 wt %) and Fe2O3 (~ 9 wt %), this composition. Since of them are formulated and prepared by four different glasses, in some cases being necessary to incorporate a quantity of raw materials. The sludge combustion heat, the thermal evolution, vitreous transition temperature (Tg) and crystal growth temperature of the glasses were obtained by carrying out a differential thermal analysis. Tg of the four glasses vary between 650 and 725 °C and the growth occurs between 938 and 1033 °C. The vitreous transition temperature was also determined with a dilatometer. Each original glass has been characterized mineralogically by X-ray diffraction: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and calcite. Two samples contained gypsum and some clay mineral traces. We also obtained the viscosity - temperature curves with the aid of the hot stage microscopy that has allowed us to determine the working temperatures of the four glasses, ranging from 926 and to 1419 °C, depending on the type of forming process used. In all glass samples the viscosity-temperature curves have similar characteristics, but for higher viscosities a separation among the different viscosity-temperature curves occurs. This different behaviour is associated to chemical composition: Ca-rich silica aluminum melt, present low viscosity at low temperatures, > P2O5 content, the nucleation of a more refractory phosphate phase occurs. In order to obtain the original glasses working conditions (necessary for possible industrial applications) are used the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation: a) upper and lower annealing temperatures of the samples are similar for the different glasses and ranging between 595-641 °C and 671-701 °C respectively; b) working temperature range from 917-1307 °C for the sample E-02, and 925-1503 °C for the sample E-04, depending on the conformation system used. Finally, the forming and melting temperatures of the samples vary between 1307-1403 °C (E-02) and 1503-1550 °C (E-04). The results confirm that HSM is a good technique for studying the sludge vitrification process, and could provide important information for the possible industrial application. Acknowledgements This study is a contribution of the bilateral project A/030032/10 and CICYT TIN2008-02903. The analytical work was conducted at Research Consolidated Groups 2009SGR-0044 (Mineral Resources). Wastewater treatment plants at El-Sadat City, Alexandria, Abo-Rawash and Minufiya are acknowledged for sampling authorization and facilities. We express our acknowledgement to the technical support of the Scientific-Technical Service Unit of the University of Barcelona and the additional support of the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC).

Garcia-Valles, M.



Effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in a bioreactor based on the integrated technology of activated sludge and hydrophyte system.  


The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in the integrated technology based on the simultaneous use of the activated sludge method (AS) and a hydrophyte system (HS) (AS-HS), in this case, common reed (Phragmites australis) or common cattail (Typha latifolia). Experiments were conducted in an innovative reactor exploited in the fractional-technical scale at the loads of 0.05 mg BOD5/mg.d.m. d (biochemical oxygen demand) and 0.10 mg BOD5/mg.d.m d. The AS--HS enabled improving the removal effectiveness ofbiogenes characterized by concentrations of Ntot., N-NH4 and Ptot. In contrast, the integrated system had no significant reducing effect either on concentrations of organic compounds characterized by BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand parameters or on the structure of AS in the sequencing batch-type reactors. PMID:24701933

Debowski, M; Zieli?ski, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Rokicka, M; Kupczyk, K



Effects of dried wastewater-treatment sludge application on ground-water quality in South Dade County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four test fields in the south Dade agricultural area were studied to determine the effects of sludge application on ground-water quality. Two fields had been cultivated for 10 years or more, and two had not been farmed for at least 10 years. The fields were representative of the area's two soil types (Rockdale and Perrine marl) and two major crop types (row crops and groves). Before the application of sludge, wells upgradient of, within, and downgradient of each field were sampled for possible sludge contaminants at the end of wet and dry seasons. Municipal wastewater treatment sludge from the Dade County Water and Sewe Authority Department was then applied to the fields at varying application rates. The wells at each field were sampled over a 2-year period under different hydrologic conditions for possible sludge-related constituents (specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, chloride, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, and sodium). Comparisons were made between water quality in the vicinity of the test fields and Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations, an between water quality upgradient of, beneath, and downgradient of the fields. Comparisons between presludge and postsludge water quality did not indicate any improvement because of retention of agrichemicals by the sludge nor did they indicate any deterioration because of leaching from the sludge. Comparisons of water quality upgradient of the fields to water quality beneath and downgradient of the fields also did not indicate any changes related to sludge. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations wer exceeded at the Rockdale maximum-application field by mercury (9.5 ug/L (micrograms per liter)), and the Perrine marl maximum-application field by manganese (60 ug/L) and lead (85 ug/L), and at the Perrine marl row-crop field by mercury (5.2 ug/L). All other exceedances were either in presludge or upgradient samples, or they were for constituents or properties, such as iron and color, which typically exceed standards in native ground water. Acid-extractable and base-neutral compounds, volatile organic compounds, chlorophenoxy herbicides, organophosphorus insecticides, and organochlorine compounds were analyzed for one shallow well at each field twice annually. Those compounds that equaled or exceeded the detection limit after sludge was applied included benzene (0.3 and 1.2 ug/L), chloroform (0.2 and 0.3 ug/L), bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate (29 and 42 ug/L), methylene chloride (14 ug/L), tolulene (0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 1.3, and 4.4 ug/L), 1, 1,1-trichloroethana (0.6 ug/L), trichloroethylene (0.3 ug/L), 2.4-D (0.01 ug/L), and xylene (0.3 ug/L). It ws not possible to ascertain the origin of these compounds becuase they are available from sources other than sludge.

Howie, Barbara




EPA Science Inventory

Sludge treatment and disposal problems and costs grow with increased concern about the quality of wastewater treatment. As standards for effluent quality in the United States have become stricter, the problems of sludge treatment and disposal have grown disproportionately. Today ...


PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate) production potential of activated sludge treating wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purposes of wastewater treatment systems are to remove organic pollutants, but it would be very attractive if there were a way to recover the organic pollutants as valuable organic materials. One of the possible ways to recover organic pollutants in wastewater is to convert them into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable plastics. In this study, 18 activated sludge

H. Takabatake; H. Satoh; T. Mino; T. Matsuo



Algaculture integration in conventional wastewater treatment plants: Anaerobic digestion comparison of primary and secondary sludge with microalgae biomass.  


This study evaluated the feasibility of using microalgae biomass as feedstock for anaerobic digestion together with other biomasses (primary and secondary sludge) normally generated in WWTP. Raw microalgae biomass anaerobic biodegradability (33%) was higher than that of secondary sludge (23%). Thermal pretreatment enhanced 62% and 16% methane yield for Chlorellavulgaris and secondary sludge, respectively. When both substrates were codigested, methane yields remained low. On the other hand, primary sludge supported the highest anaerobic biodegradability (97%) and when combined with thermally pretreated C. vulgaris, methane yields were higher (13-17%) than the ones expected theoretically. Despite the high protein content of those substrates and the high nitrogen mineralization, no ammonia inhibition was detected. Thereby, this study showed that algae biomass is a potential cosubstrate for biogas production together with municipal wastewater sludge. PMID:25451781

Mahdy, Ahmed; Mendez, Lara; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina



Modelling of the temperature-phased batch anaerobic digestion of raw sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant.  


The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) which combines thermophilic and mesophilic processes in one, brings together the advantages of both systems. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple kinetic model to describe the TPAD of sewage sludge in batch completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and to determine the kinetic parameters of both thermophilic and mesophilic stages. A zero-order kinetic equation described the thermophilic step after 2, 4 and 6 days of digestion time (experiment 1, 2 and 3, respectively), yet a first-order equation was found to be adequate to correlate the methane gas accumulated with time in the mesophilic step, the kinetic constant being 0.21 days(-1). The methane yield coefficient obtained was found to be almost proportional to the digestion time used in the thermophilic step with values of 0.067, 0.132 and 0.193 L CH(4) STP/g VS(added) for experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. By contrast, the kinetic constant of the mesophilic stage was not influenced by the digestion time used in the thermophilic phase. PMID:22242874

Riau, Víctor; De la Rubia, M Angeles; Pérez, Montserrat; Martín, Antonio; Borja, Rafael



Bacterial assembly and temporal dynamics in activated sludge of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.  


Understanding environmental and biological influences on the dynamics of microbial communities has received great attention in microbial ecology. Here, utilizing large time-series 16S rRNA gene data, we show that in activated sludge of an environmentally important municipal wastewater treatment plant, 5-year temporal dynamics of bacterial community shows no significant seasonal succession, but is consistent with deterministic assemblage by taxonomic relatedness. Biological interactions are dominant drivers in determining the bacterial community assembly, whereas environmental conditions (mainly sludge retention time and inorganic nitrogen) partially explain phylogenetic and quantitative variances and indirectly influence bacterial assembly. We demonstrate a correlation-based statistical method to integrate bacterial association networks with their taxonomic affiliations to predict community-wide co-occurrence and co-exclusion patterns. The results show that although taxonomically closely related bacteria tend to positively co-occur (for example, out of a cooperative relationship), negative co-excluding correlations are deterministically observed between taxonomically less related species, probably implicating roles of competition in determining bacterial assembly. Overall, disclosures of the positive and negative species-species relations will improve our understanding of ecological niches occupied by unknown species and help to predict their biological functions in ecosystems. PMID:25180966

Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong



MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect

The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)



Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library web site for the water industry contains links to many sites for detailed information on industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants as well as water supply and transmission. Also find information on current news releases, expos, conferences and much more.


[Amelioration effects of wastewater sludge biochars on red soil acidity and their environmental risk].  


Biochars were prepared from wastewater sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Nanjing using a pyrolysis method at 300, 500 and 700 degrees C. The properties of the biochars were measured, and their amelioration effects on the acidity of a red soil and environmental risk of application of sludge biochars were examined to evaluate the possibility of agricultural application of wastewater sludge biochars in red soils. Results indicated that incorporation of both sludge and sludge biochar increased soil pH due to the alkalinity of sludge and sludge biochar, and the mineralization of organic N and nitrification of ammonium N from wastewater sludge induced soil pH fluctuated during incubation. The amelioration effects of biochars generated at 500 and 700 degrees C on the soil were significantly greater than that of sludge significantly. Sludge and sludge biochar contain ample base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ and thus incorporation of sludge and sludge biochar increased the contents of soil exchangeable base cations and decreased soil exchangeable aluminum and H+. Contents of heavy metals in sludge biochars were greater than these in their feedstock sludge, while the contents of Cu, Pb, Ni and As in sludge biochars were lower than the standard values of heavy metals were wastewater sludge for agricultural use in acid soils in China except for Zn and Cd. The contents of available forms of heavy metals in the biochars generated from sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant was lower than these in the corresponding sludge, suggesting that pyrolysis proceed decreased the activity of heavy metals in wastewater sludge. After 90-day incubation of the soil with sludge and sludge biochar, the differences in the contents of soil available heavy metals were not significant between the biochars and their feedstock sludge from Jiangxizhou wastewater treatment plant, and the contents in the treatments with biochars added was lower than these in the treatments with the corresponding sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant for most of heavy metals. It can be concluded that the biochars from wastewater sludge could be used as soil amendments to adjust soil acidity. Application of sludge biochars did not increase activity and availability of heavy metals compared with direct incorporation of the sludge. PMID:23233992

Lu, Zai-Liang; Li, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou



Basis for the development of sustainable optimisation indicators for activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in the Republic of Ireland.  


This paper describes the basis of a stakeholder-based sustainable optimisation indicator (SOI) system to be developed for small-to-medium sized activated sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Key technical publications relating to best practice plant operation, performance audits and optimisation, and indicator and benchmarking systems for wastewater services are identified. Optimisation studies were developed at a number of Irish AS WwTPs and key findings are presented. A national AS WwTP manager/operator survey was carried out to verify the applied operational findings and identify the key operator stakeholder requirements for this proposed SOI system. It was found that most plants require more consistent operational data-based decision-making, monitoring and communication structures to facilitate optimised, sustainable and continuous performance improvement. The applied optimisation and stakeholder consultation phases form the basis of the proposed stakeholder-based SOI system. This system will allow for continuous monitoring and rating of plant performance, facilitate optimised operation and encourage the prioritisation of performance improvement through tracking key operational metrics. Plant optimisation has become a major focus due to the transfer of all ROI water services to a national water utility from individual local authorities and the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. PMID:25607680

Gordon, G T; McCann, B P



Use of dewatered alum sludge as main substrate in treatment reed bed receiving agricultural wastewater: Long-term trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to explore a novel application of dewatered alum sludge cakes (DASC) as the main medium in a single model reed bed to treat phosphorus-rich animal farm wastewater under “tidal flow” operation on a long-term basis. It is expected that the cakes act as the carrier for developing biofilm and also serve as adsorbent to enhance phosphorus (P)

Y. Q. Zhao; X. H. Zhao; A. O. Babatunde




EPA Science Inventory

Innovative processes for use in treatment of wastewaters and sludges produced in anodizing, etching and painting extruded aluminum were investigated. Results of the research can be immediately implemented at many aluminum-finishing plants where sludge disposal restrictions and co...



EPA Science Inventory

This 71 - page Technology Transfer Environmental Regulations and echnology publication describes the Federal requirements promulgated in 1979 for reducing pathogens n wastewater sludge and provides guidance in determining whether individual sludge treatment andated or particular ...



EPA Science Inventory

The capability of oxidative and nonoxidative heat treatment processes for the conditioning of hydrous sludges originating in pulp and paper industry manufacturing or wastewater treatment operations was defined on the basis of laboratory scale investigation. Sludges employed in th...


A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.  


A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment. PMID:25464326

Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo




EPA Science Inventory

Vermicomposting -- the biological degradation of organic matter that occurs as earthworms feed on waste materials -- has been advocated by some as a means of stabilizing and disposing of municipal wastewater sludges. Vermicomposting is being attempted on an experimental scale, th...


Use of an aerobic selector to overcome filamentous bulking in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.  


An urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with two different parallel lines of treatment and located in the north of Portugal was studied during four months, following recurrent episodes of filamentous bulking caused by Sphaerotilus natans and eventual occurrences of Nocardioforms and Type 1863. An aerobic selector was introduced in both lines in the beginning of the studied period, suppressed in one of the lines during six weeks, and then put into operation again until the end of the study. A total of 14 filamentous bacteria morphotypes were identified. The results showed that the presence of an aerobic biological selector in continuous operation prevented the overgrowth of the filamentous Type 1863, of Nocardioforms and, in particular, of S. natans. Simultaneously, it allowed lowering the oxygen levels in the aeration tanks without negative consequences in the overall performance of the WWTP, namely bulking occurrence. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the aeration tank varied initially between 2 and 3 mg/L, but the introduction of the selector enabled to lower it to 1-1.5 mg/L in the aeration tank and around 0.5 mg/L in the selector. A significant energy save was allowed, even considering the aeration of the selector. The results are more relevant if one considers the fact that the main cause of the bulking problems in this WWTP was the overgrowth of S. natans, a filamentous bacterium known to be stimulated by low DO levels. PMID:24701952

Ferreira, Vânia; Martins, Catarina; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Nicolau, Ana



Microbial community structure and population dynamics of granules developed in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewater at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic biological treatment of sucrose-based, low-strength wastewater was investigated in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors at low temperatures over a 300-day trial period. During the trial, the operating temperature was lowered in a stepwise manner from 20°C to 5°C. As a result, the reactors exhibited sufficient performances until 10°C operation. The COD removal rate was 3.1–3.8 kgCOD m

Ikuo Tsushima; Wilasinee Yoochatchaval; Hiroki Yoshida; Nobuo Araki; Kazuaki Syutsubo



A combined approach of partial least squares and fuzzy c-means clustering for the monitoring of an activated-sludge waste-water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a combined approach of partial least squares (PLS) and fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering for the monitoring of an activated-sludge waste-water treatment plant is presented. Their properties are also investigated. Both methods were applied together in process monitoring. PLS was used for extracting the most useful information from the control and process variables in order to predict a

Pekka Teppola; Satu-Pia Mujunen; Pentti Minkkinen



Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal by an advanced simultaneous sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal wastewater treatment process.  


An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously decrease sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The feasibility of simultaneous enhanced nutrient removal along with sludge reduction as well as the potential for enhanced nutrient removal via this process were further evaluated. The results showed that the denitrification potential of the supernatant of alkaline-treated sludge was higher than that of the influent. The system COD and VFA were increased by 23.0% and 68.2%, respectively, after the return of alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source, and the internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source. A total of 74.5% of phosphorus from wastewater was recovered as a usable chemical crystalline product. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal were improved by 19.6% and 23.6%, respectively, after incorporation of the side-stream system. Sludge minimization and excellent nutrient removal were successfully coupled in the SIPER process. PMID:25735007

Yan, Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Wen-Juan



Preparation of ceramic filler from reusing sewage sludge and application in biological aerated filter for soy protein secondary wastewater treatment.  


Dehydrated sewage sludge (DSS) and clay used as raw materials for preparation of novel media-sludge ceramic filler (SCF) and SCF employed in a lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF) were investigated for soy protein secondary wastewater treatment. Single factor experiments were designed to investigate the preparation of SCF, and the characteristics (microstructure properties, toxic metal leaching property and other physical properties) of SCF prepared under the optimum conditions were examined. The influences of media height, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and air-liquid ratio (A/L) on chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) removal rate were studied. The results showed that the optimum addition of DSS was approximately 25.0 wt% according to the physical properties of SCF (expansion ratio of 53.0%, v/v, water absorption of 8.24 wt%, bulk density of 350.4 kg m(-3) and grain density of 931.5 kg m(-3)), and the optimum conditions of BAF system were media height of 75.0 cm, HRT of 10.0 h and A/L of 15:1 in terms of CODcr and NH4(+)-N removal rate (91.02% and 90.48%, respectively). Additionally, CODcr and NH4(+)-N (81.6 and 15.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the final effluent of BAF system met the national standard (CODcr ? 100 mg L(-1), NH4(+)-N ? 25.0 mg L(-1), GB 18918-2002, secondary standard). PMID:25464302

Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing



Treatment of coal-conversion wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated-sludge process. First semiannual technical progress report, August 1, 1980January 31, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of coal conversion wastewaters has traditionally been accomplished through the use of the activated sludge process and its various modifications. General observations have been that phenol was degraded efficiently; however, very poor removal efficiencies of thiocyanate, cyanide, and ammonia were obtained. The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to the activated sludge process has been reported to result

M. T. Suidan; M. Pirbazari; C. S. Gee; M. A. Deady



Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry  

E-print Network

Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial wastewater into clean water and energy. The goal of this project was to set up lab-scale anaerobic digesters to collect data that will be used to develop and validate ...

Scampini, Amanda C



Bacteriophage-based biocontrol of biological sludge bulking in wastewater.  


In a previous paper, the first ever application of lytic bacteriophage (virus)-mediated biocontrol of biomass bulking in the activated sludge process using Haliscomenobacter hydrossis as a model filamentous bacterium was demonstrated. In this work we extended the biocontrol application to another predominant filamentous bacterium, Sphaerotilus natans, notoriously known to cause filamentous bulking in wastewater treatment systems. Very similar to previous study, one lytic bacteriophage was isolated from wastewater that could infect S. natans and cause lysis. Significant reduction in sludge volume index and turbidity of the supernatant was observed in batches containing S. natans biomass following addition of lytic phages. Microscopic examination confirmed that the isolated lytic phage can trigger the bacteriolysis of S. natans. This extended finding further strengthens our hypothesis of bacteriophage-based biocontrol of overgrowth of filamentous bacteria and the possibility of phage application in activated sludge processes, the world's widely used wastewater treatment processes. PMID:21829092

Choi, Jeongdong; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh



Response of anaerobic granular sludge to a shock load of zinc oxide nanoparticles during biological wastewater treatment.  


The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in consumer and industrial products highlights a need to understand their potential environmental impacts. In this study, the response of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) to a shock load of ZnO NPs during anaerobic biological wastewater treatment was reported. It was observed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS and the methane production were not significantly influenced at ZnO NPs of 10 and 50 mg per gram of total suspended solids (mg/g-TSS), but they were decreased when the dosage of ZnO NPs was greater than 100 mg/g-TSS. The visualization of EPS structure with multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that ZnO NPs mainly caused the decrease of proteins by 69.6%. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis further indicated that the C-O-C group of polysaccharides and carboxyl group of proteins in EPS were also changed in the presence of ZnO NPs. The decline of EPS induced by ZnO NPs resulted in their deteriorating protective role on the inner microorganisms of AGS, which was in correspondence with the observed lower general physiological activity of AGS and the death of microorganisms. Further investigation showed that the negative influence of ZnO NPs on methane production was due to their severe inhibition on the methanization step. PMID:22587556

Mu, Hui; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Hong; Liu, Kun



Combined activated sludge with partial nitrification (AS/PN) and anammox processes for treatment of seafood processing wastewater.  


An activated sludge process with partial nitrification (AS/PN) in combination with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process for treatment of seafood processing wastewater was developed and investigated in this research. Operating conditions of AS/PN process for coupling with Anammox process were identified as pH between 7.7-8.2 and DO as 0.5-0.9 mg L(-1) to achieve over 85% COD removal as well as partial nitrification. The developed AS/PN process could produce almost equal concentration of ammonium and nitrite nitrogen in the effluent which was highly suitable for the Anammox process. Near complete removal of ammonium and nitrite was achieved during steady state Anammox process operation. Maximum nitrogen removal rate for the Anammox process was found to be 0.6 kg N m(- 3) d(-1). Microorganisms involved in both AS/PN and Anammox processes were identified using in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction techniques. The result 16S rDNA revealed 94% homology to Candidatus "Brocadia fulgida." PMID:18584436

Lamsam, Apipong; Laohaprapanon, Sawanya; Annachhatre, Ajit P



Effective water content reduction in sewage wastewater sludge using magnetic nanoparticles.  


The present work compares the use of three flocculants for sedimentation of sludge and sludge water content from sewage wastewater i.e. magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), ferrous sulfate (chemical) and Moringa crude extract (protein). Sludge water content, wet/dry weight, turbidity and color were performed for, time kinetics and large-scale experiment. A 30% reduction of the sludge water content was observed when the wastewater was treated with either protein or chemical coagulant. The separation of sludge from wastewater treated with MION was achieved in less than 5min using an external magnet, resulted in 95% reduction of sludge water content. Furthermore, MION formed denser flocs and more than 80% reduction of microbial content was observed in large volume experiments. The results revealed that MION is efficient in rapid separation of sludge with very low water content, and thus could be a suitable alternative for sludge sedimentation and dewatering in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:24378779

Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory studies were performed to prove the concept and feasibility for a novel technology to dewater sludges. This involves the formation of solid hydrate crystals of water and specific clathrate-forming agents followed by separation of the hydrate crystal solids from the slu...


Psychrophilic (6--15 {degree}C) high-rate anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater in a two-module expanded granular sludge bed system  

SciTech Connect

Psychrophilic (6--15 C) anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater was investigated. A two-module expanded granular sludge bed reactor system with a total volume of 140 dm{sup 3} was used to treat malting wastewater having a soluble and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 233 and 1778 mg dm{sup {minus}3} and between 317 and 4422 mg dm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. The removal efficiencies at 6 C were 47 and 71% of the soluble and volatile fatty acids (VFA) COD, at organic loading rates (OLR) ranging between 3.3 and 5.8 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The removal efficiencies at 10--15 C were 67--78 and 90--96% of the soluble and VFA COD at an OLR between 2.8 and 12.3 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The specific methanogenic activity of the sludge present in each module increased 2--3-fold during system operation for 400 days. The relatively high concentration of suspended solids in the influent (25% of the total COD) caused a deterioration of the sludge bed in the first reactor module. This was aggravated by excessive growth of acidifying biomass, which persisted in the first module sludge bed and resulted in granular sludge flotation. However, the second module could accommodate the increased OLR, this providing a very high effluent quality (soluble COD < 200 mg dm{sup {minus}3}) of the total system. The stability of module 1 concerning suspended solids could be restored by presettling the wastewater.

Rebac, S.; Lier, J.B. van; Lens, P.; Cappellen, J. van; Vermeulen, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands)] [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Dekkers, F.; Swinkels, K.T.M. [Bavaria B.V., Lieshout (Netherlands)] [Bavaria B.V., Lieshout (Netherlands)



Influence of influent wastewater communities on temporal variation of activated sludge communities.  


Continuously feeding influent wastewater containing diverse bacterial species to a wastewater treatment activated sludge bioreactor may influence the activated sludge bacterial community temporal dynamics. To explore this possibility, this study tracked influent wastewater and activated sludge bacterial communities by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes from four full-scale wastewater treatment plants over a 9-month period. The activated sludge communities showed significantly higher richness and evenness than the influent wastewater communities. Furthermore, the two communities were different in composition and temporal dynamics. These results demonstrate that the impact of the influent wastewater communities on the activated sludge communities was weak. Nevertheless, 4.3-9.3% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the activated sludge were shared with the influent wastewater, implying contribution from influent wastewater communities to some extent. However, the relative OTU abundance of the influent wastewater was not maintained in the activated sludge communities (i.e., weak neutral assembly). In addition, the variability of the communities of the shared OTUs was moderately correlated with abiotic factors imposed to the bioreactors. Taken together, temporal dynamics of activated sludge communities appear to be predominantly explained by species sorting processes in response to influent wastewater communities. PMID:25655320

Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Park, Hee-Deung



OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

Hall, F.E. Jr. [OC-ALC/EMV, Tinker AFB, OK (United States)




Microsoft Academic Search

The methylation of mercury has been investigated and documented mainly in sediments, fish and microorganisms, while limited number of relevant studies is available for wastewater. The procedure of mercury methylation can occur via biological pathway (by microorganisms) and via chemical or photochemical reactions. Methylation of mercury occurs mainly under anaerobic conditions, but some studies have shown its existence also under



Evaluation study of a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant including contact-assisted activated sludge and DAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of physical\\/chemical processes and the application of contact-assisted activated sludge process have been investigated. These tests were carried out in a 310-m3\\/d plant. The analysis of plant performance was based on the quality of treated water produced and the cost of the plant relative to each configuration. The results show that a two stage dissolved air flotation units

N. Z. Al-Mutairi; F. A. Al-Sharifi; S. B. Al-Shammari



The effect of chemical composition on the PCT durability of mixed waste glasses from wastewater treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program has been designed to examine the chemical durability of glass compositions derived from the vitrification of simulated wastewater treatment sludges. These sludges represent the majority of low-level mixed wastes currently in need of treatment by the US DOE. The major oxides in these model glasses included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, CaO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, three minor oxides, BaO, NiO, and PbO, were added as hazardous metals. The major oxides were each varied at two levels resulting in 32 experimental glasses. The chemical durability was measured by the 7-Day Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized sodium release rates (NRR{sub Na}) of these glasses ranged from 0.01 to 4.99 g/m{sup 2}. The molar ratio of the glass-former to glass-modifier (F/M) was found to have the greatest effect on PCT durability. Glass-formers included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Na{sub 2}O, CaO, BaO, NiO, and PbO were glass-modifiers. As this ratio increased from 0.75 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} was found to decrease between one and two orders of magnitude. Another important effect on NRR{sub Na} was the Na{sub 2}O/CaO ratio. As this ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} increased up to two orders of magnitude for the glasses with the low F/M ratio but almost no effect was observed for the glasses with the high F/M ratio. Increasing the iron oxide content from 2 to 18 mole% was found to decrease NRR{sub Na} one order of magnitude for the glasses with low F/M but iron had little effect on the glasses with the high F/M ratio. The durability also increased when 10 mole percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was included in low iron oxide glasses but no effect was observed with the high iron glasses. The addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} had little effect on durability. The effects of other composition parameters on durability are discussed as well.

Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)



Characterization of refractory matters in dyeing wastewater during a full-scale Fenton process following pure-oxygen activated sludge treatment.  


Refractory pollutants in raw and treated dyeing wastewaters were characterized using fractional molecular weight cut-off, Ultraviolet-vis spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS). Significant organics and color compounds remained after biological (pure-oxygen activated sludge) and chemical (Fenton) treatments at a dyeing wastewater treatment plant (flow rate ?100,000m(3)/d). HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed that some organic compounds disappeared after the biological treatment but reappeared after the chemical oxidation process, and some of that were originally absent in the raw dyeing wastewater was formed after the biological or chemical treatment. It appeared that the Fenton process merely impaired the color-imparting bonds in the dye materials instead of completely degrading them. Nevertheless, this process did significantly reduce the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD, 66%) and color (73%) remaining after initial biological treatment which reduced SCOD by 53% and color by 13% in raw wastewater. Biological treatment decreased the degradable compounds substantially, in such a way that the following Fenton process could effectively remove recalcitrant compounds, making the overall hybrid system more economical. In addition, ferric ion inherent to the Fenton reaction effectively coagulated particulate matters not removed via biological and chemical oxidation. PMID:25682369

Bae, Wookeun; Won, Hosik; Hwang, Byungho; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Chung, Jinwook; Kwon, Kiwook; Shim, Hojae



Total organic carbon-calibrated mathematical model for a completely mixed activated sludge waste-water treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for a total organic carbon-monitored, completely mixed activated sludge process for the treatment of a mixed domestic and laboratory waste water is discussed and experimentally calibrated. The first-order kinetic model was better suited to fit the experimental data than the Monod model. Values obtained for the sludge yield, Y, and the first-order kinetic constant, kL, agree with

C. U. Rao; Daniel Tyteca; Edmond-Jacques Nyns



Cyanide removal from cassava mill wastewater using Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094 with mixed microorganisms in activated sludge treatment system.  


Cassava mill wastewater has a high organic and cyanide content and is an important economic product of traditional and rural low technology agro-industry in many parts of the world. However, the wastewater is toxic and can pose serious threat to the environment and aquatic life in the receiving waters. The ability of Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094, a N2-fixing bacterium, to grow and remove cyanide in cassava wastewater was evaluated. Results revealed that the cells in the exponential phase reduce the level of cyanide more rapidly than when the cells are at their stationary growth phase. The rate of cyanide removal by A. vinelandii depends on the initial cyanide concentration. As the initial cyanide concentration increased, removal rate increased and cyanide removal of up to 65.3% was achieved. In the subsequent pilot scale trial involving an activated sludge system, the introduction of A. vinelandii into the system resulted in cyanide removals of up to 90%. This represented an improvement of 20% when compared to the activated sludge system which did not incorporate the strain. PMID:19632039

Kaewkannetra, P; Imai, T; Garcia-Garcia, F J; Chiu, T Y




EPA Science Inventory

The publication describes and evaluates the various municipal sludge combustion systems. It also emphasizes the necessity for considering and evaluating the costs involved in the total sludge management train, including dewatering, combustion, air pollution control, and ash dispo...


Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?  


The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m(3)m(2)h(-1) the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25460965

Escolà Casas, Mònica; Bester, Kai



Recovery of volatile fatty acids from fermentation of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants.  


This work investigated the pilot scale production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from sewage sludge through alkaline fermentation and the subsequent membrane filtration. Furthermore, the impact of the fermentation liquid on nutrient bioremoval was examined. The addition of wollastonite in the fermenter to buffer the pH affected the composition of the carbon source produced during fermentation, resulting in higher COD/NH4-N and COD/PO4-P ratios in the liquid phase and higher content of propionic acid. The addition of wollastonite decreased the capillary suction time (CST) and the time to filter (TTF), resulting in favorable dewatering characteristics. The sludge dewatering characteristics and the separation process were adversely affected from the use of caustic soda. When wollastonite was added, the permeate flux increased by 32%, compared to the use of caustic soda. When fermentation liquid was added as carbon source for nutrient removal, higher removal rates were obtained compared to the use of acetic acid. PMID:25459853

Longo, S; Katsou, E; Malamis, S; Frison, N; Renzi, D; Fatone, F



Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.  


The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators. PMID:17331640

Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M




EPA Science Inventory

The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...


Treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater in hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor packed with pleated poly vinyl chloride rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the performance of 5.4L hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor for treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater under mesophilic conditions (29–35°C), was investigated. After starting-up, the reactor was loaded up to an OLR of 19kgCOD\\/m3d and achieved varied TCOD and SCOD removal efficiencies of 70–86% and 80–92%, respectively. The biogas was varied between 1.1 and 5.2m3\\/m3d with the

R. Rajakumar; T. Meenambal; P. M. Saravanan; P. Ananthanarayanan


Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

Chua, K. H.; Cheah, W. L.; Tan, C. F.; Leong, Y. P.



Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.  


Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (<100°C) thermal pre-treatments were investigated to improve the present efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) carried out on waste activated sludge (WAS) in the largest Italian wastewater treatment plant (2,300,000p.e.). Thermal pre-treatments returned disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. PMID:25459836

Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara



Alkaline extraction of wastewater activated sludge biosolids.  


Activated sludge produced by wastewater treatment facilities are a sub-utilized by-product whose handling and disposal represent significant costs to these facilities. In this work, we introduced a simple and effective alkaline extraction technique that extracts up to 75% of the sludge's organic matter into a liquor containing potentially useful organic material (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.). The results suggest that at pH 11 and above, cell lysis occurs, liberating substantial quantities of organic material into the alkaline solution. When compared to a cation exchange resin (CER) extraction developed for analytical purposes, the alkaline extraction recovered 3x more organic material. The alkaline extract was highly surface active, despite containing a relatively small fraction of lipids. At pH 12 and above the lipid fraction was enriched with C15-C16 fatty acid residues, likely associated with cell membrane phospholipids as suggested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P NMR). Size exclusion chromatography studies show that the extract is enriched with biopolymers or assemblies of molecular weights in the order of tens of thousands of Daltons. Potential uses for the extract are discussed. PMID:20435473

García Becerra, Flor Y; Acosta, Edgar J; Allen, D Grant



Treatment of coal-conversion wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated-sludge process. First semiannual technical progress report, August 1, 1980-January 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of coal conversion wastewaters has traditionally been accomplished through the use of the activated sludge process and its various modifications. General observations have been that phenol was degraded efficiently; however, very poor removal efficiencies of thiocyanate, cyanide, and ammonia were obtained. The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to the activated sludge process has been reported to result in a number of distinct advantages. Generally, however, improving the effluent water quality beyond the capabilities of conventional biological treatment and enhancing the treatability of wastewaters that inhibit or toxify biological treatment systems are the primary objectives of utilizing PAC in secondary biological treatment. The focus of the present research project is to assess the effectiveness of the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process in the treatment of a coking wastewater. The purpose of the contact tank in such a process will be to provide sufficient time for the adsorbable constituents of the coking wastewater to adsorb onto the PAC. The liquor leaving the contact tank is then clarified with the concentratrated underflow receiving treatment in the stabilization tank. After stabilization the sludge is returned to the contact tank. The clarifier supernatant is then nitrified in an activated sludge-type nitrification process and the nitrified effluent is subsequently denitrified in an anoxic filter.

Suidan, M.T.; Pirbazari, M.; Gee, C.S.; Deady, M.A.



Wastewater Treatment  


... roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes. Why Treat Wastewater? It's a matter ... fishing enthusiasts, and future generations. Wildlife Habitats Our rivers and ocean waters teem with life that depends ...


Co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Turkey.  


Co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge may be an attractive alternative for sustainable management of two separate waste streams produced in large amounts in all countries. This study evaluates calculation-based results of an anaerobic co-digestion process for primary sludge (PS) together with the OFMSW. The calculations were carried out for the anaerobic digester of Kayseri municipal wastewater treatment plant (in Turkey) presently digesting only PS. Two alternatives were proposed using different solid waste contents in co-digesters. For achieving the optimal solids content, some treated wastewater should be recycled to the inlet of the digesters. The municipal solid waste collection method characterized as mechanically sorted (MS-OFMSW; Option 1) is evaluated as well as a source sorted (SS-OFMSW) alternative (Option 2). Utilizing the energy produced by the existing sludge digester, only 30% of the internal energy demand at the wastewater treatment plant can be covered. The aim of this study is to evaluate how energy production would be increased by co-digestion of OFMSW and PS. The best operational condition considering organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time and energy generation could be attained at 10% digester solids content for both options. According to Option 1, almost 77% of the energy demand could be covered by co-digestion of MS-OFMSW and PS. Results indicated that almost 100% energy coverage can be obtained when co-digestion (Option 2) was performed according to SS-OFMSW and PS. PMID:19710107

Dereli, Recep Kaan; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Gomec, Cigdem Yangin; Ozturk, Izzet; Ozdemir, Ozgur



Biodegradability of wastewater and activated sludge organics in anaerobic digestion.  


The investigation provides experimental evidence that the unbiodegradable particulate organics fractions of primary sludge and waste activated sludge calculated from activated sludge models remain essentially unbiodegradable in anaerobic digestion. This was tested by feeding the waste activated sludge (WAS) from three different laboratory activated sludge (AS) systems to three separate anaerobic digesters (AD). Two of the AS systems were Modified Ludzack - Ettinger (MLE) nitrification-denitrification (ND) systems and the third was a membrane University of Cape Town (UCT) ND and enhanced biological P removal system. One of the MLE systems and the UCT system were fed the same real settled wastewater. The other MLE system was fed raw wastewater which was made by adding a measured constant flux (gCOD/d) of macerated primary sludge (PS) to the real settled wastewater. This PS was also fed to a fourth AD and a blend of PS and WAS from settled wastewater MLE system was fed to a fifth AD. The five ADs were each operated at five different sludge ages (10-60d). From the measured performance results of the AS systems, the unbiodegradable particulate organic (UPO) COD fractions of the raw and settled wastewaters, the PS and the WAS from the three AS systems were calculated with AS models. These AS model based UPO fractions of the PS and WAS were compared with the UPO fractions calculated from the performance results of the ADs fed these sludges. For the PS, the UPO fraction calculated from the AS and AD models matched closely, i.e. 0.30 and 0.31. Provided the UPO of heterotrophic (OHO, fE_OHO) and phosphorus accumulating (PAO, fE_PAO) biomass were accepted to be those associated with the death regeneration model of organism "decay", the UPO of the WAS calculated from the AS and AD models also matched well - if the steady state AS model fE_OHO = 0.20 and fE_PAO = 0.25 values were used, then the UPO fraction of the WAS calculated from the AS models deviated significantly from those calculated with the AD models. Therefore in plant wide wastewater treatment models the characterization of PS and WAS as defined by the AS models can be applied without modification in AD models. The observed rate limiting hydrolysis/acidogenesis rates of the sludges are listed. PMID:24699419

Ikumi, D S; Harding, T H; Ekama, G A




EPA Science Inventory

The pilot plant for this study consisted of one oxygenation basin and two clarifiers. The system treated primary clarifier effluent from the Englewood, Colorado, treatment facility. The influent flow rate was adjusted to attain average aeration reactor detention times ranging fro...


Quantification of Hyphomicrobium Populations in Activated Sludge from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment System as Determined by 16S rRNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

The bacterial community structure of the activated sludge from a 25 million-gal-per-day industrial wastewater treatment plant was investigated using rRNA analysis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries were created from three sludge samples taken on different dates. Partial rRNA gene sequences were obtained for 46 rDNA clones, and nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for 18 clones. Seventeen of these clones were members of the beta subdivision, and their sequences showed high homology to sequences of known bacterial species as well as published 16S rDNA sequences from other activated sludge sources. Sixteen clones belonged to the alpha subdivision, 7 of which showed similarity to Hyphomicrobium species. This cluster was chosen for further studies due to earlier work on Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 isolated from this treatment plant. A nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequence was obtained from Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 was 99% similar to Hyphomicrobium denitrificans DSM 1869T in Hyphomicrobium cluster II. Three of the cloned sequences from the activated sludge samples also grouped with those of Hyphomicrobium cluster II, with a 96% sequence similarity to that of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. The other four cloned sequences from the activated sludge sample were more closely related to those of the Hyphomicrobium cluster I organisms (95 to 97% similarity). Whole-cell fluorescence hybridization of microorganisms in the activated sludge with genus-specific Hyphomicrobium probe S-G-Hypho-1241-a-A-19 enhanced the visualization of Hyphomicrobium and revealed that Hyphomicrobium appears to be abundant both on the outside of flocs and within the floc structure. Dot blot hybridization of activated sludge samples from 1995 with probes designed for Hyphomicrobium cluster I and Hyphomicrobium cluster II indicated that Hyphomicrobium cluster II-positive 16S rRNA dominated over Hyphomicrobium cluster I-positive 16S rRNA by 3- to 12-fold. Hyphomicrobium 16S rRNA comprised approximately 5% of the 16S rRNA in the activated sludge. PMID:10698787

Layton, A. C.; Karanth, P. N.; Lajoie, C. A.; Meyers, A. J.; Gregory, I. R.; Stapleton, R. D.; Taylor, D. E.; Sayler, G. S.



Decolorization and treatment of Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater by the combination treatment involving biodecolorization and biotreatment by Penicillium oxalicum d, physical decolorization by ozonation and treatment by activated sludge.  


Kokuto-shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled liquor made from brown sugar. Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater (KDW) contains high concentrations of organic compounds and brown pigments (called molasses pigments) which are hardly decolorized by general biological wastewater treatment. A fungus, Penicillium oxalicum d, which we isolated in a previous study, decolorizes 47% of the color from KDW without the addition of any nutrients. P. oxalicum d decolorizes KDW by absorbing the pigments into its mycelia. Here we describe a KDW treatment system that combines biodecolorization and biotreatment by P. oxalicum d with treatment by activated sludge and physical decolorization by ozonation. Adding HClO to suppress bacterial growth and replacing fresh seed sludge at regular intervals helped to maintain the dominance and decolorization ability of P. oxalicum d. In a laboratory-scale demonstration, 48 cycles (12 days) achieved a decolorization ratio of 90% and removed more than 97% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP). A major feature of our system is that it uses only 6% of the water used in an activated sludge-ozonation system. PMID:20473555

Watanabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Miki; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki



Combined anaerobic and activated sludge anoxic/oxic treatment for piggery wastewater.  


A process combining anaerobic digestion and anoxic/oxic treatment was developed to treat pig slurry in-order-to partially convert organic matter (OM) into a valuable energy and simultaneously to comply with the environmental constraints as regards to nitrogen removal. However, OM content of digested pig slurry is insufficient to allow a further complete denitrification of the mineral nitrogen content. Hence, four different configurations were designed and evaluated to manage the OM requirements and achieve denitrification. Partial nitrification (PN) of ammonium to nitrite was also applied by regulating oxygen inflow time. Thus, the combined process could remove 38-52% of CODt, 79-88% of CODs, 66-75% of TN and 98-99% of NH(4)(+)N concentrations depending on the slurry characteristics. Anaerobic digestion was able to produce 5.9 Nm(3) of CH(4)/m(slurry added)(3). PN allowed a reduction in the oxygen and OM requirements respectively for nitrification and denitrification. Thus, this process trims-down the energy costs at the farm scale. PMID:21050751

Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Rousseau, Pierre; Bernet, Nicolas; Béline, Fabrice



A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

Schwing, Carl M.


Transformation of Four Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater and Post-processing of Sewage Sludge  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing use of silver (Ag) nanoparticles [containing either elemental Ag (Ag-NPs) or AgCl (AgCl-NPs)] in commercial products such as textiles will most likely result in these materials reaching wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies indicate that a conversion of Ag-...


Performance of the biosorptive activated sludge (BAS) as pre-treatment to UF for decentralized wastewater reuse.  


A biosorptive activated sludge (BAS) was operated at lab-scale with diluted and concentrated municipal wastewater to study the efficiency of removal of organics (particulate and soluble COD) and recovery of nutrients (TKN, ammonia, phosphorus). The system performed significantly better with concentrated wastewater, where COD removal efficiency was 80% at organic loading rates between 10 and 20kg m(-3)d(-1). Supplementation of ferrous iron at 20mg L(-1), significantly improved both the removal of particulate, soluble COD and phosphorus. The effluent from the BAS was further treated using an ultrafiltration process with backwashing. The average permeate flux (at constant TMP=0.3bar) increased from 23 to 28 and 34L m(-2)h(-1) when raw sewage, BAS without iron, and iron respectively were tested. The proposed technology is compact, efficient and suitable for decentralized water reuse, while the capital and operational expenses were calculated as 0.64 and 0.43€ m(-3), respectively. PMID:24525216

Diamantis, V; Eftaxias, A; Bundervoet, B; Verstraete, W



Quality monitoring of composting processes of wastewater sludge in Alexandria.  


There are two wastewater primary treatment plants in Alexandria (west and east). The produced primary sludge is mechanically dewatered and transported to sludge disposal site 9N where composting is carried out. However, prior to 1970, composting played a very minor role in sludge or solid wastes treatment because of greatly unfavorable balance between its economics and those of the principal competing option, namely landfill disposal. This study aims at monitoring and evaluating the composting process of demitted sludge produced from Alexandria wastewater treatment plants. Ten batches of sludge were composted. During the composting process the batches were been investigated and followed up to 3 months. Representative samples (10 for each batch) were taken from these batches at the start of windrowing and after each turning (4-15 days) and were analyzed for physical; chemical; bacteriological; and parasitological characteristics, heavy metals, and plant nutrients. Results revealed that C/N ratio of the final compost product comply with the decree of the Minister of Agriculture No. 100 11967, while moisture, C%, and TKN did not. Heavy metals, faecal coliforms, and helminthes complied with the decree No. 222/2002 for the Minister of Housing, Utilities, and Urban Communities. Moisture had positive correlation with both C and VS and negative correlation with pH. Temperature had negative correlation with TKN. Both total and faecal coliforms had negative correlation with temperature and positive correlation with C, N, and VS. It is recommended to optimize the quality of the produced sludge compost by use bulking agent rich in carbon and nitrogen as Hay or Rice straw, instead of the matured sludge compost. PMID:17216976

El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Hussein, Ahmed H; Abdel-Aty, Magda M; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Helaly, Helaly A



Anaerobic digestion and wastewater treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) wastewater (pre-)treatment systems represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of very different industrial effluents, including those containing toxic\\/inhibitory compounds. The process is also feasible for treatment of domestic wastewater with temperatures as low as 14–16° C and likely even lower. Compared to conventional aerobic treatment systems the anaerobic treatment process merely offers

G. Lettinga



Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35°C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918m3\\/tVSadded), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the

S. Luostarinen; S. Luste; M. Sillanpää




EPA Science Inventory

Major objectives were to: (a) assess types and densities of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges in the southern United States, (b) investigate the inactivation of parasites by lime stabilization of sewage sludges seeded with selected intestinal parasites, (c) assess convent...


Sludge treatment studies  

SciTech Connect

Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.



Upgrading of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant by adding a moving bed biofilm reactor as pre-treatment and ozonation followed by biofiltration for enhanced COD reduction: design and operation experience.  


A paper mill producing 500,000 ton of graphic paper annually has an on-site wastewater treatment plant that treats 7,240,000 m³ of wastewater per year, mechanically first, then biologically and at last by ozonation. Increased paper production capacity led to higher COD load in the mill effluent while production of higher proportions of brighter products gave worse biodegradability. Therefore the biological capacity of the WWTP needed to be increased and extra measures were necessary to enhance the efficiency of COD reduction. The full scale implementation of one MBBR with a volume of 1,230 m³ was accomplished in 2000 followed by another MBBR of 2,475 m³ in 2002. An ozonation step with a capacity of 75 kg O?/h was added in 2004 to meet higher COD reduction demands during the production of brighter products and thus keeping the given outflow limits. Adding a moving bed biofilm reactor prior to the existing activated sludge step gives: (i) cost advantages when increasing biological capacity as higher COD volume loads of MBBRs allow smaller reactors than usual for activated sludge plants; (ii) a relief of strain from the activated sludge step by biological degradation in the MBBR; (iii) equalizing of peaks in the COD load and toxic effects before affecting the activated sludge step; (iv) a stable volume sludge index below 100 ml/g in combination with an optimization of the activated sludge step allows good sludge separation--an important condition for further treatment with ozone. Ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration pre-treated waste water provide: (i) reduction of hard COD unobtainable by conventional treatment; (ii) controllable COD reduction in a very wide range and therefore elimination of COD-peaks; (iii) reduction of treatment costs by combination of ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration; (iv) decrease of the color in the ozonated wastewater. The MBBR step proved very simple to operate as part of the biological treatment. Excellent control of the COD-removal rate in the ozone step allowed for economical usage and therefore acceptable operation costs in relation to the paper production. PMID:21099060

Kaindl, Nikolaus



Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub  

SciTech Connect

This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

Not Available



Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.  


Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated sludge) and primary sludge is still in its infancy. Current research is mainly focused on developing efficient pretreatment methods that enable fast hydrolysis of complex organic matter, shorter sludge residence times and as a consequence, smaller sludge digesters. Previous experimental studies indicate that the anaerobic digestibility of non-pretreated biosludge from pulp and paper mills varies widely, with volatile solids (VS) removal rates of 21-55% and specific methane yields ranging between 40 and 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Pretreatment can increase the digestibility to some extent, however in almost all reported cases, the specific methane yield of pretreated biosludge did not exceed 200 mL g(-1) VS fed. Increases in specific methane yield mostly range between 0 and 90% compared to non-pretreated biosludge, whereas larger improvements were usually achieved with more difficult-to-digest biosludge. Thermal treatment and microwave treatment are two of the more effective methods. The heat required for the elevated temperatures applied in both methods may be provided from surplus heat that is often available at pulp and paper mills. Given the large variability in specific methane yield of non-pretreated biosludge, future research should focus on the links between anaerobic digestibility and sludge properties. Research should also involve mill-derived primary sludge. Although biosludge has been the main target in previous studies, primary sludge often constitutes the bulk of mill-generated sludge, and co-digestion of a mixture between both types of sludge may become practical. The few laboratory studies that have included mill primary sludge indicate that, similar to biosludge, the digestibility can range widely. Long-term studies should be conducted to explore the potential of microbial adaptation to lignocellulosic material which can constitute more than half of the organic matter in pulp and paper mill sludge. PMID:25150519

Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A




EPA Science Inventory

One of the most common biological treatment systems used to clean wastewater is suspended growth activated sludge wastewater treatment (AS). When AS is adapted for the treatment of wastewater from industrial manufacturing processes, unanticipated difficulties can arise. For the s...


Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Wastewater and Sludge of Poultry Slaughterhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotimicrobial resistance was investigated in 537 Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered from 22 samples of crude inflow, treated effluent and sludge collected in wastewater treatment plants of eight poultry slaughterhouses of Portugal. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in the resistance to each antimicrobial agent with regards to the origin of the sample (inflow, sludge and effluent). Many of





EPA Science Inventory

Fecal matter potentially containing pathogenic microorganisms and chemical contaminants enters community wastewater collection systems from hospitals, funeral homes, animal slaughtering operations, and dwellings. While these wastewaters are cleansed in the wastewater treatment p...


Cultivation and characterization of bacterial isolates capable of degrading pharmaceutical and personal care products for improved removal in activated sludge wastewater treatment.  


Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) discharged with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are an emerging surface water quality concern. Biological transformation has been identified as an important removal mechanism during wastewater treatment. The aim of this research was the identification of bacteria with characteristics for potential bioaugmentation to enhance PPCP removal. We report here the cultivation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading PPCPs to ng/L concentrations. An isolation approach was developed using serial enrichment in mineral medium containing 1 mg/L of an individual PPCP as the sole organic carbon source available to heterotrophs until the original activated sludge inocula was diluted to ~10(-8) of its initial concentration, followed by colony growth on solid R2A agar. Eleven bacteria were isolated, eight that could remove triclosan, bisphenol A, ibuprofen, or 17?-estradiol to below 10 ng/L, one that could remove gemfibrozil to below 60 ng/L, and two that could remove triclosan or E2, but not to ng/L concentrations. Most bacterial isolates degraded contaminants during early growth when grown utilizing rich carbon sources and were only able to degrade the PPCPs on which they were isolated. Seven of the bacterial isolates were sphingomonads, including all the triclosan and bisphenol A degraders and the ibuprofen degrader. The study results indicate that the isolated bacteria may have a positive influence on removal in WWTPs if present at sufficient concentrations and may be useful for bioaugmentation. PMID:23455956

Zhou, Nicolette A; Lutovsky, April C; Andaker, Greta L; Gough, Heidi L; Ferguson, John F



The Role of Diatomite Particles in the Activated Sludge System for Treating Coal Gasification Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatomite is a kind of natural low-cost mineral material. It has a number of unique physical properties and has been widely used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the aerobic biodegradation of coal gasification wastewater with and without diatomite addition. Experimental resultsindicated that diatomite added in the activated sludge system could promote the biomass

Wenqi ZHANG; Pinhua RAO; Hui ZHANG; Jingli XU




EPA Science Inventory

This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: lime stabilization, anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, thermal sludge conditioning, thickening, dewatering, and landfilling. The discussion of each ...


Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every time you take a bath, wash your clothes, flush the toilet, or run water down the kitchen or bathroom sinks you are creating wastewater. The average household generates between 60-75 gallons of wastewater each day. So where does that wastewater go? By working through this instructional unit, you will be able to better answer this question. Please read through the information provided below to learn more about wastewater and how it is treated. After you have completed the unit, you will need to complete the Wastewater Treatment worksheet that will be handed out to you in class by Professor Taylor. If you live in a small rural community you are most likely to have a septic tank system to treat your wastewater. This type of system treats your wastewater on your own property near your home. To learn more about septic tank sytems see the following link provided. Sewer and Septic Tanks If ...

Professor Darin Taylor



Reduction of Excess Sludge Produced by Biological Treatment Processes: Effect of Ozonation on Biomass and on Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excess sludge produced during biological treatment of wastewater can be reduced by treating this sludge with ozone in a specific reactor and recycling it to the biological facility. This increases the biodegradability of the inert fractions of the sludge without deteriorating the activity of the microorganisms. Ozone reacts only within the film zone near the gas\\/liquid interface: it is

Etienne Paul; Hubert Debellefontaine



Filtration properties of activated sludge in municipal MBR wastewater treatment plants are related to microbial community structure.  


In the conventional activated sludge process, a number of important parameters determining the efficiency of settling and dewatering are often linked to specific groups of bacteria in the sludge--namely floc size, residual turbidity, shear sensitivity and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In membrane bioreactors (MBRs) the nature of solids separation at the membrane has much in common with sludge dewaterability but less is known about the effect of specific microbial groups on the sludge characteristics that affect this process. In this study, six full-scale MBR plants were investigated to identify correlations between sludge filterability, sludge characteristics, and microbial community structure. The microbial community structure was described by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and sludge filterability by a low-pressure filtration method. A strong correlation between the degree of flocculation (ratio between floc size and residual turbidity) and sludge filterability at low pressure was found. A good balance between EPS and cations in the sludge correlated with good flocculation, relatively large sludge flocs, and low amounts of small particles and single cells in the bulk phase (measured as residual turbidity), all leading to a good filterability. Floc properties could also be linked to the microbial community structure. Bacterial species forming strong microcolonies such as Nitrospira and Accumulibacter were present in plants with good flocculation and filtration properties, while few strong microcolonies and many filamentous bacteria in the plants correlated with poor flocculation and filtration problems. In conclusion this study extends the hitherto accepted perception that plant operation affects floc properties which affects fouling. Additionally, plant operation also affects species composition, which affects floc properties and in the end fouling propensity. PMID:24094729

Bugge, Thomas V; Larsen, Poul; Saunders, Aaron M; Kragelund, Caroline; Wybrandt, Lisbeth; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten L; Nielsen, Per H



An investigation of agricultural use potential of wastewater sludges in Turkey--case of heavy metals.  


Landfilling is one of the most common methods that are used in the final disposal of sludge world wide, as well as in Turkey. However, increasing sludge quantities and limited landfilling areas make this method difficult to apply. The use of sludge in agriculture presents a possible alternative for disposal. However, it also poses some risks to be evaluated. In this respect, it is important to identify the heavy metal content of sewage sludges because of its adverse health effects. This study aims to determine the heavy metal contents of sludges and wastewaters from three different wastewater treatment plants in Turkey. The selection of plants was carried out according to the different treatment technologies applied to wastewater and sludge in those plants. Heavy metal analysis of sludges and wastewaters was conducted using a microwave assisted digestion procedure. After sampling and analysis, the results show that all the related metal concentrations are below the values that are set in the Soil Pollution Control Regulation of Turkey. However, in two of the three plants, Zn and Ni concentration should be tracked carefully. PMID:17087381

Ozsoy, G; Dilek, F B; Sanin, F D



Bioremediation of wastewaters with decabromodiphenyl ether by anaerobic granular sludge.  


Facilities adopting anaerobic granular sludge are widely used for the treatment of high strength wastewater, and hence collect many polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). We initiated a detailed investigation to gain insight into the bioremoval of BDE-209 by anaerobic granules. Influenced by solution pH, ionic strength and temperature, the equilibrium time was ?6h and the biosorption amount increased from 0.099 to 1.25mg/g suspended sludge with the increase of BDE-209 concentrations. Kinetic studies indicate that BDE-209 biosorption on anaerobic granules follows the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Isotherm analysis exhibits that the Langmuir model fits the data at low temperature, while the Freundlich model is appropriate at room temperature. Thermodynamic analysis shows that biosorption followed an endothermic path and was nonspontaneous with negative value of ?G(0). XPS and FTIR spectra confirmed that oxygen and nitrogen atoms notably contributed to BDE-209 binding. PMID:25784301

Ni, Shou-Qing; Wang, Zhibin; Lv, Lu; Liang, Xueyou; Ren, Longfei; Zhou, Qingxin



Cyanide removal from cassava mill wastewater using Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094 with mixed microorganisms in activated sludge treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava mill wastewater has a high organic and cyanide content and is an important economic product of traditional and rural low technology agro-industry in many parts of the world. However, the wastewater is toxic and can pose serious threat to the environment and aquatic life in the receiving waters. The ability of Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094, a N2-fixing bacterium, to

P. Kaewkannetra; T. Imai; F. J. Garcia-Garcia; T. Y. Chiu



The sludge loading rate regulates the growth and release of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six types of antibiotics in wastewater activated sludge.  


Wastewater treatment plants are considered as hot reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. However, the fates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during biological treatment processes and relevant influencing factors have not been fully understood. This study evaluated the effects of the sludge loading rate on the growth and release of six kinds of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in an activated sludge system. The results indicated that higher sludge loading rates amplified the growth of all six types of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The release of most antibiotic-resistant bacteria through both the effluent and biosolids was amplified with increased sludge loading rate. Biosolids were the main pattern for all antibiotic-resistant bacteria release in an activated sludge system, which was determined primarily by their growth in the activated sludge. A higher sludge loading rate reactor tended to retain more antibiotic resistance. An activated sludge system with lower sludge loading rates was considered more conducive to the control of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25502931

Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian



Sewage sludge treatment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)




EPA Science Inventory

Metals removal and partitioning to primary and secondary sludge during treatment of domestic wastewater by conventional sewage treatment processes was studied. Raw wastewater entering the Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, was fed to a 0.1 l/s (1.6 gpm) pilot tr...



EPA Science Inventory

This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...



EPA Science Inventory

Data obtained as part of a comprehensive community health study conducted during 1965-1971 were utilized to examine the incidence of acute illness in a population surrounding an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and a control location in Tecumseh, Michigan. Study partic...


Microwave, ultrasonic and chemo-mechanical pretreatments for enhancing methane potential of pulp mill wastewater treatment sludge.  


Microwave (2450 MHz, 1250 W), ultrasonic (20 kHz, 400 W) and chemo-mechanical (MicroSludge® with 900 mg/L NaOH followed by 83,000 kPa) pretreatments were applied to pulp mill waste sludge to enhance methane production and reduce digester sludge retention time. The effects of four variables (microwave temperature in a range of 50-175°C) and sonication time (15-90 min), sludge type (primary or secondary) and digester temperature (mesophilic and thermophilic) were investigated. Microwave pretreatment proved to be the most effective, increasing specific methane yields of WAS samples by 90% compared to controls after 21 days of mesophilic digestion. Sonication solubilized the sludge samples better, but resulted in soluble non-biodegradable compounds. Based on the laboratory scale data, MicroSludge® was found the least energy intensive pretreatment followed by sonication for 15 min alternative with net energy profits of 1366 and 386 kWh/tonne of total solids (TS), respectively. Pretreatment benefits were smaller for thermophilic digesters. PMID:21727004

Saha, Mithun; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Marin, Juan



Elimination of aromatic surfactants from municipal wastewaters: comparison of conventional activated sludge treatment and membrane biological reactor.  


Behaviour of anionic surfactants of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) type and non-ionic surfactants of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPnEO) type was studied in the conventional mechanical/biological sewage treatment plant (STP) as well as using a membrane biological reactor (MBR). LAS and NPnEO were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with spectrofluorimetric detection. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used for identification and quantification of stable metabolites, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) and nonylphenoxy carboxylic acids (NPnEC). The study showed that aromatic surfactants belong to the most prominent constituents in the examined municipal wastewaters with typical LAS and NPnEO concentrations of 2-10 mg/L and 0.1-0.5 mg/L, respectively. The removal of aromatic surfactants in conventional STP showed well-known features reported in the literature, including an efficient microbial transformation of the parent molecules and formation of stable metabolic products. The elimination efficiency of aromatic surfactants using the MBR unit was higher than that in the conventional STP, while the composition of recalcitrant nonylphenolic residues in the effluent seems to be ecotoxicologically more favourable due to the lower contributions of the lipophilic metabolites. PMID:16004007

Terzic, S; Matosic, M; Ahel, M; Mijatovic, I



Removal of carbon and nutrients from low strength domestic wastewater by expanded granular sludge bed-zeolite bed filtration (EGSB-ZBF) integrated treatment concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor coupled with zeolite bed filtration (ZBF) for treating low strength domestic wastewater was monitored at 35°C for 7 months. The whole operation period of EGSB system was divided into five phases. Each phase ran at up-flow velocity (m\\/h) of 0.51, 1.02, 3.57, 2.05, 9.69, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) (h)

Xiao-Ming Li; Liang Guo; Qi Yang; Guang-Ming Zeng; De-Xiang Liao



Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model.  


The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation case study. Practically, the proposed approach includes a risk assessment model based on a knowledge-based decision tree to detect favourable conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge. Once such conditions are detected, the settling characteristics of the secondary clarifier model are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance. Particularly, during the periods when the conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge are favourable--leading to poor activated sludge compaction, low return and waste TSS concentrations and difficulties in maintaining the biomass in the aeration basins--a subsequent reduction in overall pollution removal efficiency is observed. Also, a scenario analysis is conducted to examine i) the influence of sludge retention time (SRT), the external recirculation flow rate (Q(r)) and the air flow rate in the bioreactor (modelled as k(L)a) as factors promoting bulking sludge, and ii) the effect on the model predictions when the settling properties are changed due to a possible proliferation of filamentous microorganisms. Finally, the potentially adverse effects of certain operational procedures are highlighted, since such effects are normally not considered by state-of-the-art models that do not include microbiology-related solids separation problems. PMID:19695661

Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Gernaey, Krist V; Rosen, Christian



Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro



EPA Science Inventory

Municipal wastewater sludges frequently contain undesirably high concentrations of heavy metals and/or organic pollutants which interfere with beneficial use of sludge on farmland and with some disposal practices such as ocean disposal. Centrifugal classification is a low-cost pr...


Microbial structures and community functions of anaerobic sludge in six full-scale wastewater treatment plants as revealed by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing.  


The microbial communities and abundance in anaerobic sludge from 4 industrial and 2 municipal wastewater treatment plants were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology in this study. A total of 5482-8692 high-quality reads of 16S rRNA V3-V5 regions were obtained. Taxonomic analysis using QIIME and RDP classifier found that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in these samples. Furthermore, real-time PCR was used to validate the absolute abundance of these 16S rRNAs and some functional genes, including total bacteria, anammox bacteria, NOB (Nitrobacter, Nitrospira), AOA amoA, AOB amoA, nosZ, nirS, nirK, narG, napA, nrfA, mcrA and dsrA. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that AOA might be mixotrophic. Finally, redundancy analysis was used to reveal the relationships between operation parameters and microbial communities. Results showed that the coexistence of anammox, denitrification and DNRA could be useful for the simultaneous removal of nitrogen and organic matter. PMID:25817026

Shu, Duntao; He, Yanling; Yue, Hong; Wang, Qingyi



Environmental biodegradability of [¹?C] single-walled carbon nanotubes by Trametes versicolor and natural microbial cultures found in New Bedford Harbor sediment and aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge.  


Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible biotransformations (i.e., biodegradation) in environmental media. In the present study, [(14)C]SWNT were utilized to track biodegradation over 6 mo by pure liquid culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor and mixed bacterial isolates from field-collected sediment or aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge. The mixed cultures were chosen as more environmentally relevant media where SWNT will likely be deposited under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Activity of [(14)C] was assessed in solid, aqueous, and (14)CO2 gaseous phases to determine amounts of intact SWNT, partially soluble SWNT degradation products, and mineralized SWNT, respectively, during the 6 mo of the experiment. Mass balances based on radiocarbon activity were approximately 100% over 6 mo, and no significant degradation of SWNT was observed. Approximately 99% of the [(14)C] activity remained in the solid phase, 0.8% in the aqueous phase, and less than 0.1% was mineralized to (14)CO2, regardless of culture type. These results suggest that SWNT are not readily biodegraded by pure fungal cultures or environmental microbial communities, and are likely persistent in environmental media. PMID:25352477

Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Ferguson, P Lee



Start-up of a granular sludge sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol-contaminated wastewater.  


In this study, a granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (GSBR) was started-up for the biological aerobic treatment of wastewater containing highly toxic 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), in presence of readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as the growth substrate. Different influent concentrations of NaAc (420-800 mg/L) and 2,4-DCP (0-20 mg/L), as well as different operating conditions (i.e. cycle length), were tested in order to determine the optimal strategy for successful GSBR start-up: stable granulation and complete 2,4-DCP removal were achieved only when high NaAc influent concentration and volumetric organic loading rates (800 mg/L and 1.9 kgCOD/(m(3)·d), respectively), prolonged reaction phase (cycle time of 4 hours) and gradual increase of 2,4-DCP concentration in the influent were applied, thus providing useful information for process optimization in view of future scale-up. Granules were initially colonized by fungi which progressively disappeared during the start-up process, and complete 2,4-DCP removal was mostly due to bacterial activity, in particular Betaproteobacteria, as shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PMID:24292461

Milia, S; Porcu, R; Rossetti, S; Carucci, A



State of the art of biogranulation technology for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogranulation technology developed for wastewater treatment includes anaerobic and aerobic granulation processes. Anaerobic granulation is relatively well known, but research on aerobic granulation commenced only recently. Many full-scale anaerobic granular sludge units have been operated worldwide, but no report exists of similar units for aerobic granulation. This paper reviews the fundamentals and applications of biogranulation technology in wastewater treatment. Aspects

Yu Liu; Joo-Hwa Tay



Color removal from cotton textile industry wastewater in an activated sludge system with various additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low biodegradability of many dyes and textile chemicals indicates that biological treatment is not always successful in the treatment of cotton textile wastewater, in terms of color removal. In this study, a specific organic flocculant (Marwichem DEC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), bentonite, activated clay and commercial synthetic inorganic clay (Macrosorb) were directly added into the activated sludge laboratory pilot

Ay?egül Pala; Enis Tokat



Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.  


This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V




EPA Science Inventory

Sludge treatment represents almost half the cost of wastewater treatment at many facilities in the U.S. Although sludge problems are of serious concern everywhere, they are different for different locations. The approach to sludge handling and the solution to problems depends on ...


Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A., III; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.



Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment Bruce Logan Penn State University #12;Energy Costs? 5-7% of electricity used in USA is for water &wastewater #12;Global Energy & Health Issues 1 Billion people lack #12;Energy content of Wastewaters · Electricity "lost" to water and wastewater treatment= 0.6 quad


Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.



Capital and operating costs of full-scale fecal sludge management and wastewater treatment systems in Dakar, Senegal.  


A financial comparison of a parallel sewer based (SB) system with activated sludge, and a fecal sludge management (FSM) system with onsite septic tanks, collection and transport (C&T) trucks, and drying beds was conducted. The annualized capital for the SB ($42.66 capita(-1) year(-1)) was ten times higher than the FSM ($4.05 capita(-1) year(-1)), the annual operating cost for the SB ($11.98 capita(-1) year(-1)) was 1.5 times higher than the FSM ($7.58 capita(-1) year(-1)), and the combined capital and operating for the SB ($54.64 capita(-1) year(-1)) was five times higher than FSM ($11.63 capita(-1) year(-1)). In Dakar, costs for SB are almost entirely borne by the sanitation utility, with only 6% of the annualized cost borne by users of the system. In addition to costing less overall, FSM operates with a different business model, with costs spread among households, private companies, and the utility. Hence, SB was 40 times more expensive to implement for the utility than FSM. However, the majority of FSM costs are borne at the household level and are inequitable. The results of the study illustrate that in low-income countries, vast improvements in sanitation can be affordable when employing FSM, whereas SB systems are prohibitively expensive. PMID:22413875

Dodane, Pierre-Henri; Mbéguéré, Mbaye; Sow, Ousmane; Strande, Linda



Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

Leffel, R. E.; And Others



EPA Science Inventory

Since 1975 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored 11 epidemiological studies of the potential health effects associated with the treatment and disposal of sewage and sewage sludge. Three of these have been occupational exposure studies: One of sewage treatment pla...



EPA Science Inventory

A critical evaluation has been made of the literature regarding the sources of heavy metals in sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Residential loadings of heavy metals as a percentage of total metal loads are highly variable with respect to both the particular ele...


Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater Treatment Bruce Logan Penn State University #12;Energy Costs? 5-7% of electricity used in USA is for water &wastewater #12;Global Energy & Health IssuesGlobal Energy & Health content of WastewatersEnergy content of Wastewaters ·· ElectricityElectricity ""lostlost"" to water


Heat inactivation of enteric viruses in dewatered wastewater sludge.  

PubMed Central

The effect of moisture content on the rates of heat inactivation of enteric viruses in wastewater sludge was determined. The protective effect of raw sludge on poliovirus previously observed (R. L. Ward, C. S. Ashley, and R. H. Moseley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:339--346, 1976) was found to be greatly enhanced in sludge dewatered by evaporation. Other enteroviruses responded in a similar fashion. This effect did not appear to be due merely to the state of dryness of the sludge samples because in humus-deficient soil, a relatively inert material, the rate of poliovirus inactivation by heat was not significantly altered through dewatering. Instead, this effect appeared to have been caused by protective substances in the sludge, such as detergents, which are concentrated through dewatering. As reported previously (R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34:681-688, 1977; R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol 36:889--897, 1978) raw sludge is not protective of reovirus, but, instead, the ionic detergents in sludge cause the rate of heat inactivation of this virus to be accelerated. Dewatering of sludge, however, was found to partially reverse this virucidal effect. Evidence is presented indicating that this reversal is caused by an unidentified protective substance in sludge also concentrated through dewatering. Finally, it was shown that the effects of raw sludge on heat inactivation of poliovirus and reovirus are greatly reduced by composting, a result that correlated with the degradation of detergents. PMID:216309

Ward, R L; Ashley, C S



Phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors: Occurrence and fate in wastewater and sewage sludge.  


The contamination of wastewater and sewage sludge has been examined for three phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, active agents of Viagra, Levitra and Cialis, respectively. Sensitive quantification methods based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) have been developed to analyse these compounds in wastewater and sewage sludge. Effluent water of nine sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been analysed to assess the impact of the phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors on the environment. One municipal STP (Tarragona, Spain) has been thoroughly studied over the year 2008 (i) with respect to the distribution of these compounds among influent and sewage sludge and (ii) the elimination efficiency. The developed methods allowed quantification at trace concentrations. Sildenafil was present in all investigated samples at the low ng/L and ng/g range, respectively. Tadalafil was not detected or below the limit of detection (LOQ) in effluent water taken in Spain but in sewage sludge (12 ng/g - < LOQ). Vardenafil was present only in one sludge sample and between 5 ng/g and < LOQ in effluent water. The overall removal efficiency of the STP in Tarragona (Spain) is 68%, 69% and 80% for sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, respectively. This study shows for the first time the determination of these compounds in wastewater and sewage sludge. PMID:19959201

Nieto, Antonio; Peschka, Manuela; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Knepper, Thomas P



Anaerobic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reviews the present understanding of bacterial populations involved in anaerobic degradation of organic material into methane and CO2 (biogas); furthermore some recent process developments for anaerobic wastewater treatment are described. It could be demonstrated that at least three groups of bacteria are involved in methanogenesis. Hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria first decompose the organic material into various organic acids,

H. Sahm


Effects of lime treatment on fractionation and extractabilities of heavy metals in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have focused on heavy metal characteristics in sewage sludges and sludge?amended soils other than lime?stabilized sewage sludge (LS). Thus, the aerobically digested sewage sludge cake (13.61% solids) sampled from the Min?Sheng Wastewater Treatment Plant in Taipei City, Taiwan was lime?stabilized for studying the effects of the lime treatment on fractionation and extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr,



Phosphorus Adsorption Characteristics of Alum and Iron Sludge from Drinking-Water Treatment Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of alum sludge (AS) and iron sludge (IS) produce in China from the drinking-water treatment works everyday. In this study, a series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus adsorption characteristics of alum sludge and iron sludge collected from two drinking-water treatment works in Zhengzhou, Henan, China using artificial P-rich wastewater. The results indicated that the

Tie Jingxi; Chen Dong; Li Xiaowei; Zhu Xiaoguang; Liu Yilin; Liu Youliang



Evaluation of microbial community structures and coliform persistence in the Alfred Waste Water Treatment Plant Reed Bed Sludge Treatment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Alfred Wastewater Treatment Facility (AWTF) recently entered an experimental phase of sludge reduction using an uncovered reed bed system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial community response to sludge application, as well as coliform persistence during a six week period of sludge application. Biolog EcoPlate™ analysis of microbial community structure and density measures of bacteria

Danielle Roe; Jean A. Cardinale


Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

Himes, Dottie



Microsoft Academic Search

One of most important pollution problems in sludge from municipal and agro industrial wastewater treatment plants of Mexico is the high level of pathogens microorganisms. Ammonia is known as an important disinfectant capable to significantly inactivate high microbial populations in sludge. In this study, the effect of ammonia was evaluated in agro industrial physicochemical sludge and kinetic parameters of the

J. M. Méndez; C. González; A. Alvarado-Lassman



Effects of wastewater sludge and woodchip combinations on soil properties and growth of planted hardwood trees and willows on a restored site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge from wastewater treatment plants and woodchips produced from urban tree pruning residues were used to improve soil conditions of a degraded site restored by planting trees and shrubs. The release of soil nitrogen resources was set by the proportions of sludge and woodchips applied. Combining 187 kg N\\/ha of sludge in one application with 200 m3\\/ha of woodchips instead

Alain Cogliastro; Gérald Domon; Stéphane Daigle



Emergy evaluations for constructed wetland and conventional wastewater treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on emergy synthesis, this study presents a comparative study on constructed wetland (CW) and conventional wastewater treatments with three representative cases in Beijing. Accounting the environmental and economic inputs and treated wastewater output based on emergy, different characteristics of two kinds of wastewater treatments are revealed. The results show that CWs are environment-benign, less energy-intensive despite the relatively low ecological waste removal efficiency (EWRE), and less cost in construction, operation and maintenance compared with the conventional wastewater treatment plants. In addition, manifested by the emergy analysis, the cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) has the merit of higher ecological waste elimination efficiency.

Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.



Treatment and reuse of coal conversion wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a synopsis of recent experimental activities to evaluate processing characteristics of coal conversion wastewaters. Treatment studies have been performed with high-BTU coal gasification process quench waters to assess enhanced removal of organic compounds via powdered activated carbon-activated sludge treatment, and to evaluate a coal gasification wastewater treatment train comprised of sequential processing by ammonia removal, biological oxidation, lime-soda softening, granular activated carbon adsorption, and reverse osmosis. In addition, treatment studies are in progress to evaluate solvent extraction of gasification process wastewater to recover phenolics and to reduce wastewater loading of priority organic pollutants. Biological oxidation of coal gasification wastewater has shown excellent removal efficiencies of major and trace organic contaminants at moderate loadings, addition of powdered activated carbon provides lower effluent COD and color. Gasification process wastewater treated through biological oxidation, lime-soda softening and activated carbon adsorption appears suitable for reuse as cooling tower make-up water. Solvent extraction is an effective means to reduce organic loadings to downstream processing units. In addition, preliminary results have shown that solvent extraction removes chromatographable organic contaminants to low levels.

Luthy, R.G.



Composting and disposal of industrial wastewater sludge  

SciTech Connect

Of the sludge management alternatives studied, composting has the lowest capital and operating costs. It also satisfies EPA and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) preferences for beneficial uses of wastes. But attempts to turn sludge to beneficial use reveal potential problems, largely because of heavy metals contributed by the area's large industrial community to the sludge. Pretreatment of industrial wastes will be necessary to realize the full benefits of composting.

Nese, P.A. (Alexander Potter Associates, New York, NY); Galandak, J.; Frederick, J.A.



Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, J.M.; Pedersen, J.A.




EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this manual is to present a contemporary review of sludge processing technology and the specific procedures to be considered, modified, and applied to meet unique conditions. he manual emphasizes the operational considerations and interrelationships of the various ...


Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane\\u000a bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now\\u000a be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated\\u000a sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major

Pierre Le-Clech




EPA Science Inventory

The overall study objective was to make an independent assessment of the forced aeration wastewater sludge composting method as practiced at Beltsville, Maryland and Bangor, Maine. A number of visits were made to both sites to observe operations under all weather conditions and t...



EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to characterize the operating variables and wastewater sludges from six electroplating plants conducting a wide variety of plating operations so that the information developed would be applicable on an industry-wide basis. The results of the stud...


Two Devices for Removing Sludge From Bioreactor Wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two devices a magnetic separator and a special filter denoted a self-regenerating separator (SRS) have been developed for separating sludge from the stream of wastewater from a bioreactor. These devices were originally intended for use in microgravity, but have also been demonstrated to function in normal Earth gravity. The magnetic separator (see Figure 1) includes a thin-walled nonmagnetic, stainless-steel cylindrical drum that rotates within a cylindrical housing. The wastewater enters the separator through a recirculation inlet, and about 80 percent of the wastewater flow leaves through a recirculation outlet. Inside the drum, a magnet holder positions strong permanent magnets stationary and, except near a recirculation outlet, close to the inner drum surface. To enable magnetic separation, magnetite (a ferromagnetic and magnetically soft iron oxide) powder is mixed into the bioreactor wastewater. The magnetite becomes incorporated into the sludge by condensation, onto the powder particles, of microbe flocks that constitute the sludge. As a result, the magnets inside the drum magnetically attract the sludge onto the outer surface of the drum.

Archer, Shivaun; Hitchens, G. DUncan; Jabs, Harry; Cross, Jennifer; Pilkinton, Michelle; Taylor, Michael



Wastewater treatment as an energy production plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to investigate the potential for net energy production at a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Historically, wastewater treatment plants have been designed with the emphasis on process reliability and redundancy; efficient utilization of energy has not received equal consideration. With growing demands for energy and increased budgetary pressures in funding wastewater treatment plant costs, methods of reducing energy consumption and operating costs were explored in a new and novel direction pointed towards energy production rather than energy consumption. To estimate the potential for net energy production, a quantitative analysis was performed using a mathematical model which integrates the various unit operations to evaluate the overall plant energy balance. Secondary treatment performance analysis is included to ensure that the energy evaluation is consistent with plant treatment needs. Secondary treatment performance was conducted for activated sludge, trickling filters and RBCs. The equations for the mathematical model were developed independently for each unit operation by writing mass balance equations around the process units. The process units evaluated included those for preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, disinfection, and sludge treatment. Based on an analysis of both energy reduction and energy recovery methods, it was shown that net energy production at a secondary WWTP is possible utilizing technologies available today. Such technologies include those utilized for plant operations, as well as for energy recovery. The operation of fuel cells using digester gas represents one of the most significant new opportunities for energy recovery at wastewater facilities. The analysis predicts that a trickling filter WWTP utilizing commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from digester gas can provide for facility energy needs and have both electrical and thermal energy available for export. The use of fuel cells at an activated sludge or RBC WWTP is projected to produce all of the plant's thermal energy requirements and a significant amount of the electrical energy needs. With continued fuel cell development, it is expected that the 21st century will see all types of wastewater treatments plants producing significant energy for export in addition to its primary function of wastewater treatment.

Samela, Daniel A.


Wastewater treatment of pulp and paper industry: a review.  


Pulp and paper industries generate varieties of complex organic and inorganic pollutants depending upon the type of the pulping process. A state-of-art of treatment processes and efficiencies of various wastewater treatment is presented and critically reviewed in this paper. Process description, source of wastewater and their treatment is discussed in detail. Main emphasis is given to aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment. In pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment aerobic treatment includes activated sludge process, aerated lagoons and aerobic biological reactors. UASB, fluidized bed, anaerobic lagoon and anaerobic contact reactors are the main technologies for anaerobic wastewater treatment. It is found that the combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment processes is much efficient in the removal of soluble biodegradable organic pollutants. Color can be removed effectively by fungal treatment, coagulation, chemical oxidation, and ozonation. Chlorinated phenolic compounds and adsorable organic halides (AOX) can be efficiently reduced by adsorption, ozonation and membrane filtration techniques. PMID:23033705

Kansal, Ankur; Siddiqui, Nihalanwar; Gautam, Ashutosh



Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks.  


The double exponential settling model is the widely accepted model for wastewater secondary settling tanks. However, this model does not estimate accurately solids concentrations in the settler underflow stream, mainly because sludge compression and consolidation processes are not considered. In activated sludge systems, accurate estimation of the solids in the underflow stream will facilitate the calibration process and can lead to correct estimates of particularly kinetic parameters related to biomass growth. Using principles of compaction and consolidation, as in soil mechanics, a dynamic model of the sludge consolidation processes taking place in the secondary settling tanks is developed and incorporated to the commonly used double exponential settling model. The modified double exponential model is calibrated and validated using data obtained from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Good agreement between predicted and measured data confirmed the validity of the modified model. PMID:19280899

Abusam, A; Keesman, K J



Nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) after fertilization with sewage sludge and irrigation with treated wastewater.  


A romaine-type lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was cultivated over three crop seasons (spring 2005, spring 2006 and autumn-winter 2006) in six 36 m(2) plots in Alcázar de San Juan, Spain. A drip irrigation system was used to water all plots: five plots with drinking water and one plot with wastewater from the activated sludge system of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). One drinking water-irrigated plot was not fertilized (control). Five different treatments were applied to the soil: three organic mixtures (sewage sludge, sewage sludge mixed with pine bark and municipal solid waste with composted sludge) and a conventional fertilizer were applied to the four plots irrigated with drinking water. The last plot was irrigated with treated wastewater. The treatments were tested for their effect on plant growth and nitrate concentration in vegetable tissue. An increase in fresh weight in the lettuce was linked to the dosage of sewage sludge. The highest nitrate level was observed in the sewage sludge treatment in all crops and seasons, although, in general, all values were below the maximum limits established by the European Commission for nitrate content in fresh romaine lettuce. In the third crop season, a significant increase in nitrate content was observed in lettuce from organic treatments. Nitrate concentration in lettuce from irrigated treated wastewater was higher than control, although significant differences were not found. PMID:19680887

Castro, E; Mañas, M P; De Las Heras, J



Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries  

SciTech Connect

The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.



Alkaline thermal sludge hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment of wastewater produces excess sludge which needs further treatment prior to disposal or incineration. A reduction in the amount of excess sludge produced, and the increased dewaterability of the sludge are, therefore, subject of renewed attention and research. A lot of research covers the nature of the sludge solids and associated water. An improved

E Neyens; J Baeyens; C Creemers



Occurrence of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in sewage sludge and effluent samples of a wastewater-treatment plant in Cape Town, South Africa.  


The reuse of treated effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as alternative water source for sport-field or landscape irrigation, agricultural, and other industrial purposes is growing significantly. Similarly, the application of treated sludge (biosolid) to agricultural soils is now being considered globally as the most economic means of sludge disposal. However, the presence of emerging organic contaminants in these matrices, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are potential endocrine disruptors, portends a high health risk to humans and the environment in general. In this study, effluent and sewage sludge samples collected from a WWTP were analysed for some selected PBDE congeners (BDE congeners 28, 47, 99 100 153 154 183, and 209) as well as BB-153 using a high-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The sum of the eight PBDE congeners ranged from 369 to 4370, 19.2 to 2640, and 90.4 to 15,100 ng/l for raw water, secondary effluent, and final effluent, respectively. A similar result was observed for sewage sludge samples, which ranged between 13.1 and 652 ng/g dry weight (dw). The results obtained for BB-153 were generally lower compared with those found for most PBDE congeners. These ranged from ND to 18.4 ng/l and ND to 9.97 ng/g dw for effluents and sewage sludge, respectively. In both matrices, BDE 47 and 209 congeners were found to contribute significantly to the overall sum of PBDEs. The reuse of the treated effluent, particularly for agricultural purposes, could enhance the possibility of these contaminants entering into the food chain, thus causing undesirable health problems in exposed subjects. PMID:22002787

Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P; Olujimi, Olanrewaju O



Screening wastewater for toxicity to activated sludge  

SciTech Connect

Several toxicity tests were compared to define their utility for prediction of toxicity to activated sludge. The tests included: (1) oxygen uptake rates in batch tests with activated sludge, (2) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements in the same batch tests, (3) Warburg respirometer studies with activated sludge, and (4) a luminescent bacteria test (Microtox/sup TM/). An evaluation of the toxicity tests was made with several toxicants; nickel (II), mercury (II), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC). Because of differences in toxic mechanism, some of the toxicants produced greater toxic effects in some tests than in other tests. The ATP levels decreased significant when uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation were studied (DCP and DNOC). Several procedures for measuring ATP were investigated and were found to be unsatisfactory when applied to activated sludge. A new method for extraction of ATP, which incorporated a sonic bath and trichloroacetic acid, was developed. The improved ATP method was used in the toxicity tests and for the additional studies. Current practice in environmental engineering relies on volatile suspended solids (VSS) as a measure of active biomass in activated sludge. After an improved ATP procedure was developed, ATP was investigated for estimation of active biomass. The fate of DCP in the toxicity tests was studied and an adsorptive mechanism was proposed that was based on membrane solubility. This mechanism explained the fate of DCP in the toxicity tests and is useful for understanding the fate of DCP in activated sludge.

Schneider, C.G.



Wastewater treatment with the internal MEMBIOR.  


At SEGHERSbetter technology for Water n.v., an internal aerobic membrane bioreactor was developed with submerged flat membrane plates: the internal MEMBIOR. This system has several advantages compared to a conventional wastewater such as: compactness, reduced sludge production and very high effluent quality. Both laboratory and pilot scale installations are available for respectively feasibility and on-site pilot tests. The data obtained from these pilot tests allow an optimal design and dimensioning of the MEMBIOR technology, resulting in proper investments cost with guarantees and performance. Research on the internal MEMBIOR technology is based upon biological and membrane performance, aeration linked aspects and sludge morphology. A brewery bio-effluent was obtained using an internal MEMBIOR superior to a conventional wastewater treatment plant, absolutely free of suspended solids. A significant shift in sludge morphology over time was observed. Lower oxygen transfer coefficients were found when the sludge concentration increased, giving rise to the need for an additional aeration. Membrane performance was enhanced using an additional module aeration system. PMID:15954574

Cornelissen, E R; Janse, W; Koning, J



Simulation and optimization of chemically enhanced primary\\/activated sludge treatment for small communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, the use of coagulation and flocculation has been emphasized for the enhancement of primary sedimentation in municipal wastewater treatment plants. This work is concerned with the development of an approach for the simulation and optimization of a chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT)\\/activated sludge scheme for municipal wastewater treatment using ferric chloride as a coagulant. A




Cotton-textile wastewater management: investigating different treatment methods.  


The cotton-textile industry consumes significant amounts of water during manufacturing, creating high volumes of wastewater needing treatment. The organic-load concentration of cotton-textile wastewater is equivalent to a medium-strength municipal wastewater; the color of the water, however, remains a significant environmental issue. This research, in cooperation with a cotton-textile manufacturer, investigated different treatment methods and different combinations of methods to identify the most cost-effective approaches to treating textile wastewater. Although activated-sludge is economical, it can only be used as part of an integrated wastewater management system because it cannot decolorize wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation methods are able to decolorize cotton-wastewater; however, this process creates high amounts of wastewater solids, thus significantly increasing total treatment costs. Chemical oxidation is an environmentally friendly technique that can only be used as a polishing step because of high operating costs. Anaerobic digestion in a series of fixed-bed bioreactors with immobilized methanogens using acetic acid as a substrate and a pH-control agent followed by activated-sludge treatment was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally safe cotton-textile wastewater management approach investigated. PMID:22368827

Georgiou, D; Aivasidis, A



A computational technique for turbulent flow of wastewater sludge.  


A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique applied to the turbulent flow of wastewater sludge in horizontal, smooth-wall, circular pipes is presented. The technique uses the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in conjunction with the variable secant method, an algorithm for determining the pressure gradient of the flow. A simple algebraic turbulence model is used. A Bingham-plastic rheological model is used to describe the shear stress/shear rate relationship for the wastewater sludge. The method computes velocity gradient and head loss, given a fixed volumetric flow, pipe size, and solids concentration. Solids concentrations ranging from 3 to 10% (by weight) and nominal pipe sizes from 0.15 m (6 in.) to 0.36 m (14 in.) are studied. Comparison of the CFD results for water to established values serves to validate the numerical method. The head loss results are presented in terms of a head loss ratio, R(hl), which is the ratio of sludge head loss to water head loss. An empirical equation relating R(hl) to pipe velocity and solids concentration, derived from the results of the CFD calculations, is presented. The results are compared with published values of Rhl for solids concentrations of 3 and 6%. A new expression for the Fanning friction factor for wastewater sludge flow is also presented. PMID:16121510

Bechtel, Tom B



Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit  

E-print Network

Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them....

Lesikar, Bruce J.



Efficiency of refinery sludge biodegradation using municipal wastewater and activated sludge and effect of hydrocarbon concentration on culturable bacteria community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of activated sludge as inoculum and municipal wastewater as diluent for the biodegradation of refinery sludge\\u000a was investigated. At a laboratory scale, biodegradation experiments carried out in an aerobic batch reactor showed that toxic\\u000a oily sludge was biodegradable after dilution. Compared with freshwater, the use of municipal wastewater for dilution clearly\\u000a enhanced the biodegradation of this toxic pollutant.

Saïd Ben Hamed; Raja Rezgui; Ayed Halleb; Abdeljelil Ghram; Ridha Oueslati; Marc Labat; Abderrazak Maaroufi



Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France: comparison of  

E-print Network

13 Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France In France, vertical flow constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds are both extensive treatment Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands, Waste Stabilization Ponds, operation and maintenance, sludge management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Agro-industrial waste materials and wastewater sludge for rhizobial inoculant production: a review.  


Inoculating legumes with commercial rhizobial inoculants is a common agriculture practice. Generally, inoculants are sold in liquid or in solid forms (mixed with carrier). The production of inoculants involves a step in which a high number of cells are produced, followed by the product formulation. This process is largely governed by the cost related to the medium used for rhizobial growth and by the availability of a carrier source (peat) for production of solid inoculant. Some industrial and agricultural by-products (e.g. cheese whey, malt sprouts) contain growth factors such as nitrogen and carbon, which can support growth of rhizobia. Other agro-industrial wastes (e.g. plant compost, filtermud, fly-ash) can be used as a carrier for rhizobial inoculant. More recently, wastewater sludge, a worldwide recyclable waste, has shown good potential for inoculant production as a growth medium and as a carrier (dehydrated sludge). Sludge usually contains nutrient elements at concentrations sufficient to sustain rhizobial growth and heavy metals are usually below the recommended level. In some cases, growth conditions can be optimized by a sludge pre-treatment or by the addition of nutrients. Inoculants produced in wastewater sludge are efficient for nodulation and nitrogen fixation with legumes as compared to standard inoculants. This new approach described in this review offers a safe environmental alternative for both waste treatment/disposal and inoculant production. PMID:17336515

Ben Rebah, F; Prévost, D; Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D



Wastewater reclamation by advanced treatment of secondary effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were the investigation of the performance of an advanced treatment system, for the reclamation of secondary municipal effluents, and the study of the environmental quality of treated effluents. The secondary effluents from a conventional activated sludge process were fed to an advanced wastewater treatment system, consisting of a moving-bed sand filter, a granular activated carbon

M. Petala; V. Tsiridis; P. Samaras; A. Zouboulis; G. P. Sakellaropoulos



Innovative Biological Treatment Processes for Wastewater in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of wastewater has been employed successfully for many types of industries. Aerobic processes have been used extensively. Production of large amounts of sludge is the main problem and methods such as biofilters and membrane bioreactors are being developed to combat this phenomenon. Anaerobic waste treatment has undergone significant developments and is now reliable with low retention times. The




Process Control Manual for Aerobic Biological Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is an operations manual for activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment facilities. The stated purpose of the manual is to provide an on-the-job reference for operators of these two types of treatment plants. The overall objective of the manual is to aid the operator in…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.


Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management  

SciTech Connect

To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor [La Trobe University, Vic. (Australia). Environmental Geoscience



Decolorization and treatment of Kokuto - shochu distillery wastewater by the combination treatment involving biodecolorization and biotreatment by Penicillium oxalicum d, physical decolorization by ozonation and treatment by activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kokuto-shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled liquor made from brown sugar. Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater (KDW) contains high concentrations of organic compounds and brown pigments (called molasses pigments)\\u000a which are hardly decolorized by general biological wastewater treatment. A fungus, Penicillium oxalicum d, which we isolated in a previous study, decolorizes 47% of the color from KDW without the addition of any

Takashi Watanabe; Miki Tanaka; Kazuo Masaki; Tsutomu Fujii; Haruyuki Iefuji




EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a critical review of the literature from laboratory and full scale studies regarding density levels of indicator and pathogenic organisms in municipal wastewater sludges and septage. The effectiveness of conventional municipal sludge stabilization processes (...


A direct comparison amongst different technologies (aerobic granular sludge, SBR and MBR) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by 4-chlorophenol.  


Environmental concern on chlorinated phenols is rising due to their extreme toxicity even at low concentrations and their persistency in water and soils. Since the high amount of published data often lacks in terms of uniformity, direct comparisons amongst different treatment technologies are very difficult, or even impossible. In this study, granular sludge developed in an acetate-fed Granular sludge Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) was used for the aerobic degradation of low chlorinated 4-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as growth substrate. A conventional Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and a Membrane BioReactor (MBR) were operated in parallel under the same 4CP influent concentrations and/or 4CP volumetric organic loading rates as the GSBR, in order to carry out a direct comparison in terms of 4CP removal efficiencies and specific removal rates, effluent quality, waste sludge production, system simplicity, land area requirement, start-up times, NaAc dosage as growth substrate and maximum applied 4CP volumetric organic loading rate. A decision matrix was built to define the best technology to suit different scenarios: the GSBR was proved to be the most suitable technology when system simplicity, low land area requirement and short start-up times were considered as critical parameters for decision making. PMID:20116174

Carucci, Alessandra; Milia, Stefano; Cappai, Giovanna; Muntoni, Aldo




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites a recycling success story involving sludge production from wastewater and transformation into an effective plant fertilizer. Discusses related concerns such as dealing with pollutants like heavy metals and PCBs often found in sludge. Provides an example of an application of sludge produced in Chicago to an area reclamation site. (MCO)

Tenenbaum, David



Membrane-supported biological wastewater treatment.  


Research for a feasible method of complete pathogen removal from municipal wastewater has now arrived at a new stage of biological sewage treatment. Microfiltration membranes are integrated into the biological stage where they replace conventional sedimentation for the separation of treated water from sludge. These membranes form a physical barrier that even particles as small as bacteria cannot penetrate. Thus, the biological stage can be operated at higher biomass concentrations, which leads to better treatment performances and drastically reduces the excess sludge production. Results of test runs with pilot plants and municipal sewage suggest that the degradation and elimination potential of optimised membrane bioreactors will result in effluent concentrations as low as natural background concentrations of surface waters. Microfiltration membranes with a pore-size of 0.2 micron or less do not only retain bacteria but also viruses almost completely, and the clarified wastewater is practically free of pathogens. In consequence of these effluent qualities a much higher rate of wastewater can potentially be reclaimed. This paper includes results gained at a pilot plant operated at the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene of the Federal Environmental Agency in Berlin. PMID:10842832

Krüger, U



Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.


Demonstration of solids-associated virus in wastewater and sludge.  

PubMed Central

Data presented demonstrate the relatively high multiplicity of solids-associated virus in field samples, i.e., wastewater, sludge, and soils. Influent, effluent, and chlorinated effluent samples showed 16.1 to 100% of the total virus demonstrated in samples to be solids associated. Three techniques for freeing solids-associated virus are described and compared. Using sonication of solids and polyethylene glycol concentration, virus was demonstrated in fully digested sludge (60 days at 34 C), sand at the site of a sewer leak, and dried sludge cake and mud 900 m downstream from a sewage disposal site. These data emphasize the inadequacy of virus concentration techniques that do not include the processing of solids. In situ elution failed to free solids-associated virus. PMID:180882

Wellings, F M; Lewis, A L; Mountain, C W



Sludge conditioning characteristics of copper chemical mechanical polishing wastewaters treated by electrocoagulation.  


Treatment of copper chemical mechanical polishing (Cu-CMP) wastewaters by batch electrocoagulation was found effective in simultaneously removing the very fine metal oxide particles, copper ion and organic pollutants in the previous investigations. In the present work, the continuous electrocoagulation tests were performed to explore their treatment efficiencies and to identify the optimum operating conditions. Inherently, this electrocoagulation process, in either batch or continuous operating mode, generates a significant amount of sludge that needs to be properly disposed. In this study, the freeze/thaw conditioning of sludge obtained from this process was investigated in an aim to greatly reducing the sludge volume. Experimental tests were conducted to identify proper freeze/thaw operating conditions. Several fundamental aspects, such as the moisture bonding energy estimated using DSC test data, were examined to elucidate the conditioning results. PMID:16765514

Lai, Chen-Lee; Lin, Kuen-Song



Characterization of drinking water treatment sludge after ultrasound treatment.  


Ultrasonic technology alone or the combination of ultrasound with alkaline or thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of activated sludge has been extensively documented. However, there are few reports on ultrasound as pretreatment of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), and thereby the characteristic variability of sonicated DWTS has not been fully examined. This research presents a lab-scale study on physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a DWTS sample collected from a water plant after ultrasonic treatment via a bath/probe sonoreactor. By doing this work, we provide implications for using ultrasound as pretreatment of enhanced coagulation of recycling sludge, and for the conditioning of water and wastewater mixed sludge by ultrasound combined with polymers. Our results indicate that the most vigorous DWTS disintegration quantified by particles' size reduction and organic solubilization is achieved with 5W/ml for 30min ultra-sonication (specific energy of 1590kWh/kgTS). The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area of sonicated DWTS flocs increase as ultra-sonication prolongs at lower energy densities (0.03 and 1W/ml), while decrease as ultra-sonication prolongs at higher energy densities (3 and 5W/ml). Additionally, the pH and zeta potential of sonicated DWTS slightly varies under all conditions observed. A shorter sonication with higher energy density plays a more effective role in restraining microbial activity than longer sonication with lower energy density. PMID:25443278

Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xuan



Integrating BES in the wastewater and sludge  

E-print Network

represents a description of one or two plant flow diagram(s) in which a BES is utilized, which is also visualized in Figure 19.1 A­G. Each section heading indicates which flow diagram will be discussed (A­G). We realize that wastewater must be prepared before entering BES by, for example, screens, dissolved air

Angenent, Lars T.


LAS homolog distribution shift during wastewater treatment and composting ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) in different environmental compartments was studied through wastewater treatment process steps in sewage treatment plants of Alicante and Benidorm (activated sludge type) as well as in Guardamar (lagoons). The fate of LAS, using a specific HPLC method, was monitored during treatment sludge compostage and soil amendment operations. Finally, the marine sediments close to

D. Prats; F. Ruiz; B. Vazquez; D. Zarzo; J. L. Berna; A. Moreno



Integration of a microbial fuel cell with activated sludge process for energy-saving wastewater treatment: taking a sequencing batch reactor as an example.  


In the research and application of microbial fuel cell (MFC), how to incorporate MFCs into current wastewater infrastructure is an importance issue. Here, we report a novel strategy of integrating an MFC into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to test the energy production and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The membrane-less biocathode MFC is integrated with the SBR to recover energy from the aeration in the form of electricity and thus reduce the SBR operation costs. In a lab-scale integrated SBR-MFC system, the maximum power production of the MFC was 2.34 W/m(3) for one typical cycle and the current density reached up to 14 A/m(3) . As a result, the MFC contributed to the 18.7% COD consumption of the integrated system and also recovered energy from the aeration tank with a volume fraction of only 12% of the SBR. Our strategy provides a feasible and effective energy-saving and -recovering solution to upgrade the existing activated sludge processes. PMID:21290383

Liu, Xian-Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Huang, Yu-Xi; Sun, Xue-Fei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J; Li, Feng; Dong, Fang; Wang, Shu-Guang; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing



Effectiveness of electrooxidation process for stabilizing and conditioning of urban and industrial wastewater sludge.  


The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of an electrochemical process for enhancing dewaterability and stabilize wastewater sludge from paper mill industry (PMS) and municipal wastewater (MWS) treatment plants. The treatment was conducted using 13.2 kg of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) per ton of dry sludge (TDS) and 200 kg of NaCl/tds as electrolytes, at a current intensity of 8A for 60 min. The process was efficient for increasing the dryness of PMS with an average value of 25.3 +/- 1.2% (w/w). By comparison, the electrochemical treatment using MWS allowed increasing the dryness to 33.4 +/- 1.4% (w/w). Simultaneously, the process was found to be effective in removing pathogen indicators (abatement > 4 to 5 log units of total and fecal coliforms) using either PMS or MWS. At the same time, it preserved the fertilizing properties of sludge by maintaining the concentration of P(tot), N-TKN and COD in dewatered sludge. The substitution of sodium chloride (used as electrolyte) by sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) combined with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) allowed reducing the formation of organo-chlorinated compounds: more than 50% of chloroform was reduced, 86% of toluene was reduced and 59% of phenolic compounds was reduced. PMID:23409452

Drogui, Patrick; Bureau, Marc-André; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean François



Efficient centrifugal recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides from fermented wastewater and wastewater sludge.  


Studies were conducted on harvesting of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides from fermented broths of starch industry wastewater (SIW), wastewater sludge (raw and hydrolyzed-NH and TH, respectively) and semi-synthetic soyameal to enhance entomotoxicity (Tx) by centrifugation. Pertinent factors influencing Tx, solids concentration, pH, temperature and centrifugal force were investigated. The centrifugate solids concentration beyond 100 g/l did not enhance Tx, instead caused pellet formation. Centrifugation efficiency (Tx recovery) was higher at pH 4, and temperature 20 degrees C for starch wastewater (98%), wastewater sludge (98% and 97.8% for non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed, respectively) and soya broth (83%). For maximum Tx recovery (SIW-95%; NH-90%; TH-98% and soya-78%), the centrifugal force and time required was 48,000 g and 30 min, respectively. Losses in recovery efficiency were lower for SIW and wastewater sludge in comparison to soya on adopting commercially recommended centrifugal force of 9000 g. The settling velocity computations for different fermented broths enabled calculation of Sigma factor for continuous commercial centrifuge of a given capacity and hence simulation of power requirements. It was established that power requirements for a given Tx recovery efficiency were highest for conventional medium (soya) in comparison to other waste-based fermented broths. PMID:16515801

Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y




EPA Science Inventory

An original treatment system was designed, constructed, and operated for removal of suspended solids, turbidity, color, and BOD from the wastewaters of two paper mills which produce technical and other fine papers. The treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation follo...



EPA Science Inventory

Dewatering of water and wastewater treatment sludges was examined through mathematical modeling and experimental work. The various components of the research include: (1) chemical analyses of water treatment sludges, (2) drainage and drying studies of sludges, (3) a mathematical ...


Mangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere Wastewater Treatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreat  

E-print Network

Mangere WastewaterMangere WastewaterMangere Wastewater Treatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatment PlantTreatmentTechnical Issues and Innovations Transformed the old Mangere Wastewater Treatment PlantTransformed the old Mangere Wastewater Treatment Plant 5 year project, treatment processes have been replaced5 year project, treatment

Prevedouros, Panos D.


Biodegradation of wastewater pollutants by activated sludge encapsulated inside calcium-alginate beads in a tubular packed bed reactor.  


The wastewater treatment plants produce large quantities of biomass (sludge) that require about one-third of the total inversion and operation plant costs for their treatment. By the microorganisms immobilization it is possible to handle high cell concentration in the reactor, increasing its efficiency, reducing the loss of biomass and the wash out is avoided. Moreover, there is no cell growth then the sludge production is reduced. In this study, the COD removal and VSS variation were modeled in a tubular reactor with activated sludge immobilized in Ca-alginate. Moreover, two aspects that are commonly not considered in the performance of the actual reactors of this kind were introduced; the performance in non-steady state and the dispersion effect. The model was calibrated with an actual wastewater taken out from a Mexican wastewater treatment plant. The results of the performance of the tubular bioreactor at different scenarios (i.e., different residence time and VSS in the reactor) are presented. With longer residence times and higher VSS concentration in the Ca-alginate beads in the tubular bioreactor it is possible to increase the time operation of the bioreactor and to treat higher volumes of wastewater. During the process, the sludge generation was drastically reduced and it is possible to remove nitrogen form the wastewater making this process more attractive. PMID:19340591

Sergio, A Martinez D; Bustos, T Yaneth



Incidence of an Ozonation Stage on the Treatment of Cherry Stillage by Activated Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a laboratory study of the ozonation of diluted cherry stillage, a high-strength wastewater. Influence of variables, kinetics, and the effects of an ozonation stage coupled with the biological treatment by activated sludge are addressed. Single activated sludge processing was shown effective to remove biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) but polyphenols were reduced to

Fernando J. Beltrán; Pedro M. Álvarez; Eva M. Rodríguez; Javier Rivas




EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the effects of phosphorus removal by chemical addition on sludge handling and disposal options at full-scale wastewater treatment plants. American and Canadian plants which generate phosphorus-laden chemical sludges were surveyed by questionnaire, and 174 re...



EPA Science Inventory

This project was undertaken to explore and develop processes based on ammoniacal leaching to recover metal values from metal-finishing wastewater treatment sludges. The objective was to eliminate or to reduce sufficiently the heavy metal content of the sludge so that it would no ...


Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater using the UASB-technology.  


The anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater enables new applications for the reuse of wastewater. The effluent could be used for irrigation as the included nutrients are not affected by the treatment. Much more interesting now are renewable energies and the retrenchment of CO(2) emission. With the anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater, not only can the CO(2) emission be reduced but "clean" energy supply can be gained by biogas. Most important for the sustainability of this process is the gathering of methane from the liquid effluent of the reactor, because the negative climate-relevant effect from the degassing methane is much higher than the positive effect from saving CO(2) emission. In this study, UASB reactors were used with a flocculent sludge blanket for the biodegradation of the carbon fraction in the wastewater with different temperatures and concentrations. It could be shown that the positive effect is much higher for municipal wastewater with high concentrations in hot climates. PMID:18048975

Urban, I; Weichgrebe, D; Rosenwinkel, K-H




EPA Science Inventory

This safety manual provides design, operating, and safety personnel of municipal wastewater treatment plants which use oxygen aeration of activated sludge systems with the knowledge to prevent hazards due to the interaction of the oxygen with combustibles and other hazardous mate...


Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater using a combination sludge blanket and filter arrangement in a single reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale anaerobic reactor, in which the bottom two-thirds were occupied by a sludge blanket and the upper one-third by submerged small cubes of polyurethane foam, was evaluated for the anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. The reactor was operated at 35°C during the two experimental studies. In the first study, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of the wastewater was

Rafael Borja; Charles J. Banks; Zhengjian Wang; Angela Mancha



Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development, design and applications of electrochemical technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Particular focus was given to electrodeposition, electrocoagulation (EC), electroflotation (EF) and electrooxidation. Over 300 related publications were reviewed with 221 cited or analyzed. Electrodeposition is effective in recover heavy metals from wastewater streams. It is considered as an established technology with possible further development

Guohua Chen



Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

Shah, Kanti L.




EPA Science Inventory

Electromagnetic flowmeters that conform to the guidelines described in this document can be used to measure the volumetric flowrate of all liquids and sludges normally encountered in wastewater treatment plants, provided that adequate inspection and maintenance are performed as r...



EPA Science Inventory

Economic and practical considerations compel today's designers to investigate alternatives to conventional strategies for wastewater treatment systems. One such alternative is the Two-Zone process, a novel activated sludge process which combines the aerobic biological reactor and...


Residential Wastewater Treatment Systems  


... Products and Interiors Chemical Consumer Products Dietary Supplements Food Safety and Quality Medical Devices Pharma Biotech Plastics Sustainability and Environment Water and Wastewater Services By Type Product Certification ...


Technical, economic and environmental assessment of sludge treatment wetlands.  


Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) emerge as a promising sustainable technology with low energy requirements and operational costs. In this study, technical, economic and environmental aspects of STW are investigated and compared with other alternatives for sludge management in small communities (<2000 population equivalent). The performance of full-scale STW was characterised during 2 years. Sludge dewatering increased total solids (TS) concentration by 25%, while sludge biodegradation lead to volatile solids around 45% TS and DRI(24h) between 1.1 and 1.4 gO(2)/kgTS h, suggesting a partial stabilisation of biosolids. In the economic and environmental assessment, four scenarios were considered for comparison: 1) STW with direct land application of biosolids, 2) STW with compost post-treatment, 3) centrifuge with compost post-treatment and 4) sludge transport to an intensive wastewater treatment plant. According to the results, STW with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario, which is also characterised by the lowest environmental impact. The life cycle assessment highlights that global warming is a significant impact category in all scenarios, which is attributed to fossil fuel and electricity consumption; while greenhouse gas emissions from STW are insignificant. As a conclusion, STW are the most appropriate alternative for decentralised sludge management in small communities. PMID:20932543

Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Molist, Jordi; García, Joan




EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their fate on land, and available con...



EPA Science Inventory

This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: incineration, pyrolysis, composting, land utilization, and landfilling. The discussion of each process includes, where possible, a presentation of perfor...



E-print Network

Commission Environ- ment DG, Sludge treatment: l Reduces organic ingredients-Norway treats source separated household waste (food waste), organic industrial waste (food processing PRESECO OY 11 PÃ?YRY ENVIRONMENT OY 13 SIMON MOOS MASKINFABRIK A/S 14 SYKLI ENVIRONMENTAL SCHOOL OF FINLAND


Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.  


This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application. PMID:24617077

Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A



Application of Sludges and Wastewaters on Agricultural Land: A Planning and Educational Guide, MCD-35. Research Bulletin 1090.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the application of agricultural processing wastes, industrial and municipal wastes on agricultural land as both a waste management and resource recovery and reuse practice. The document emphasizes the treatment and beneficial utilization of sludge and wastewater as opposed to waste disposal. These objectives are achieved…

Knezek, Bernard D., Ed.; Miller, Robert H., Ed.


Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.  


Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems. PMID:23376111

Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier



Techno-economic analysis of wastewater sludge gasification: a decentralized urban perspective.  


The successful management of wastewater sludge for small-scale, urban wastewater treatment plants, (WWTPs), faces several financial and environmental challenges. Common management strategies stabilize sludge for land disposal by microbial processes or heat. Such approaches require large footprint processing facilities or high energy costs. A new approach considers converting sludge to fuel which can be used to produce electricity on-site. This work evaluated several thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies from the perspective of small urban WWTPs. Among TCC technologies, air-blown gasification was found to be the most suitable approach. A gasification-based generating system was designed and simulated in ASPEN Plus® to determine net electrical and thermal outputs. A technical analysis determined that such a system can be built using currently available technologies. Air-blown gasification was found to convert sludge to electricity with an efficiency greater than 17%, about triple the efficiency of electricity generation using anaerobic digester gas. This level of electricity production can offset up to 1/3 of the electrical demands of a typical WWTP. Finally, an economic analysis concluded that a gasification-based power system can be economically feasible for WWTPs with raw sewage flows above 0.093m(3)/s (2.1 million gallons per day), providing a profit of up to $3.5 million over an alternative, thermal drying and landfill disposal. PMID:24727699

Lumley, Nicholas P G; Ramey, Dotti F; Prieto, Ana L; Braun, Robert J; Cath, Tzahi Y; Porter, Jason M



Sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol wastewater treatment by two-phase multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) combination with up-flow UASB and down-flow hanging sponge.  


This study was designed to evaluate a treatment system for high strength wastewater (vinasse) from a sugarcane molasses-based bio-ethanol plant in Thailand. A laboratory-scale two-phase treatment system composed of a sulfate reducing (SR) tank and multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (MS-UASB) reactor was used as the pre-treatment unit. Conventional UASB and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were used as the post-treatment unit. The treatment system was operated for 300 days under ambient temperature conditions (24.6-29.6 °C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) in each unit was kept at 25 h for the two-phase system and 23 h for the UASB&DHS. The influent concentration was allowed to reach up to 15,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. COD removal efficiency (based on influent COD) of the two-phase MS-UASB and the UASB&DHS was 54.9 and 18.7%, respectively. Due to the effective removal of sulfide in the SR tank, the MS-UASB achieved a high methane conversion ratio of up to 97%. In DHS, nitrification occurred at the outside portion of the sponge media while denitrification occurred at the inside. Consequently, 27% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed. An amount of 32% of residual nitrogen (28 mgN/L) was in the form of nitrate, a better nitrogen state for fertilizer. PMID:24647181

Choeisai, P; Jitkam, N; Silapanoraset, K; Yubolsai, C; Yoochatchaval, W; Yamaguchi, T; Onodera, T; Syutsubo, K



Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.  


Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival. PMID:25300545

Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K



Biological treatment of a seafood processing wastewater  

SciTech Connect

The seafood industry in Tampa is a multi-million dollar-per-year industry which heavily impacts the environment with large volumes of wastewater containing high concentrations of suspended solids and nitrogen. A 10 liter per day, bench-scale, wastewater treatment facility was designed, constructed, and operated for approximately eight (8) months to collect treat ability data on a seafood-processing wastewater. The bench-scale reactor consisted of a single-sludge, extended aeration, modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process for biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the wastewater. Influent and effluent data collected on the system included: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), pH, total phosphorus (TP), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, and temperature. All analyses were performed in accordance with Standard Methods (1992). Typical influent characteristics were: 900--4,000 mg/L COD, 45--110 mg/L TKN, 150--2,000 mg/L TSS, and 40--80 mg/L TP. Solids residence time (SRT) served as the primary control parameter with average STR's of 4.5, 6.4, 8.5, and 30.9 days observed during the study. The following biokinetic constants were determined from the data: a yield coefficient (Y) of 0.49 mg TSS/mg COD and an endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub e}) of 0.11 days{sup {minus}1}.

Mines, R.O. Jr.; Robertson, R.R. II




EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater sludges were stabilized by Purifax treatment, anaerobic digestion and heat conditioning. The processed sludges from the Purifax process at chlorine dosages normally used in processing wastewater sludges contained 2 to > 14 times the total organic chlorine content of th...


Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogenproduction.  


The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen. PMID:25192669

Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin




E-print Network

CHAPTER 1 STATE ESTIMATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES O. Bernard1 , B. Chachuat2 , and J sensors (also called observers) for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We give an overview in "Wastewater Quality Monitoring and Wastewater Quality Monitoring and Treatment, Philippe Quevauviller (Ed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



EPA Science Inventory

This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...


Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  


This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A



Anaerobic wastewater treatment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of wastewater dilution, GAC (granular activated carbon) replacement rate, GAC particle size, operating temperature, and reactor configuration on the treatment of coal gasification wastewater with the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic bioreactor. Coal gasification wastewater used was generated in a low BTU, elevated pressure, stirred fixed-bed, gasifier operated by Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The treatability of another wastewater generated in a full-scale, slagging fixed-bed modification of a conventional dry-ash, pressurized gasifier located at the Great Plains gasification Association (GPGA) facility in North Dakota was also evaluated. Full-strength METC wastewater was found to be effectively treated at chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rates as high as 19.4 g/kg GAC-day. At this rate, an excess of 50% of the applied COD was converted to methane, and a carbon utilization rate of 10 g GAC per liter of wastewater treated was employed. At these operating conditions, COD removal efficiencies across the treatment system exceeded 95%. Good COD removal and efficient COD conversion to methane were attainable at loading rates exceeding 70 g COD/kg GAC-day. Wastewater generated at the GPGA facility was found to be treatable at full-strength in the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor at COD loading rates as high as 48 g COD/kg GAC-day. COD removal efficiencies at this loading rate exceeded 90%. Coal gasification wastewater was found to resist treatment under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. The thermophilic expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor affected very poor conversion efficiencies of phenol, even when fed a synthetically prepared phenol bearing wastewater. 29 refs., 77 figs., 16 tabs.

Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Fraser, J.; Klepp, B.E.; Mueller, P.A.



Water footprint assessment for wastewater treatment: method, indicator, and application.  


The water footprint in terms of the sum of both direct and indirect water cost of wastewater treatment is for the first time accounted in this work. On the basis of the hybrid method as a combination of process analysis and input-output analysis, a detailed water footprint accounting procedure is provided to cover the supply chain of a wastewater treatment plant. A set of indices intending to reveal the efficiency as well as renewability of wastewater treatment systems are devised as parallels of corresponding indicators in net energy analysis for energy supply systems. A case study is carried out for the Beijing Space City wastewater treatment plant as a landmark project. The high WROI (water return on investment) and low WIWP (water investment in water purified) indicate a high efficiency and renewability of the case system, illustrating the fundamental function of wastewater treatment for water reuse. The increasing of the wastewater and sludge treatment rates are revealed in an urgent need to reduce the water footprint of China and to improve the performance of wastewater treatment. PMID:23777208

Shao, Ling; Chen, G Q



Removal of Cu(II) ions by biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) prior to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit: A statistical design approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing Cu(II) ions was realized in an activated sludge unit with pre-adsorption of Cu(II) onto powdered waste sludge (PWS). Box-Behnken experimental design method was used to investigate Cu(II), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxicity removal performance of the activated sludge unit under different operating conditions. The independent variables were the solids retention time (SRT, 5–30d),

M. Yunus Pamukoglu; Fikret Kargi



Treatment of dredged sludge by mechanical dehydration  

SciTech Connect

Sludge deposits in the water area damage the ecosystems and environments; their elimination has always been an urgent task for human communities. Generally, sludge deposits are dredged out of the bottom of the water area, transported to, and discharged at a large disposal area on land. Recently, however, it has become increasingly difficult to secure disposal areas and routes of speedy transportation for disposal of dredged sludge. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water that can be returned to the water area through mechanical centrifugal dehydration. Sludge deposits are distributed thin and wide on the bottom of the water area, and a pump dredge has been proved effective in many cases for dredging the upper layers of sludge deposits accurately and without creating turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers the following advantages: (a) It requires smaller space for treatment and disposal of dredged sludge than the conventional method. (b) Facilities and costs for transportation can be reduced. (c) Various systems can be adopted for transportation of sludge cakes. (d) This system is transportable and compact and can be constructed anywhere either on land or on water.

Maekawa, T.



Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.  


Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

Boopathy, Raj



A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.  


With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies. PMID:24457302

Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky



Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.  


Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams. PMID:23657583

Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D



Occurrence, Transformation, and Fate of Antibiotics in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence, transformation, and fate of antibiotics in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are becoming an emerging environmental research area. As pseudopersistent pollutants, antibiotics belonging to 6 classes (i.e., ?-lactams, sulfonamides, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, and others) have been frequently detected in sewage, activated sludge, digested sludge, and effluents. The authors summarized the latest information on occurrence, transformation, and fate of antibiotics

Tong Zhang; Bing Li



Comparative effectiveness of membrane bioreactors, conventional secondary treatment, and disinfection to remove microorganisms from municipal wastewaters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Log removals of bacterial indicators, coliphage, and enteric viruses were studied in three membrane bioreactor activated-sludge (MBR) and two conventional secondary activated-sludge municipal wastewater treatment plants during three disinfection seasons (May–Oct.). In total, 73 regular samples were ...


A novel treatment technique for DMSO wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an efficient treatment technique for wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO, (CH3)2SO], a compound used as a photoresist stripping solvent in semiconductor manufacturing processes. Generally, wastewater containing organic compounds can be treated biologically, but with DMSO wastewater, biological treatment is not available because noxious compounds are produced that harm the environment. Here, we present an effective DMSO wastewater

Tatsuya Koito; Masafumi Tekawa; Arata Toyoda




Microsoft Academic Search

The production of wastewater treatment sludge, the basic characteristics of the sludge and the state of the water in the sludge are described in this paper. The methods for the determination of bound water content are discussed. The literature (including patents) on sludge dewatering and drying is reviewed, including vacuum filters, belt presses, centrifuges, direct dryers, indirect dryers and combined

Guohua Chen; Po Lock Yue; Arun S. Mujumdar



Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge in the United States: Regulatory Considerations for Risk Reduction and Determining Treatment Process Equivalency  

EPA Science Inventory

In the United States, municipal wastewater includes discharges from households, commercial businesses and various industries. Microorganisms associated with these wastes can be concentrated in the solids (sludge) which are removed during treatment operations. Beneficial reuse a...


Using wastewater for cooling: Increasing water reuse poses treatment challenges  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for control of biofouling, scale, corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems are discussed. Techniques involving water reuse and using wastewater as makeup are emphasized, and associated problems are identified. Appropriate chemical treatments, including biocides and biostats, biodispersants, sludge dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and supplementary chemical treatments, are outlined. New and developing technologies reviewed include microorganism control based on biodispersants and on enzymes.

Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs. International Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)




E-print Network

93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS. The study using sand columns has allowed simultaneous comparison, on the same profile, of biomass content twice as long as the flooding period. The sand depth will depend on the plant's overall water quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Polyelectrolytes: Wastewater and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning polyelectrolytes in wastewater and water treatment. Topics include flocculation, coagulation, separation techniques, pollutant identification, water pollution sources, and sludge dehydration. Hospital wastewater processing, methods of synthesizing polyelectrolyte complexes, and performance evaluations of polyelectrolytes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Multivariate time series analysis for design and operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of biological wastewater treatment, the more common approach to dynamical modeling has been the use of mechanistic models with differential equations. This study illustrates that multivariate time series analysis can be a valid alternative. A lab-scale activated sludge unit, treating brewery wastewater, was operated with a highly variable COD-load. For design and operation purposes, we wanted to

G. Van Dongen; L. Geuens



Optimized Control Structure for a Wastewater Treatment Benchmark  

E-print Network

Optimized Control Structure for a Wastewater Treatment Benchmark Michela Mulas , Antonio Carlos structure design the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant can be improved, minimizing operational WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Wastewater treatment plant pro

Skogestad, Sigurd


Biodegradability of detergents and its effects on municipal wastewater activated sludge. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Battelle was contracted by the United States Air Force to conduct a laboratory study to examine the potential impacts, as well as the fate, of 20 detergents on the wastewater treatment plant in Heath, Ohio. The 20 detergents selected for this study were being considered for use by the Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center located at Newark Air Force Base in Newark, Ohio, as substitutes for various types of solvents. The study was conducted in three phases. The first phase evaluated the inhibition potential of the detergents based on the concentration-dependent changes in the respiration of activated sludge cultures. The second phase examined the potential fate of the detergents by monitoring their biodegradation. The final phase was conducted to determine how two types of washwater might impact the wastewater treatment plant in Heath, Ohio, the plant that receives Newark Air Force Base`s wastewater. All experiments were conducted using cultures obtained from the Heath plant. In order to be able to monitor the effects of the detergents, the experiments were conducted at detergent concentrations much higher than the Heath plant would experience. The results from the first phase of the study indicated that the detergents were inhibitory to the activated sludge cultures. The concentrations at which the detergents inhibited the cultures were much higher than would be seen at the Heath plant even under a `worst case` scenario. Based on the potentials for discharge of these washwaters from Newark Air Force Base, it was concluded that there would be no significant impact on the respiration of the activated sludge organisms at the Heath plant.




Anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with an internal membrane bioreactor.  


Anaerobic treatment is growing very popular these days because of low sludge production compared to activated sludge processes. The drawback of the process is the risk of sludge washout, especially when the formation of granular sludge is not expected. By using an internal anaerobic bioreactor this problem can be overcome. A lab scale internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated at SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. to which brewery wastewater was fed (COD=2300 mg/l). Hollow fibres were inserted into the anaerobic bioreactor, from which the effluent was extracted by underpressure. The COD-removal was excellent and very constant at a value of 95%. No suspended solids were present in the effluent. The membrane permeability stabilised at relatively low value of 18 l/ due to an irreversible adhesion of constituents in the bioreactor. No growth of biomass was found during two months of operation. Inocculated granular sludge fell apart into loose flocs within several weeks of the startup, not affecting biological performance. The internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor is a promising new area within the field of wastewater treatment. It is expected that this process will have an important future. PMID:15954573

Cornelissen, E R; van Buggenhout, S; van Ermen, S; De Smedt, M; Van Impe, J; Koning, J



Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.



Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments.  


With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field. PMID:20865255

Le-Clech, Pierre



Fate of diclofenac in municipal wastewater treatment plant - a review.  


Diclofenac (DCF) is a common anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical that is often detected in waste wasters, effluents and surface waters. Recently, DCF was included in the watch list of substances in EU that requires its environmental monitoring in the member states. DCF is also known to harmfully affect several environmental species already at concentrations of ? 1 ?g/l. This review focuses on the occurrence and fate of DCF in conventional wastewater treatment processes. Research done in this area was gathered and analyzed in order to find out the possibilities to enhance DCF elimination during biological wastewater treatment. More precisely, human metabolism, concentrations in wastewater influents and effluents, elimination rates in the treatment train, roles of sorption and biotransformation mechanisms during the treatment as well as formation of transformation products are reported. Additionally, the effect of process configuration, i.e. conventional activated sludge (CAS), biological nutrient removal (BNR), membrane bioreactor (MBR) and attached-growth bioreactor, and process parameters, i.e. solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) are presented. Generally, DCF is poorly biodegradable which often translates into low elimination rates during biological wastewater treatment. Only a minor portion is sorbed to sludge. MBR and attached-growth bioreactors may result in higher elimination of DCF over CAS or BNR. Long SRTs (>150 d) favor the DCF elimination due to sludge adaptation. Longer HRTs (>2-3d) could significantly increase the elimination of DCF during biological wastewater treatment. Bioaugmentation could be used to enhance DCF elimination, however, this requires more research on microbial communities that are able to degrade DCF. Also, further research is needed to gain more information about the deconjugation processes and biotic and abiotic transformation and the nature of transformation products. PMID:24791707

Vieno, Niina; Sillanpää, Mika



Occurrence of polycyclic musks in wastewater and receiving water bodies and fate during wastewater treatment.  


The occurrence of cashmerane (DPMI), celestolide, phantolide, traesolide (ATII), galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) in sewage and surface waters and their fate during wastewater treatment and anaerobic sludge digestion is investigated. AHTN and HHCB are the most important representatives and influent concentrations of 0.41-1.8 and 0.9-13 ?gL(-1) are observed. DPMI is detected in influent and effluent samples but in notably lower concentrations than AHTN and HHCB. Major sources of polycyclic musks are households, whereas industrial emitters seem to be of minor importance. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of selected industrial wastewaters (metal, textile and paper industry). Specific emissions of 0.36 ± 0.19 and 1.6 ± 1.0 mg cap(-1)d(-1) for AHTN and HHCB are calculated. Overall removal efficiencies between approx 50% and more than 95% are observed during biological wastewater treatment and removal with the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. Log K(D) values of 3.73-4.3 for AHTN, 3.87-4.34 for HHCB and 2.42-3.22 for DPMI are observed in secondary sludge. During sludge digestion no or only slight removal occurred. Mean polycyclic musk concentrations in digested sludge amounted to 1.9 ± 0.9 (AHTN), 14.2 ± 5.8 (HHCB), 0.8 ± 0.4 (ATII) and 0.2 ± 0.09 (DPMI) mgkg(-1) dry matter. In the receiving water systems a comparable distribution as during wastewater treatment is observed. AHTN, HHCB and DPMI are detected in surface waters (ND (not detected) - <0.04, ND - 0.32 and ND - 0.02 ?g L(-1)) as well as AHTN and HHCB in sediments (ND - 20, ND - 120 ?g kg(-1)). For HHCB an apparent K(OC) value of 4.1-4.4 is calculated for sediments. Major source for polycyclic musks in surface waters are discharges from wastewater treatment plants. For HHCB and DPMI 100% of the load observed in the sampled surface waters derive from discharges of treated wastewater. PMID:21144551

Clara, M; Gans, O; Windhofer, G; Krenn, U; Hartl, W; Braun, K; Scharf, S; Scheffknecht, C



The nitrite-oxidizing community in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant determined by fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing.  


Metabolically-active autotrophic nitrite oxidizers from activated sludge were labeled with (13)C-bicarbonate under exposure to different temperatures and nitrite concentrations. The labeled samples were characterized by FAME-SIP (fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing). The compound cis-11-palmitoleic acid, which is the major lipid of the most abundant nitrite oxidizer in activated sludge, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii, showed (13)C-incorporation in all samples exposed to 3 mM nitrite. Subsequently, the lipid cis-7-palmitoleic acid was labeled, and it indicated the activity of a nitrite oxidizer that was different from the known Nitrospira taxa in activated sludge. The highest incorporation of cis-7-palmitoleic acid label was found after incubation with a nitrite concentration of 0.3 mM at 17 and 22°C. While activity of Nitrobacter populations could not be detected by the FAME-SIP approach, an unknown nitrite oxidizer with the major lipid cis-9 isomer of palmitoleic acid exhibited (13)C-incorporation at 28°C with 30 mM nitrite. These results indicated flexibility of nitrite-oxidizing guilds in a complex community responding to different conditions. Labeled lipids so far not described for activated sludge-associated nitrifiers indicated the presence of unknown nitrite oxidizers in this habitat. The FAME-SIP-based information can be used to define appropriate conditions for the enrichment of nitrite-oxidizing guilds from complex samples. PMID:23921154

Kruse, Myriam; Zumbrägel, Sabine; Bakker, Evert; Spieck, Eva; Eggers, Till; Lipski, André



Land Application of Wastewater Sludges: A National Science Foundation Student-Originated Studies Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a student-originated studies project, funded by the National Science Foundation, on land application of wastewater sludges. Describes the students' proposal, research methods, and evaluation of the project. (DS)

Bender, Timothy J.; Barnard, Walther M.




EPA Science Inventory

In order to provide data to support regulations on municipal wastewater sludge incineration, emissions of metals, hexavalent chromium, nickel subsulfide, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs), semivolatile and volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO)...



EPA Science Inventory

This document describes a promising technology ? autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion ? for meeting the current and proposed U.S. federal requirements for pathogen controJ and land application of municipal wastewater sludge. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, or AT...


Ahmet H. Aydilek, 1 Tuncer B. Edil, 1 Patrick J. Fox2 Consolidation Characteristics of Wastewater Sludge  

E-print Network

Ahmet H. Aydilek, 1 Tuncer B. Edil, 1 Patrick J. Fox2 Consolidation Characteristics of Wastewater., Edil, T. B., and Fox, P. J., "Consolidation Characteristics of Wastewater Sludge", Geotechnics of High wastewater sludge. Small and large-scale laboratory consolidation tests were conducted and field observations

Aydilek, Ahmet



E-print Network

CHAPTER 1 STATE ESTIMATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES O. Bernard1 , B. Chachuat2 , and J sensors (also called observers) for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We give an overview model description (e.g., the 1 #12;2 STATE ESTIMATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES extended Kalman

Bernard, Olivier



EPA Science Inventory

This report has been prepared to fulfill a Research, Development and Demonstration Grant. The grant was awarded to investigate a method of treatment for winery wastewaters. In brief - the grapes are harvested in the fall and are immediately pressed of their juice. The juice is fe...


Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja



Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975



Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.


Use of wastewater sludge as a raw material for production of L-lactic acid  

SciTech Connect

This study utilizes wastewater sludges to produce L-lactic acid, a precursor of biodegradable plastic. The high concentrations of cellulose contained in the sludge, derived from a paper manufacturing facility, have been found to be convertible to L-lactic acid at a rate as high as 6.91 g/L. To achieve such a high conversion rate, the sludge must be pretreated with cellulase. This pretreatment includes inoculation of the sludge with lactic acid bacteria, strain LA1, after the sludge has been subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis.

Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Akakura, Naoki; Adachi, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Tetsuo [Shizuoka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering] [Shizuoka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering



Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.  


The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

Dieu, B



Application of struvite precipitation coupled with biological treatment to slaughterhouse wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, struvite precipitation coupled with an activated sludge process was applied to slaughterhouse wastewaters. Biological treatability characteristics of the wastewater were evaluated in a wide organic loading range of 0.06–0.42 g COD (g MLVSS)d to assess COD removal as well as the extent of nitrification. Results of biological treatment of raw wastewater indicated that COD removal varied between

I. Kabda?l?; O. Tünay; P. Özcan



Potential non-phytopathogenic filamentous fungi for bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge.  


Ten filamentous fungi adapted to domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) were further studied to evaluate their potential in terms of adaptation to higher sludge supplemented growing media and phytopathogenicity (induction of diseases to plants) to three germinating crop (Corn: Zea mays, Mung bean: Phaseolus aureus and Mustard: Brassica napus) seeds. The performances of the fungi in seed germination were evaluated based on percent germination index (GI) and infected/spotted seeds on direct fungal biomass (FBM) and fungal metabolite (FM). Significantly the highest biomass production was achieved with RW-P1 512 and Penicillium corylophilum (WW-P1003) at the highest (25%) sludge supplemented growing media that implied its excellent potentiality of adaptation and multiplication to domestic wastewater sludge. Significantly encouraging results of percent GI and spotted/infected seedlings were observed in FM than FBM by all fungi except the strain Aspergillus niger. A. niger gave the poorest percent of GI (24.30, 26.98 and 00.00%) and the highest percent of infected/spotted seeds (70, 100, and 100%) using FBM for corn, mung bean and mustard, respectively. On the other hand, comparatively the highest percent of GI (107.99, 106.25 and 117.67%) and the lowest percent of spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 3.3 and 3.3%) were achieved with the isolate RW-P1 512 using FM. In FBM, the superior results of percent GI (86.61, 95.92 and 83.87%) and spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 63.3 and 43.3%) were obtained by A. versicolor. Several crop seeds were responded differently for different fungal treatments. Hundred percent infected/spotted seeds in FM were recorded only for mustard with Trichoderma family that implied its strong sensitiveness to its metabolites. PMID:12369641

Molla, Abul Hossain; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Alam, Md Zahangir



Sludge quality after 10-20 years of treatment in reed bed systems.  


The effect on the environment of the operation of sludge treatment in reed beds (STRB) system is seen as quite limited compared to traditional sludge treatment systems such as mechanical dewatering, drying and incineration with their accompanying use of chemicals and energy consumption. There are several STRB systems in Denmark receiving sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Stabilization and mineralization of the sludge in the STRB systems occur during a period between 10 and 20 years, where after the basins are emptied and the sludge residue typically is spread on agricultural land. In the present study, the sludge residue quality after treatment periods of 10-20 years from four Danish STRBs is presented. After reduction, dewatering and mineralization of the feed sludge (dry solid content of 0.5-3 %) in the STRB systems, the sludge residue achieved up to 26 % dry solid, depending on the sludge quality and dimensioning of the STRB system. The concentration of heavy metals and hazardous organic compounds in the sludge residue that are listed in the Danish and EU legislation for farmland application of sludge was below the limit values. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations as an average in the sludge residue were 28 and 36 g/kg dry solid (DS), respectively. In addition, mineralization on average across the four STRB systems removed up to 27 % of the organic solids in the sludge. The investigation showed that the sludge residue qualities of the four STRBs after a full treatment period all complied with the Danish and European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. PMID:25422113

Nielsen, Steen; Bruun, Esben Wilson



Electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater.  


This paper presents the results of the treatment of phenolic compounds containing wastewater generated from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing, oil refinery and bulk drug manufacturing industries by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at a fixed current density of 5.4 A/dm2 using Ti/TiO2-RuO2-IrO2 electrode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD and TOC concentrations were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were detected at high concentrations during the electrolytic treatment of the effluents. However, it was observed that increasing the electrolysis time bring down the AOX concentration to lower levels. Energy consumption and current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated and presented. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment for highly concentrated bio-refractory organic pollutants present in the industrial wastewater. PMID:15363521

Rajkumar, D; Palanivelu, K



Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Graywater Safety  

E-print Network

irrigation and decr,ease the amount of wastewater entering sewers or onsite wastewater treatment systems. Onsite wastewater treatment systems However, homeowners who irrigate their lawns with graywater need to understand the risks and safety issues.... Residential wastewater can be classified as either blackwater (sew- age containing fecal matter or food wastes) or graywater. If graywater is collected separately from blackwater, it can be dispersed as irrigation water with less treatment than...

Melton, Rebecca; Lesikar, Bruce J.



Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian




EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluates the effects of enzyme augmentation on municipal wastewater (MWW) sludge anaerobic digestion. The primary objective was to examine the impact of using enzymes to enhance the degradation of the cellulosic and the oil- and grease-rich sludge fractions. The additi...


The Effect of Copper on The Structure of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Microbial Community in an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular approaches based on both whole-cell and extracted DNA were applied to assess chronic and acute effects of copper\\u000a on the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community in an activated sludge system. The ammonia monooxygenase amoA gene was chosen as the functional marker to evaluate changes in the AOB community. Using in situ polymerase chain reaction, we were able to visualize

Pamela Principi; Federica Villa; Barbara Giussani; Elisabetta Zanardini; Francesca Cappitelli; Claudia Sorlini



Investigation of EPS Characteristics and their Effects on Waste Activated Sludge Digestion  

E-print Network

activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) demands extensive sludge dewatering, and dewatering performance were made over time. · Certain extraction techniques have been shown to release EPS

Mountziaris, T. J.


Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.  


Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William



Isolation of a microbial consortium from activated sludge for the biological treatment of food waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial community in the activated sludge of a local wastewater treatment plant was studied in an effort to understand and exploit the metabolic versatility of microorganisms for the efficient biological treatment of food waste. Microorganisms capable of and efficient in degrading domestic food waste were screened based on their ability to produce areas of clearing on selective media containing

K. P. Y. Fong; H. M. Tan



pH Requirement for the Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Anaerobically Digested Wastewater Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioleaching has been demonstrated to be a feasible technology for removing heavy metals from sewage sludge, but the leaching medium needs to be pre-acidified to less than 4. The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate the pH requirement for isolated indigenous Thiobacillus ferrooxidans for bioleaching heavy metals from wastewater sludge in Hong Kong. Isolated sludge-indigenous

J. W. C. Wong; L. Xiang; L. C. Chan



Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes: Identi®ability and Parameter the population dynamics of two main bacterial groups in an anaerobic wastewater treatment process. In addition INTRODUCTION Anaerobic wastewater puri®cation processes have been increasingly used in the last few decades

Timmer, Jens


Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.


Evaluation of reusing alum sludge for the coagulation of industrial wastewater containing mixed anionic surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coagulation-flocculation process is typically employed to treat the industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry manufacturing detergents, soaps, and others. The expenditure of chemicals including coagulants and chemicals for pH adjustment is costly for treating this wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing the aluminum sulfate (alum) sludge as a coagulant or

Siriprapha Jangkorn; Sinchai Kuhakaew; Suwapee Theantanoo; Harit Klinla-or; Tongchai Sriwiriyarat



Biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by partial nitritation and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in a pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic sludge digestion, 15–20% of the nitrogen load is recirculated to the main stream with the return liquors from dewatering. Separate treatment of this ammonium-rich digester supernatant would significantly reduce the nitrogen load of the activated sludge system. Some years ago, a novel biological process was discovered in which ammonium is converted to nitrogen gas

Christian Fux; Marc Boehler; Philipp Huber; Irene Brunner; Hansruedi Siegrist



Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Ultraviolet Light Disinfection  

E-print Network

Some onsite wastewater treatment systems include a disinfection component. This publication explains how homeowners can disinfect wastewater with ultraviolet light, what the components of such a system are, what factors affect the performance of a...

Lesikar, Bruce J.



Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.  


Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported. PMID:16235750

Lubello, C; Gori, R



Short-term performance analysis of sludge treatment reed beds.  


Sludge treatment reed beds (STRBs) represent an established technology for managing sludge produced by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, an analysis conducted on sludge stratigraphy in a STRB serving the municipal WWTPs of Helsinge (42,000 person equivalent, Denmark) is presented. The STRB has been in operation since 1996. The analysis was conducted for four months including two consecutive loadings of one of the 10 basins. The amount of dewatering during the short initial phase was significant, and the rehydration of deeper layers was negligible. A clear reduction trend was observed for volatile solids and labile organic matter, which is the first step towards organic matter humification. This hypothesis was also confirmed by water soluble carbon, which decreased with the increasing depth and the time of resting. About the N cycle, ammonification and nitrification showed a reciprocal balancing effect, so as to cause an equilibrium between the stable trends of NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) which were similar along the depth and the time of monitoring. The highest values of both parameters were found at the surface, where the combined effect of plant action, direct diffusive oxygen transfer from the atmosphere and high nutrient contents of the freshly loaded sludge was likely more intense. PMID:24135100

Iannelli, Renato; Nielsen, Steen; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Piras, Francesca; Støvring, Martin; Masciandaro, Grazia



Treating Sludges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

Josephson, Julian



Biological treatment of wastewater containing dimethyl sulphoxide from the semi-conductor industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater containing dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), a widely used organic solvent in the semi-conductor industry, is usually classified as an industrial waste requiring high-cost treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the biological treatment of DMSO wastewater with activated sludge (AS). The optimum conditions for Fenton treatment were also investigated. The optimum chemical dosage of H2O2: Fe2+ for

Se-Jin Park; Tai-Il Yoon; Jae-Ho Bae; Hyung-Joon Seo; Hyo-Jung Park



Wastewater treatment with the internal MEMBIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal aerobic membrane bioreactor was developed with submerged flat membrane plates: the internal MEMBIOR. This system has several advantages compared to a conventional wastewater such as: compactness, reduced sludge production and very high effluent quality. Both laboratory and pilot scale installations are available for respectively feasibility and on-site pilot tests. The data obtained from these pilot tests allow an

E. R. Cornelissen; W. Janse; J. Koning



Optimization of ozonation process for the reduction of excess sludge production from activated sludge process of sago industry wastewater using central composite design.  


Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R(2)) of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87%) was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction. PMID:22593666

Subha, B; Muthukumar, M



Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria from municipal wastewater sludge in a membrane bioreactor at 20°C.  


Simultaneous nitrogen and methane removal by the slow growing denitrifying methanotrophic bacterium 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' offers opportunities for a new approach to wastewater treatment. However, volumetric nitrite consumption rates should be increased by an order of magnitude before application in wastewater treatment becomes possible. A maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rate of 36 mg NO2(-)-N/L d was achieved in a membrane bioreactor inoculated with wastewater sludge and operated at 20°C. This rate is similar to maximum rates reported in literature, though it was thought that by strict biomass retention using membranes, higher rates would be achieved. In experiments lasting several years, growth was not stable: every experiment showed a decrease in activity after 1-2 years. The cause remains unknown. Rates increased after addition of copper and operating a membrane bioreactor at shorter hydraulic retention times. Further research should focus on long-term effects of copper addition and operation at hydraulic retention times in the order of hours using membrane bioreactors. PMID:24809733

Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N



Enrichment and activity of methanotrophic microorganisms from municipal wastewater sludge.  


In this study, methanotrophic microorganisms were enriched from a municipal wastewater sludge taken from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor. The enrichment was performed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an autotrophic medium containing nitrite and nitrate. The microbial community composition of the inoculum and of the enrichment culture after 100 days of SBR operation was investigated and compared with the help of data obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analyses. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies were 68% and 53%, respectively, probably due to heterotrophic denitrification. Archaeal cells of the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaic (ANME)-I and ANME-II groups were detected by polymerase chain reaction throughout the whole cultivation period. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that community composition was different among the two samples analysed. The dominant phyla found in the inoculum were Synergistestes, Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota, while Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria prevailed in the enriched biomass. The cultivation conditions decreased Methanobacterium abundance from 8% to 1%, and enriched for methanotrophic bacteria such as Methylocaldum, Methylocistis and Methylosinus. Sequences of Methylocaldum sp. accounted for 2.5% of the total reads. The presence and high predominance of Verrucomicrobia in the enriched biomass suggested that other unknown methanotrophic species related to that phylum might also have occurred in the reactor. Anaerobic methane oxidation activity was measured for both samples, and showed that the activity of the enrichment culture was nearly three times higher than the activity of the inoculum. Taken together, these results showed that the inoculum type and cultivation conditions were properly suited for methanotrophic enrichment. PMID:25495866

Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Vale, Isabel Campante; Dell'Isola, Jéssica; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; Calabria Araujo, Juliana



Rapid detection of multiple class pharmaceuticals in both municipal wastewater and sludge with ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


This work described the development, optimization and validation of an analytical method for rapid detection of multiple-class pharmaceuticals in both municipal wastewater and sludge samples based on ultrasonic solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification. The results indicated that the developed method could effectively extract all the target pharmaceuticals (25) in a single process and analyze them within 24min. The recoveries of the target pharmaceuticals were in the range of 69%-131% for wastewater and 54%-130% for sludge at different spiked concentration levels. The method quantification limits in wastewater and sludge ranged from 0.02 to 0.73ng/L and from 0.02 to 1.00?g/kg, respectively. Subsequently, this method was validated and applied for residual pharmaceutical analysis in a wastewater treatment plant located in Beijing, China. All the target pharmaceuticals were detected in the influent samples with concentrations varying from 0.09ng/L (tiamulin) to 15.24?g/L (caffeine); meanwhile, up to 23 pharmaceuticals were detected in sludge samples with concentrations varying from 60ng/kg (sulfamethizole) to 8.55mg/kg (ofloxacin). The developed method demonstrated its selectivity, sensitivity, and reliability for detecting multiple-class pharmaceuticals in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater and sludge. PMID:25193847

Yuan, Xiangjuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Ben, Weiwei; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Junxin



Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.  


Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed. PMID:20107281

Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M



Characterization of bacterial communities in hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process for berberine antibiotic wastewater treatment.  


Biodegradation of berberine antibiotic was investigated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process. After 118days of operation, 99.0%, 98.0% and 98.0% overall removals of berberine, COD and NH4(+)-N were achieved, respectively. The detailed composition of the established bacterial communities was studied by using 16S rDNA clone library. Totally, 400 clones were retrieved and grouped into 186 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UASB was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while Proteobacteria, especially Alpha- and Beta-proteobacteria were prevalent in the MBRs. Clostridium, Eubacterium and Synergistes in the UASB, as well as Hydrogenophaga, Azoarcus, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Shinella and Alcaligenes in the MBRs were identified as potential functional species in biodegradation of berberine and/or its metabolites. The bacterial community compositions in two MBRs were significantly discrepant. However, the identical functions of the functional species ensured the comparable pollutant removal performances in two bioreactors. PMID:23735790

Qiu, Guanglei; Song, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiao, Shuhu



Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.




Iodine-131 levels in sludge and treated municipal wastewaters near a large medical complex.  

PubMed Central

Iodine-131 was found to dominate the gamma spectra of dried sludge and concentration liquid effluent samples from a sewage treatment plant serving the area containing the Texas Medical Center in 1975. The concentration of Iodine-131 varied considerably on a time scale of weeks but was fairly stable in the course of a single day. The partition of Iodine-131 between the dried sludge and the liquid effluent was found to be reasonably constant during the sampling period. Knowledge of the concentration in these phases and the daily output of sludge and effluent let to be estimate of an annual discharge of over one Curie of Iodine-131. Circumstantial evidence linking this discharge to the practice of nuclear medicine in the area is considered strong, but an attempt to correlate variation in the effluent activity with actual nuclide use was inconclusive due, among other reasons, to an insufficient clinical data base. An analysis of possible exposure pathway indicated that negligible human exposure resulted from the Iodine-131 released primarily because the receiving body of water is a saline industrial waterway. A more extensive analysis would be in order for a similar plant discharging treated wastewaters into an inland water system. PMID:7258430

Prichard, H M; Gesell, T F; Davis, E



Identification and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coking wastewater sludge.  


GC-MS analysis was performed on the coking sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to allow detailed chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The identification and characterization of the isomers of PAHs was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of their isomers with mass spectra databases or based on a comparison of electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of target compounds with those reference compounds. In total, 160 PAH compounds including numerous N-, O-, S-, OH-, and Cl-containing derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target compounds was performed in the selected ion-monitoring mode using the internal standard method. The total concentrations of selected compounds in the coking sludge samples from the anaerobic tank, aerobic tank, hydrolytic tank, and secondary clarifier of the WWTP ranged from 1690 ± 585 to 6690 ± 522 mg/kg, which were much higher than those in other industrial and municipal sludges. PAHs with four and five rings were found to be the dominant compounds, and diagnostic ratios of these compounds suggested that they had the characteristics of coal combustion and pyrolysis. PMID:23184371

Zhang, Wanhui; Feng, Chunhua; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Wu, Chaofei; Li, Ning



Activated Sludge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

Saunders, F. Michael



A modified anaerobic digestion process with chemical sludge pre-treatment and its modelling.  


Activated Sludge Models (ASMs) assume an unbiodegradable organic particulate fraction in the activated sludge, which is derived from the decay of active microorganisms in the sludge and/or introduced from wastewater. In this study, a seasonal change of such activated sludge constituents in a municipal wastewater treatment plant was monitored for 1.5 years. The chemical oxygen demand ratio of the unbiodegradable particulates to the sludge showed a sinusoidal pattern ranging from 40 to 65% along with the change of water temperature in the plant that affected the decay rate. The biogas production in a laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) process was also affected by the unbiodegradable fraction in the activated sludge fed. Based on the results a chemical pre-treatment using H2O2 was conducted on the digestate to convert the unbiodegradable fraction to a biodegradable one. Once the pre-treated digestate was returned to the digester, the methane conversion increased up to 80% which was about 2.4 times as much as that of the conventional AD process, whilst 96% of volatile solids in the activated sludge was digested. From the experiment, the additional route of the organic conversion processes for the inert fraction at the pre-treatment stage was modelled on the ASM platform with reasonable simulation accuracy. PMID:24901631

Hai, N M; Sakamoto, S; Le, V C; Kim, H S; Goel, R; Terashima, M; Yasui, H



Genotoxicity of sludges, wastewater and effluents from three different industries.  


Many surface waters in Europe, Asia and South America have been reported to be contaminated with genotoxic substances. Therefore, it is important to establish strategies for identification of the most critical sources. In this study, we used a battery of four genotoxicity assays namely chromosomal aberration, DNA strand break, DNA laddering and P53 accumulation tests in mononuclear blood cells. Before cleaning of wastewater high levels of genotoxic contamination could be observed. For instance, we observed an increase in chromosomal aberrations from 2.6 +/- 1.1 (aberrant cells in %; control), to 33.6 +/- 6.6 in a petrochemical plant, 29.4 +/- 3.3 in a petroleum refinery and 14.4 +/- 1.8 in a coke plant of steel industry. A good correlation between the four assays was found. The most sensitive and reproducible results were obtained with the chromosomal aberration assay. Interestingly, clear differences in the efficiency of wastewater cleaning in three different treatment plants were observed. The first and second treatment plants in petrochemical industry and coke plant of steel industry completely eliminated genotoxicity of the wastewater. However, the third plant in petroleum refinery could achieve a reduction in genotoxicity but significant genotoxic contaminations were still present. In conclusion, our battery of genotoxicity tests allows the identification of critical sources contributing to contamination of surface waters. PMID:19002669

Krishnamurthi, K; Saravana Devi, S; Hengstler, J G; Hermes, Matthias; Kumar, Koel; Dutta, Dipanwita; Muhil Vannan, S; Subin, T S; Yadav, R R; Chakrabarti, T



Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

Vachon, D.T. (Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario); Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.



Efficacy of activated sludge\\/powdered activated carbon for removal of organic constituents in wastewater from commercial-scale, high-Btu coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale, activated-sludge (AS) treatability studies indicate that approximately 98 percent of total organic constituents can be removed from wastewater generated by HYGAS and slagging-type, high-Btu coal gasification pilot plants. This suggests that the most important unit of a wastewater treatment system for organics removal in commercial-scale versions of such plants will be the AS unit, augmented by powdered activated carbon

W. Harrison; D. L. Ford



Activated-sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available



Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)




Carbon wastewater treatment process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.



Reuse Water Treatment Sludge for Hollow Concrete Block Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: This research reuses the water treatment sludge fro m a water treatment plant to make hollow concrete blocks. The main objectives are to increase the value of the water treatment sludge from a water treatment plant and t o make a sustainable and profitable disposal alternative for the water treatment sludge. Attempt s were made to utilize the

Thaniya Kaosol


Effluent quality of a conventional activated sludge and a membrane bioreactor system treating hospital wastewater.  


Two lab scale wastewater treatment plants treating hospital wastewater in parallel were compared in terms of performance characteristics. One plant consisted of a conventional activated sludge system (CAS) and comprised an anoxic and aerobic compartment followed by a settling tank with recycle loop. The second pilot plant was a plate membrane bioreactor (MBR). The wastewater as obtained from the hospital had a variable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) ranging from 250 to 2300 mg l(-1). Both systems were operated at a similar hydraulic residence time of 12 hours. The reference conventional activated sludge system did not meet the regulatory standard for effluent COD of 125 mg l(-1) most of the time. Its COD removal efficiency was 88%. The plate MBR delivered an effluent with a COD value of 50 m g l(-1) or less, and attained an efficiency of 93%. The effluent contained no suspended particles. In addition, the MBR resulted in consistent operational parameters with a flux remaining around 8-10 l m(-2) h(-1) and a trans membrane pressure < 0.1 bar without the need for backwash or chemical cleaning. The CAS and the MBR system performed equally well in terms of TAN removal and EE2 removal. The CAS system typically decreased bacterial groups for about 1 log unit, whereas the MBR decreased these groups for about 3 log units. Enterococci were decreased below the detection limit in the MBR and indicator organisms such as fecal coliforms were decreased for 1.4 log units in the CAS system compared to a 3.6 log removal in the MBR. PMID:16583824

Pauwels, B; Fru Ngwa, F; Deconinck, S; Verstraete, W



Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.  


Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. PMID:25398411

Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K



Sorption and Release of Organics by Primary, Anaerobic, and Aerobic Activated Sludge Mixed with Raw Municipal Wastewater  

PubMed Central

New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215–230 nm were also rapidly removed. PMID:25768429

Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie




E-print Network

94/0169 A STUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING IN EXPERIMENTAL REED-PLANTED OR UNPLANTED SLUDGE study; reeds; sludge dewatering; sludge drying beds; small wastewater treatment plants. INTRODUCTION). It was of interest to confirm this aptitude for dewatering sludge from extended aeration plants, a medium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...


Tannery wastewater pre-treatment.  


Tannery wastewater is one of the most pollution sources. It can cause environmental problems related to its high organic matter, suspended solids and chromium. Chromium (III) salts are the most widely used chemicals for tanning processes, causing the tannery wastewater to be highly pollutant with chromium. The main objective of this study is to investigate the pre-treatment of an actual Egyptian tannery wastewater using two systems; the first electrolytic system and the second physico-chemical system. The performances of electrolytic system at current of 10, 20, 30 and 40 A were discussed. Poor removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), chromium (III), ammonia (NH(4) (+) and sulfide (S(2-)) were obtained. In the second physico-chemical system, calcium hydroxide was used as a coagulant material for chromium precipitation and plain sedimentation was applied for reducing of COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and TSS. The results demonstrate 98.8% removal of chromium, 31% removal of COD, 25.8% removal of BOD(5) and 51.2% removal of TSS. PMID:19633385

Elsheikh, Mahmoud Abdel-Shafy



Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor  

PubMed Central

A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H+-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts. PMID:25322701

Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin



A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

Schwing, Carl M.


Characterization and dewaterability of raw and stabilized sludge using different treatment methods.  


A comparison of the characteristics and stabilization potential of the four most used sludge treatment systems in Mexico was made. A pilot plant constituted by separate systems for anaerobic and aerobic digestion, lime stabilization, conditioning and dewatering, was built and operated during four months in one of the biological wastewater treatment plants in Acapulco, Mexico. Composting of sludge was also made. An aerobic static pile was built using bulking materials available in the region. A turbine centrifuge was used for dewatering the stabilized sludge and results showed good performance of the device. The main problem for the beneficial use of treated sludge was its pathogenicity. The composting process allowed us to obtain a product with approximately 20 fecal coliform density (MPN/g); with lime stabilization, the sludge produced had a fecal coliform density of 2 MPN/g. From these results, it is concluded that both the composting process and the alkaline stabilization with lime produce a well stabilized sludge, bacteriologically safe that accomplishes the requirements for its use on soil without restrictions. Related to parasitological removal, the best helminth egg removals were obtained also using these two processes. Ascaris sp. densities in raw sludge (309-430 eggs/g) were reduced to a final density of 3-14 eggs/g in the aerobic composting process and to 4-18 eggs/g in the lime stabilized sludge. Removal is not high enough to reach the recommended level for unrestricted use of stabilized sludge. PMID:12479461

Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Moeller, G; Chávez; Ramírez Camperos, E; Cardaso Vigueros, L



Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.



Self-heating of dried industrial wastewater sludge: lab-scale investigation of supporting conditions.  


We studied the reactivity of dried sludge produced by treatment of wastewater, mainly from tanneries. The solids transformations have been first characterized with thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) proving that exothermic transformation takes place at fairly low temperature, before the total organic combustion that occurs in air above 400°C. The onset of low temperature reactions depends on the heating rate and it can be below 100°C at very small heating rate. Then, we reproducibly determined the conditions to trigger dried sludge self-heating at the laboratory scale, on samples in the 0.2-0.3 kg size. Thermal insulation, some aeration and addition of water are key factors. Mastering the self-heating at this scale allows more detailed investigations as well as manipulation of conditions, to understand its nature, course and remediation. Here we report proves and discussions on the role of air, water, particle size, porosity and biological activity, as well as proving that also dried sludge from similar sources lead to self-heating. Tests demonstrate that air and water are simultaneously required for significant self-heating to occur. They act in diverging directions, both triggering the onset of the reactions and damping the temperature rise, by supporting heat loss. The higher the O2 concentration, the higher the solids heating rate. More added water prolongs the exothermic phase. Further additions of water can reactivate the material. Water emphasizes the exothermic processes, but it is not sufficient to start it in an air-free atmosphere. The initial solid moisture concentration (between 8% and 15%) affects the onset of self-heating as intuitive. The sludge particles size strongly determines the strength and extent of the heat release, indicating that surface reactions are taking place. In pelletized particles, limitations to water and air permeability mitigates the reaction course. PMID:23490357

Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Canu, P



Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

Drury, Douglas D.



Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continuing depletion of fresh water resources, focus has shifted more toward water recovery, reuse, and recycling, which require an extension of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Downstream external factors like stricter compliance requirements for wastewater discharge, rising treatment costs, and spatial constraints necessitate renewed investigation of alternative technologies. Coupled with biological treatment processes, membrane technology has gained considerable attention due

C. Visvanathan; R. Ben Aim; K. Parameshwaran



Swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the passive technologies being used for animal wastewater treatment is constructed wetlands. We have investigated swine lagoon wastewater treatment in both continuous marsh and marsh-pond-marsh (MPM) type constructed wetlands for their nitrogen treatment efficiency, ammonia volatilization, de...


Effect of a static magnetic field of 7 mT on formaldehyde biodegradation in industrial wastewater from urea-formaldehyde resin production by activated sludge.  


The goal of this study was to assess the efficiency of treating industrial urea-formaldehyde wastewater by activated sludge in a static magnetic field (MF) of 7 mT and the efficiency of treating the wastewater in a bioreactor not exposed to an MF. Exposure to the MF increased formaldehyde (FA) removal from industrial wastewater with an FA concentration of 1600 mg/l by 20%. The MF had also a positive effect on the efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, and bacteria and activated sludge biomass growth, especially when the COD loading increased rapidly. Industrial wastewater may contain up to 13000 mg FA/l. Therefore, its treatment can require the application of more than one method to ensure that the final FA concentration will be within the permissible limit. The application of an MF to enhance the biological processes may be favourable solution to this problem. PMID:23395758

?ebkowska, Maria; Naro?niak-Rutkowska, Anna; Pajor, El?bieta



A Guide to the Selection of Cost-Effective Wastewater Treatment Systems. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data within this publication provide guidelines for planners, engineers and decision-makers at all governmental levels to evaluate cost-effectiveness of alternative wastewater treatment proposals. The processes described include conventional and advanced treatment units as well as most sludge handling and processing units. Flow sheets, cost…

Van Note, Robert H.; And Others



EPA Science Inventory

Twenty-eight lime stabilization facilities were visited. None of these plants were originally designed for sludge lime stabilization. Lime stabilization was instituted either as a permanent sludge handling mechanism to replace a more costly process, as an interim sludge handling ...


Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Constructed Wetlands  

E-print Network

A constructed wetland system for domestic wastewater treatment is designed to mimic the natural wetland treatment process of Mother Nature. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands....

Lesikar, Bruce J.



Impacts of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Nutrient Removal from Wastewater and Bacterial Community Structure in Activated Sludge  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) will inevitably lead to the exposure of wastewater treatment facilities. However, knowledge of the impacts of MWCNTs on wastewater nutrient removal and bacterial community structure in the activated sludge process is sparse. Aims To investigate the effects of MWCNTs on wastewater nutrient removal, and bacterial community structure in activated sludge. Methods Three triplicate sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were exposed to wastewater which contained 0, 1, and 20 mg/L MWCNTs. MiSeq sequencing was used to investigate the bacterial community structures in activated sludge samples which were exposed to different concentrations of MWCNTs. Results Exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs had no acute (1 day) impact on nutrient removal from wastewater. After long-term (180 days) exposure to 1 mg/L MWCNTs, the average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was not significantly affected. TN removal efficiency decreased from 84.0% to 71.9% after long-term effects of 20 mg/L MWCNTs. After long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs, the total phosphorus removal efficiencies decreased from 96.8% to 52.3% and from 98.2% to 34.0% respectively. Further study revealed that long-term exposure to 20 mg/L MWCNTs inhibited activities of ammonia monooxygenase and nitrite oxidoreductase. Long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs both inhibited activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase. MiSeq sequencing data indicated that 20 mg/L MWCNTs significantly decreased the diversity of bacterial community in activated sludge. Long-term exposure to 1 and 20 mg/L MWCNTs differentially decreased the abundance of nitrifying bacteria, especially ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The abundance of PAOs was decreased after long-term exposure to 20 mg/L MWCNTs. The abundance of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) was increased after long-term exposure to 1 mg/L MWCNTs. Conclusion MWCNTs have adverse effects on biological wastewater nutrient removal, and altered the diversity and structure of bacterial community in activated sludge. PMID:25238404

Hai, Reti; Wang, Yulin; Wang, Xiaohui; Du, Zhize; Li, Yuan



Denitrification of high nitrate wastewater in a cloth strip bioreactor with immobilized sludge.  


Denitrification of synthetic high nitrate wastewater containing 40,000 ppm NO(3) (9,032 ppm NO(3)-N) was achieved using immobilized activated sludge in a column reactor. Active anoxic sludge adsorbed onto Terry cloth was used in the denitrification of high nitrate wastewater. The operational stability of the immobilized sludge system was studied both in a batch reactor and in a continuous reactor. The immobilized sludge showed complete degradation of different concentrations of NO(3)-N (1,129, 1,693, 3,387, 6,774, and 9,032 ppm) in a batch process. The reactors were successfully run for 90 days without any loss in activity. The immobilized cell process has yielded promising results in attaining high denitrifying efficiency. PMID:22832944

Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F



Study on the methylene blue adsorption from wastewaters by pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge adsorbent.  


The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge (ECF) by the batch adsorption technique was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing MB concentration but decreased as pH was increased. In order to investigate the adsorption mechanisms, three simplified isotherm models and kinetic models were used in this study. The best-fit adsorption isotherm was achieved with the Temkin model. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model agreed very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of MB onto ECF. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process of MB onto ECF was spontaneous and exothermic. The results indicated that ECF adsorbed MB efficiently and could be used as a waste adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes in wastewater treatment. PMID:24734762

Hong, Junming; Lin, Bing; Hong, Gui-Bing; Chang, Chang-Tang



Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Tablet Chlorination  

E-print Network

pump tank, where the wastewater is stored before it is distributed. Before being chlorinated, waste- water from a home is treated by a secondary treatment device, usually in an aerobic treatment unit or media filter. The wastewater moves from... tank, where the disinfection process is completed. At this point the waste- water is called reclaimed water. Texas regulations require that reclaimed water contain at least 0.1 milligram of chlorine per liter of wastewater or have no more than 200...