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1

The Wmo Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: Global Framework for Atmospheric Composition Observations and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme is the only existing long-term international global programme providing an international coordinated framework for observations and analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. GAW is a partnership involving contributors from about 80 countries. It includes a coordinated global network of observing stations along with supporting facilities (Central Facilities) and expert groups (Scientific Advisory Groups, SAGs and Expert Teams, ETs). Currently GAW coordinates activities and data from 27 Global Stations and a substantial number of Regional and Contributing Stations. Station information is available through the GAW Station Information System GAWSIS (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/). There are six key groups of variables which are addressed by the GAW Programme, namely: ozone, reactive gases, greenhouse gases, aerosols, UV radiation and precipitation chemistry. GAW works to implement integrated observations unifying measurements from different platforms (ground based in situ and remote, balloons, aircraft and satellite) supported by modeling activities. GAW provides data for ozone assessments, Greenhouse Gas Bulletins, Ozone Bulletins and precipitation chemistry assessments published on a regular basis and for early warnings of changes in the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere. To ensure that observations can be used for global assessments, the GAW Programme has developed a Quality Assurance system. Five types of Central Facilities dedicated to the six groups of measurement variables are operated by WMO Members and form the basis of quality assurance and data archiving for the GAW global monitoring network. They include Central Calibration Laboratories (CCLs) that host primary standards (PS), Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centres (QA/SACs), World Calibration Centers (WCCs), Regional Calibration Centers (RCCs), and World Data Centers (WDCs) with responsibility for archiving and access to GAW data. Education, training, workshops, comparison campaigns, station audits/visits and twinning are also provided to build capacities in atmospheric sciences in Member countries.

Tarasova, O. A.; Jalkanen, L.

2010-12-01

2

World Calibration Center for VOC (WCC-VOC), a new Facility for the WMO-GAW-Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are recognized to be important precursors of tropospheric ozone as well as other oxidants and organic aerosols. In order to design effective control measures for the reduction of photooxidants, photochemical processes have to be understood and the sources of the precursors known. Reliable and representative measurements of VOCs are necessary to describe the anthropogenic and biogenic sources, to follow the photochemical degradation of VOCs in the troposphere. Measurement of VOCs is of key importance for the understanding of tropospheric chemistry. Tropospheric VOCs have been one of the recommended measurements to be made within the GAW programme. The purpose will be to monitor their atmospheric abundance, to characterize the various compounds with regard to anthropogenic and biogenic sources and to evaluate their role in the tropospheric ozone formation process. An international WMO/GAW panel of experts for VOC measurements developed the rational and objectives for this GAW activity and recommended the configuration and required activities of the WCC-VOC. In reflection of the complexity of VOC measurements and the current status of measurement technology, a "staged" approach was adopted. Stage 1 measurements: C2-C9 hydrocarbons, including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, dienes and monocyclics. (The WCC-VOC operates currently under this mode). Stage 2 measurements: C10-C14 hydrocarbons, including higher homologs of the Stage 1 set as well as biogenic hydrocarbon compounds. Stage 3 measurements: Oxygenated VOCs, including alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids. The Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centre (QA/SAC) Germany currently has established the World Calibration Centre for VOC (WCC-VOC). The WCC-VOC has operated in the research mode und has become operational recently. From now on, the WCC-VOC conducts one round-robin calibration audit per year at all global stations that measure VOCs and assists other stations in setting up VOC measurement capabilities. Furthermore, the WCC-VOC will promote inter-com-parison experiments with networks related to other programmes, notably EMEP and IGAC.

Rappenglueck, B.-

2002-12-01

3

Long-term observations of tropospheric ozone: GAW Measurement Guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) coordinates long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere which are relevant for understanding of atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Atmospheric observations of reactive gases (tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides) coordinated by the GAW Programme complement local and regional scale air quality monitoring efforts. As part of the GAW quality assurance (QA) system detailed measurement guidelines for atmospheric trace species are developed by international expert teams at irregular intervals. The most recent report focuses on continuous in-situ measurements of ozone in the troposphere, performed in particular at continental or island sites with altitudes ranging from sea level to mountain tops. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are defined for different applications of the data (e.g. trend analysis and verification of global model forecasts). These DQOs include a thorough discussion of the tolerable level of measurement uncertainty and data completeness. The guidelines present the best practices and practical arrangements adopted by the GAW Programme in order to enable the GAW station network to approach or achieve the defined tropospheric ozone DQOs. The document includes information on the selection of station and measurement locations, required skills and training of staff, recommendations on the measurement technique and the necessary equipment to perform highest quality measurements, rules for conducting the measurements, preparing the data and archiving them, and more. Much emphasis is given to discussions about how to ensure the quality of the data through tracing calibrations back to primary standards, proper calibration and data analysis, etc. In the GAW Programme the QA system is implemented through Central Facilities (Central Calibration Laboratories, World and Regional Calibration Centers and World Data Centers), Scientific Advisory Groups and GAW Training and Education Center. These bodies support primary standards, provide calibration and data archiving facilities, coordinate comparison campaigns, perform stations audit, provide documentation and training of personnel.

Tarasova, Oksana; Galbally, Ian E.; Schultz, Martin G.

2013-04-01

4

137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first

Hervé Thébaulta; Alessia M. Rodriguez y Baena; Bruno Andral; Delko Barisic; José Benedicto Albaladejo; Alexandru S. Bologa; Redouane Boudjenoun; Roberta Delfanti; Victor N. Egorov; Tahar El Khoukhi; Heleni Florou; Goran Kniewald; Abdelkader Noureddine; Vasile Patrascu; Mai Khanh Pham; Alfonso Scarpato; Nikolay A. Stokozov; Sayhan Topcuoglu; Michel Warnau

2008-01-01

5

World Weather Watch. Consolidated Report on the Voluntary Assistance Programme Including Projects Approved for Circulation in 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General remarks on the states of the overall Voluntary Assistance Program (VAP) are followed by guidelines for use in the implementation of World Weather Watch projects through VAP. Equipment required to implement VAP projects approved for 1976 is listed ...

1977-01-01

6

Nature Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature Watch is a series of volunteer environmental monitoring programs coordinated by the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMANCO), the Canadian Nature Federation, and the University of Guelph. Nature Watch is a growing network that currently includes Frog Watch, Ice Watch, Plant Watch, and Worm Watch. Site visitors can access the home pages of each of the participating programs for details about each program, how to collect and contribute data, and to view data that has already been collected.

7

(137)Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: a cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme.  

PubMed

The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify (137)Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured (137)Cs levels were found to be very low (usually < 1 Bq kg(-1) wet wt) (137)Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area. PMID:18314143

Thébault, Hervé; Rodriguez Y Baena, Alessia M; Andral, Bruno; Barisic, Delko; Albaladejo, José Benedicto; Bologa, Alexandru S; Boudjenoun, Redouane; Delfanti, Roberta; Egorov, Victor N; El Khoukhi, Tahar; Florou, Heleni; Kniewald, Goran; Noureddine, Abdelkader; Patrascu, Vasile; Pham, Mai Khanh; Scarpato, Alfonso; Stokozov, Nikolay A; Topcuoglu, Sayhan; Warnau, Michel

2008-01-01

8

Nature Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature Watch is a partnership program of the U.S. Forest Service that provides nature viewing opportunities and encourages safe and sound viewing ethics. The Nature Watch program is for people to experience wildlife, fish, and flowers in their natural settings; to promote recreational viewing opportunities, facilitate learning about the environment, and to promote conservation efforts and wise use of natural resources. This site contains information on Nature Watch programs, coloring books, links to environmental science journals, and information on educational curricula.

9

Worm Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Worm Watch is part of NatureWatch (first reported on in the May 31, 2002, NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences), which is series of programs--administered collaboratively by the Canadian Nature Federation, the University of Guelph, and the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network--that "encourage schools, community groups, individuals, naturalists, backyard enthusiasts, Scouts and Guides to engage in the monitoring of soil, air, water and other aspects of environmental quality." For students and teachers, the Worm Watch site offers a number of hands-on activities "designed to help participants learn about the role earthworms play in the ecosystem, as well as the care and handling of these organisms." Other site features include an interactive Taxonomic Key for identifying earthworm species, an animated tour of a worm's digestive system, and a Glossary. For Canadian residents, the website provides information about participating in the National Worm Survey. This site is available in both French and English.

10

Identifying rare variants from exome scans: the GAW17 experience  

PubMed Central

Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) provided a platform for evaluating existing statistical genetic methods and for developing novel methods to analyze rare variants that modulate complex traits. In this article, we present an overview of the 1000 Genomes Project exome data and simulated phenotype data that were distributed to GAW17 participants for analyses, the different issues addressed by the participants, and the process of preparation of manuscripts resulting from the discussions during the workshop.

2011-01-01

11

Ozone Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Ozone Hole Watch web site, where you can check on the latest status of the ozone layer over the South Pole. Satellite instruments monitor the ozone layer, and their data is used to create the images that depict the amount of ozone. The web site also contains links for classroom activities and instructional materials.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

12

Keeping watch.  

PubMed

Early detection of heart attack means that potentially life saving treatment can begin immediately. HealthWatch offers a distant monitoring service via a call centre run by nurses and doctors to offer reassurance or enable early A&E attendance if required. PMID:15835433

Gooding, Lucy

13

Bird Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this group or individual activity, learners are encouraged to watch birds near home or schoolâpossibly where birds are nesting in a tree, pecking in a park, feeding from a feeder, or flying through the sky. The PDF provides drawings of the heads and bills of many kinds of birds, under categories including nectar feeding, mud probing, dip netting, scavenging, and raptorial.

Science, Lawrence H.

2010-01-01

14

Gendercide Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website from Gendercide Watch is devoted to raising awareness, facilitating research, and disseminating educational resources on gendercide (i.e. gender-selective mass killing). Undoubtedly the most comprehensive and up-to-date Website of its kind, Gendercide Watch features an annotated listing of current gendercide articles and reports in the news, a comprehensive discussion and definition of the phenomenon, as well as detailed case studies of gendercide occurrences in several countries and contexts, including Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Colombia, and gendercide elements in the Jewish Holocaust and the Armenian genocide of 1915-1916. Institutional case studies of gendercide elements in the application of penal punishment -- including the death penalty, maternal mortality, and military conscription are also posted. The site emphasizes male gendercide, reflecting the creators's "conviction that men are, indeed, generally the victims of the most severe gender-selective atrocities in such situations." An extensive, annotated list of gendercide and genocide links is given along with news releases from Gendercide Watch about current gendercide issues around the world. Human rights advocates are likely to want to bookmark this site. Gendercide Watch is "a project of the Gender Issues Education Foundation (GIEF), a registered charitable foundation based in Edmonton, Alberta."

15

Water watch  

SciTech Connect

In this issue of Water Watch, a summary of precipitation, drought, and streamflow conditions during the summer is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts (through October) for each region are given. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.

Not Available

1991-10-01

16

Metadata for WIS and WIGOS: GAW Profile of ISO19115 and Draft WIGOS Core Metadata Standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) is a key WMO priority to underpin all WMO Programs and new initiatives such as the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of the WIGOS Operational Information Resource (WIR) is central to the WIGOS Framework Implementation Plan (WIGOS-IP). The WIR shall provide information on WIGOS and its observing components, as well as requirements of WMO application areas. An important aspect is the description of the observational capabilities by way of structured metadata. The Global Atmosphere Watch is the WMO program addressing the chemical composition and selected physical properties of the atmosphere. Observational data are collected and archived by GAW World Data Centres (WDCs) and related data centres. The Task Team on GAW WDCs (ET-WDC) have developed a profile of the ISO19115 metadata standard that is compliant with the WMO Information System (WIS) specification for the WMO Core Metadata Profile v1.3. This profile is intended to harmonize certain aspects of the documentation of observations as well as the interoperability of the WDCs. The Inter-Commission-Group on WIGOS (ICG-WIGOS) has established the Task Team on WIGOS Metadata (TT-WMD) with representation of all WMO Technical Commissions and the objective to define the WIGOS Core Metadata. The result of this effort is a draft semantic standard comprising of a set of metadata classes that are considered to be of critical importance for the interpretation of observations relevant to WIGOS. The purpose of the presentation is to acquaint the audience with the standard and to solicit informal feed-back from experts in the various disciplines of meteorology and climatology. This feed-back will help ET-WDC and TT-WMD to refine the GAW metadata profile and the draft WIGOS metadata standard, thereby increasing their utility and acceptance.

Klausen, Jörg; Howe, Brian

2014-05-01

17

Monarch watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monarch Watch is a cooperative network of students, teachers, volunteers and researchers dedicated to the study of the Monarch butterfly. There are extensive educational resources and projects on the site, including tagging the butterflies and monitoring the larvae, as well as the creation of Monarch Waystations by planting milkweeds needed for restoring the species' habitat (schools and non-profits can apply for free milkweed).

Watch, Monarch

18

Congress Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Congress Watch: An Update on Current National Information Infrastructure (NII) Legislation" gives an overview of United States congressional legislation introduced in the past few years concerning the NII. The article features a list of current legislation, including bill name, number, sponsor, date introduced, a brief description, and current status. It is part of the latest issue of the _NSF Network News_, InterNIC Information Services' bimonthly publication.

19

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Watch is a group of ongoing trail-side citizen science programs that track reproductive (flower/fruit development) plant phenology of a small set of alpine and forest plants in the U.S.'s Eastern Appalachian mountains and other northeast areas. The program encourages hikers, families, school groups and conservationists to help scientists make observations along the trails on the timing of plant flower and fruit development for inclusion in a long-term study to understand how shifts in climate trends may impact mountain flora. Resources to help teachers get started are available at the website.

Club, Appalachian M.

20

Monarch Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational outreach program aims to further science education, to promote the conservation of monarch butterflies, and to involve students and adults in a cooperative study of the fall migration of monarchs. Monarch Watch is a collaborative network of students, teachers, volunteers and researchers dedicated to the tagging, rearing, and study of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Other projects include life history studies, flight vector analysis, and butterfly gardening. A K-8 science curriculum, Monarchs in the Classroom (available through the mail), offers lessons congruent with K-8 National Science Education standards. Each spring, a Season Summary is published that contains tag recovery data, tips and ideas for teachers and students, observations on monarch populations, and new information on monarch biology.

21

BEACH Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency has released data from the third annual National Health Protection Survey of Beaches for the 1999 swimming season. Based on voluntarily returned surveys, the site offers information on water quality at 1,891 beaches in the US. Using an interactive map, users can find out if the water at a selected beach is being monitored, who is responsible for monitoring, and if any advisories or closures have been issued. Initial entries for each beach include basic monitoring information, contact information, and a map. Users can also read the submitted survey form in full. Additional resources at the BEACH Watch site include summary results from the survey, a fact sheet, technical reports and reference, brochures amd pamphlets, a FAQ, and related links.

22

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

The long-established notion that apoptosis would be immunologically silent, and hence it would go unnoticed by the immune system, if not tolerogenic, and hence it would actively suppress immune responses, has recently been revisited. In some instances, indeed, cancer cells undergo apoptosis while emitting a spatiotemporally-defined combination of signals that renders them capable of eliciting a long-term protective antitumor immune response. Importantly, only a few anticancer agents can stimulate such an immunogenic cell death. These include cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin, which are currently approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple hematologic and solid malignancies, as well as mitoxantrone, which is being used in cancer therapy and against multiple sclerosis. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the progress of recent (initiated after January 2008) clinical trials evaluating the off-label use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone.

Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Galon, Jerome; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Kroemer, Guido

2012-01-01

23

Mussel watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

24

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

25

Trial Watch  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymatically inactive, single membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a wide panel of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Besides constituting a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens, TLRs appear to play a major role in anticancer immunosurveillance. In line with this notion, several natural and synthetic TLR ligands have been intensively investigated for their ability to boost tumor-targeting immune responses elicited by a variety of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Three of these agents are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or equivalent regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients: the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin, monophosphoryl lipid A, and imiquimod. However, the number of clinical trials testing the therapeutic potential of both FDA-approved and experimental TLR agonists in cancer patients is stably decreasing, suggesting that drug developers and oncologists are refocusing their interest on alternative immunostimulatory agents. Here, we summarize recent findings on the use of TLR agonists in cancer patients and discuss how the clinical evaluation of FDA-approved and experimental TLR ligands has evolved since the publication of our first Trial Watch dealing with this topic.

Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Cremer, Isabelle; Henrik ter Meulen, Jan; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

26

Trial Watch  

PubMed Central

Since the advent of hybridoma technology, dating back to 1975, monoclonal antibodies have become an irreplaceable diagnostic and therapeutic tool for a wide array of human diseases. During the last 15 years, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved by FDA for cancer therapy. These mAbs are designed to (1) activate the immune system against tumor cells, (2) inhibit cancer cell-intrinsic signaling pathways, (3) bring toxins in the close proximity of cancer cells, or (4) interfere with the tumor-stroma interaction. More recently, major efforts have been made for the development of immunostimulatory mAbs that either enhance cancer-directed immune responses or limit tumor- (or therapy-) driven immunosuppression. Some of these antibodies, which are thought to facilitate tumor eradication by initiating or sustaining a tumor-specific immune response, have already entered clinical trials. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the clinical progress of the most important mAbs that are have entered clinical trials after January 2008.

Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Galon, Jerome; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

2012-01-01

27

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have first been characterized for their capacity to detect conserved microbial components like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, resulting in the elicitation of potent (innate) immune responses against invading pathogens. More recently, TLRs have also been shown to promote the activation of the cognate immune system against cancer cells. Today, only three TLR agonists are approved by FDA for use in humans: the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod. BCG (an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis) is mainly used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, but also for the immunotherapy of in situ bladder carcinoma. MPL (derived from the LPS of Salmonella minnesota) is included in the formulation of Cervarix®, a vaccine against human papillomavirus-16 and -18. Imiquimod (a synthetic imidazoquinoline) is routinely employed for actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts (condylomata acuminata). In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating FDA-approved TLR agonists as off-label medications for cancer therapy.

Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Galon, Jerome; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

2012-01-01

28

Trial Watch  

PubMed Central

Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) represents a prominent form of immunotherapy against malignant diseases. ACT is conceptually distinct from dendritic cell-based approaches (which de facto constitute cellular vaccines) and allogeneic transplantation (which can be employed for the therapy of hematopoietic tumors) as it involves the isolation of autologous lymphocytes exhibiting antitumor activity, their expansion/activation ex vivo and their reintroduction into the patient. Re-infusion is most often performed in the context of lymphodepleting regimens (to minimize immunosuppression by host cells) and combined with immunostimulatory interventions, such as the administration of Toll-like receptor agonists. Autologous cells that are suitable for ACT protocols can be isolated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or generated by engineering their circulating counterparts for the expression of transgenic tumor-specific T-cell receptors. Importantly, lymphocytes can be genetically modified prior to re-infusion for increasing their persistence in vivo, boosting antitumor responses and minimizing side effects. Moreover, recent data indicate that exhausted antitumor T lymphocytes may be rejuvenated in vitro by exposing them to specific cytokine cocktails, a strategy that might considerably improve the clinical success of ACT. Following up the Trial Watch that we published on this topic in the third issue of OncoImmunology (May 2012), here we summarize the latest developments in ACT-related research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months and clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of this form of cellular immunotherapy.

Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Galon, Jerome; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

29

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of several neoplasms. The term “oncolytic viruses” is generally employed to indicate naturally occurring or genetically engineered attenuated viral particles that cause the demise of malignant cells while sparing their non-transformed counterparts. From a conceptual standpoint, oncolytic viruses differ from so-called “oncotropic viruses” in that only the former are able to kill cancer cells, even though both display a preferential tropism for malignant tissues. Of note, such a specificity can originate at several different steps of the viral cycle, including the entry of virions (transductional specificity) as well as their intracellular survival and replication (post-transcriptional and transcriptional specificity). During the past two decades, a large array of replication-competent and replication-incompetent oncolytic viruses has been developed and engineered to express gene products that would specifically promote the death of infected (cancer) cells. However, contrarily to long-standing beliefs, the antineoplastic activity of oncolytic viruses is not a mere consequence of the cytopathic effect, i.e., the lethal outcome of an intense, productive viral infection, but rather involves the elicitation of an antitumor immune response. In line with this notion, oncolytic viruses genetically modified to drive the local production of immunostimulatory cytokines exert more robust therapeutic effects than their non-engineered counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy is significantly improved by some extent of initial immunosuppression (facilitating viral replication and spread) followed by the administration of immunostimulatory molecules (boosting antitumor immune responses). In this Trial Watch, we will discuss the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and antineoplastic potential of oncolytic virotherapy.

Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

30

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner’s work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer.

Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

31

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) occupy a central position in the immune system, orchestrating a wide repertoire of responses that span from the development of self-tolerance to the elicitation of potent cellular and humoral immunity. Accordingly, DCs are involved in the etiology of conditions as diverse as infectious diseases, allergic and autoimmune disorders, graft rejection and cancer. During the last decade, several methods have been developed to load DCs with tumor-associated antigens, ex vivo or in vivo, in the attempt to use them as therapeutic anticancer vaccines that would elicit clinically relevant immune responses. While this has not always been the case, several clinical studies have demonstrated that DC-based anticancer vaccines are capable of activating tumor-specific immune responses that increase overall survival, at least in a subset of patients. In 2010, this branch of clinical research has culminated with the approval by FDA of a DC-based therapeutic vaccine (sipuleucel-T, Provenge®) for use in patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Intense research efforts are currently dedicated to the identification of the immunological features of patients that best respond to DC-based anticancer vaccines. This knowledge may indeed lead to personalized combination strategies that would extend the benefit of DC-based immunotherapy to a larger patient population. In addition, widespread enthusiasm has been generated by the results of the first clinical trials based on in vivo DC targeting, an approach that holds great promises for the future of DC-based immunotherapy. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating DC-based interventions for cancer therapy.

Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Galon, Jerome; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

2012-01-01

32

YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)  

EPA Science Inventory

Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

33

[Study on the in-situ measurement of atmospheric CH4 and CO by GC-FID method at the Shangdianzi GAW regional station].  

PubMed

In-situ GC-FID system for atmospheric CH4 and CO mixing ratio measurements at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) GAW regional station in Beijing was designed and optimized in 2009 based on a comparable system at the Waliguan GAW global station in Qinhai. Results from this study indicate that the system's precisions for CH4 and CO are higher than 0.03% and 0.45% respectively, which can meet the quality target on background greenhouse gas observations by the World Meteorology Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) program. The selection method of working standards for this system was established: two working standards (WH for the high concentration and WL for the low concentration) were selected, the concentrations of CH4 and CO in these two standards can cover the ambient mixing ratios of CH4 (2 007.1 x 10(-9) and 1 809.5 x 10(-9)) and CO (405.6 x 10(-9) and 123.8 x 10(-9)), an injection sequence was programmed so that the two standards were analyzed alternatively for every three runs. The measurement accuracies are high, as shown by the standard deviations less than 1.7 x 10(-9) and 1 x 10(-9), for CH4 and CO, respectively. This method has been applied to in-situ measurement of atmospheric CH4 and CO in North China. PMID:22452181

Wang, Wei; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhang, Fang; Yao, Bo; Liu, Li-Xin

2012-01-01

34

Can Positive Matrix Factorization identify sources of organic trace gases at the continental GAW site Hohenpeissenberg?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the rural Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site Hohenpeissenberg in the pre-alpine area of Southern Germany, a dataset of 24 C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons over a period of seven years was analyzed. Receptor modeling was performed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and the resulting factors were compared to literature source profiles. Photochemical aging during transport to the relatively remote site violates the PMF prerequisite of mass conservation from source to receptor. However, previous studies showed plausible results with this method at remote sites; the applicability and restrictions of the PMF model to such a remote dataset and the influence of photochemical processing on the interpretability of the results are discussed. A six factor solution showed a high stability and the most plausible results. In addition to biogenic sources and remote sources of very stable compounds - reflecting the continental background - four additional anthropogenic factors were resolved that could be divided into two short- and two long-lived patterns from evaporative sources and incomplete combustion processes, respectively. A method to increase the uncertainty for each individual compound by including photochemical reactivity did not improve the results, but decreased the stability of the model output. The contribution of the different source categories at the site over the entire period was, in decreasing order: remote sources, long-lived evaporative sources, residential heating and long-lived combustion sources, short-lived evaporative sources, short-lived combustion sources, and biogenic sources. Despite a low overall impact, biogenic sources played an important role during summer, in particular in terms of reactivity.

Leuchner, M.; Gubo, S.; Schunk, C.; Wastl, C.; Kirchner, M.; Menzel, A.; Plass-Dülmer, C.

2014-03-01

35

Watch holder system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a watch holder system, which is worn on the back side of a hand, comprising a casing, an elastic cord, and a buckle. The casing is provided with two holes passing through from the front end to the back end and accommodating the elastic cord. The lower side of the casing is concave to match the surface of the back side of the hand. By the wearing position of the watch holder system, a novel and beautiful effect is created. In use, the watch will not be covered by a long sleeve, thus allowing for unhindered reading of the displayed time.

1998-07-14

36

BrowserWatch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the BrowserWatch site is to keep you current on the newest developments in Web browsers. It contains a news section offering a variety of newsgroup postings about the latest in browsers; the BrowserWatch Browser Listing, with over 60 browsers, platforms supported, and links to their sites; a "Plug-in Plaza", with a list of plug-ins, their availability by platform, what they do, and links to download sites; and statistics on which browsers have visited the BrowserWatch page. http://browserwatch.internet.com/ For more information on browsers, see the Scout Toolkit browser page. webtools/browsers.html

37

The International Halley Watch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which t...

1980-01-01

38

Climatology of new particle formation at Izaña mountain GAW observatory in the subtropical North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climatology of new particle formation (NPF) events at high altitude in the subtropical North Atlantic is presented. A 4-year data set (June 2008-June 2012), which includes number size distributions (10-600 nm), reactive gases (SO2, NOx, and O3), several components of solar radiation and meteorological parameters, measured at Izaña Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) observatory (2373 m above sea level; Tenerife, Canary Islands) was analysed. NPF is associated with the transport of gaseous precursors from the boundary layer by orographic buoyant upward flows that perturb the low free troposphere during daytime. On average, 30% of the days contained an NPF event. Mean values of the formation and growth rates during the study period were 0.46 cm-3 s-1 and 0.42 nm h-1, correspondingly. There is a clearly marked NPF season (May-August), when these events account for 50-60% of the days per month. Monthly mean values of the formation and growth rates exhibit higher values in this season, 0.49-0.92 cm-3 s-1 and 0.48-0.58 nm h-1, respectively. During NPF events, SO2, UV radiation and upslope winds showed higher values than during non-events. The overall data set indicates that SO2 plays a key role as precursor, although other species seem to contribute during some periods. Condensation of sulfuric acid vapour accounts for most of the measured particle growth during most of the year (~70%), except for some periods. In May, the highest mean growth rates (~0.6 nm h-1) and the lowest contribution of sulfuric acid (~13%) were measured, suggesting a significant involvement of other condensing vapours. The SO2 availability seems also to be the most influencing parameter in the year-to-year variability in the frequency of NPF events. The condensation sink showed similar features to other mountain sites, showing high values during NPF events. Summertime observations, when Izaña is within the Saharan Air Layer, suggest that dust particles may play a significant role acting as coagulation sink of freshly formed nucleation particles. The contribution of dust particles to the condensation sink of sulfuric acid vapours seems to be modest (~8% as average). Finally, we identified a set of NPF events in which two nucleation modes, which may evolve at different rates, occur simultaneously and for which further investigations are necessary.

García, M. I.; Rodríguez, S.; González, Y.; García, R. D.

2014-04-01

39

Choices and Trade-Offs: Reply to McGaw  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contrasts the role and approach taken by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) with that of the OECD in the conduct of their respective large-scale assessment programmes. It is argued that the differences in the approaches taken in the conduct of the respective assessments are not merely…

Wagemaker, Hans

2008-01-01

40

Whale-Watching-Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This metasite, by Rauno Lauhakangas of the University of Helsinki, Finland, includes a myriad of whale-related topics, some of which are scientific. The research-oriented sections include: Oceanographic Research (a collection of links to research sites, i.e. The Radio Acoustic Positioning and Telemetry Network -- a useful technique for monitoring whale/fish behavior); Cetacean's Rights (a section providing examples of legislation regulating whale-watching in Argentina, New Zealand, and elsewhere); and Bioacoustics (a section of links dedicated to Cetacean Research Technology). Educators will find useful information and compelling photographic images in the Cetacean Encyclopaedia (an introduction to whale species); Cetacean Pictures; and Virtual Whale Watching (a high-tech, state-of-the-art introduction to virtual whale-watching).

41

Sweatshop Watch Newsletter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring 2007 newsletter of Sweatshop Watch includes coverage of garment workers fighting for justice in the global apparel industry, new anti-sweatshop reforms, the California’s Garment Special Account, and the hiring of an independent monitor to Los Angeles’ sweat-free law.

Sweatshop Watch

2007-01-01

42

Wrist-watch dosimeter  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a wristwatch dosimeter utilizing a CdTe detector, a microprocessor and an audio and/or visual alarm. The dosimeter is entirely housable within a conventional digital watch case having an additional aperture enabling the detector to receive radiation.

Wolf, M.A.; Waechter, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

1982-04-16

43

The Monarch Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education can be an exciting process of observation and discovery. This article describes the use of the Monarch Watch project by environmental educators to study migratory behavior and scientific research through the tagging of Monarch butterflies. Discusses reasons the national project has been successful. (LZ)

Brown, Ken

1994-01-01

44

Moon Watch Flip Book!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe the moon each night for a month and draw their observations in a Moon Watch Log. After twenty-nine days of observations, learners put the pages together to create a flip book to see the Moon pass through all its phases in just a few seconds.

History, American M.

2011-08-20

45

Corn blight watch experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

1974-01-01

46

Capitol Watch Daily News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capitol Watch On Line offers content on what's going on in the nations capital daily. A dozen or more headline stories plus a special interests section and links to the Federal News Service and other government sites. "Live chat with candidates and the leaders of our nation" is promised to be coming in 2 weeks.

1999-01-01

47

Computer programmer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do computer programmers actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about computer programming as a career. Here the job of a computer programmer is defined and described. Computer programmers write and maintain computer software. In the rest of the resource, students can examine a specialized job title associated with computer programming: software developer. Students can view a six-minute video clip of the software developer as he works on writing software and debugging programs. He is the leader of a project using three software developers to write software. Students watch as the software developer explains and demonstrates how to write a program that prints a phrase on the screen when an icon is clicked. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

48

Effectiveness of spoilers on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a high performance Fowler flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path allowing lower surface air to escape to the upper surface as the spoiler opens alleviates control reversal and hysteresis tendencies. Spoiler cross-sectional shape variations generally have a modest influence on control characteristics. A series of comparative tests of vortex generators applied to the (GA-W)-1 airfoil show that triangular planform vortex generators are superior to square planform vortex generators of the same span.

Wentz, W. H., Jr.

1975-01-01

49

ServerWatch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ServerWatch, provided by Mecklermedia, provides information on "web server technology and supporting tools." It contains information on development tools (audio/video, firewalls, and site monitoring, among others), and comprehensive information (including ratings) of the most popular web servers. However, the highlight of the site lies buried under the "And other..." web servers; a comparison chart of over 100 web servers that includes operating systems and price range. Also included are features tables for seven different variables.

50

Colorado River Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado River Watch mission is to work with voluntary stewards to monitor water quality and other indicators of watershed health and utilize this high quality data to educate citizens and inform decision makers about the condition of Colorado's waters. This data is also used in the Clean Water Act decision-making process. See their website for a training schedule, with scholarships available for groups.

51

Bumble Bee Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bumble Bee Watch is a collaborative effort to track and conserve North America's bumble bees. This citizen science project allows for individuals to upload photos of bumble bees to start a virtual bumble bee collection, identify the bumble bees in their photos, have identifications verified by experts, help researchers determine the status and conservation needs of bumble bees, help locate rare or endangered populations of bumble bees, learn about bumble bees, their ecology, and ongoing conservation efforts, and connect with other citizen scientists.

Watch, Bumble B.

52

CoralWatch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Built on a research project at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, CoralWatch has developed a cheap, simple, non-invasive method for the monitoring of coral bleaching, and assessment of coral health. In the field, users simply use the Coral Health Chart to compare colors of corals with colors on the chart and record matching codes. Students submit their data and can view data from reefs around the world. Virtual components are also available.

53

CoralWatch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Built on a research project at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, CoralWatch has developed a cheap, simple, non-invasive method for the monitoring of coral bleaching, and assessment of coral health. In the field, users simply use the Coral Health Chart to compare colors of corals with colors on the chart and record matching codes. Students submit their data and can view data from reefs around the world. Virtual components are also available.

2011-07-04

54

Effectiveness of Spoilers on the Ga(W)-1 Airfoil with a High Performance Fowler Flap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path al...

W. H. Wentz

1975-01-01

55

Illinois RiverWatch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois RiverWatch Network is a volunteer stream monitoring program that seeks to engage Illinois citizens by training them as Citizen Scientists. Each year at adopted stream sites in their communities, Citizen Scientists conduct habitat and biological surveys, including the collection and identification of small stream organisms called macroinvertabrates that serve as bioindicators of water quality. The program strives to collect consistent, high-quality data on the conditions of local streams and provide citizens with a hands-on opportunity to be better stewards of our watersheds.

College, Lewis A.

56

Uncertainty and bias of surface ozone measurements at selected Global Atmosphere Watch sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program currently coordinates 22 ground-based atmospheric background monitoring stations of global scope. The GAW World Calibration Centre for Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide and Methane (WCC-EMPA) is responsible for tracing surface ozone measurements at these stations to the designated reference within the GAW program, the Standard Reference Photometer SRP 2 maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The recommended method for surface ozone measurements is based on UV absorption at 254 nm (Hg line). Repeated and regular intercomparisons of station instruments are necessary to achieve and maintain high and known data quality. In this paper, the traceability chain is explained, and standard uncertainties for each element are evaluated. Data of 26 intercomparisons performed at 14 stations between 1996 and 2002 are analyzed. On 23 occasions, the instruments passed the audit with "good" agreement, in one case with "sufficient" agreement. On 2 occasions, both first audits at the site, the audited instrument did not comply with the minimal data quality requirements. The best instruments in use exhibit a median absolute bias of approximately 0.32 ppbv and a standard uncertainty of approximately 0.8 ppbv (0-100 ppbv). The quantitative improvement of data quality as a result of repeated audits can be demonstrated with several stations.

Klausen, JöRg; Zellweger, Christoph; Buchmann, Brigitte; Hofer, Peter

2003-10-01

57

Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network  

SciTech Connect

The Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network (NEWNET) is a regional network of environmental monitoring stations and a data archival center that supports collaboration between communities, industry, and government agencies to solve environmental problems. The stations provide local displays of measurements for the public and transmit measurements via satellite to a central site for archival and analysis. Station managers are selected from the local community and trained to support the stations. Archived data and analysis tools are available to researchers, educational institutions, industrial collaborators, and the public across the nation through a communications network. Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency have developed a NEWNET pilot program for the Department of Energy. The pilot program supports monitoring stations in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and California. Additional stations are being placed in Colorado and New Mexico. Pilot stations take radiological and meteorological measurements. Other measurements are possible by exchanging sensors.

Sanders, L.D.

1993-10-01

58

Global Forest Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Forest Frontiers Initiative (described in the September 30, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), the World Resources Institute (WRI) has launched Global Forest Watch, an ambitious, international effort to assemble and provide "objective, quality data" on the state of the world's forests. The site's main function is to introduce viewers to the project, calling attention to regional centers (Central Africa, North America, Southeast Asia, South America, and Russia), and providing "comprehensive information on logging, mining, and other development activities within and around frontier forests as, or before, it happens." A brochure (English or French) can be downloaded (.pdf format) in the Resources section, and the Newsroom will serve as a spotlight for recent information.

59

Frontline: On Our Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the situation in Darfur continues to unfold, a number of media outlets have continued to investigate the United Nations involvement in the region. The journalists and researchers at the PBS program Frontline embarked on their own investigation into the subject. Along the way, they explored China's economic interests in the region, the actions of the Security Council, and those of various UN member nations. Visitors to this site can watch the documentary program in its entirety, and they can also read essays on various aspects of Darfur written by activists, historians, and policy experts. Other features on the site include a map of the region, a list of suggested readings and links, and journal entries from the show's producer, Neil Doherty.

60

Global Forest Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is happening in forests right now? You can find out with this amazing resource from the World Resources Institute. This interactive map of the world includes remarkable specialty features that allow users to learn about tree cover loss over time, along with some success stories from around the world. In short the Global Forest Watch (GFW) is a "dynamic online forest monitoring and alert system that empowers people everywhere to better manage forests." After first agreeing to terms of use, visitors to the site can navigate to the Map tab to use a sophisticated set of tools that track tree cover loss and gain from 2000 to the present. Additionally, users can toggle on and off various themes such as "Forest Use" and "Conversation" as they see fit. The Stories area is a real delight as it allows users to learn about the folks who are working to conserve and enhance existing forested areas from Ecuador to Egypt.

61

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

62

29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire watches. 1915.504 Section 1915.504...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.504 Fire watches. (a) Written fire watch...

2013-07-01

63

Country watch. Brazil.  

PubMed

A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images. PMID:12345382

Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

1993-01-01

64

Tropospheric CH4 signals as observed by NDACC FTIR at globally distributed sites and comparison to GAW surface in-situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present lower/middle tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH4 signal, largely independent of the local small-scale signals of the boundary layer, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric / lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH4 variations. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5% and a systematic error of about 2.5%. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in-situ CH4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in-situ datasets in order to obtain the in-situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in-situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of time scales that is interesting for CH4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual

Schneider, Matthias; Sepúlveda, Eliezer

2014-05-01

65

Country watch: Malawi.  

PubMed

The Drought Network for information sharing eventually led to the establishment of the more formal Southern Region AIDS Network (SORAN) where representatives from government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focused on awareness raising, lobbying, and advocacy. As an initial step towards networking on HIV/AIDS issues, a festival was organized in Blantyre on December 4, 1993, by NGOs, private companies, church groups, school children, and volunteers to bring about behavior change. About 2000 people gathered to listen to music, learn about HIV transmission through drama group presentations, watch videos with HIV/STD prevention messages, and learn about proper condom use. The participants officially established SORAN in February 1994 to act as a coordinating body for organizations working in prevention and care for HIV/STD-infected persons and their families. Network activities endeavored: to assist organizations interested in developing HIV/AIDS programs and activities; to encourage the business communities to participate in multisectoral coordination and to help channel funds from them to HIV/AIDS programs; to act as a resource center for information about HIV/AIDS; and to lobby among politicians as well as traditional local and religious leaders. When the first multi-party parliamentary election approached in May 1994, SORAN challenged representatives of 7 political parties and a women's organization to speak out publicly on what they envisioned doing about HIV/AIDS. The Grand Walk was also organized by SORAN members representing the Catholic Episcopal Conference of Malawi, the Protestant Blantyre Synod, a local brewery, and UNICEF. About 500 walkers received support from passersby. 70% were school children 10-18 years old who sang AIDS awareness songs and passed out flyers. Three months later the National AIDS Program's Big Walk for AIDS, following a National AIDS Crisis Conference, signaled the government's public recognition of the need for a multisectoral approach to combatting HIV/AIDS. PMID:12289026

Knox, G

1995-01-01

66

Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

2013-05-01

67

Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

2011-01-01

68

GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data i...

69

Watching together: integrating text chat with video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watching video online is becoming increasingly popular, and new video streaming technologies have the potential to transform video watching from a passive, isolating experience into an active, socially engaging experience. However, the viability of an active social experience is unclear: both chatting and watching video require attention, and may interfere with one another and detract from the experience. In this

Justin D. Weisz; Sara B. Kiesler; Hui Zhang; Yuqing Ren; Robert E. Kraut; Joseph A. Konstan

2007-01-01

70

Tropospheric CH4 signals as observed by NDACC FTIR at globally distributed sites and comparison to GAW surface in-situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present lower/middle tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH4 signal, largely independent of the local small-scale signals of the boundary layer, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH4 variations. In order to achieve the weak dependency on the UTLS, we use an a posteriori correction method. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5% and a systematic error of about 2.5%. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in-situ CH4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in-situ datasets in order to obtain the in-situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in-situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of time scales that are interesting for CH4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual. The comparison study confirms our theoretical estimations and proves that the NDACC FTIR measurements can provide valuable data for investigating the cycle of CH4.

Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Barthlott, S.; Dubravica, D.; García, O. E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; González, Y.; Guerra, J. C.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Brailsford, G. W.; Robinson, J.; Meinhardt, F.; Steinbacher, M.; Aalto, T.; Worthy, D.

2014-01-01

71

ExMC Technology Watch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories. Second, a RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Academic Linkage) topic for FY12 was developed for medical systems and astronaut health under the Human-Focused Mars Mission Systems and Technologies theme. Announcement of the competition was made to the public in August 2011. Finally, critical Tech Watch information was prepared for public release in the form of gap reports. Complementing the ExMC technology gaps in the public domain, gap reports were generated, reviewed and revised through a series of technical, medical and subject matter expert reviews before approval for public release. An important vehicle for the public release of such documents was development of the ExMC wiki website, which will continue to be populated with gap reports and relevant documents throughout the upcoming year.

Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

2012-01-01

72

Pseudo-global, long-term consistency of satellite occultation and limb ozone profilers with Global Atmosphere Watch ozonometric networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 20 years, several contiguous satellite missions have recorded the vertical distribution of stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone at 1-3 km vertical resolution. Among them, several are based on the solar occultation technique, either in the visible or the infrared spectral range. Operating from 57° inclination orbits, NASA's Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE-II) aboard Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) in 1984-2005 and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aboard Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991-2005 yielded ozone profile time series with a meridian coverage from about 80° N to 80° S. Operating from a near-polar orbit with sun-synchronous precession, Naval Research Laboratory's Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement II and III (POAM-II/III) aboard the French platforms SPOT-3/4 extended in 1993-1996 and in 1998-2005, respectively, the SAGE-II and HALOE data records towards polar regions, focusing on the 63° /88° S and 55° /71° N latitude zones. More recently, Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) aboard Canadian Space Agency's SCISAT-1, started in 2003 a new ozone profile data record, now from a 75° inclination orbit. Complementarily to solar occultation sensors, of which observations are limited to a maximum of 14 or 28 sunrise/sunset events a day, ESA's Envisat caries since 2002 Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), based on stellar occultation and limb infrared emission observations. GOMOS and MIPAS have both recorded ozone profile time series with a nearly daily pole-to-pole coverage. The present paper aims at exploring the long-term and global consistency between contiguous ozone profile data records acquired by the aforementioned satellite sensors. To deal with the differences in meridian coverage and in time period, we confront those data records to the same common reference, consisting in ground-based observations by ozonesonde and lidar networks. Networks considered here are affiliated to WMO's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme and contributing networks such as the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde (SHADOZ).

Clercq Coralie, De

73

ExMC Technology Watch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA project that is operated under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2012, the Tech Watch project expanded the scope of activities to cultivate student projects targeted at specific ExMC gaps, generate gap reports for a majority of the ExMC gaps and maturate a gap report review process to optimize the technical and managerial aspects of ExMC gap status. Through numerous site visits and discussions with academia faculty, several student projects were initiated and/or completed this past year. A key element to these student projects was the ability of the project to align with a specific ExMC technology or knowledge gap. These projects were mentored and reviewed by Tech Watch leads at the various NASA centers. Another result of the past years efforts was the population of the ExMC wiki website that now contains more the three quarters of the ExMC gap reports. The remaining gap reports will be completed in FY13. Finally, the gap report review process for all ExMC gaps was initiated. This review process was instrumental in ensuring that each gap report was thoroughly reviewed for accuracy and relevant content prior to its public release. In the upcoming year, the gap report review process will be refined such that in addition to the gap report update, programmatic information related to gap closure will also be emphasized.

Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Fung, Paul P.

2013-01-01

74

IMHE-Info. OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, July 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IMHE-Info is the newsletter published by the Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) programme. This issue includes: Spotlight on IMHE and its Environment, including comments from Donald J. Johnston, Barry McGaw, Richard Yelland, and Marijk van de Wende. IMHE News, publications of interest and upcoming events are included.

Lafon, Valerie, Ed.

2005-01-01

75

Long-term measurements of anthropogenic trace gases at the German GAW site Hohenpeissenberg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric trace gases show variability on various time scales, e.g. daily, weekly, seasonal and longer time scales due to natural and anthropogenic factors. At Hohenpeissenberg, a global station of the GAW program situated in rural southern Germany, a broad range of different atmospheric trace gases, e.g. VOC, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, OH, has been measured continuously since the mid or end 90'. Thus, time series of 10 or more years are available now. This enables to describe the variability and trends and start to analyse the factors of impact. Weekday - weekend comparisons allow a direct estimation of relative changes in anthropogenic emissions. Such differences are significant and increase with shorter life-times of the respective compounds, e.g. xylene concentrations on Sundays are factor 2 lower than during working days. Winter-summer ratios of directly emitted, anthropogenic compounds generally depend on a combination of changing sources, sinks and transport. Observed winter-summer ratios are mostly between 2 and 6 which are smaller than the summer-winter ratios of OH - radicals of about 8. Trends of the anthropogenic trace gases indicate declining concentrations for most VOC and CO. For NOx, however, concentrations did not decline significantly which is in contrast to current emission inventories.

Plass-Dülmer, C.; Gilge, S.

2009-04-01

76

Notewothy Chemsitry and Patent Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Chemical Society website helps users stay up to date on the latest chemistry research articles and patents. Each week, Noteworthy reliable summaries of the latest and most exciting publications in the chemistry-related journals. The Patent Watch helps users understand the importance of new drugs and other chemical innovations to our society. Visitors can find archives of both of these reports since 2002. While the website does not provide copies of the articles because of copyright regulations, the authors do provide references so that users can easily consult the literature.

77

Heart Cut and Patent Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This American Chemical Society website helps users stay up to date on the latest chemistry research articles and patents. Each week, Heart Cut offers reliable summaries of the latest and most exciting publications in the chemistry-related journals. The Patent Watch helps users understand the importance of new drugs and other chemical innovations to our society. Visitors can find archives of both of these reports since 2002. While the website does not provide copies of the articles because of copyright regulations, the authors do provide references so that users can easily consult the literature.

78

Laser beam microwelding in the watch industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the invention of the laser principle and its first application for drilling of jewels in watch movements, the laser was only used for marking. The still ongoing trend of miniaturization and automation opened a new field of application: laser beam micro welding. This paper gives an overview of the new application of laser beam welding in watch industry. The

Alexander M. Olowinsky; Thorsten Kramer; Friedrich Durand

2002-01-01

79

IBM's Linux Watch: The Challenge of Miniaturization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly four years in development, the IBM Linux watch contains a complete computer system that runs Linux, displays X11 graphics, and has wireless connectivity. The system fits in a case that could pass as a slightly unusual analog timepiece with a somewhat odd shape and an extraordinarily brilliant face. The developers have created two versions of the watch, one with

Chandrasekhar Narayanaswami; Noboru Kamijoh; Mandayam T. Raghunath; Tadanobu Inoue; Thomas M. Cipolla; James L. Sanford; Eugene S. Schlig; Sreekrishnan Venkiteswaran; Dinakar Guniguntala; Vishal Kulkarni; Kazuhiko Yamazaki

2002-01-01

80

FIRST teams watch the competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

2000-01-01

81

47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123 Section 80.1123 ...Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1)...

2010-10-01

82

47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123 Section 80.1123 ...Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1)...

2011-10-01

83

47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123 Section 80.1123 ...Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1)...

2012-10-01

84

Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.  

PubMed

This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads. PMID:21476837

Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

2011-10-01

85

Continuous measurements of aerosol physical parameters at the Mt. Cimone GAW Station (2165 m asl, Italy).  

PubMed

Particle size distribution in the range 0.3GAW Station of Mt. Cimone (44.10 N, 10.42 E; 2165 m asl) in the northern Italian Apennines. The seasonal aerosol number size distribution, characterized by a bimodal shape, showed a behaviour typical for background conditions, characterized by highest values in summer and lowest in winter. The seasonal and diurnal variations of the larger accumulation mode (0.3

Marinoni, A; Cristofanelli, P; Calzolari, F; Roccato, F; Bonafè, U; Bonasoni, P

2008-03-01

86

Global Canopy Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working high above the ground below, researchers who study forest canopies work together on a number of unique scientific endeavors, including tracking the flora and fauna of these unique ecosystems. The Global Canopy Programme is an alliance of 29 scientific institutions interested in exploring "the range and economic value of forest ecosystem services and to share [their] findings with decision-makers in government and finance." Visitors can get acquainted with the Programme's work by watching a short introductory video, read a few journal entries, and look at their latest press releases. The "Forest Ecosystems" area provides a brief overview of the benefits that forest ecosystems provide, such as soil stabilization, climate buffering, and rainfall generation. From there, visitors can look at their "Publications" area, which features factsheets and full-length reports, including "Ecosystem Services of the Congo Basin Forests".

2008-01-01

87

Antibodies to watch in 2014.  

PubMed

Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

Reichert, Janice M

2014-01-01

88

Human Rights Watch: Chemical Warfare in Bosnia?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

89

46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certificate of inspection take into consideration routine maintenance requirements and ability of the crew to perform all operational evolutions, including emergencies, as well as those functions which may be assigned to persons in watches. (b) Subject...

2013-10-01

90

First atmospheric observations from the high altitude Chacaltaya GAW station (Bolivia - 5200 m)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South America is facing dramatic environmental changes linked to deforestation over the Amazon Basin driven primarily by agricultural expansion and logging. Biomass burning activities resulting nowadays dominantly from anthropogenic land-use change are potent sources of CO2 and several Short Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs). Tropical deep convection introduce both biogenic and pyrogenic aerosols into the free troposphere, where thanks to a lifetime on the order of weeks aerosols can be transported over long-distances with nearly global impact. Presence of high aerosol loads over the Bolivian Altiplano may clearly influence local/regional radiative balance, but also may exert a strong impact on the strength of the convective circulation and hence the precipitation patterns at the arid Altiplano region. The availability of climate and atmospheric data in the region remains however a strong limitation to constrain regional both Climate and Chemistry-Transport models. A joint Bolivian-EU and USA effort to establish a high altitude measuring station in Chacaltaya (5200 asl) was pursued over the last 2 years, under the umbrella of the Global Atmosphere Watch with the specific objectives of 1) characterizing aerosol microphysical, optical, hygroscopic and chemical properties with respect to seasonal variability, source region influence, precipitation and anthropogenic influence and estimate the regional radiative forcing related to changes in aerosol and cloud properties, 2) Identifying of CO2 and CH4 fluxes in South America, and especially the role of the Amazonian forest and 3) understand the variable that constrain the oxidant cycle in the high Cordillera. Measurements at the Chacaltaya station were initiated in December 2011 and deliver information about atmospheric composition from Southern Hemisphere tropical free troposphere. We will present preliminary results from gas and particle observations at the site.

Andrade, M.; Laj, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Ramonet, M.; Krejci, R.; Sellegri, K.; Weingartner, E.; Whiteman, D.; Ginot, P.; Zaratti, F.

2012-04-01

91

World Report 2010: Human Rights Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch is an organization whose goal is the following: "focusing international attention where human rights are violated, we give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes." Every year over the past twenty years Human Rights Watch has published their World Report, which is an evaluation of more than 90 countries' human rights conditions. The staff of Human Rights Watch works closely with the human rights activists in each country, so as to get an accurate picture. The interactive map on the lower half of the homepage allows visitors to scroll over the map, which will highlight a country, and a dialogue box will open to reveal the country highlighted, and a link to read the chapter from the current World Report, reports from the prior year, and a multimedia feature on the selected country. As a note, only the blue colored countries have had human rights data collected on their human rights condition.

92

Radium dial watches, a potentially hazardous legacy?  

PubMed

This study re-examines the risk to health from radium ((226)Ra) dial watches. Ambient dose equivalent rates have been measured for fifteen pocket watches giving results of up to 30 ?Sv h(-1) at a distance of 2 cm taken with a series 1000 mini-rad from the front face (arithmetic mean ambient dose equivalent for pocket watches being 13.2 ?Sv h(-1)). A pocket compass gave rise to a similar ambient dose equivalent rate, of 20 ?Sv h(-1), to the pocket watches, with its cover open. Eighteen wristwatches have also been assessed, but their dose rates are generally much lower (the arithmetic mean being 3.0 ?Sv h(-1)), although the highest ambient dose equivalent rate noted was 20 ?Sv h(-1). A phantom experiment using a TLD suggested an effective dose equivalent of 2.2 mSv/y from a 1 ?Ci (37 kBq) radium dial worn for 16 h/day throughout the year (dose rate 0.375 ?Sv h(-1)). For this condition we estimated maximum skin dose for our pocket watches as 16 mSv per year, with effective doses of 5.1 mSv and 1.169 mSv when worn in vest and trouser pockets respectively. This assumes exposure from the back of the watch which is generally around 60-67% of that from the front. The maximum skin dose from a wristwatch was 14 mSv, with 4.2 mSv effective dose in vest pocket. Radium ((226)Ra) decays to the radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn), and atmospheric radon concentration measurements taken around a pocket watch in a small sealed glass sphere recorded 18,728 B qm(-3). All watches were placed in a room with a RAD7 real-time radon detector. Radon concentration average was 259±9 Bq m(-3) over 16 h, compared to background average over 24h of 1.02 Bq m(-3). Over 6 weeks highs of the order of 2000 Bq m(-3) were routinely recorded when the heating/ventilation system in the room was operating at reduced rates, peaking at over 3000 Bq m(-3) on several occasions. Estimates of the activity of (226)Ra in the watches ranged from 0.063 to 1.063 ?Ci (2.31 to 39.31 kBq) for pocket watches and from 0.013 to 0.875 ?Ci (0.46 to 32.38 kBq) for wrist watches. The risk from old watches containing radium appears to have been largely forgotten today. This paper indicates a health risk, particular to collectors, but with knowledge and appropriate precautions the potential risks can be reduced. PMID:22580295

Gillmore, Gavin K; Crockett, Robin; Denman, Tony; Flowers, Alan; Harris, Richard

2012-09-15

93

Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas  

SciTech Connect

As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

Hicks, B. B.

2003-11-13

94

BioWatch in a Box  

SciTech Connect

BioWatch, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) environmental monitoring program, has been successfully operating in many of the nation's urban centers since early 2003. This early warning environmental monitoring system can detect trace amounts of biological materials in the air, and has been used to provide information to assist public health experts determine whether detected materials are due to an intentional release (bioterrorism incident) or due to minute quantities that occur naturally in the environment. BioWatch information enables federal, state, and local officials to more quickly determine appropriate emergency response, medical care and consequence management.

McBride, M T; Dzentis, J M; Meyer, R M

2006-02-01

95

Human Rights Watch World Report 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has just released its twelfth annual review of human rights practices around the globe in the 2002 Human Rights Watch World Report. This report addresses developments in sixty-six countries, covering the period from November 2000 through November 2001. Most of the chapters examine significant human rights developments in a particular country, the response of global actors (such as the European Union, Japan, the United States, the United Nations, and various regional organizations), and the freedom of local human rights defenders to conduct their work. Other chapters address important thematic concerns.

2001-01-01

96

Disassembly of a Liquid Crystal Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the disassembly of a liquid crystal watch. The experiment involves more than just involving the disassembly, the videos present the reaction of the LCD panel when exposed to things such as pressure, high temperatures, and a hot water bath. Not everything is these videos are reversible, so please use an inexpensive watch. But, other than that, this is a cheap and fun activity for any science classroom. It presents students with ways that science permeates our everyday lives.

2009-01-23

97

Scope on the Skies: Bird watching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to offering great opportunities for planet viewing, this summer is also a god time for observing Earth-orbiting satellites, or "bird-watching." There are several thousand satellites (not counting our Moon) in orbit around our planet. However,

Riddle, Bob

2010-07-01

98

Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

99

10 Trends to Watch in Campus Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College and university presidents are increasingly called upon to make informed choices about technology. The rapidly shifting landscape makes it tough to keep up with change and innovation, let alone stay ahead of the curve. In this article, the authors discuss 10 trends to watch in campus technology. These trends are the following: (1) increased…

Martin, James; Samels, James E.

2007-01-01

100

The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

1993-01-01

101

Whale Watching in the Gulf of Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a variety of teaching strategies to prepare a class for a whale watching field trip. Guidelines for recording a sighting, pictures and statistics for commonly and/or occasionally seen whales, and hints for avoiding sea sickness are included. (DH)

Carkin, Clayton A.

1985-01-01

102

Should I Let My Child Watch Television?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

Bharadwaj, Balaji

2013-01-01

103

Country watch: Comoros and Morocco.  

PubMed

The European Commission (EC) supports programs using radio to inform and educate about HIV and AIDS in developing countries, particularly with regard to illiterate or rural populations. In 1992, in Comoros (where 80% of adults and 65% of persons aged 15-25 listen to radio and there is no national television and only one printed medium--a French magazine), as part of a National AIDS Programme initiative aimed at mobilizing youth and women leaders, two journalists of the national radio channel produced an EC-supported series of 20 radio programs that were broadcast twice weekly every other week as part of the popular program "Sante" (Health). A series of 11 programs were broadcast in 1994-95 by Radio Comoros and by two private stations that were popular with youth. Surveys showed the following: 1) the popular shows were the main source of information on HIV/AIDS and were particularly successful in rural communities when broadcast in the local language; 2) the majority of villagers wanted this and other health information to continue; and 3) public information regarding sexuality was accepted by a large majority. The radio series caused Islamic religious leaders to discuss HIV prevention and condoms. An EC-supported project in Morocco occurred in 1993. The 3-month national information campaign about HIV/AIDS covered myths and rumors, infection risks, prevention measures, the disease and women and youth, the epidemic's socioeconomic impact, the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the role of the media. A 1-hour program in Arabic was broadcast twice a week for 24 weeks, 12 30-minute programs were broadcast in three Berber dialects, and several short spots were aired daily. The program format included presentations and discussions by health staff, psychologists, sociologists, and NGO staff; listener participation was allowed. 1000 men and 700 women were surveyed using a questionnaire. Roadside interviews were conducted in some cities. These showed that the information was understood. Many listeners criticized the lack of information on television and wanted more information broadcast. PMID:12347931

Brunger, W

1996-01-01

104

47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80...RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES... § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches...maintain radio station logs. (b) When a ship...watches must be maintained in accordance with §§...

2013-10-01

105

Monarch Watch: Planting a Butterfly Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Planting a Butterfly Garden website from Monarch Watch is a great introductory resource for teachers interested in starting an educational butterfly garden at their school. This site provides several useful information pages including Good Nectar Sources and lists of Larval Host Plants organized both by butterfly and by plant. The site also features a simple step-by-step teacher's guide written by a teacher from Maryland who planned and planted a butterfly garden at her middle school.

106

SPARTAN Sprite-Watch 2007 Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine PhD students and SPARTAN (Centre of Excellence for Space, Planetary and Astrophysics Research Training and Networking) fellows implemented and participated in the SPARTAN Sprite-Watch 2007 campaign to observe Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and contribute to the EuroSprite 2007 observation campaign. One SPARTAN Sprite-Watch team installed an observation system at the IMWM High-Mountain Meteorological Observatory at Mount ?nie?ka to run the first optical observations of TLEs from Poland during two weeks in July 2007. A second team made observations during four weeks in July/August 2007 in Leicester, UK, using two remotely controlled Danish systems installed at Pic du Midi de Bigorre and Monte Corona in France. The observations made at ?nie?ka resulted in the first video recordings of red sprite phenomena from Poland on the night 20/21 July 2007. The SPARTAN Sprite-Watch teams have been supported by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management who provided continuous information on the meteorological conditions over Poland and Europe and hosted the Polish campaign at ?nie?ka.

Odzimek, A.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Kanawade, V.; Cnossen, I.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Faedi, F.; Del Moro, A.; Ural, U.; Byckling, K.; Krzaczkowski, P.; Iwa?ski, R.; Struzik, P.; Pajek, M.; Gajda, W.

2008-12-01

107

Programmable Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Anumber,of important,innovations are creating a paradigm,shift in networking,leading tohigher,levels of network ,programmability. These innovations include the separation between transmission hardware and control software, availability of open programmable,network ,interfaces and ,the accelerated ,virtualization of networking infrastructure. The ability to rapidly create, deploy and manage new network services in response to user demands,is a key factor driving the programmable,networking,research community. The

Andrew T. Campbell; David Wetherall; Raj Yavatkar

2002-01-01

108

Influence of lower stratosphere\\/upper troposphere transport events on surface ozone at the Everest-Pyramid GAW Station (Nepal): first year of analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present the first systematic identification of episodes of air mass transport from the lower stratosphere\\/upper troposphere (LS\\/UT) in the middle troposphere of the southern Himalayas. For this purpose, we developed an algorithm to detect LS\\/UT transport events on a daily basis at the Everest-Pyramid GAW station (EV-PYR, 5079 m a.s.l., Nepal). In particular, in situ surface ozone

P. Cristofanelli; P. Bonasoni; U. Bonafe; F. Calzolari; R. Duchi; A. Marinoni; F. Roccato; E. Vuillermoz; M. Sprenger

2009-01-01

109

Tropospheric ozone variations at the Everest-Pyramid GAW-WMO station (5079 m a.s.l., Nepal): natural and anthropogenic contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface ozone is a key species controlling the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere and a powerful greenhouse gas. Since March 2006, continuous measurements of its concentration have been carried out at the Everest-Pyramid GAW-WMO station (5079 m a.s.l., Nepal), which is considered representative for the South-East Himalayas. The aim of this activity, conducted in the framework of Ev-K2-CNR \\

P. Cristofanelli; P. Bonasoni; A. Marinoni; R. Duchi; F. Calzolari; U. Bonafe; F. Roccato; E. Vuillermoz; G. P. Verza; M. Sprenger

2009-01-01

110

Boreal Forest Watch: A BOREAS Outreach Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Forest Watch program was initiated in the fall of 1994 to act as an educational outreach program for the BOREAS project in both the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). Boreal Forest Watch (13FW) was designed to introduce area high school teachers and their students to the types of research activities occurring as part of the BOREAS study of Canadian boreal forests. Several teacher training workshops were offered to teachers from central and northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba between May, 1995 and February, 1999; teachers were introduced to techniques for involving their students in on-going environmental monitoring studies within local forested stands. Boreal Forest Watch is an educational outreach program which brings high school students and research scientists together to study the forest and foster a sustainable relationship between people and the planetary life-support system we depend upon. Personnel from the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC), with the cooperation from the Prince Albert National Park (PANP), instituted this program to help teachers within the BOREAS Study Areas offer real science research experience to their students. The program has the potential to complement large research projects, such as BOREAS, by providing useful student- collected data to scientists. Yet, the primary goal of BFW is to allow teachers and students to experience a hands-on, inquiry-based approach to leaming science - emulating the process followed by research scientists. In addition to introducing these teachers to on-going BOREAS research, the other goals of the BFW program were to: 1) to introduce authentic science topics and methods to students and teachers through hands-on, field-based activities; and, 2) to build a database of student-collected environmental monitoring data for future global change studies in the boreal region.

Rock, Barrett N.

1999-01-01

111

Australian Weather Watch Radar Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology's Weather Watch Radar website provides up-to-date radar images of the locations of rain in Australia in relation to local features such as coast lines. The newly developed Loops provide four consecutive radar images so that users can view how the weather has been changing in the last forty to fifty minutes. The website provides radar images of past cyclone events as well as updates on severe weather throughout Australia. Those interested in radar systems can discover how the weather radars work and how to interpret the maps. [RME

112

An earth watching satellite constellation: how to manage a team of watching agents with limited communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the problem of management of an Earth watching mission (detection, observation, and tracking of forest fires and volcanic eruptions) by means of a constellation of low-orbit satellites. We show that the mission reactivity requirements and the strictly limited communication means led us to a specific decision architecture. This architecture is based on two components: a

Sylvain Damiani; Gérard Verfaillie; Marie-Claire Charmeau

2005-01-01

113

France's heat health watch warning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in France to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. The system was developed on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data in fourteen pilot cities. Several meteorological indicators were tested in relation to levels of excess mortality. Computations of sensibility and specificity were used to choose the meteorological indicators and the cut-offs. An indicator that mixes minimum and maximum temperatures was chosen. The cut-offs were set in order to anticipate events resulting in an excess mortality above 100% in the smallest cities and above 50% in Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Lille. The system was extended nationwide using the 98th percentile of the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures. A national action plan was set up, using this watch warning system. It was activated on 1st June 2004 on a national scale. The system implies a close cooperation between the French Weather Bureau (Météo France), the National Institute of Health Surveillance (InVS) and the Ministry of Health. The system is supported by a panel of preventive actions, to prevent the sanitary impact of heat waves.

Pascal, Mathilde; Laaidi, Karine; Ledrans, Martine; Baffert, Elsa; Caserio-Schönemann, Céline; Le Tertre, Alain; Manach, Jacques; Medina, Sylvia; Rudant, Jérémie; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal

2006-01-01

114

Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

2006-01-01

115

Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

116

Still Watching, from the Edge of Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, human behavior drives many extinctions and preserves some species. To help understand such behavior, we published a book in 1999 that viewed selected endangered species through the eyes of those who have watched them decline and, in some cases, vanish from the wild. Here we revisit those stories to document what has happened in the interim 10 years, a period that is very short in evolutionary time but that has proven decisive for some endangered species. One species is now extinct in the wild; others have been devastated or scattered; several are on âÂÂlife support.â Some things have not changed: Too many people consume too much, and disagreements among conservationists still impede progress. Some issues have become more prominent, such as emerging diseases and global economic crises. Although there have been some striking successes, it is very clear that more species now depend on human support for their survival than may be sustainable.

Beverly Peterson Stearns (freelance writer;); Stephen Stearns (Yale University;Ecology and Evolutionary Biology)

2010-02-01

117

Monterey Bay Aquarium: Seafood Watch Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an old saying goes, "There are only so many fish in the sea", and this is a saying that is becoming more and more true each year. With that in mind, the Monterey Bay Aquarium has developed the Seafood Watch site to help people make informed decisions about purchasing different types of seafood. The site contains sections such as "Which Seafood To Buy & Why" and "What You Can Do". In the "Which Seafood to Buy & Why" section, visitors can take a look at some regional seafood guides and also learn which types of seafood are most endangered. Visitors can also order free copies of these guides online and also sign up to receive their free newsletter.

118

Additional flow field studies of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap including slot-gap variations and cove shape modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements were made to determine the effects of slot gap opening and flap cove shape on flap and airfoil flow fields. Test model was the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 0.30c Fowler flap deflected 35 degrees. Tests were conducted with optimum, wide and narrow gaps, and with three cove shapes. Three test angles were selected, corresponding to pre-stall and post-stall conditions. Reynolds number was 2,200,000 and Mach number was 0.13. Force, surface pressure, total pressure, and split-film turbulence measurements were made. Results were compared with theory for those parameters for which theoretical values were available.

Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

1983-01-01

119

Programmable Pacemaker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

1980-01-01

120

47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. ...305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety...

2013-10-01

121

Validation of Watch-PAT-200 Against Polysomnography During Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine the relationships between key variables obtained from ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) and the wrist-worn Watch-PAT 200 device in pregnant women. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, women in their third trimester of pregnancy underwent full overnight home PSG using the 22-channel MediPalm system and the Watch-PAT 200 device. PSGs were scored by a blinded, experienced technologist using AASM 2007 criteria; the Watch-PAT was scored automatically by the manufacturer's proprietary software. Results: A total of 31 pregnant women were studied. Mean age was 30.2 ± 7.1 years; mean gestational age was 33.4 ± 3.0 weeks; mean BMI was 31.9 ± 8.1 kg/m2; 39% of women were nulliparous. Key variables generated by PSG and Watch-PAT correlated well over a wide range, including the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, r = 0.76, p < 0.001); respiratory disturbance index (RDI, r = 0.68, p < 0.001), mean oxygen saturation (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), and minimum oxygen saturation (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). The area under the curve for AHI ? 5 and RDI ? 10 were 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. Association between stage 3 sleep on PSG and deep sleep on Watch-PAT was poor. Watch-PAT tended to overscore RDI, particularly as severity increased. Conclusions: Among pregnant women, Watch-PAT demonstrates excellent sensitivity and specificity for identification of obstructive sleep apnea, defined as AHI ? 5 on full PSG. Watch-PAT may overestimate RDI somewhat, especially at high RDI values. Citation: O'Brien LM; Bullough AS; Shelgikar AV; Chames MC; Armitage R; Chervin RD. Validation of Watch-Pat-200 against polysomnography during pregnancy. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):287-294.

O'Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Shelgikar, Anita V.; Chames, Mark C.; Armitage, Roseanne; Chervin, Ronald D.

2012-01-01

122

The Verification of MACC-II Global Reactive Gas Forecasts with Global Atmosphere Watch Surface Observations and Ozonesonde Measurements from the NDACC, WOUDC, NILU and SHADOZ Databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate- phase II) project, funded under the 7th framework program of the European Union, provides a comprehensive monitoring and operational forecasting system for atmospheric constituents relevant to climate and air quality issues and surface solar radiation. The MACC-II forecast system is based on the global weather forecasting system operated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) coupled with the chemistry transport models MOZART (Model for OZone and Related chemical Tracers) and TM5. On a near real time (NRT) basis observational data and forecasts, as well as reanalyses are made available for greenhouse and reactive gases, UV radiation and aerosol optical density. The sub group "VAL" is focusing on the evaluation of reactive gases, thus, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone as well as its precursors and aerosols. The GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) network provides the ground-based observational data for the evaluation of model simulation forecast and reanalysis of the reactive gases CO and O3 at surface levels on a global scale. Contributing stations in this validation process provide their data in rapid delivery mode (within 1 day to 1 month), thus enabling a fast evaluation process. Currently, there are 12 stations providing data in Near-Real-Time. The validation process is performed online and daily updates of the results are displayed on the MACC website (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/d/services/gac/verif/grg/gaw/). For the validation of stratospheric and free tropospheric ozone forecasts, balloon sonde measurements from the data bases NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre), NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional OZon Sondes) are used. Here, we will give an overview on the status and the results of this Near-Real-Time (NRT) validation of the coupled forecast system for surface O3 and CO, based on GAW observational data, as well as for stratospheric ozone based on NDACC, WOUDC, NILU and SHADOZ sonde data. This work is supported by the EU-funded project MACC-II.

Wagner, A.

2012-04-01

123

Watching outside while under a carpet cloak of invisibility.  

PubMed

We demonstrate in this work a unique approach for watching outside while hiding in a carpet cloaking based on transformation optics. Unlike conventional carpet cloaking, which screens all the incident electromagnetic waves, we break the cloak and allow incident light get into the carpet. Hence outside information is detected inside the cloak. To recover the invisible cloaking, complementary techniques are applied in the broken space. Consequently, a hiding-inside and watching-outside (HIWO) carpet cloak is sewed, which works as an invisible cloaking and allows surveillance of the outside at the same time. Our work provides a strategy for an ideal cloak with "hiding" and "watching" functions simultaneously. PMID:22181296

Zhao, Jin-Zhu; Wang, De-Lin; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

2011-10-01

124

Y2K Global Status Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Will Y2K be a big yawner or the end of the world as we know it? Either way, users can keep track of worldwide events via this site (provided, of course, they have power and a working phone line). Created by the International Y2K Cooperation Center, the Global Status Watch will serve as a central source for country-specific information on Y2K and infrastructure status. Other governments and the general public can visit the site during the date rollover to view a country summary Webpage which will show the status of all reporting countries and when the information was submitted. The summary page will also offer links to each country's individual report and its national Y2K Webpage. The country summary will be available beginning December 28 and continuing into January as long as needed. A selection of additional Y2K resources is available at the International Y2K Cooperation Center homepage, including surveys, a calender, Y2K coordinator contact information, conference proceedings, and tools and templates.

125

The state of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere using global observations through 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization is the only existing long-term international global programme providing a framework for observing and assessing the state and development of environmental issues related to greenhouse gases and climate change. The WMO-GAW Global Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Network, a comprehensive network of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), integrates the observations from

Oksana A. Tarasova; Geir O. Braathen; Leonard A. Barrie; Kazuto Suda; Ed Dlugokencky

2010-01-01

126

"Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.  

PubMed

This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality. PMID:23855943

Wood, Rachel

2013-01-01

127

28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more...

2009-07-01

128

28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more...

2013-07-01

129

28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more...

2010-07-01

130

Quarter of Prostate Cancer Patients May Abandon 'Watchful Waiting' Approach  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Quarter of Prostate Cancer Patients May Abandon 'Watchful Waiting' Approach European ... April 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Men's Health Prostate Cancer THURSDAY, April 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors ...

131

Health Care Workers Wash Hands More When Patients Watching  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Care Workers Wash Hands More When Patients Watching Canadian ... hospital, keep an eye out for hygiene practices: Health care workers are more likely to wash their hands ...

132

47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication...Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch...

2013-10-01

133

Trial watch: DNA vaccines for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner's work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-04-01

134

Trial watch: Peptide vaccines in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Prophylactic vaccination constitutes one of the most prominent medical achievements of history. This concept was first demonstrated by the pioneer work of Edward Jenner, dating back to the late 1790s, after which an array of preparations that confer life-long protective immunity against several infectious agents has been developed. The ensuing implementation of nation-wide vaccination programs has de facto abated the incidence of dreadful diseases including rabies, typhoid, cholera and many others. Among all, the most impressive result of vaccination campaigns is surely represented by the eradication of natural smallpox infection, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The idea of employing vaccines as anticancer interventions was first theorized in the 1890s by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it soon became clear that while vaccination could be efficiently employed as a preventive measure against infectious agents, anticancer vaccines would have to (1) operate as therapeutic, rather than preventive, interventions (at least in the vast majority of settings), and (2) circumvent the fact that tumor cells often fail to elicit immune responses. During the past 30 y, along with the recognition that the immune system is not irresponsive to tumors (as it was initially thought) and that malignant cells express tumor-associated antigens whereby they can be discriminated from normal cells, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the development of anticancer vaccines. Some of these approaches, encompassing cell-based, DNA-based and purified component-based preparations, have already been shown to exert conspicuous anticancer effects in cohorts of patients affected by both hematological and solid malignancies. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23264902

Vacchelli, Erika; Martins, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2012-12-01

135

Wind tunnel tests of the GA(W)-2 airfoil with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap, 30% Fowler flap and 10% slot-lip spoiler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two dimensional wind tunnel tests were conducted for the GA(W)-2 airfoil section with: 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap; 30% Fowler flap, and 10% slot-lip spoiler. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2,200,000 and a Mach Number of 0.13. In addition to force measurements, tuft studies were conducted for the slotted and Fowler flap configurations. Aileron and spoiler hinge moments were obtained by integration of surface pressure measurements. Tests results show that a value of 3.82 was obtained with 30% Fowler flap. Aileron control effectiveness and hinge moments were similar to other airfoils. The slot-lip spoiler provided powerful, positive roll control at all flap settings.

Wentz, W. H., Jr.

1977-01-01

136

Pre-Learning Low-Frequency Vocabulary in Second Language Television Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of pre-learning frequently occurring low-frequency vocabulary as a means to increase comprehension of television and incidental vocabulary learning through watching television. Eight television programmes, each representing different television genres, were analysed using the RANGE program to determine the 10…

Webb, Stuart

2010-01-01

137

Making the Venus Concept Watch 1.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year we have celebrated the 50th anniversary of planetary exploration, which started with the Venus flyby of Mariner-2; and the 35th anniversary of the Pioneer-Venus multi-probe mission where one large and three small probes descended to the surface of Venus, encountering extreme environmental conditions. At the surface of Venus the temperature is about 460 °C, and the pressure is 92 bar, with a highly corrosive super-critical CO2 atmosphere. At a Venusian altitude of 50 km the pressure and temperature conditions are near Earth-like, but the clouds carry sulfuric acid droplets. Deep probe missions to Jupiter and Saturn, targeting the 100 bar pressure depth encounter similar pressure and temperature conditions as the Pioneer-Venus probes did. Mitigating these environments is highly challenging and requires special considerations for designs and materials. While assessing such space mission concepts, we have found that there is an overlap between the extreme environments in planetary atmospheres and the environments experienced by deep-sea explorers back on Earth. Consequently, the mitigation approaches could be also similar between planetary probes and diver watches. For example, both need to tolerate about 100 bar of pressure-although high temperatures are not factors on Earth. Mitigating these environments, the potential materials are: titanium for the probe and the watch housing; sapphire for the window and glass; resin impregnated woven carbon fiber for the aeroshell?s thermal protection system and for the face of the watch; and nylon ribbon for the parachute and for the watch band. Planetary probes also utilize precision watches; thus there is yet another crosscutting functionality with diver watches. Our team, from the Innovation Design Engineering Program of the Royal College of Art, has designed and built a concept watch to commemorate these historical events, while highlighting advances in manufacturing processes over the past three to five decades, relevant to both future planetary mission designs and can be used to produce deep diver watches. In this paper we describe our design considerations; give a brief overview of the extreme environments these components would experience on both Venus and Earth; the manufacturing techniques and materials we used to build the Venus Watch; and its outreach potential to bring a distant concept of planetary exploration closer to Earth. We will also address lessons learned from this project and new ideas forward, for the next generation of this concept design.

Balint, Tibor S.; Melchiorri, Julian P.

2014-08-01

138

NewsWatch: A Consumer's Guide to the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonpartisan research organization that conducts scientific analyses of the media, has recently launched NewsWatch, a new daily Web magazine created for news consumers, promising to "tell you when [news is] accurate, when it's wrong, and why." NewsWatch contains several sections: Today's News, a daily news summary from NewsWatch editors; Media Critic, a daily digest of news about the news media from leading media critics; Spotlight, feature articles analyzing the news media; Resources, a collection of links to online media publications, watchdog organizations, and research institutions; and Talk Back, a directory of news organizations for consumers who want to provide feedback directly to news agencies. The entire site is searchable by keyword(s).

139

Watch - a low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardwire installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of RF signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Contained Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

140

It's About Time:Mark Twain's ``My Watch'' and Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over three decades before Einstein's year of miracles, the American humorist Mark Twain published an essay titled ``My Watch,''1 in which he recounts his experiences with a previously reliable pocket watch and those who tried to rehabilitate it. He begins his essay by confessing his first error: My beautiful new watch had run eighteen months without losing or gaining, and without breaking any part of its machinery or stopping. I had come to believe it infallible in its judgments about the time of day, and to consider its constitution and its anatomy imperishable. But at last, one night, I let it run down. I grieved about it as if it were a recognized messenger and forerunner of calamity. Twain then sets the watch by guess, and takes it to the ``chief jeweler's to set it by the exact time.'' To Twain's dismay, the jeweler insists on opening it up and adjusting the regulator inside the watch, and the watch begins to gain time. It gained faster and faster day by day. Within a week it sickened to a raging fever, and its pulse went up to a hundred and fifty in the shade. At the end of two months, it had left all the timepieces of the town far in the rear, and was a fraction over thirteen days ahead of the almanac. It was away into November enjoying the snow, while the October leaves were still turning. It hurried up house rent, bills payable, and such things, in such a ruinous way that I could not abide it.

Henderson, Hugh

2005-09-01

141

WomenWatch: Feature on Women with Disabilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Millions of women around the world live with disabilities, and this site from the United Nations' Women Watch initiative provides information on this particular group of individuals. On this site, visitors can learn about the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities and also look over a related fact sheet about girls and women with disabilities. Visitors should also look over the "Resources" section, which includes links to online materials from other UN websites, including the Regional Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the World Health Organization. Finally, visitors can also watch a webcast of the United Nations committee Ad Hoc Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

142

Litter Pollution, Level 2. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

143

Framework for a Technology-Watch Relay Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the centre of the PRIME Faraday Partnership's Technology Watch service is a growing series of technology and market reviews for managers and engineers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) producing "smart" products. Its aim is to help them maintain their awareness of new technologies and markets and thereby seize opportunities to…

Stokes, C. A.; Palmer, P. J.

2004-01-01

144

Cryptanalysis of a pay-as-you-watch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper, we exhibit security flaws in MICROCAST pay - as - you - watch system From the sole knowledge of public parameters, we show how any intruder is able to forge a coin and so to freely get access to the service

Marc Joye

2003-01-01

145

Watch Out for Children: A Mothers' Statement to Advertisers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explains that all adults must watch out for all children, cautioning that marketing is harmful to children. Advertisers are aggressively targeting age groups that, until recently, have been considered off-limits and occupying more of children's psychic and physical space. The report presents a commitment by mothers to all children to…

Institute for American Values, New York, NY.

146

Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

Briggs, James N.

1993-01-01

147

Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kathleen England (foreground and on monitor) watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

1985-01-01

148

Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

1985-01-01

149

Science and Technology Text Mining: Global Technology Watch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global Technology Watch is the assemblage of methodologies, both human-based and computer-based, required to understand the status of science and technology (S&T) globally. Since one important dissemination avenue for S&T is its literature, analysis of te...

R. N. Kostoff

2003-01-01

150

Watch TV Upside Down on a Piece of Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners use a television to generate an image with a magnifying glass. Learners will be surprised to see how they can watch TV on a piece of paper, albeit upside down! Use this activity to demonstrate the behavior of light refraction and reflection.

Cobb, Vicki; Cobb, Josh

2008-01-01

151

Electromagnetic Dancer: Connect Her Up and Watch Her Dance!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a nail and magnet wire to build an electromagnet, which controls the movements of a paper dancer. Learners will enjoy watching the dancer swirl around when they activate the electromagnet. Use this activity to help learners explore circuits, electromagnets, and currents. Includes pictures, detailed steps for construction, and focus questions to enhance learning.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

152

Presidential Debate Watching, Issue Knowledge, Character Evaluation, and Vote Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs NES (National Election Survey) data from several presidential elections to investigate the effects of presidential debate watching on voters' issue knowledge, character evaluation, and vote choice. Debates can instill issue knowledge; however, voters are less likely to learn about incumbent presidents seeking re-election after a…

Benoit, William L.; Hansen, Glenn J.

2004-01-01

153

Trash Treasures, Level 5. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

154

Trash Trends, Level 3. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

155

Assessing Interest Level during Movie Watching with Brain Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether event-related potentials (ERPs) can be used to reflect a participant's level of inter- est in an ongoing audiovisual experience. Previous studies showed that the ERPs elicited by auditory or somatosensory (vibratory) probe stimuli were reduced in amplitude while participants were watching an interesting video clip as com- pared to a boring video clip or still

Yumi Shigemitsu; Hiroshi Nittono

2008-01-01

156

47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. 80.308 ...80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each...station for compliance with the Great Lakes Radio Agreement must when...

2013-10-01

157

49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.107 Use of watch list matching...

2013-10-01

158

Tropospheric ozone variations at the Everest-Pyramid GAW-WMO station (5079 m a.s.l., Nepal): natural and anthropogenic contributions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ozone is a key species controlling the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere and a powerful greenhouse gas. Since March 2006, continuous measurements of its concentration have been carried out at the Everest-Pyramid GAW-WMO station (5079 m a.s.l., Nepal), which is considered representative for the South-East Himalayas. The aim of this activity, conducted in the framework of Ev-K2-CNR "SHARE ASIA" and UNEP -"ABC" projects, is twofold: (a) to characterize the atmospheric background composition at the high Himalayan altitudes; and (b) to investigate the possible influence of polluted air mass transports. In this work, we present the first systematic evaluation about the influence played by natural (i.e. stratospheric intrusion events) and anthropogenic (i.e. transport of polluted air masses) processes in determining the ozone variations at this measurement site. For this purpose, we analysed two years of continuous measurements concerning in-situ surface ozone, black carbon and meteorological parameters as well as total ozone values from OMI satellite measurements. Further information about the origin of air masses affecting the measurement site was gained from three-dimensional backward trajectories (calculated with the LAGRANTO model) and consideration of potential vorticity values along these trajectories. Preliminary results suggest that the stratospheric intrusions and the pollution transport events significantly affect tropospheric ozone levels during pre-monsoon and dry seasons, even if strong episodes of pollution transport are also observed during the onset period of the monsoon season.

Cristofanelli, P.; Bonasoni, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Bonafe', U.; Roccato, F.; Vuillermoz, E.; Verza, G. P.; Sprenger, M.

2009-04-01

159

Preferred Stock Returns, CreditWatch, and Preferred Stock Rating Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the announcement effects of CreditWatch placement and reratings upon a sample of preferred stock issues that were placed on CreditWatch and later rerated or affirmed by Standard & Poor's. Results indicate that CreditWatch provides information to market participants and may have reduced the surprise associated with subsequent reratings. CreditWatch placement may be an erroneous signal, however, since

James W. Wansley; Fayez A. Elayan; Brian A. Maris

1990-01-01

160

MedWatch, the FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Information MedWatch Partners MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Search the MedWatch ... 24/2014 More What's New FDA Approved Safety Information DailyMed (National Library of Medicine) Current Drug Prescribing ...

161

Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

2005-01-01

162

The experience of watching dance: phenomenological–neuroscience duets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses possible correspondences between neuroscientific findings and phenomenologically informed methodologies\\u000a in the investigation of kinesthetic empathy in watching dance. Interest in phenomenology has recently increased in cognitive\\u000a science (Gallagher and Zahavi 2008) and dance scholars have recently contributed important new insights into the use of phenomenology in dance studies (e.g.\\u000a Legrand and Ravn (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences

Corinne Jola; Shantel Ehrenberg; Dee Reynolds

163

High Level data fusion system for CanCoastWatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a goal-driven net-enabled distributed data fusion system is described for CanCoastWatch (CCW) project. Multiple sensors are deployed and managed to achieve the goals of situation assessment using a net-enabled architecture. The local tracks reported by multiple sensors are first integrated into global tracks. Decision making is then performed on basic sub-goals that can be directly derived from

Zhenhua Li; H. Leung; P. Valin; Hans Wehn

2007-01-01

164

Notes from the field: planting, nurturing, and watching things grow.  

PubMed

Editors' Note: We invited a sample of AJPM's Editorial Board, supplement guest editors, and longtime colleagues and contributors to share their experiences and impressions of the impact of AJPM on their respective domains. We were particularly fond of Ken Powell's analogy to being "tenders of the planted seed"--as planters, weeders, and harvesters--watching and nurturing the growth of AJPM, and have elected to lead with his commentary. PMID:24237910

Friends of AJPM

2013-12-01

165

Watchful waiting for ventral hernias: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Ventral hernias are a common clinical problem. Immediate repair is recommended for most ventral hernias despite significant recurrence rates. This practice may be related to a lack of understanding of the natural history of ventral hernias. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of ventral hernias and to determine if watchful waiting is an acceptable and safe option. Forty-one patients with ventral hernias were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of watchful waiting. Primary outcomes were functional impairment resulting from hernia disease as measured by the Activities Assessment Scale (AAS) and changes from baseline to two years in the physical and mental component score of the SF-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcomes included complications such as incarceration. Mixed-effects model for repeated measures and Student's t tests were used to evaluate scale performance. The mean age of enrollees was 64 years, and the mean hernia size was 239 cm(2). Eleven patients were lost to follow-up, and seven patients died of other causes. All remaining patients were followed for two years. There was one incarceration during the follow-up period. There was no deterioration in the AAS score (baseline vs 24 months = 28 vs 25, P = 0.60). There was deterioration of the physical functioning dimension of the SF-36 (baseline vs 24 months = 40 vs 32, P < 0.01), but the mental functioning dimension was improved (45 vs 51; P = 0.01). Watchful waiting was a safe option for patients in this study with ventral hernias. PMID:24666865

Bellows, Charles F; Robinson, Celia; Fitzgibbons, Robert J; Webber, Larry S; Berger, David H

2014-03-01

166

STS-113 visitors watch the Space Shuttle Endeavour launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Watching the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 are NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe (left) and Associate Administrator of Public Affairs Glen Mahone. Liftoff occurred ontime at 7:49:47 p.m. EST. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Also onboard are the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5. Endeavour is scheduled to land at KSC after an 11-day journey.

2002-01-01

167

A ``solar watch'' program for the Human Exploration Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the healt hazards of solar activity, human traffic in deep space will require facilities for monitoring, predicting, and altering the astronauts to potential danger. This suggests a ``solar watch'' program consisting of a network of platforms at one A.U. from the Sun, capable of monitoring its global behavior. The instrumentation carried by these network platforms can evolve in sophistication with successive launches, in order to lead to a deep understanding of the physical mechanisms of solar activity - the best basis for maximally reliable activity forecasts. The possibility of steroscopic viewing of the solar surface and corona will confer unique advantages for the physical understanding of these physical mechanisms.

Hudson, H.; Hildner, E.

1990-07-01

168

Antibody-based therapeutics to watch in 2011  

PubMed Central

This overview of 25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and five Fc fusion protein therapeutics provides brief descriptions of the candidates, recently published clinical study results and on-going Phase 3 studies. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 therapeutic antibodies to watch list comprises AIN-457, bapineuzumab, brentuximab vedotin, briakinumab, dalotuzumab, epratuzumab, farletuzumab, girentuximab (WX-G250), naptumomab estafenatox, necitumumab, obinutuzumab, otelixizumab, pagibaximab, pertuzumab, ramucirumab, REGN88, reslizumab, solanezumab, T1h, teplizumab, trastuzumab emtansine, tremelimumab, vedolizumab, zalutumumab and zanolimumab. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 Fc fusion protein therapeutics to watch list comprises aflibercept, AMG-386, atacicept, Factor VIII-Fc and Factor IX-Fc. Commercially-sponsored mAb and Fc fusion therapeutics that have progressed only as far as Phase 2/3 or 3 were included. Candidates undergoing regulatory review or products that have been approved may also be in Phase 3 studies, but these were excluded. Due to the large body of primary literature about the candidates, only selected references are given and results from recent publications and articles that were relevant to Phase 3 studies are emphasized. Current as of September 2010, the information presented here will serve as a baseline against which future progress in the development of antibody-based therapeutics can be measured.

2011-01-01

169

Antibody-based therapeutics to watch in 2011.  

PubMed

This overview of 25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and 5 Fc fusion protein therapeutics provides brief descriptions of the candidates, recently published clinical study results and on-going Phase 3 studies. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 therapeutic antibodies to watch list comprises AIN-457, bapineuzumab, brentuximab vedotin, briakinumab, dalotuzumab, epratuzumab, farletuzumab, girentuximab (WX-G250), naptumomab estafenatox, necitumumab, obinutuzumab, otelixizumab, pagibaximab, pertuzumab, ramucirumab, REGN88, reslizumab, solanezumab, T1h , teplizumab, trastuzumab emtansine, tremelimumab, vedolizumab, zalutumumab and zanolimumab. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 Fc fusion protein therapeutics to watch list comprises aflibercept, AMG-386, atacicept, Factor VIII and Factor IX-Fc. Commercially-sponsored mAb and Fc fusion therapeutics that have progressed only as far as Phase 2/3 or 3 were included. Candidates undergoing regulatory review or products that have been approved may also be in Phase 3 studies, but these were excluded. Due to the large body of primary literature about the candidates, only selected references are given and results from recent publications and articles that were relevant to Phase 3 studies are emphasized. Current as of September 2010, the information presented here will serve as a baseline against which future progress in the development of antibody-based therapeutics can be measured. PMID:21051951

Reichert, Janice M

2011-01-01

170

The European Fusion Programme  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H. [European Commission (Belgium)

2004-03-15

171

Programmable logic controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are at the forefront of manufacturing automation. Many factories use programmable logic controllers to cut production costs and\\/or increase quality. PLCs and their unique language, ladder logic, are the workhorses of factory automation. Higher-level languages, such as sequential function charts and function blocks, ease the programming task for large systems. However, ladder logic remains the dominant

K. T. Erickson

1996-01-01

172

Programmable Logic Controllers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

173

??????????????? Whale-watching price competition and differentiation gift-giving strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the economic benefits of differentiating gift-giving strategy adopted by firms that provide a whale-watching ecotourism activity in the marine tourism industry. Under assumed that tourists may not encounter the whales in the whale- watching activity that results in imposing psychological disappoint upon them, what gift-giving strategies do firms adopt to

Yao-Hsien Lee; Yi-Lun Ho; Tsung-Tai Yang; Ying-Zui Lu

174

Tracking website data-collection and privacy practices with the iWatch web crawler  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the iWatch web crawler, a tool designed to catalogue and analyze online data practices and the use of privacy related indicators and technologies. Our goal in developing iWatch was to make possible a new type of analysis of trends, the impact of legislation on practices, and geographic and social differences online. In this paper we

Carlos Jensen; Chandan Sarkar; Christian Jensen; Colin Potts

2007-01-01

175

Physical Activity and Television Watching in Relation to Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Television (TV) watching, a major sed- entary behavior in the United States, has been associ- ated with obesity. We hypothesized that prolonged TV watching may increase risk for type 2 diabetes. Methods: In 1986, 37918 men aged 40 to 75 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer com- pleted a detailed physical activity questionnaire. Start- ing from

Frank B. Hu; Michael F. Leitzmann; Meir J. Stampfer; Graham A. Colditz; Walter C. Willett; Eric B. Rimm

2001-01-01

176

Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

2005-01-01

177

Dyad of Papers Concerning Joint Verification of Severe Local Storm Watches and Warnings during Tornado Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Weather Service issues watches and warnings to alert the public to the threat of severe local storms. The study is based upon a tabulation of whether watches or warnings were in effect during tornado events during 1982-1988. Percentages of to...

P. W. Leftwich J. E. Hales

1990-01-01

178

FDA 101: How to Use the Consumer Complaint System and MedWatch  

MedlinePLUS

... to allowing the product back on the market back to top Problems to Report to MedWatch MedWatch is for reporting ... or call your local FDA Consumer Complaint Coordinator . back to top This article ... Your Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA FDA 101: Product Recalls - From First ...

179

Media Richness and Social Norms in the Choice to Attend Lectures or to Watch Them Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lectures in a large psychology course were taped and posted online where they could be viewed by streaming video. All students in the course had the option to attend lectures or watch them online, a choice that could be exercised on a lecture-by-lecture basis. The proportion of lectures watched online revealed that students chose between…

Bassili, John N.

2008-01-01

180

Where people look when watching movies: Do all viewers look at the same place?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnification around the most important point of a movie scene (center of interest—COI) might aid people with visual impairments that cause resolution loss. This will be effective only if most people look at the same place when watching a movie. We recorded the eye movements of 20 normally sighted subjects as each watched six movie clips, totaling 37.5 min. More

Robert B. Goldstein; Russell L. Woods; Eli Peli

2006-01-01

181

International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

Edberg, S. J.

1983-01-01

182

Large Programmes and Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DURING THE 1980S ESO introduced “Key Programmes” to make best use of the observational resources. A first assessment of the success of the Key Programmes was done in 1993 and came to the result that the concept had severe shortcomings (cf. Messenger article by Cesarsky and Kudritzki 1994, Messenger 75, 45). In particular, a large fraction of the available observing time was committed to these Key Programmes and they were severely limiting the access to ESO telescopes for general users. In addition, the scientific impact of these Key Programmes was not very high. To avoid this mistake for the VLT a working group of community astronomers was formed in 1996 to discuss ways of achieving the best possible scientific return of the VLT. The report suggested introducing “Large Programmes” for projects which would require substantial observing time (more than either 100 hours or 10 nights) for a well-focused scientific goal. The duration of these Large Programmes was limited to no more than two years (four semesters). Up to 30% of the total time available for the community could be committed to Large Programmes. Subsequently it was requested that progress reports be presented to the OPC in each semester. The working group also suggested that “at about the time of the start of operations of UT3 the definition of the Large Programmes and its implementation should be reconsidered.” With one telescope entering into operation per year it turned out that this review would be based on more experience by extending the timeline foreseen initially. In 2002 sufficiently many Large Programmes had ended and it was time to assess the impact the Large Programmes have had.

Wagner, S.; Leibundgut, B.

2004-03-01

183

STS-113 visitors watch the Space Shuttle Endeavour launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Among the visitors watching the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 are NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe (top, center) and Glen Mahone, associate administrator for public affairs, NASA (left of O'Keefe). Liftoff occurred ontime at 7:49:47 p.m. EST. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Also onboard are the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5. Endeavour is scheduled to land at KSC after an 11-day journey.

2002-01-01

184

Agnew and Johnson Watch Apollo 11 Lift Off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amidst a crowd of other onlookers, U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew (right) and former U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson watch the Saturn V vehicle roar skyward carrying the Apollo 11 manned spacecraft into the vast regions of space. On a trajectory to the Moon, the craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Werher von Braun.

1969-01-01

185

Watching TV and Food Intake: The Role of Content  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a ‘Boring’ TV condition (art lecture), an ‘Engaging’ TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P?=?0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control ‘Text’ condition (?35% g, P?=?0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P?=?0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta?=?0.317, P?=?0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.

Chapman, Colin D.; Nilsson, Victor C.; Thune, Hanna A.; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Le Greves, Madeleine; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.; Benedict, Christian; Schioth, Helgi B.

2014-01-01

186

76 FR 38671 - Qualification for an STCW Endorsement as Officer in Charge of a Navigational Watch (OICNW)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for an STCW Endorsement as Officer in Charge of a Navigational Watch (OICNW) AGENCY...qualification for a STCW endorsement as Officer in Charge of a Navigational Watch (OICNW). The...for an STCW endorsement for Officer in Charge of a Navigational Watch (OICNW)....

2011-07-01

187

Programmes in Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

Shah, L. R.

1976-01-01

188

Programmable digital modem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on programmable digital modems (PDM) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include data rate range and operational modes, test and demonstration equipment, program goals, modulation formats, and PDM design challenges.

Kappes, M.

1992-01-01

189

WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment. The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

190

Programmable Logic Application Notes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

Katz, Richard

1998-01-01

191

Programmable Logic Application Notes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

Katz, Richard

1998-01-01

192

Supporting temporal queries on clinical relational databases: the S-WATCH-QL language.  

PubMed Central

Due to the ubiquitous and special nature of time, specially in clinical datábases there's the need of particular temporal data and operators. In this paper we describe S-WATCH-QL (Structured Watch Query Language), a temporal extension of SQL, the widespread query language based on the relational model. S-WATCH-QL extends the well-known SQL by the addition of: a) temporal data types that allow the storage of information with different levels of granularity; b) historical relations that can store together both instantaneous valid times and intervals; c) some temporal clauses, functions and predicates allowing to define complex temporal queries.

Combi, C.; Missora, L.; Pinciroli, F.

1996-01-01

193

A survey of programmable networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a programmable networking model that provides a common framework for understanding the state-of-the-art in programmable networks. A number of projects are reviewed and discussed against a set of programmable network characteristics. We believe that a number of important innovations are creating a paradigm shift in networking leading to higher levels of network programmability. These innovations

Andrew T. Campbell; Herman G. De Meer; Michael E. Kounavis; Kazuho Miki; John B. Vicente; Daniel A. Villela

1999-01-01

194

Antibodies to watch in 2014: Mid-year update.  

PubMed

The commercial pipeline of monoclonal antibodies is highly dynamic, with a multitude of transitions occurring during the year as product candidates advance through the clinical phases and onto the market. The data presented here add to that provided in the extensive "Antibodies to watch in 2014" report published in the January/February 2014 issue of mAbs. Recent phase transition data suggest that 2014 may be a banner year for first approvals of antibody therapeutics. As of May 2014, three products, ramucirumab (Cyramza®), siltuximab (Sylvant®) and vedolizumab (Entyvio(TM)), had been granted first approvals in the United States, and four additional antibody therapeutics (secukinumab, dinutuximab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab) are undergoing regulatory review in either the US or the European Union. Other notable events include the start of first Phase 3 studies for seven antibody therapeutics (dupilumab, SA237, etrolizumab, MPDL3280A, bavituximab, clivatuzumab tetraxetan, blinatumomab). Relevant data for these product candidates are summarized, and metrics for antibody therapeutics development are discussed. PMID:24846335

Reichert, Janice M

2014-07-01

195

International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

1986-01-01

196

International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for large scale phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The largest scale structures of comets, their tails, are extremely interesting from a physical point of view, and some of their properties are among the most spectacular displayed by comets. Because the tail(s) is an important component part of a comet, the Large-Scale Phenomena (L-SP) Discipline was created as one of eight different observational methods in which Halley data would be encouraged and collected from all around the world under the aspices of the International Halley Watch (IHW). The L-SP Discipline Specialist (DS) Team resides at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center under the leadership of John C. Brandt, Malcolm B. Niedner, and their team of image-processing and computer specialists; Jurgan Rahe at NASA Headquarters completes the formal DS science staff. The team has adopted the study of disconnection events (DE) as its principal science target, and it is because of the rapid changes which occur in connection with DE's that such extensive global coverage was deemed necessary to assemble a complete record.

Brandt, J. C.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.

1986-01-01

197

TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15, 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... Youth Fitness Survey, 2012. Were there differences by sex in the percentage of youth who watched TV ... TV plus computer use did not differ by sex. No sex differences were observed in the percentage ...

198

Great Bay Coast Watch Standard Operating Procedures Phytoplankton Monitoring Program, March 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the result of a volunteer-based phytoplankton monitoring project. The Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) and the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension hoped to obtain baseline and continuing information on the toxic phytoplankton pr...

A. Reid C. Dolan K. Diamond S. Cooper

2005-01-01

199

Great Bay Coast Watch Standard Operating Procedures Phytoplankton Monitoring Program, May 1, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the result of a volunteer-based phytoplankton monitoring project. The Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) and the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension hoped to obtain baseline and continuing information on the toxic phytoplankton pr...

A. Reid C. Dolan K. Diamond S. Cooper

2007-01-01

200

Great Bay Coast Watch Standard Operating Procedures Phytoplankton Monitoring Program, April 1, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the result of a volunteer-based phytoplankton monitoring project. The Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) and the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension hoped to obtain baseline and continuing information on the toxic phytoplankton pr...

A. Reid C. Dolan K. Diamond S. Cooper

2008-01-01

201

World mussel watch database. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is an internationally cooordinated system for systematic operational data collection and analysis. This contribution to GOOS is an attempt to determine the levels of contaminants in mussels and oysters collected worldwide and to compare the results with the long-term Mussel Watch programs of the United States and France. A comprehensive literature search of studies using any species of mussels and/or oysters worldwide to monitor the levels of trace metals and organic contaminants was conducted and the data compiled into the World Mussel Watch database. Data sources and statistics of the database are included. Results of the World Mussel Watch and the US and France Mussel Watch programs were compared and typical levels of some trace metals in uncontaminated mussels and oysters were calculated.

Cantillo, A.Y.

1997-04-01

202

Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts.

Stahl, S.M.

1994-12-30

203

Corporate entrepreneurship in Switzerland: evidence from a case study of Swiss watch manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which Swiss companies engage in corporate entrepreneurship. To that\\u000a end, a case study was undertaken to better understand how corporate entrepreneurship is practiced in the watch-making industry.\\u000a Using a stratified sampling method, 18 corporate-level managers of Swiss watch manufacturers were interviewed over a 5-month\\u000a period to determine their perception

Kayhan Tajeddini; Stephen L. Mueller

204

NCI at Frederick: Science Watch Names Pathak's Article "Fast Breaking Paper"  

Cancer.gov

July 2011 article in Science by Vinay Pathak, Ph.D., and colleagues was recently designated a Fast Breaking Paper in Microbiology by Thomson Reuters Science Watch. This designation was based on an analysis by Thomson Reuters, which determined that the paper "displayed a higher bimonthly citation increase than any other paper of comparable age and type in its field," according to the Science Watch website.

205

The association between watching television and obesity in children of school-age in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: There is little information on the association between watching Television (TV) and obesity in the Arabian Peninsula. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the watching of television and obesity in Saudi children of school-age. Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study was conducted with students between the ages of 9 and 14 years who attended the school health clinic in King Abdulaziz Housing for National Guard (Iskan), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the study period (February to April 2012). During each clinic, children were selected by simple random sampling (five obese and five non-obese). For data collection, two trained physicians interviewed the participants using a 20-item Arabic questionnaire. Well-trained nurses collected the anthropometric measurements of weight and height. Results: The study included 397 students. Higher (body mass index) BMI was associated with a higher number of televisions at home (P < 0.001), watching TV for more than three hours per day at the weekend (P = 0.047), eating more than three snacks per day (P = 0.005), watching TV at night (P = 0.026), and siblings’ decisions on how much TV to watch (P = 0.025). The prevalence of childhood obesity was significantly lower among those whose mothers determined how much TV they could watch (P = 0.03). In logistic regression analysis, the increase in the child's age, the presence of more than one TV at home, having his or her own TV, and an increase in the number of hours of watching TV over the weekend were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Personal computers and the Internet were not significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Conclusion: The present investigation revealed that watching TV represents an important risk factor for obesity in children of school-age.

Al-Ghamdi, Sameer H.

2013-01-01

206

Where people look when watching movies: Do all viewers look at the same place?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnification around the most important point of a movie scene (center of interest—COI) might aid people with visual impairments that cause resolution loss. This will be effective only if most people look at the same place when watching a movie. We recorded the eye movements of 20 normally sighted subjects as each watched six movie clips, totaling 37.5min. More than

Robert B. Goldstein; Russell L. Woods; Eli Peli

2007-01-01

207

Changes in mussel biometry on exposure to metals: implications in estimation of metal bioavailability in ‘Mussel-Watchprogrammes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of changes in flesh and shell weights and in other biometric parameters of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, has been related to different metal levels found in their soft tissues. The effects of clean and Zn-polluted environments and laboratory experiments where Zn-polluted mussels were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were investigated. Zinc-polluted mussel shell weights increased

Manu Soto; Mike P. Ireland; Ionan Marigómez

2000-01-01

208

A real options approach to watchful waiting: theory and an illustration.  

PubMed

Watchful waiting is a form of clinical management under which immediate curative treatment is not given. Instead, the patient undergoes a period of observation during which periodic tests monitor the progression of the illness. Hitherto, little attention has been given to how such patient management should be modeled from an economic perspective. Watchful waiting preserves an "option" to start treatment some time in the future, and evaluating a watchful waiting regime therefore has close analogies with pricing a financial option in the derivatives market. This article demonstrates how the methods used to price financial options can be used to decide when to pursue a watchful waiting strategy for a particular patient. The principles of option pricing are illustrated with the example of abdominal aortic aneurysm. A simple trinomial model of disease progression is used, in which patients are periodically monitored, and their health state can remain unchanged, deteriorate, or improve. Backward induction is used to solve the model at each period, with optimal treatment recommendations depending on the current health state. At very low levels of expected net benefits, the patient is discharged. At high levels, the patient is treated immediately. At intermediate levels, watchful waiting continues. The authors argue that option pricing methods offer important insights into the evaluation of a watchful waiting strategy. The methods also have potential applications in other domains of medical care. PMID:17409367

Driffield, Tarn; Smith, Peter C

2007-01-01

209

Bus Programmable Slave Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bus programmable slave module card for use in a computer control system is disclosed which comprises a master computer and one or more slave computer modules interfacing by means of a bus. Each slave module includes its own microprocessor, memory, and c...

W. A. Hall

1989-01-01

210

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Learning Invention Lab provides students exposure to and experience with industrial automation. This is achieved through the use and application of current programmable industrial control systems. This Learning Activity has students automate a plastics injection molding machine in industrial automation coursework. This was part of the Learning Invention Labs that MATEC held. Visit the MATEC.org homepage for more information.

Bentley, John

2012-12-28

211

A Programmable Firing Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital programmable firing controller to drive solid-state power modulators is presented. The advantages over analog or hybrid systems are outlined. The simplicity, expandability, reliability, and repeatability without any channel crosstalk is stressed. Programming on line while maintaining strict waveshape symmetry is realized.

Barna Szabados; Roy A. Grierson

1980-01-01

212

Programmable Logic Application Notes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

213

Programmable physiological infusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (inventors)

1974-01-01

214

Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

215

Optically programmable gate array  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Optically Programmable Gate Array (OPGA), an optical version of a conventional FPGA, benefits from a direct parallel interface between an optical memory and a logic circuit. The OPGA utilizes a holographic memory accessed by an array of VCSELs to program its logic. An active pixel sensor array incorporated into the OPGA chip makes it possible to optically address the

Jose Mumbru; George Panotopoulos; Demetri Psaltis; Xin An; Fai H. Mok; Suat Ay; Sandor L. Barna; Eric R. Fossum

2000-01-01

216

Programmable Logic Application Notes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

Katz, Richard

2000-01-01

217

Business Planning Model Programmer's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Business Planning Model (BPM) Programmer's Guide is provided to assist future programmers in understanding and properly maintaining the BPM code. The program includes five principal modules: Data Entry Module - this provides the user the ability to c...

1993-01-01

218

Community-based rehabilitation programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Few CBR programmes have developed beyond small-scale projects to large-scale innovations. Few governments have made any significant\\u000a commitment to and investment in the development of national CBR services. Most CBR programmes are regarded as ‘additional\\u000a programmes’. Moreover, the attempts that have been made to work within existing infrastructures have often meant the programmes\\u000a become little more than a minor facet

Brian O'Toole

1995-01-01

219

Programmers use slices when debugging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer programmers break apart large programs into smaller coherent pieces. Each of these pieces: functions, subroutines, modules, or abstract datatypes, is usually a contiguous piece of program text. The experiment reported here shows that programmers also routinely break programs into one kind of coherent piece which is not coniguous. When debugging unfamiliar programs programmers use program pieces called slices which

Mark Weiser

1982-01-01

220

Optically programmable excitonic traps  

PubMed Central

With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits.

Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaitre, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, Francois

2013-01-01

221

A programmable artificial retina  

SciTech Connect

An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm[sup 2] CMOS 2-[mu]m circuit are presented.

Bernard, T.M. (Perception System Lab., Arcueil (France)); Zavidovique, B.Y. (Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France). Electrical Engineering Dept. Perception System Lab., Arcueil (France)); Devos, F.J. (Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France). Dept. of Integrated Circuits and Systems)

1993-07-01

222

Fission products experimental programme  

SciTech Connect

The 'Fission Products (FPs)' experimental programme was carried out from 1998 to 2004 in CEA/Valduc Apparatus B in the framework of the IRSN-AREVA NC Common Interest Program dealing with 'burnup credit' studies. It aims at compensating for the lack of critical experiments with FPs in the literature and validating a selection of 6 stable, non-volatile, fission products representing half of the irradiated fuel absorption of all fission products: {sup 103}Rh, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 155}Gd. This paper provides a more exhaustive approach of the k{sub eff} results, uncertainties and tendencies associated with the different steps of the 'Fission Products' programme. (authors)

Leclaire, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Anno, J. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (CEA/IPSN) (France); Girault, E. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France); Letang, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

223

Watching sport on television, physical activity, and risk of obesity in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Television (TV) viewing has been associated with obesity although the effects of specific TV content on health and other behaviours remains unknown. We examined the association between watching sport on TV, physical activity levels, and risk of obesity. Methods We studied 6,733 (aged 64.9?±?9.2 yrs) men and women from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Data were collected on self reported TV time and content, and physical activity. Nurses measured height and weight for the calculation of body mass index. Results On average, participants reported viewing TV for 5.3?±?4.1 hours per day and 30.3% of the sample watched sport on TV at least twice a week. There was no association between watching sport and physical activity levels. Participants that watched sports every day were at higher risk of obesity [odds ratio?=?1.39, 95% CI, 1.15, 1.68) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, total TV time, disability, and self-rated health. Conclusions Watching elite athletes may have no role in the promotion of physical activity in older adults, which has implications for staging large sporting events with physical activity legacy promises.

2014-01-01

224

Using programmable controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explains the basic functions of programmable controllers and provides an understanding of the operation and uses of P.C.'s for industrial controls. The book explains how major P.C. brands are formatted and programmed. Operations include coils and contacts, timers, counters, sequencers, and math functions. The book explains how to install, troubleshoot, maintain, and operate hardware like I\\/O modules and

Kissell

1986-01-01

225

Current Mirror with Programmable Floating Gate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems and methods are discussed for using a floating-gate MOSFET as a programmable reference circuit. One example of the programmable reference circuit is a programmable voltage reference source, while a second example of a programmable reference circui...

G. J. Serrano P. E. Hasler

2006-01-01

226

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

227

Use of the noninvasive GlucoWatch Biographer during exercise of varying intensity.  

PubMed

The GlucoWatch Biographer (Cygnus, Inc., Redwood City, CA), a novel, noninvasive method for tracking glucose, makes frequent, automatic glucose measurements. Therefore, it potentially can provide a convenient method of tracking glycemia, particularly with exercise as an added variable in diabetes management. The purpose of the investigation was (1) to measure the effectiveness of this device, and (2) to determine the validity of its readings, during rest and exercise both indoors and outdoors. Four subjects with type 1 diabetes and five controls without diabetes participated in rest, mild [40% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for 45 min], moderate (60% of HRR for 30 min), and heavy exercise (80% of HRR for 15 min) both indoors and outdoors. Subjects monitored blood glucose levels (forearm alternate site testing), and readings were taken by the GlucoWatch during and following testing conditions. Significantly more GlucoWatch readings were obtained during rest (55.6% outdoors, 66.7% indoors) than during moderate (11.1%) or heavy (0%; P < 0.01) exercise. A similar number was obtained during mild outdoor exercise (46.6%), but not indoors (29.2%). Sweating rates corresponded to a reduced effectiveness during indoor exercise only (P < 0.01), where sweating was heavier despite higher outdoor temperatures. A weak association between GlucoWatch and matched glucometer readings (r = 0.81; P < 0.01) was found. The effectiveness of the GlucoWatch Biographer during any moderate to heavy exercise was extremely poor, as was the validity of its readings compared with forearm alternate site testing. Thus, anyone wishing to engage in daily exercise would be best advised to abstain from wearing the GlucoWatch except during rest or mild exercise. PMID:15320999

Nunnold, Tanja; Colberg, Sheri R; Herriott, Matthew T; Somma, C Thomas

2004-08-01

228

OverWatch: Real-Time Narrative Visuals from Live Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a OverWatch is an audio\\/visual performance for two musicians, involving the production of narrative visuals on-the-fly. Presented\\u000a in a theatrical context, with the musicians playing beneath a large projection screen, the piece references early silent movies,\\u000a specifically the expressionist films of the 1920s. However, rather than responding to the formal and narrative content of\\u000a the images onscreen, the musicians in OverWatch

Guy Schofield; Rachel Casey; Patrick Olivier

2010-01-01

229

Evaluation of training programme.  

PubMed

Resurgence of malaria in the country during seventies and subsequent implementation of Modified Plan of Operation (MPO) through Primary Health Care (PHC) system highlighted the urgent need for short term courses for PHC medical officers and clinicians at the periphery. In pursuance of these objectives. Dte. of National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) laid down series of "Orientation Courses" for medical officers of PHCs and "Workshops" in management of severe and complicated malaria for physicians, paediatricians and pathologists in hospitals/teaching institutions. While there exist standard methods for evaluation of institutional courses, for peripheral short term courses, a new method i.e. "Retrospective assessment at the work sites of the participants" was followed for evaluation of the above mentioned two types of courses. The findings were revealing in as much as, besides being highly successful, medical officers of PHCs who so far did not consider them as part of the programme, then onward aligned themselves as an integral part of the campaign. These courses helped them in updating with knowledge viz. concept of malaria control, passive case detection, dosages and choice of drugs, treatment schedules particularly in pregnancy and significance of quinine and primaquine therapy. Assessment of workshops for clinicians, provided the forum for first ever interaction between clinicians and the programme in the country. The workshops provided an update with current advances/researches in the treatment of severe and complicated cases of malaria. These were considered highly beneficial, as it cleared many doubts about pathological processes and clinical manifestations including induced by drugs. The study also highlighted the deficiencies in the delivery process by the faculty. PMID:1842803

Ray, A P; Narasimham, M V

1991-12-01

230

Selection in backcross programmes  

PubMed Central

Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation.

Hospital, Frederic

2005-01-01

231

NASCAP programmer's reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

1993-01-01

232

Sedimentation and drying dissipative structures of colloidal silica (1.2 ?m in diameter) suspensions in a watch glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation and drying dissipative structural patterns formed in the course of drying aqueous suspensions of colloidal silica spheres (1.2 ?m in diameter) were observed in the various sizes of watch glasses. The macroscopic broad ring patterns were formed on the inner inclined watch glass in suspension state within a short time after suspension was set. The important role of the convectional

Tsuneo Okubo

2006-01-01

233

Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2006-01-01

234

Programmable spectral interferometric microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A programmable optical sensor is proposed based on spectrally programmable heterodyne optical interferometric confocal microscopy implemented via an ultrastable in-line acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) based interferometer using double anisotropic acousto-optic Bragg diffraction. The design uses a tunable laser as the light source and anisotropic diffractions in an AOTF to generate two near-collinear orthogonal linear polarization and slightly displaced beams that both pass via the test sample to deliver highly sensitive sample birefringence or material optical retardation measurements. A spherical lens is used to form focused spots for high resolution confocal spatial sampling of the test object. Thus the instrument also forms a classic interferometric confocal microscope via the use of single mode fiber optics for the receive light. The laser and AOTF tuning allows birefringence measurements taken at different wavelengths, one at a time with minimal interwavelength crosstalk. Experimental demonstration of the instrument is achieved using a 1550 nm center 100 nm band tunable laser and variable birefringence liquid crystal and fixed retardance birefringent materials, all showing accurate retardation measurements to within a 0.5° rf phase accuracy. The instrument shows a fiber-in to fiber-out loss of 8.5 dB. An alternate design via a transmissive beam generation design provides collinear co-located beams on the sample plane for superaccurate measurements.

Riza, Nabeel A.; Bakker, Maarten; Bokhari, Amana

2005-03-01

235

Programmable digital modem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

Poklemba, John J.

1991-01-01

236

CAMAC modular programmable function generator  

SciTech Connect

A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

1980-12-01

237

Electrically-programmable diffraction grating  

DOEpatents

An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Senturia, Stephen D. (Brookline, MA) [Brookline, MA

1998-01-01

238

Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 6 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 6 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

1965-01-01

239

Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

Fleming, William

2003-01-01

240

Geostatistical analyses of interactions between killer whales ( Orcinus orca) and recreational whale-watching boats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johnstone Strait in coastal British Columbia, Canada, is a core habitat for seasonal concentrations of killer whales (Orcinus orca), which have attracted considerable attention from commercial whale-watching operators and recreational boaters. Within the Strait lies the Robson Bight–Michael Bigg Ecological Reserve, a marine reserve set aside as critical habitat for killer whales and closed to recreational boat traffic. The geography

D. E. Jelinski; C. C. Krueger; D. A. Duffus

2002-01-01

241

The Use of Common Planning Time: A Case Study of Two Kentucky Schools to Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interdisciplinary teams with common planning time have been a hallmark of the middle school organizational structure since the 1960s, yet research on the effective use of common planning time is limited. This study explores how interdisciplinary teams at schools designated Kentucky Schools to Watch use common planning time, including the factors…

Cook, Christopher M.; Faulkner, Shawn A.

2010-01-01

242

Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

2005-01-01

243

Traditional sex role development and amount of time spent watching television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching TV is significantly related to the strength of traditional sex-role development. Data from 80 kindergartners and 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders support the hypothesis and suggest that this relationship holds equally for both sexes and does not change with increasing age.

Terry Frueh; Paul E. McGhee

1975-01-01

244

Effects of Watching Primary Debates in the 2000 U.S. Presidential Campaign.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of two studies measuring the effects on undergraduate communication students of watching U.S. presidential primary debates. Concludes that primary debates are capable of influencing both policy and character impressions of the candidates, as well as changing voting intentions and increasing voter confidence. (SG)

Benoit, William L.; McKinney, Mitchell S.; Stephenson, Michael T.

2002-01-01

245

Video Preference Assessment of Students with Autism for Watching Self, Adults, or Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preferences of students with autism for watching themselves, a familiar adult, or a familiar peer in video recordings were examined. A multi-stimulus video preference assessment was used to evaluate the preferences of five students with autism. Three video options of a preferred activity (e.g., vacuuming) or daily/routine activity (e.g., snack…

Mechling, Linda C.; Moser, Sara V.

2010-01-01

246

STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Cameron juggle cassettes on OV-104's middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron juggle cassette tapes on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Laughing at Cameron's stunt are Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin (foreground), Commander Steven R. Nagel (behind Cameron), and MS Jerry L. Ross (at floor level). Ross snacks on chocolate candy during the performance.

1991-01-01

247

Technology Watch and Competitive Intelligence: A New Challenge in Education for Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for education of information professionals in France to change because of changing needs for scientific, technological, and economic information. The functions of technology watch and competitive intelligence based on an organization's critical success factor are shown to be important. (13 references) (EAM)

Dou, Henri; And Others

1993-01-01

248

Exploring Relations between Watchers and Watched in Control(led) Systems: Strategies and Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ethnographic observation within a number of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) control rooms as evidence, this paper documents the apparently trivial but subjectively meaningful types of technologically mediated interaction taking place between CCTV operators and those watched. It examines the operators' interpretations of the various incidents, individuals and social realities observed. In so doing, the author suggests a number of

Gavin J. D. Smith

2007-01-01

249

Does Watching Television Rot Your Mind? Estimates of the Effect on Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether the number of hours of television watched by young adults is associated with performance on standardized exams and whether any such relationship is causal. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the High School and Beyond survey and the National Education Longitudinal Study all indicate a negative…

Zavodny, Madeline

2006-01-01

250

Environmental performance rating and disclosure : an empirical investigation of China's green watch program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental performance rating and disclosure has emerged as an alternative or complementary approach to conventional pollution regulation, especially in developing countries. However, little systematic research has been conducted on the effectiveness of this emerging policy instrument. This paper investigates the impact of a Chinese performance rating and disclosure program, Green Watch, which has been operating for 10 years. To assess

Yanhong Jin; Hua Wang; David Wheeler

2010-01-01

251

Learning by watching: extracting reusable task knowledge from visual observation of human performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel task instruction method for future intelligent robots is presented, In our method, a robot learns reusable task plans by watching a human perform assembly tasks. Functional units and working algorithms for visual recognition and analysis of human action sequences are presented. The overall system is model based and integrated at the symbolic level. Temporal segmentation of a continuous

Yasuo Kuniyoshi; Masayuki Inaba; Hirochika Inoue

1994-01-01

252

Community Solutions for Solid Waste Pollution, Level 6. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

253

Watching elderly and disabled person's physical condition by remotely controlled monorail robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a nursing system using robots and cameras. The cameras are mounted on a remote controlled monorail robot which moves inside a room and watches the elderly. It is necessary to pay attention to the elderly at home or nursing homes all time. This requires staffs to pay attention to them at every time. The purpose of our

Yasunori Nagasaka; Yoshinori Matsumoto; Yasutoshi Fukaya; Tomoichi Takahashi; Toru Takeshita

2001-01-01

254

Teachers Steer Their Own Learning: Colorado Middle School becomes a School to Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conrad Ball Middle School in Loveland, Colorado, earned a "School to Watch" Award in 2005 from the National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform and was designated as high-performing by the state. However, in 2002, the school had its lowest test scores ever. Teachers at Conrad Ball received the news and determined they would turn things…

Lauer, Diane; Matthews, Melissa

2007-01-01

255

Differences in autonomic responses between subjects with and without nausea while watching an irregularly oscillating video.  

PubMed

Prodromal signs such as cardiac rhythm disturbance and changes in gastric motility are generally induced before and during nausea in humans. These autonomic reactions were compared in subjects who were or were not experiencing nausea. Nausea was induced by having the subjects view a movie of oscillating pictures. Seventeen healthy volunteers were asked to relax their muscles and watch the movie. Electrogastrogram (EGG), electrocardiogram (ECG), palmar and metopic perspiration, digital blood flow and thoracic movement related to respiration were simultaneously measured while the subjects viewed the movie. A total of 11 of 17 subjects complained of nausea after watching the movie. The characteristic changes in their autonomic responses during exposure to the movie were as follows. The power of the EGG, heart rate and metopic perspiration significantly increased compared to those before watching the movie. The respiratory cycle gradually increased during and even after watching the movie. In contrast, no significant changes in the power of the EGG, heart rate and metopic perspiration were observed in the remaining six subjects who did not experience nausea. The role of the autonomic nervous system in nausea is discussed. These results suggest that these symptoms regarding the sympathetic nervous system could actually be defensive reactions against the sensation of nausea. PMID:15556837

Himi, Naoyuki; Koga, Tomoshige; Nakamura, Emi; Kobashi, Motoi; Yamane, Masanobu; Tsujioka, Katsuhiko

2004-11-30

256

Great Bay Coast Watch Guide to Common Gulf of Maine Phytoplankton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1999, the Great Bay Coast Watch (GBCW) has been monitoring New Hampshire coastal waters for the presence of toxic phytoplankton cells. If present in large numbers, these cells can create the harmful algal blooms known as red tides. When filter feede...

C. Dolan S. Cooper

2006-01-01

257

Indicators of Middle School Implementation: How Do Kentucky's Schools to Watch Measure Up?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High-performing middle schools are a critical link in the educational continuum. In an effort to stimulate the sluggish reform efforts of middle schools, the National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform established the Schools to Watch recognition program. Using responses of school personnel to a statewide survey, this study examined the perceived level of implementation of key tenets of the middle school concept as outlined by This We Believe: Successful Schools for Young Adolescents (National Middle School Association, 2003) in schools designated Kentucky Schools to Watch as compared to nondesignated schools. Additionally, the study reviewed the academic performance of Kentucky's middle schools on the Kentucky Core Content Test to determine whether the schools identified as Kentucky Schools to Watch experienced higher levels of student academic achievement. Results indicated a slightly higher perceived level of implementation of key tenets of the middle school concept in Kentucky's Schools to Watch and revealed overall higher levels of academic achievement as measured by the Kentucky Core Content Test.

Cook, Christopher M.; Faulkner, Shawn A.; Kinne, Lenore J.

2009-01-01

258

Watching a Drunkard for 10 Nights: A Study of Distributions of Variances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers a problem of simple random walks to study distributions of variances. Describes watching a drunk over a period of nights, taking a number of steps per night. Explores the full probability distribution for the variance of the data string and discusses the connection of the results to the problem of data binning. (Author/NB)

Zia, R. K. P.; Schmittmann, B.

2003-01-01

259

Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 7 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 7 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

1965-01-01

260

Natural and Man-Made Objects, Level K. Teacher's Guide. Operation Waste Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

261

Let's Waste Less Waste, Level 4. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

262

Waste Out of Place, Level 1. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

263

Is the "Idiot's Box" Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread belief that exposure to television has harmful effects on children's cognitive development. Most studies that point to a negative correlation between hours of television watching and cognitive outcomes, fail to establish causality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we study young children between 5 and 10…

Munasib, Abdul; Bhattacharya, Samrat

2010-01-01

264

"Princess Alice Is Watching You": Children's Belief in an Invisible Person Inhibits Cheating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two child groups (5-6 and 8-9 years of age) participated in a challenging rule-following task while they were (a) told that they were in the presence of a watchful invisible person ("Princess Alice"), (b) observed by a real adult, or (c) unsupervised. Children were covertly videotaped performing the task in the experimenter's absence. Older…

Piazza, Jared; Bering, Jesse M.; Ingram, Gordon

2011-01-01

265

SideCar: building programmable datacenter networks without programmable switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines an extreme point in the design space of programmable switches and network policy enforcement. Rather than relying on extensive changes to switches to provide more programmability, SideCar distributes custom processing code between shims running on every end host and general purpose sidecar processors, such as server blades, connected to each switch via commonly available redirection mechanisms. This

Alan Shieh; Srikanth Kandula; Emin Gun Sirer

2010-01-01

266

The effect of watching live arthroscopic views on postoperative anxiety of patients.  

PubMed

Surgery is a stressful experience. Many minor interventions have been shown to cause considerable anxiety in patients, but whether arthroscopy leads to such anxiety is not well-known. Methods for lowering perioperative anxiety have been sought and listening to music or watching a movie have been recommended. The method of permitting patients to watch their own endoscopy has been studied infrequently. Our aim in this study was to find out the effect of watching simultaneous arthroscopic views on postoperative anxiety. A total of 63 patients were randomly divided into two groups: those watching their own arthroscopy formed group W, while patients that were only verbally informed formed group NW. The mean age of patients in both groups were 33 and 34, respectively. Meniscal surgery was the most commonly performed procedure (49/63 patients). The patients filled in state scale of State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) forms and the study questionnaire (SQ) prepared for this study, just before and after the arthroscopy. Group W had significantly lower postoperative scores of STAI-S, whole questionnaire (Q-score) and all but one of individual statements in SQ. Having a previous operation history did not affect STAI scores. Age and level of education was not correlated with any of the studied parameters either. The ratio of patients that were pleased with the arthroscopy experience in group W and NW were 94 and 63%, respectively. Watching live arthroscopic views has led to a significant decrease in postoperative anxiety and worries about the surgery and the postoperative period, while increasing overall understanding and satisfaction of the patient. PMID:18566798

Bayar, Ahmet; Tuncay, Ibrahim; Atasoy, Nuray; Ayo?lu, Hilal; Keser, Selçuk; Ege, Ahmet

2008-11-01

267

Programmable Cadence Timer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

1990-01-01

268

Implementing a teledermatology programme.  

PubMed

Although teledermatology has been beneficial and cost-effective in some settings, many programmes have failed, not because of the technology but because teledermatology was implemented in isolation. A thorough understanding of an organization's business process and business model is crucial before teledermatology is begun. Unless teledermatology is integrated into the current business process and model, the likelihood of success is greatly reduced. Important steps therefore include: (1) understanding how the organization delivers care; (2) analysing the alternatives, including cost-benefit analysis; (3) obtaining organizational support; (4) formulating an execution plan; (5) training staff and monitoring the process. If implemented correctly in the appropriate setting, teledermatology can significantly improve access and quality of care, while reducing or containing costs. PMID:16168164

Pak, Hon S

2005-01-01

269

General purpose programmable accelerator board  

DOEpatents

A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witzke, Edward L. (Edgewood, NM)

2001-01-01

270

Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

271

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

272

Field Programmable Stateful Logic Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyosun Kim, Sangho Shin, Member, IEEE, and Sung-Mo Kang, Fellow, IEEE Abstract—Recently, researchers have demonstrated that mem- ristive switches can be used to implement logic and latches as well as memory and programmable interconnects. In this paper, we propose a novel stateful logic pipeline architecture based on memristive switches. The proposed architecture mapped to the field programmable nanowire interconnect fabric

Kyosun Kim; Sangho Shin; Sung-Mo Kang

2011-01-01

273

The UPANAYAN' early intervention programme.  

PubMed

The Upanayan programme is a product of Indchem Research and Development Laboratory, a scientific association recognized by Government of India, Ministry of Science and Technology. The objective of the project was to develop a computer assisted programme for the training of persons with mental retardation. The project was executed by an inter disciplinary team of experts. The focus of the training programme is the mother who is the intervening agent. The programme, developed in the first phase of the project, is an expert system for the infant stimulation and early intervention process for children below 2 years of age with the disability. The system comprises of: (i) a development check list of skills for assessment and programming, (ii) a profile to record the observations, (iii) intervention strategies in the form of activities to acquire all the skills in the check list. The programme is designed for the Indian socio-economic conditions and is available in the form of a printed manual, and also as a computer software. The two can be used independently of each other. The programme has been translated into Hindi, Tamil, Malayalam and Marathi. With this programme as the basis, a centre for early intervention, Madhuram Narayanan Centre for Exceptional Children--was set up in Madras about 3 years back. Presently 210 children are receiving training there. The Centre has evolved intervention strategies based on parental involvement, with salutary effect on the parents as well as on the children. PMID:1340858

Krishnaswamy, J

1992-01-01

274

Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

Kleinberg, Leonard L. (inventor)

1987-01-01

275

Scientific Programme Committee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

2013-02-01

276

The Victorian Management Residency Programme.  

PubMed

This paper describes an innovative approach to the development of health managers in the Victorian health system. Under what is known as the Management Residency Programme, young graduates are recruited to undertake a rigorous two year programme which blends the academic specialisation necessary for health managers, with the techniques of action learning available through exposure to a range of management situations in various field placements. The proponents of action research are seriously challenging the traditional approach to management education and the Management Residency Programme provides a unique opportunity to maximise the benefits of each philosophy. PMID:10121770

Capp, S

1991-01-01

277

Visual discomfort under various brightness conditions using eye movements in watching stereoscopic 3D video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual discomfort is caused by various factors when watching stereoscopic 3D contents. In particular, brightness change is known as one of the major factors related to visual discomfort. However, most previous research about visual discomfort dealt with binocular disparity as related to accommodation and vergence linkage. In this paper, we analyze visual discomfort caused by brightness change using eye-movements and a subjective test. Eye-movements are computed using eye pupil motion as detected from a near-infrared eye image. We measure eye-blinking and pupil size while watching stereoscopic 3D videos with global and local brightness variations. The results show that viewers felt more visual discomfort in local change than in global change of brightness in a scene.

Cho, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Hang-Bong

2014-03-01

278

Mussel watch update: Long-term trends in selected contaminants from coastal California, 1977-2010.  

PubMed

This study examined trends in contaminants measured during three decades of "Mussel Watch" monitoring on the California coast. Chlorinated organic contaminants and butyltins declined the most rapidly, with tissue concentrations in 2010 that were up to 75% lower than during the 1980s. Silver and lead declined at about half of the stations statewide, but generally exhibited slower rates of decline relative to the organic compounds. In contrast, copper increased at many stations, and PAHs showed little evidence for declines. Mussels from San Francisco Bay and the Southern California Bight were historically the most contaminated and have had the steepest declines. Overall, these data show that the "Mussel Watch" approach to monitoring contaminants in California has provided some of the best evidence of the effectiveness of actions to improve water quality over the past 30years. These datasets also highlight challenges that remain in managing PAHs and copper. PMID:23711838

Melwani, Aroon R; Gregorio, Dominic; Jin, Yujie; Stephenson, Mark; Ichikawa, Gary; Siegel, Emily; Crane, Dave; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Davis, Jay A

2014-04-30

279

Where people look when watching movies: do all viewers look at the same place?  

PubMed

Magnification around the most important point of a movie scene (center of interest-COI) might aid people with visual impairments that cause resolution loss. This will be effective only if most people look at the same place when watching a movie. We recorded the eye movements of 20 normally sighted subjects as each watched six movie clips, totaling 37.5 min. More than half of the time the distribution of subject gaze points fell within an area statistic that was less than 12% of the movie scene. Male and older subjects were more likely to look in the same place than female and younger subjects, respectively. We conclude that the between-subject agreement is sufficient to make the approach practical. PMID:17010963

Goldstein, Robert B; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

2007-07-01

280

Study of short-lived climate forcers atmospheric variability at Kathmandu and at the WMO/GAW Global Station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (5079 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols and tropospheric ozone play a key role in the climate system, since they are short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). South Asia represents a "hot-spot" in terms of climate change, since a vast region extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas appears to be affected by large amounts of aerosols and pollutant gases (the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud). In the framework of the SusKat - ABC field campaign, a new measurement station has been installed in Pakanajol, Kathmandu (Nepal) on January 2013. This station is representative of the severe polluted conditions of the Kathmandu valley. Continuous measurements of equivalent black carbon (eqBC), surface ozone (O3), aerosol number concentration and size distribution, on-line PM10-PM1, as well as meteorological parameters, are carried out at this sampling site. In the high Himalayas (150 km north-east from Kathmandu), continuous atmospheric composition measurements are performed at the WMO/GAW Global Station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the Southern Himalayas. This measurement site is representative of the background conditions of the Himalayan ridge and measurements of eqBC, O3, aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters are continuously carried out since March 2006. The aim of this work is to compare the variability of atmospheric composition between the two sampling sites, with a particular emphasis on SLCFs, thus providing two complementary perspectives about the Atmospheric Brown Cloud phenomenon. Moreover, hints about the possible role of vertical air-mass transport of SLCFs from the foothills to the high Himalayas will be provided. The seasonal trend of eqBC at Pakanajol is characterized by a decreasing behavior from winter to monsoon, while at NCO-P it is characterized by a clear pre-monsoon maximum. On the other hand, at both sampling sites, O3 and particle number (accumulation and coarse) showed highest values during the pre-monsoon (April-May), even if at NCO-P significantly lower levels of eqBC and aerosol particle number (ratio 7% for eqBC, 29% for accumulation and 12% for coarse particles) were observed in respect to Kathmandu. Moreover, case studies concerning simultaneous events of eqBC and O3 increases in Kathmandu and in the high Himalayas will be investigated.

Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Landi, Tony Christian; Pietro Verza, Gian; Alborghetti, Marcello; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark; Bonasoni, Paolo

2014-05-01

281

A Mobile Butterfly-Watching Learning System for Supporting Independent Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system which supports independent learners by offering a new pattern of outdoor mobile learning (or called as m-learning) activities. The proposed BWL system was designed using a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. In our designed system, each individual learner has a wireless handheld device, which is a

Yuh-shyan Chen; Tai-chien Kao; Gwo-jong Yu; Jang-ping Sheu

2004-01-01

282

Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association of time watching television (TV) and physical activity with obesity in the Mediterranean area of Spain with the highest prevalence of obesity.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Valencia Region in Spain.PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 814 men and 958 women, aged 15 y and older, participating in a Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 1994.MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight

J Vioque; A Torres; J Quiles

2000-01-01

283

[Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048

Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

2012-01-01

284

Student cognition and motivation during the Classroom BirdWatch citizen science project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the ways various stakeholders (CBW project developer\\/coordinator, elementary and middle school teachers, and 5th through 8th grade students) envisioned, implemented and engaged in the citizen science project, eBird\\/Classroom BirdWatch. A multiple case study mixed-methods research design was used to examine student engagement in the cognitive processes associated with scientific inquiry

Terry Morton Tomasek

2006-01-01

285

Test report of evaluation of primary exhaust ventilation flowmeters for double shell hydrogen watch list tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports the results of testing four different flowmeters for use in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of Double Shell Tanks on the hydrogen watch list that do not already have this capability. This currently includes tanks 241-AW-101,241-AN- 103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105 and 241-SY-103. The anticipated airflow velocity in these tanks range from 0.25 m\\/s(50 ft\\/min) to 1\\/78 m\\/s (350

Willingham; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

286

The role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes: The THAW project  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Children can be effective advocates in changing their parents' lifestyles. > We investigated the role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes. > Waste Watch's Take Home Action on Waste project worked with 6705 children in 39 schools. > The results showed increased participation in recycling and declines in residual waste. > The study shows that recycling behaviour is positively impacted by intergenerational influence. - Abstract: Whilst the education of young people is often seen as a part of the solution to current environmental problems seeking urgent attention, it is often forgotten that their parents and other household members can also be educated/influenced via home-based educational activities. This paper explores the theory of intergenerational influence in relation to school based waste education. Waste Watch, a UK-based environmental charity ((www.wastewatch.org.uk)), has pioneered a model that uses practical activities and whole school involvement to promote school based action on waste. This methodology has been adopted nationally. This paper outlines and evaluates how effective school based waste education is in promoting action at a household level. The paper outlines Waste Watch's 'Taking Home Action on Waste (THAW)' project carried out for two and half years in Rotherham, a town in South Yorkshire, England. The project worked with 6705 primary age children in 39 schools (44% of primary schools in the project area) to enable them to take the 'reduce, reuse and recycle message' home to their families and to engage these (i.e. families) in sustainable waste management practices. As well as substantial increases in students' knowledge and understanding of waste reduction, measurement of the impact of the project in areas around 12 carefully chosen sample schools showed evidence of increased participation in recycling and recycling tonnages as well as declining levels of residual waste. Following delivery of the project in these areas, an average increase of 8.6% was recorded in recycling set out rates which led to a 4.3% increase in paper recycling tonnages and an 8.7% increase in tonnages of cans, glass and textiles collected for recycling. Correspondingly, there was a 4.5% fall in tonnages of residual waste. Waste Watch's THAW project was the first serious attempt to measure the intergenerational influence of an education programme on behaviour at home (i.e. other than schools' own waste). It clearly shows that household recycling behaviour can be positively impacted by intergenerational influence via a practical school-based waste education model. However, although the model could potentially have a big impact if rolled out nationally, it will require seed funding and the long-term durability of the model has not yet been fully quantified.

Maddox, P.; Doran, C. [Waste Watch, 56-64 Leonard Street, London EC2A 4LT (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, University Rd., Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kus, M. [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, University Rd., Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2011-12-15

287

DTI energy from waste programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United Kingdom government Department of Trade and Industry has set up an Energy from Waste Programme through which it sponsors a wide range of activities directed towards energy recovery. These include resource assessments, technical, economic and com...

1996-01-01

288

Programmable micro accelerometers and gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of MEMS, IDTs (Interdigital Transducers) and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable accelerometers and gyroscopes is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in novel conformal sensors that can be remotely sensed by an RF system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. Hybrid Programmable accelerometers and gyroscopes on a single chip are useful for inertial navigation systems. Programmable sensors are achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short-circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers and gyroscopes can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology.

Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

1999-08-01

289

Electrically-programmable diffraction grating  

DOEpatents

An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

1998-05-26

290

Wireless glucose monitoring watch enabled by an implantable self-sustaining glucose sensor system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implantable glucose sensors can measure real time blood glucose as compared to conventional techniques involving drawing blood samples and in-vitro processing. An implantable sensor requires energy source for operation with wire inout provision for power and sending signals. Implants capable of generation-transmission of sensory signals, with minimal or no power requirement, can solve this problem. An implantable nanosensor design has been presented here, which can passively detect glucose concentration in blood stream and transmit data to a wearable receiver-recorder system or a watch. The glucose sensitive component is a redox pair of electrodes that generates voltage proportional to glucose concentration. The bio-electrode, made of carbon nanotubes-enzyme nanocluster, has been investigated because of the large surface area for taping electrical signals. This glucose sensor can charge a capacitor, which can be a part of a LCR resonance/inductive coupling based radio frequency (RF) sensor telemetry. Such a system can measure change in glucose concentration by the induced frequency shift in the LCR circuit. A simultaneous power transmission and signal transmission can be achieved by employing two separate LCR oscillating loops, one for each operation. The corresponding coupling LCR circuits can be housed in the wearable receiving watch unit. The data logged in this glucose monitoring watch can be instrumental in managing blood glucose as trigger for an insulin dispensing payload worn on person or implanted.

Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

2012-10-01

291

Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.  

PubMed

This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem. PMID:22529940

van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Ijzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A M; Salvador, Alicia

2012-01-01

292

Treatment of indolent lymphomas: watchful waiting v aggressive combined modality treatment  

SciTech Connect

Patients with advanced indolent lymphoma often have long survival (median, 4 to 8 years) in spite of frequent relapses. The inability of combination chemotherapy or radiation therapy (RT) to render patients disease free has led to radically divergent treatment approaches. Initial treatment may vary from aggressive combined modality therapy to no initial treatment. We sought to evaluate these two divergent approaches in a randomized trial of advanced indolent lymphomas (nodular, poorly differentiated lymphocytic; nodular mixed; diffuse, well-differentiated lymphocytic; diffuse, intermediately differentiated lymphocytic; and diffuse, poorly differentiated lymphocytic). A total of 104 patients were entered: 44 were randomly assigned to watch and wait in which only carefully defined, limited RT was administered if necessary; 45 were randomly assigned to aggressive combined modality treatment with prednisone, methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, plus etoposide plus mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone (ProMACE-MOPP), followed by total nodal irradiation (TNI); and 15, with symptoms requiring initial therapy, received the identical combined treatment but were not randomly assigned. Of 41 evaluable patients on watch and wait, 23 (56%) have still not required systemic therapy, although 16 (39%) have received limited RT. Median time to crossover was 34 months. Of 18 patients crossed over, seven of the 16 who completed therapy (43%) achieved CR; two (11%) have relapsed. Histologic progression was seen in six (15%) of 41 patients on watch and wait without intervening chemotherapy. Of 45 patients randomly assigned to chemotherapy, 37 (82%) have completed induction therapy, and 29 of the 37 (78%) achieved CR.

Young, R.C.; Longo, D.L.; Glatstein, E.; Ihde, D.C.; Jaffe, E.S.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.

1988-04-01

293

Television Watching, Diet Quality, and Physical Activity and Diabetes among Three Ethnicities in the United States  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications.

Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

2012-01-01

294

Television watching, diet quality, and physical activity and diabetes among three ethnicities in the United States.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

2012-01-01

295

The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 2; Comet Halley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Halley's Comet (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft, subsequently renamed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini- Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

1996-01-01

296

Audience influence on EGM gambling: the protective effects of having others watch you play.  

PubMed

One component of social facilitation on gambling is the potential for an audience of people to observe the play of Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) gamblers and influence their behaviour without participating directly in gambling themselves. An experiment was conducted with an audience of onlookers, purported to be students of research methods, taking notes while watching the participants play an EGM. Forty-three male and 82 female participants (N = 125), aged 18-79 (M = 49.2, SD = 15.6), played a laptop simulated 3-reel EGM using a $20 stake in three conditions: (1) alone, (2) watched by a simulated audience of six persons, or (3) watched by an audience of 26. Outcomes on the poker machine were rigged with a fixed sequence of five wins in the first 20 spins and indefinite losses thereafter. The results found smaller bet-sizes associated with larger audiences of onlookers, and this outcome is consistent with a hypothesized motivation to display more wins to the audience. Moreover, final payouts were greater in the audience conditions compared to the control, further suggesting that an audience may be a protective factor limiting player losses. PMID:20714792

Rockloff, Matthew J; Greer, Nancy

2011-09-01

297

Star Watch: The Amateur Astronomer's Guide to Finding, Observing, and Learning about Over 125 Celestial Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Your Passport to the Universe The night sky is alive with many wonders--distant planets, vast star clusters, glowing nebulae, and expansive galaxies, all waiting to be explored. Let respected astronomy writer Philip Harrington introduce you to the universe in Star Watch, a complete beginner's guide to locating, observing, and understanding these celestial objects. You'll start by identifying the surface features of the Moon, the banded cloud tops of Jupiter, the stunning rings of Saturn, and other members of our solar system. Then you'll venture out beyond our solar system, where you'll learn tips and tricks for finding outstanding deep-sky objects from stars to galaxies, including the entire Messier catalog--a primary goal of every serious beginner. Star Watch features a detailed physical description of each target, including size, distance, and structure, as well as concise directions for locating the objects, handy finder charts, hints on the best times to view each object, and descriptions of what you'll really see through a small telescope or binoculars and with the naked eye. Star Watch will transport you to the farthest depths of space--and return you as a well-traveled, experienced stargazer.

Harrington, Philip S.

2003-07-01

298

Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F(2,102)=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f(2)=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television. PMID:23274126

Bevelander, Kirsten E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

2013-04-01

299

World Weather Watch: Consolidated Report on the Voluntary Assistance Program Including Projects Approved for Circulation in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General remarks on the status of the overall Voluntary Assistance Program (VAP) are followed by guidelines for use in the implementation of World Weather Watch projects through VAP. Equipment required to implement VAP projects approved for 1977 is listed ...

1978-01-01

300

77 FR 13533 - Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2012 for Watch Producers Located in the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Calendar Year 2012 for Watch Producers Located in the United States Virgin Islands AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...producers (``program producers'') located in the United States Virgin Islands (``USVI'') pursuant to Public Law 97-446,...

2012-03-07

301

78 FR 14266 - Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2013 for Watch Producers Located in the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Calendar Year 2013 for Watch Producers Located in the United States Virgin Islands AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...producers (``program producers'') located in the United States Virgin Islands (``USVI'') pursuant to Public Law 97-446,...

2013-03-05

302

75 FR 10463 - Office of Insular Affairs; Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2010 for Watch...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Calendar Year 2010 for Watch Producers Located in the United States Virgin Islands AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...producers (``program producers'') located in the United States Virgin Islands (``USVI'') pursuant to Public Law 97-446,...

2010-03-08

303

76 FR 12700 - Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2011 for Watch Producers Located in the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Calendar Year 2011 for Watch Producers Located in the United States Virgin Islands AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...producers (``program producers'') located in the United States Virgin Islands (``USVI'') pursuant to Public Law 97-446,...

2011-03-08

304

Comparison of Motionlogger Watch and Actiwatch Actigraphs to Polysomnography for Sleep/Wake Estimation in Healthy Young Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sleep/wake identification and sleep parameter estimates from Motionlogger Watch and Actiwatch-64 actigraphs were compared to polysomnography (PSG). Following one night of baseline sleep, 29 volunteers remained awake for 36 h, followed by 11 h of recovery ...

T. J. Balkin T. L. Rupp

2011-01-01

305

Introduction to Programmable Active Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of PAM, Programmable Active Memory and present results obtainedwith our Perle-0 prototype board, featuring:ffl A software silicon foundry for a 50K gate array, with a 50 milliseconds turn-aroundtime.ffl A 3000 one bit processors universal machine with an arbitrary interconnect structurespecified by 400K bits of nano-code.ffl A programmable hardware co-processor with an initial library including: a longmultiplier,

Patrice Bertin; Didier Roncin; Jean Vuillemin

1989-01-01

306

Short and Long-term Effects of Whale Watching on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of cetacean studies have shown that whale watching causes short-term behavioral changes in individuals, but none have yet demonstrated long-term population effects. This is particularly true of killer whales ( Orcinus orca). In British Columbia, killer whales have precisely known population dynamics and there is a well-documented history of whale watching activity. Studies of the effects of vessels

Andrew W. Trites; David E. Bain

307

Sustainable ecotourism on Atlantic islands, with special reference to whale watching, Marine Protected Areas and sanctuaries, for cetaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism in the Atlantic islands region is well-established and growing. Still, in the whale watching and marine tourism sector, many so-called ecotourism enterprises fail to achieve the minimum standards required to qualify as ecotourism. In the Atlantic islands area, approximately 1.7 million people a year go whale watching, with a total expenditure of US$133 million. In this region, the 90

Erich Hoyt

2005-01-01

308

Watch-and-Comment as an Approach to Collaboratively Annotate Points of Interest in Video and Interactive-TV Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In earlier work we proposed the Watch-and-Comment (WaC) paradigm as the seamless capture of multimodal comments made by one\\u000a or more users while watching a video, resulting in the automatic generation of multimedia documents specifying annotated interactive\\u000a videos. The aim is to allow services to be offered by applying document engineering techniques to the multimedia document\\u000a generated automatically. The WaC

Maria da Graça C. Pimentel; Renan G. Cattelan; Erick L. Melo; Giliard B. Freitas; Cesar A. Teixeira

309

Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

Swift, Lynette

2012-01-01

310

The programmer`s guide to the software copyright  

SciTech Connect

This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

Wehrli, J.E.

1996-06-01

311

Learning to Watch Cinema in the Classroom: Production and Investigation for the Teaching of Cinematographic Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article synthesises an investigation of the making of a didactic programme as a consequence of the excess of consumption of audiovisual messages and the non critical and non-thoughtful attitude the youngsters have towards it. As an answer to this problem, the authors have produced a didactical programme about cinema and its language, the main…

Goncalves, Ana Luisa; Fandos, Manuel; Aguaded, Jose-Ignacio

2011-01-01

312

ARTICLE WATCH  

PubMed Central

This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Hartwell Center, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale St., Memphis TN 38105-2794. Tel: (901) 495-4844; Fax: (901) 495-2945; email: Clive.Slaughter@stjude.org or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s opinions and not necessarily those of the Association.

2007-01-01

313

Trial Watch  

PubMed Central

In 1997, for the first time in history, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), i.e., the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of mAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has not stopped to expand, nowadays encompassing a stunning amount of 15 distinct molecules. This therapeutic armamentarium includes mAbs that target tumor-associated antigens, as well as molecules that interfere with tumor-stroma interactions or exert direct immunostimulatory effects. These three classes of mAbs exert antineoplastic activity via distinct mechanisms, which may or may not involve immune effectors other than the mAbs themselves. In previous issues of OncoImmunology, we provided a brief scientific background to the use of mAbs, all types confounded, in cancer therapy, and discussed the results of recent clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach. Here, we focus on mAbs that primarily target malignant cells or their interactions with stromal components, as opposed to mAbs that mediate antineoplastic effects by activating the immune system. In particular, we discuss relevant clinical findings that have been published during the last 13 months as well as clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of hitherto investigational tumor-targeting mAbs.

Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

314

Nature watch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shield tails are a group of snakes belonging to the family Uropeltidae, endemic to the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. They are\\u000a small, beautiful non-poisonous snakes with bright colours, found at high altitudes in the ‘shola’ forests. They spend much\\u000a of their life burrowing 1–2 metres beneath the surface, in search of their favourite food, earthworms. Loss of habitat has

Kartik Shanker

1996-01-01

315

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

316

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

It is now clear that the immune system plays a critical role not only during oncogenesis and tumor progression, but also as established neoplastic lesions respond to therapy. Selected cytotoxic chemicals can indeed elicit immunogenic cell death, a functionally peculiar type of apoptosis that stimulates tumor-specific cognate immune responses. Such immunogenic chemotherapeutics include cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin (which are approved by FDA for the treatment of various hematological and solid malignancies), mitoxantrone (which is currently employed both as an anticancer agent and against multiple sclerosis) and patupilone (a microtubular poison in clinical development). One year ago, in the second issue of OncoImmunology, we discussed the scientific rationale behind immunogenic chemotherapy and reviewed the status of recent clinical trials investigating the off-label use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this area of clinical research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months and clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of immunogenic chemotherapeutics.

Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Herve; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

317

Monarch Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom study ideas, questions, and multimedia dealing with Monarch butterflies as classroom study organisms. Information about conservation, migration and tagging, biology, and live butterflies for sale is presented.

0002-11-30

318

Bird Watching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief Web page from Enchanted Learning.com is actually a broader resource than it appears at first glance. By clicking on the highlighted links kids can learn a bit about how to become a knowledgeable bird watcher, and how to attract birds to their yards. The Zoom Birds link takes the user to a more extensive Enchanted Learning.com page about birds in general.

1997-01-01

319

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

Tumor-targeting immune responses provide a significant contribution to (when they do not entirely account for) the clinical activity of diverse antineoplastic regimens, encompassing not only a large panel of immunotherapeutic strategies but also conventional cytotoxic molecules, targeted anticancer agents and irradiation. In line with this notion, several approaches have been devised to elicit novel or boost existing anticancer immune responses, including the administration of immunomodulatory cytokines. Such a relatively unspecific intervention suffices to mediate clinical effects in (at least a subset of) patients bearing particularly immunogenic tumors, like melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. More often, however, immunostimulatory cytokines are administered to boost the immunogenic potential of other agents, including (but not limited to) immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies, anticancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses and immunogenic chemotherapeutics. Here, we summarize the latest advances in the clinical development of recombinant cytokines as an immunomodulatory intervention for cancer therapy.

Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

320

Trial Watch  

PubMed Central

Lenalidomide is a synthetic derivative of thalidomide currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients affected by multiple myeloma (in combination with dexamethasone) and low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndromes that harbor 5q cytogenetic abnormalities. For illustrative purposes, the mechanism of action of lenalidomide can be subdivided into a cancer cell-intrinsic, a stromal, and an immunological component. Indeed, lenalidomide not only exerts direct cell cycle-arresting and pro-apoptotic effects on malignant cells, but also interferes with their physical and functional interaction with the tumor microenvironment and mediates a robust, pleiotropic immunostimulatory activity. In particular, lenalidomide has been shown to stimulate the cytotoxic functions of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, to limit the immunosuppressive impact of regulatory T cells, and to modulate the secretion of a wide range of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor ?, interferon ? as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-12. Throughout the last decade, the antineoplastic and immunostimulatory potential of lenalidomide has been investigated in patients affected by a wide variety of hematological and solid malignancies. Here, we discuss the results of these studies and review the status of clinical trials currently assessing the safety and efficacy of this potent immunomodulatory drug in oncological indications.

Semeraro, Michaela; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

321

Trial Watch  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have long been known for their ability to initiate innate immune responses upon exposure to conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA. More recently, this family of pattern recognition receptors has been attributed a critical role in the elicitation of anticancer immune responses, raising interest in the development of immunochemotherapeutic regimens based on natural or synthetic TLR agonists. In spite of such an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation, only three TLR agonists are currently licensed by FDA for use in cancer patients: bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that operates as a mixed TLR2/TLR4 agonist; monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a derivative of Salmonella minnesota that functions as a potent agonist of TLR4; and imiquimod, a synthetic imidazoquinoline that activates TLR7. One year ago, in the August and September issues of OncoImmunology, we described the main biological features of TLRs and discussed the progress of clinical studies evaluating the safety and therapeutic potential of TLR agonists in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on preclinical studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the antineoplastic activity of TLR agonists.

Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

322

Trial watch  

PubMed Central

During the past 20 years, dozens—if not hundreds—of monoclonal antibodies have been developed and characterized for their capacity to mediate antineoplastic effects, either as they activate/enhance tumor-specific immune responses, either as they interrupt cancer cell-intrinsic signal transduction cascades, either as they specifically delivery toxins to malignant cells or as they block the tumor-stroma interaction. Such an intense research effort has lead to the approval by FDA of no less than 14 distinct molecules for use in humans affected by hematological or solid malignancies. In the inaugural issue of OncoImmunology, we briefly described the scientific rationale behind the use of monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy and discussed recent, ongoing clinical studies investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach in patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of clinical research, focusing on high impact studies that have been published during the last 15 months and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of promising, yet hitherto investigational, monoclonal antibodies.

Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Sautes-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

323

Suicide Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers say the best way to prevent suicide is to find and treat kids with depression and substance-abuse problems. Schools should also develop a suicide-prevention policy, make curriculum decisions wisely, train staff as detectives, notify parents, make sure affected children get help, and attend to survivors. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

Jones, Rebecca

2001-01-01

324

Aurora Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, visitors can monitor geomagnetic activity and find out when the aurora borealis may be visible from the UK. Lancaster University offers background information on the characteristics and causes of an aurora, plots of both same day and previous day activities, and magnetometer data. Students and educators can learn how to make their own pop-bottle and compass aurora detectors. Individuals can sign up to receive alerts of opportunities to see the aurora. Everyone can treasure the truly amazing collection of northern lights images.

325

Storm Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit from Intel(R) Teach is an assessment plan that is comprised of continuous assessment opportunities over a six-week period of time. The unit is focused on collecting and analyzing weather data and answering the essential question: How do people respond to change? Included with the lesson overview is the entire unit plan in a zip file, instructional procedures, student samples, standards, and rubrics.

Shirley, Jeanne

2012-01-01

326

Programmable data communications controller requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

1977-01-01

327

Radon programmes and health marketing.  

PubMed

Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

2011-05-01

328

Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter  

SciTech Connect

A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

Arnone, Gaetano J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

329

Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter  

SciTech Connect

A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the serializer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

Arnone, G.J.

1989-02-27

330

Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

Arnone, G.J.

1990-04-24

331

Radon programme: presence and future.  

PubMed

An overview of radon programme experience is presented. The paper summarises broad topics concerning radon issue: philosophy of radon policy, radon measurements strategies with respect to indoor radon variation, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), national programmes, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions for radon issues in the future. PMID:18420575

Hulka, J

2008-01-01

332

Software engineering programmes are not computer science programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmes in “Software Engineering” have become a source of contention in many universities. Some Computer Science departments, many of which have used that phrase to describe individual courses for decades, claim software engineering as part of their discipline. However, Engineering faculties claim “Software Engineering” as a new speciality in the family of engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the differences between

David Lorge Parnas

1998-01-01

333

NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide  

SciTech Connect

This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

1996-07-01

334

Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

2008-09-01

335

Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching  

PubMed Central

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (?95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities.

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-01-01

336

Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.  

PubMed

Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (? 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

2011-03-01

337

Astronaut David Scott watching hammer and feather fall to lunar surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander, watches a geological hammer and a feather hit the lunar surface simultaneously in a test of Galileo's law of motion concerning falling bodies, as seen in this color reproduction taken from a transmission made by the RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Scott released the hammer from his right hand and the feather from his left at the same instant. This experiment occured toward the end of the third and final lunar surface extravehicular activity.

1971-01-01

338

Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from the myoglobin (Mb) mutant in which Leu29 is replaced by Phe (L29F mutant). The frame-by-frame structural evolution, resolved to 1.8 angstroms, allows one to literally ``watch'' the protein as it executes its function. Time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of flash-photolyzed L29F MbCO revealed a short-lived CO intermediate whose 140-ps lifetime is shorter than that found

Friedrich Schotte; Manho Lim; Timothy A. Jackson; Aleksandr V. Smirnov; Jayashree Soman; John S. Olson; George N. Phillips; Michael Wulff; Philip A. Anfinrud

2003-01-01

339

This (Sandpiper like) bird, as well as many other species keep watch over Moffett Field wetlands.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This (Sandpiper like) bird, as well as many other species keep watch over Moffett Field wetlands. The shorebird in this picture is a greater yellowlegs (Tinga melanoleuca) which is a common bird found in our coastal salt marsh and tidal zones in winter months. Generally, they summer/breed up north in Canada and Alaska and then migrate in the fall to winter along the west coast of the U.S. and Mexico. Known for their loud call of a slightly descending series of three or more tew notes. Diet consists of small fish, insects, snails, worms, and tadpoles. used in Ames 60 yr. History NASA SP-2000-4314

1991-01-01

340

Programmable fiber optic delay line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel programmable delay line that generates up to 50 ns of true time-delay in discrete 10 ns intervals. The delay line consists of an externally modulated wavelength tunable fiber laser and a six-element wavelength multiplexed fiber Bragg grating array, with the grating spacing set to yield the desired delay

Gary A. Ball; W. H. Glenn; W. W. Morey

1994-01-01

341

Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

2009-01-01

342

Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a b...

A. Qin C. Akers C. Duvier K. Cheney K. Roth O. Sachs V. Tiefenbeck

2012-01-01

343

The Observing Programme, Present Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corotweeks after Corotweeks, the observing programme has become more and more precise. Requirements from the Core Programme, as described in the Scientific Specification document, and recalled in chapter II of this volume lead to select first the long runs. Some delay in the launch date has lead to modify the programme for the first semester, substituting two "Initial runs" to a long run in the anticentre direction. This paper presents the status of the choices made by the Scientitific Committee till its 19th session on June 2006 in Nice. After the basic choice of the selected regions around principal targets, the successive pointings (Runs) are presented, in a sort of chronological order: - The two initial runs - The first centre pointings : LRc1 and SRc1 - The first anticentre pointings: LRa1 and SRa1 - The second centre pointing: LRc2, still to be tuned (SRc2 is not yet chosen) - The second anticentre pointing : LRa2, still to be confirmed by the exoplanet programme (SRa2 is not yet chosen). The following ones have not been decided yet. It is clear that the first results from space may lead to slight modifications, and orient differently the choices for the later phases.

Michel, E.; Deleuil, M.; Baglin, A.

2006-11-01

344

Nanowire-based programmable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemists can now construct wires which are just a few atoms in diameter; these wires can be selectively field-effect gated, and wire crossings can act as diodes with programmable resistance. These new capabilities present both opportunities and challenges for constructing nanoscale computing systems. The tiny feature sizes offer a path to economically scale down to atomic dimensions. However, the associated

André Dehon

2005-01-01

345

The programmers' playground: a demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate The Programmers' Playground, a pro- gramming environment that supports end-user con- struction of distributed multimedia applications. Features include separation of communication and computation, dynamic end-user configuration of dis- tributed applications, separation of active & reactive control, and migration of running modules. Applica- tions include a process control simulation, planetary orbits visualization, medical image processing pipe- line, a multimedia

Kenneth J. Goldman; T. Paul McCartney; Ram Sethuraman; Bala Swaminathan

1995-01-01

346

Users, Programmers, and Statistical Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical software provides essential support for statisticians and others who are analyzing data or doing research on new statistical techniques. Those supported typically regard themselves as “users” of the software, but as soon as they need to express their own ideas computationally, they in fact become “programmers.” Nothing is more important for the success of statistical software than enabling this

John M. Chambers

2000-01-01

347

Exploratory experiments in programmer behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of cognitive psychological experimentation can help resolve specific issues in programming and explore the broader issues of programmer behavior. This paper describes the methodological questions of such experimentation and presents two exploratory experiments: a memorization task and a comparison of the arithmetic and logical IF statements infortran.

Ben Shneiderman

1976-01-01

348

Designing Individualised Leadership Development Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recruitment of sufficient numbers of suitably qualified teachers into headship is an international issue and to address this in Scotland alternative headship preparation programmes were trialled to provide greater flexibility in order to better match the individual development needs and circumstances of the aspirant head teachers. Drawing from…

Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery; Gronn, Peter

2013-01-01

349

The GlucoWatch biographer: a frequent automatic and noninvasive glucose monitor.  

PubMed

The GlucoWatch (Cygnus, Inc, Redwood City, CA, USA) biographer provides automatic, frequent and noninvasive blood glucose measurements for up to 12 h. The device extracts glucose through intact skin where it is measured by an amperometric biosensor. Clinical trials in a variety of environments have shown that the biographer provides accurate and precise glucose measurements when compared with serial fingerstick blood glucose measurements. Mean difference between these measurements was 0.26 mmol/L in the home environment (r = 0.80). Over 94% of biographer readings were in the clinically acceptable A+B region of the Clarke Error Grid. A slight positive bias is observed for the biographer readings at low glucose levels. Biographer precision, as measured by coefficient of variation (CV)%, is approximately 10%. The low glucose alert function of the biographer was able to detect up to 75% of hypoglycaemic episodes with a low false alert level. Skin irritation, characterized by erythema and oedema was either nonexistent or mild in over 87% of subjects and resolved in virtually all subjects without treatment in several days. The GlucoWatch biographer has been shown to be a safe and effective method to track glucose level trends and patterns, which should enable improved glycaemic control for many patients. PMID:11209971

Tierney, M J; Tamada, J A; Potts, R O; Eastman, R C; Pitzer, K; Ackerman, N R; Fermi, S J

2000-12-01

350

The GlobalJetWatch spectrographs: a fibre-fed spectrograph for small telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GlobalJetWatch project (www.globaljetwatch.net) will place small (0.5-metre) commerical telescopes in four schools around the world. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom designed spectrograph, currently being built by the Astrophysics sub-department of the University of Oxford. The scientific goal of the project is to provide continual monitoring of a rosetta stone object, the micro-quasar SS433. In addition, the project has a significant out-reach element, aiming to involve school children on four-continents in front-line astronomical research. The spectrograph is a fibre-fed fixed format cross-dispersed echellete design providing R~6000 spectra from 4300-8500 in a single exposure. The spectrograph is built almost entirely from off-the-shelf components. The four GlobalJetWatch sites (Australia, India, South Africa, Chile) will be commissioned in 2008/09. Here we present the baseline design of the spectrograph, and initial results from the prototype on-sky commissioning in Oxford.

Clarke, Fraser J.; Gosling, Andrew J.; Doolin, Sam; Goodall, Paul; Perez, Sebastian; Pattinson, Paul; Makin, Rick; Blundell, Katherine M.

2008-07-01

351

The three viewpoints for raising a child's natural science literacy -Catch, Touch and Watch -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are few opportunities to go out for field study, and the difficulty of letting a child and student get an understanding accompanied with realization, in Primary and Junior high schools of Japan (e.g. JST, 2010; 2011). Performing field study using nature near around school is a good opportunity to force the essence of everything. Moreover, it is very important also on the concept formation of the natural science over the things phenomenon of a child and student. In this presentation, I clarify the appearance of the child who wants to educate from a viewpoint of field study, and observe three viewpoints of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" which heightens the education effect in the field (nature). In the presentation of this meeting last year (Yoshida and Matsumoto, 2011), I outlined that three viewpoint of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" is important. In response to it, I carried out More-Options arrangement about the "natural science literacy" to the child of each viewpoint this time. For that purpose, teacher effective support is required to educate to a child. That is, the focusing to the details in the inside of a large nature, prepare of teaching materials and teaching tools, and a teacher's own independence study are important.

Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, I.

2012-12-01

352

PLC: Programmable Logic Controllers, Edition 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A programmable logic controller (PLC) is an industrial computer with built-in connections for electrical equipment. Programmable controllers and industrial PCs form the controls for most new manufacturing equipment. These controllers execute the logic req...

R. VanderBok

1992-01-01

353

Design automation for mask programmable fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable circuit design has played an important role in improving design productivity over the last few decades. By imposing structure on the design, efficient automation of synthesis, placement and routing is possible. We focus on a class of programmable circuits known as mask programmable circuits. In this paper, we describe key issues in design and tool methodology that need to

Narendra V. Shenoy; Jamil Kawa; Raul Camposano

2004-01-01

354

Mystery shopping programmes and human resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mystery shopper programmes are defined as a tool for evaluating and improving customer service. The development and implementation of a mystery shopper programme is discussed as a sequence of related steps closely linked to human resource management and employee involvement. The process begins with setting the objectives of the programme and ends with rewarding behaviour and implementing change. Employee participation

Margaret Erstad

1998-01-01

355

Ray tracing on programmable graphics hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a breakthrough has occurred in graphics hardware: fixed function pipelines have been replaced with programmable vertex and fragment processors. In the near future, the graphics pipeline is likely to evolve into a general programmable stream processor capable of more than simply feed-forward triangle rendering.In this paper, we evaluate these trends in programmability of the graphics pipeline and explain how

Timothy J. Purcell; Ian Buck; William R. Mark; Pat Hanrahan

2002-01-01

356

Ray Tracing on Programmable Graphics Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a breakthrough has occurred in graphics hardware: fixed function pipelines have been replaced with programmable vertex and fragment processors. In the near future, the graphics pipeline is likely to evolve into a general programmable stream processor capable of more than simply feed-forward triangle rendering. In this paper, we evaluate these trends in programmability of the graphics pipeline and explain

I. Buck Purcell; W. Mark; P. Hanrahan

1998-01-01

357

Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

2007-01-01

358

Investigation of Ultrasonic Motors Using Thin Piezo-Ceramics and a Metal Composite-Plate for Watches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have developed a 0.4-mm-thick longitudinal bar-type ultrasonic motor for use in watches, using a thin plate stator and a rotor equipped within the same plane. The stator is driven to vibrate length wise by piezo-ceramics oscillated in the first longitudinal mode. The stator then uses a slant projection tooth to pick at the rotor, and drive it. The motor is simply constructed and is easily driven at low voltages. This paper shows that the ultrasonic motor possesses the requisite size and operating characteristics for use in driving the date wheel of a watch.

Miyazawa, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yasuharu; Funasaka, Tsukasa; Furuhata, Makoto

1999-09-01

359

Multi-programmable hearing aid.  

PubMed

A basic problem in hearing-aid fitting is the difficulty in finding one setting optimal to all listening situations that might occur. The objective was to develop a behind-the-ear hearing-aid with a very flexible analog signal processor which is digitally controlled, and a memory with logic, so that the hearing-impaired person can select from eight completely different fittings. To program and adjust this multi-programmable hearing-aid (called MemoryMate) a hearing evaluation and recommendation system (called Master-Fit) has been developed, based on an IBM PS/2 computer. This system offers the dispenser prescriptive fitting methods and performance of real ear measurements. It can be used to manage a client database. Preliminary results from a clinical study conducted in 1988 are presented. The paper also describes the uniqueness of this multi-programmable hearing aid as a powerful new research tool. PMID:2356739

Mangold, S; Eriksson-Mangold, M; Israelsson, B; Leijon, A; Ringdahl, A

1990-01-01

360

The vaccination programme in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The Indonesian response to the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is being strengthened by increased intersectoral commitment and greater availability of staff and resources. Vaccination against avian influenza has been used widely in large commercial sectors but less so in other sectors. Generally, there has been a reduction in outbreaks and in the impact of HPAI on the commercial industry. Afield trial is described that might provide insight into the efficacy of vaccination on farms in sector 3. Preliminary data suggest that vaccination of layers induces high titres, whereas vaccination of native chickens might be difficult owing to a low response in these breeds. A much greater commitment of management, staff and resources is required before vaccination can become part of a successful sustainable campaign to eradicate HPAI. For success, the commercial poultry industry must become an integral part of the control programme, providing information and having the opportunity to identify or modify the priorities of the control programme. PMID:18411946

Sawitri Siregar, E; Darminto; Weaver, J; Bouma, A

2007-01-01

361

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary aim of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) is "to deliver scientific knowledge to help human societies develop in harmony with Earth's environment". To achieve this rather broad agenda, the IGBP works in collaboration with other like-minded international organizations, including the World Climate Research Programme. From the homepage, visitors can read an executive summary of the organization's work and achievements, or access highlights from its ongoing research, such as recent work on the North Sea and its function as a "carbon pump". Researchers and scientists will appreciate the extensive publications section, which includes recent work on global wetland distribution and predicting global change impacts on mountain hydrology and ecology. Finally, the site also contains a list of IGBP-sponsored events, along with related conferences and other such germane events.

362

PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

Busquets, A. M.

1994-01-01

363

The Death of the Programmer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the field of software development becomes more profes- sionalized and the software development process becomes more formalized, there is a growing belief that the front- line programmer's job is becoming—or must become, out of economic necessity—de-skilled. In this paper we show that essential aspects of the pro- gramming activity involve skills that have not been elim- inated by progress

Phillip L. Nico; Clark S. Turner; Timothy J. Kearns

364

Programmable Grit-Blasting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In programmable grit-blasting system undergoing design, controller moves blasting head to precise positions to shape or remove welding defects from parts. Controller holds head in position for preset dwell time and moves head to new position along predetermined path. Position of articulated head established by pair of servomotors according to programmed signals from controller. Head similar to video borescope. Used to remove welding defects in blind holes. Suited for repetitive production operations in grit-blast box.

Burley, Richard K.

1988-01-01

365

Programmable data collection platform study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

1976-01-01

366

Programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors.  

PubMed

A nanoprocessor constructed from intrinsically nanometre-scale building blocks is an essential component for controlling memory, nanosensors and other functions proposed for nanosystems assembled from the bottom up. Important steps towards this goal over the past fifteen years include the realization of simple logic gates with individually assembled semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes, but with only 16 devices or fewer and a single function for each circuit. Recently, logic circuits also have been demonstrated that use two or three elements of a one-dimensional memristor array, although such passive devices without gain are difficult to cascade. These circuits fall short of the requirements for a scalable, multifunctional nanoprocessor owing to challenges in materials, assembly and architecture on the nanoscale. Here we describe the design, fabrication and use of programmable and scalable logic tiles for nanoprocessors that surmount these hurdles. The tiles were built from programmable, non-volatile nanowire transistor arrays. Ge/Si core/shell nanowires coupled to designed dielectric shells yielded single-nanowire, non-volatile field-effect transistors (FETs) with uniform, programmable threshold voltages and the capability to drive cascaded elements. We developed an architecture to integrate the programmable nanowire FETs and define a logic tile consisting of two interconnected arrays with 496 functional configurable FET nodes in an area of ?960 ?m(2). The logic tile was programmed and operated first as a full adder with a maximal voltage gain of ten and input-output voltage matching. Then we showed that the same logic tile can be reprogrammed and used to demonstrate full-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer and clocked D-latch functions. These results represent a significant advance in the complexity and functionality of nanoelectronic circuits built from the bottom up with a tiled architecture that could be cascaded to realize fully integrated nanoprocessors with computing, memory and addressing capabilities. PMID:21307937

Yan, Hao; Choe, Hwan Sung; Nam, SungWoo; Hu, Yongjie; Das, Shamik; Klemic, James F; Ellenbogen, James C; Lieber, Charles M

2011-02-10

367

Programmable microoptics for ultrashort pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable liquid-crystal devices for high-resolution spatial shaping of ultrashort-pulsed laser beams promise to be an alternative approach to passive microoptical structures. In former experiments we demonstrated that depositionfabricated nanolayer lenses and axicons can serve as low-dispersion, damage resistant, ultrabroadband microoptical components. With small-angle layer microaxicons, robust wavefront sensors and 2D autocorrelators were built up with them which took advantage of

Ruediger Grunwald; Martin Bock

2010-01-01

368

Digital-to-Analog Converter with Programmable Floating Gate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems and methods are discussed for using a floating-gate MOSFET as a programmable reference circuit. One example of the programmable reference circuit is a programmable voltage reference source, while a second example of a programmable reference circui...

G. J. Serrano M. R. Kucic P. E. Hasler

2006-01-01

369

Combat Casualty Care research programme.  

PubMed

The Combat Casualty Care research programme is an integrated suite of projects designed to address Defence Medical Services' research needs for casualty care. The programme covers a broad spectrum of topics ranging from the pathophysiological and immunological impact of military relevant injuries to the effects of these disturbances on the response to early treatment. Dstl Porton Down has a long history of studying military injuries and has developed models, both in vivo and physical, to address the research needs. The work is conducted in close collaboration with clinical colleagues at the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine who have direct experience of the clinical issues faced by combat casualties and insights into the potential clinical implications of emerging strategies. This article reviews progress in research areas spanning forward resuscitation, with a particular focus on blast-related injuries, trauma coagulopathy, effects of drugs on the response to haemorrhage and deployed research. A significant 'value added' component has been the underpinning of higher degrees for seconded military clinicians at Dstl Porton Down who have made a valuable contribution to the overall programme. PMID:24574106

Kirkman, Emrys; Watts, S

2014-06-01

370

Television Watching, Energy Intake, and Obesity in US Children Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the relationship between tele- vision watching, energy intake, physical activity, and obe- sity status in US boys and girls, aged 8 to 16 years. Methods: We used a nationally representative cross- sectional survey with an in-person interview and a medi- cal examination, which included measurements of height and weight, daily hours of television watching, weekly par- ticipation

Carlos J. Crespo; Ellen Smit; Richard P. Troiano; Susan J. Bartlett; Caroline A. Macera; Ross E. Andersen

371

Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10).  

PubMed

To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009-10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California's coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation. PMID:23886247

Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A; Furlong, Edward T; Kimbrough, Kimani L; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Christensen, John D

2014-04-30

372

Test report of evaluation of primary exhaust ventilation flowmeters for double shell hydrogen watch list tanks  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of testing four different flowmeters for use in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of Double Shell Tanks on the hydrogen watch list that do not already have this capability. This currently includes tanks 241-AW-101,241-AN- 103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105 and 241-SY-103. The anticipated airflow velocity in these tanks range from 0.25 m/s(50 ft/min) to 1/78 m/s (350 ft/min). Past experiences at Hanford have forced the evaluation and selection of instruments to be used at the low flow and relatively high humidity conditions found in these tanks. Based on the results of this test, a flow meter has been chosen for installation in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of the above mentioned waste tanks.

Willingham, W.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-03

373

Listening, Watching, and Reading: The Structure and Correlates of Entertainment Preferences  

PubMed Central

People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of over 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences.

Rentfrow, Peter J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Zilca, Ran

2010-01-01

374

Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-09-28

375

Spectators in the stands watch launch of STS-95 and Space Shuttle Discovery.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amid the thousands of spectators watching the launch of STS-95 are Insurance Commissioner Bill Nelson (second from left, pointing) and Heavyweight Boxing Champion Evander Holyfield (next to him). A former U.S. representative, Nelson flew as a crew member on STS 61-C in January 1986. The STS-95 mission, which lifted off at 2:19:34 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Extra attention has been drawn to the mission due to the addition to the crew of John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio. STS-95 is Glenn's second flight into space after 36 years; he was one of the original Project Mercury astronauts and flew his first mission in February 1962.

1998-01-01

376

Forest Watch: An educational research program of the New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest Watch is a student-scientist partnership and education outreach program to study white pine health in New England. Primary and secondary students collect and process data on air pollution damage to forests near their schools, which is used by University of New Hampshire researchers, and compared with spectral data. These are then compared to tropospheric ozone data, beginning from 1991. Data spreadsheets for the student to enter forest biometric data and spectral curves are provided, as well as EOS-Webster satellite imagery, and GPS, ALTA, and Topo-Map activities forms. The student activities include forest stand assessment, laboratory assessment of damage symptoms, and image processing and data analysis of Thematic Mapper data around their school. There is information on teacher workshops and a message board.

377

Spectators in the stands watch launch of STS-95 and Space Shuttle Discovery.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These stands are filled with spectators watching and photographing the launch of STS-95. The viewing sites and roadways at Kennedy Space Center bulge with people and vehicles wanting to see Space Shuttle Discovery lift off. Extra attention has been drawn to the mission due to the addition to the crew of John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio. STS-95 is Glenn's second flight into space after 36 years; he was one of the original Project Mercury astronauts and flew his first mission in February 1962. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

378

Listening, watching, and reading: the structure and correlates of entertainment preferences.  

PubMed

People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of more than 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences. PMID:20649744

Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Zilca, Ran

2011-04-01

379

The International Outer Planets Watch atmospheres node database of giant-planet images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheres Node of the International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) is aimed to encourage the observations and study of the atmospheres of the Giant Planets. One of its main activities is to provide an interaction between the professional and amateur astronomical communities maintaining an online and fully searchable database of images of the giant planets obtained from amateur astronomers and available to both professional and amateurs [1]. The IOPW database contains about 13,000 image observations of Jupiter and Saturn obtained in the visible range with a few contributions of Uranus and Neptune. We describe the organization and structure of the database as posted in the Internet and in particular the PVOL software (Planetary Virtual Observatory & Laboratory) designed to manage the site and based in concepts from Virtual Observatory projects.

Hueso, R.; Legarreta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Rojas, J. F.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.

2011-10-01

380

FoolWatch: A Case study of econometric analysis and evidenced-based-policy making in the Australian Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision to introduce a national FuelWatch scheme provides a timely case study of `evidence-based- policy' making in Australia. The government based its decision on econometric work by the ACCC who refuse to release the data. They claim that their analysis is robust because it has been subject to scrutiny within the ACCC and by Treasury. Experience with `evidence based

Don Harding

2008-01-01

381

Children's Hostile Attribution Bias Is Reduced after Watching Realistic Playful Fighting, and the Effect Is Mediated by Prosocial Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hostile attribution bias (HAB) has been found to characterize aggressive children. Watching prosocial media has been shown to have positive effects on children, and the general learning model has been used to account for these observations. This study tested the hypotheses derived from this theory that exposure to playful fighting would lead to a…

Boulton, Michael J.

2012-01-01

382

DirecNet Randomized Trial of the GlucoWatch in the Management of T1DM in Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This randomized clinical trial was to assess the proper role of the GlucoWatch G2 (Trademark) Biographer (GW2B; Cygnus, Inc., Redwood City, CA) in the management of type 1 diabetes in children. Primary outcomes were change in HbA1c and frequency of hypogl...

2005-01-01

383

Relationship between Noctcaelador and Aesthetic Sensitivity: Art-Related Personality Factors Associated with College Students' Night-Sky Watching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between positive attitudes and behaviors concerning night-sky watching (noctcaelador) and aesthetic sensitivity. College students (N = 106) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory (Kelly, 2004a) and a shortened version of the Sensitivity Questionnaire (Child, 1965). Noctcaelador was significantly, positively…

Kelly, William E.

2008-01-01

384

The New Classified Research. Corporate Sponsored Biomedical Research and the Reign of Secrecy at Harvard University. A Harvard Watch Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harvard Watch asserts that withholding essential information from public scrutiny is not uncommon at Harvard University. Maintaining that Harvard has reversed its position from extolling the virtues of public disclosure to one of imposing secrecy, the document suggests that this about face is linked to the university's recent collaboration with…

Bourke, Jaron

385

Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God" and the Influence of Jens Peter Jacobsen's "Marie Grubbe."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that Harlem Renaissance literary figure, Zora Neale Hurston, may have written her novel of a three-times married woman, "Their Eyes Were Watching God," under the influence of and in response to "Marie Grubbe," a novel by a nineteenth-century Danish man. (JB)

Woodson, Jon

1992-01-01

386

Effect of Night Watches and Intermittent Sleep on State of Circadian Rhythms of Physiological Functions of Fishermen (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of 3 groups of 6 fishermen with different watch schedules measured the effect of interrupted sleep and wakefulness on daily rhythms and adaptability of fishermen on a cruise. Group 1 slept through the night without interruption, groups 2 and 3 had...

V. A. Skrupskiy

1987-01-01

387

Behavioural responses of killer whales (Orcinus orca )t o whale-watching boats: opportunistic observations and experimental approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johnstone Strait provides important summer habitat for the northern resident killer whales Orcinus orca of British Columbia. The site is also an active whale-watching area. A voluntary code of conduct requests that boats do not approach whales closer than 100 m to address perceived, rather than demonstrated, effects of boat traffic on killer whales. The purpose of the study was

Rob Williams; Andrew W. Trites; David E. Bain

2002-01-01

388

WatchBP Home A for Opportunistically Detecting Atrial Fibrillation During Diagnosis and Monitoring of Hypertension: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance.  

PubMed

The Microlife(®) 'WatchBP Home A' oscillometric blood pressure monitor detects irregular pulse, suggestive of atrial fibrillation (AF). Early detection of AF can prevent thromboembolic stroke via anticoagulation therapy. The device was considered by the Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). The sponsor (Microlife) identified 10 studies. These were reviewed by an External Assessment Centre (EAC) which considered three relevant to the decision problem, including one which found the device detected AF more accurately (sensitivity 96.8 %, specificity 88.8 %) than pulse palpation (87.2, 81.3 %). The EAC concluded the technology had potential to improve detection of AF, but the three studies had uncertain external validity. From a cost-consequence model with a 1-year timeframe, the sponsor calculated the device would reduce electrocardiogram (ECG) referrals and prevent strokes, but incur anticoagulation therapy costs, with net NHS savings of £11.6 million and prevention of 221 strokes, annually. The EAC criticised the model for its limited time horizon, and its consideration of symptomatic AF patients who were outside the scope issued by NICE. The EAC applied a de novo Markov model, with a 10-year timeframe. The per use saving was calculated as £2.98 for asymptomatic patients aged 65-74 years and £4.26 for those aged 75-84 years, with the prevention of 53-117 nonfatal and 28-65 fatal strokes per 100,000 people screened. Following consideration by the NICE Medical Technologies Advisory Committee, NICE judged that the case for adoption was supported by the evidence (Medical Technologies Guidance 13; MTG13). PMID:24664995

Willits, Iain; Keltie, Kim; Craig, Joyce; Sims, Andrew

2014-06-01

389

The Energy Expenditure of an Activity-Promoting Video Game compared to Sedentary Video Games and TV Watching  

PubMed Central

Background Screen time continues to be a major contributing factor to sedentariness in children. There have been more creative approaches to increase physical over the last few years. One approach has been through the use of video games. In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure and movement in lean and obese children. Our primary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement decreases while watching television, in lean and obese children. Our secondary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement increases when playing the same game with an activity-promoting video game console compared to a sedentary video game console, in lean and obese children. Methods Eleven boys (10 ± 1 year) and eight girls (9 ± 1 year) ranging in BMI from 14–29 kg/m2 (eleven lean and eight overweight or obese) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo Wii) console. Results Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console(125.3 ± 38.2 Kcal/hr vs. 79.7 ± 20.1 and 79.4 ±15.7, P<0.0001, respectively). When examining movement with accelerometry, children moved significantly more when playing the video game on the Nintendo Wii console (p<0.0001). Conclusion The amount of movement and energy expenditure of television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console is not different. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living.

Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A.

2014-01-01

390

The Kepler Guest Observer Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Guest Observer Office is dedicated to the service of the broad science community, with a charter to promote the exploitation of Kepler data and broaden the scientific impact of the Kepler mission. There are four routes by which to gain access to Kepler data: the Guest Observer programme annual call for proposals, the quarterly call for Director's Discretionary Targets, the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium, and by accessing the Kepler public data archive. The Guest Observer Office supports all users of Kepler data no matter which route they took to access data, and to that end have developed software tools which can be used by the community in their data analyses.

Barclay, Thomas

2012-04-01

391

Programmable Multi-Chip Module  

DOEpatents

A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

Kautz, David (Lenexa, KS); Morgenstern, Howard (Lee's Summit, MO); Blazek, Roy J. (Overland Park, KS)

2004-11-16

392

Programmable Multi-Chip Module  

DOEpatents

A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

Kautz, David (Lenexa, KS); Morgenstern, Howard (Lee's Summit, MO); Blazek, Roy J. (Overland Park, KS)

2005-05-24

393

International Social Survey Programme: ISSP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) is an ongoing project that promotes the cross-national collaboration of social science research. Each year, the 29 member countries of the ISSP contribute data from national social science research projects to an international survey. The topic for the international survey changes every year; past topics have included social inequality, role of government, religion, and national identity. This Website provides general information about the program, a list of international surveys from 1985 to 1999, an archive of data sets used by the ISSP, profiles of participating countries, and a bibliography of publications.

394

Programmable, automated transistor test system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

1986-01-01

395

'Oh goodness, I am watching reality TV'How methods make class in audience research  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most striking challenges encountered during the empirical stages of our audience research project, `Making Class and the Self through Televised Ethical Scenarios' (funded as part of the ESRC's Identities and Social Action programme), stemmed from how the different discursive resources held by our research participants impacted upon the kind of data collected. We argue that social class

Bev Skeggs; Nancy Thumim; Helen Wood

2008-01-01

396

A programmable image compression system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

Farrelle, Paul M.

1989-01-01

397

Programmable microoptics for ultrashort pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programmable liquid-crystal devices for high-resolution spatial shaping of ultrashort-pulsed laser beams promise to be an alternative approach to passive microoptical structures. In former experiments we demonstrated that depositionfabricated nanolayer lenses and axicons can serve as low-dispersion, damage resistant, ultrabroadband microoptical components. With small-angle layer microaxicons, robust wavefront sensors and 2D autocorrelators were built up with them which took advantage of stable and tilt-independent nondiffracting propagation. The flexibility of the thin-film design, however, was limited with respect to the dynamic range. For adaptive applications, information encoding, image transfer and data storage, addressable and phase variant components are required. Recently, phase-only reflective liquidcrystal- on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs) became available. By analyzing the pulse transfer behavior in spectral and temporal domain it was shown that selected versions of LCoS-SLMs are capable to shape 10-fs pulses with marginal distortion. Variable arrays of pulsed Bessel-like beams and nondiffracting complex patterns were shaped experimentally and related applications are discussed. The adaptive correction of aberrations in nondiffracting tubular beams on microscale is demonstrated. The unique properties of programmable beam patterns of well controlled propagation promise the coverage of fields of entirely new photonic applications.

Grunwald, Ruediger; Bock, Martin

2010-04-01

398

Programmable architecture for quantum computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and the global bus, which generate the cluster states and general multiqubit rotations around the z axis, respectively. QFPGA consists of quantum logic blocks (QLBs) and quantum routing channels (QRCs). The QLB is used to generate a small quantum logic while the QRC is used to combine them properly for larger logic realization. Considering the error accumulating on the qubus, the small logic is the general two-qubit quantum gate. However, for the application such as n-qubit quantum Fourier transform, one QLB can be reconfigured for four-qubit quantum Fourier transform. Although this is an implementation-independent architecture, we still make a rough analysis of its performance based on the qubus system. In a word, QFPGA provides a general architecture to integrate different quantum computing models for efficient quantum logic construction.

Chen, Jialin; Wang, Lingli; Charbon, Edoardo; Wang, Bin

2013-08-01

399

Interactive multi-pass programmable shading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable shading is a common technique for production animation, but interactive programmable shading is not yet widely available. We support interactive programmable shading on virtually any 3D graphics hardware using a scene graph library on top of OpenGL. We treat the OpenGL architecture as a general SIMD computer, and translate the high-level shading description into OpenGL rendering passes. While our

Mark S. Peercy; Marc Olano; John Airey; P. Jeffrey Ungar

2000-01-01

400

Building a global business continuity programme.  

PubMed

Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes. PMID:24854730

Lazcano, Michael

2014-01-01

401

Watershed Watch Undergraduate Research Projects: Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Tree Growth - Urban Development and Hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) is designed to engage early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). Two Watershed Watch students from the 2009 Summer Research Institute (SRI), held on the ECSU campus, August 3-14, 2009 investigated the use of wood cores collected from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). One student team studied the possible impacts of urban development on tree growth, focusing on the use of dendrochronology to assess the effect of environmental factors on the trees. Tree cores and foliar samples were collected at the ECSU Outdoor Classroom and compared with the same species from the Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) in Virginia. The main targets of this experiment were one aquatic tree, the bald cypress, and a land based tree, the loblolly pine. This allowed us to compare an urbanized area (ECSU) with a more natural setting (GDS) to evaluate factors impacting tree growth. This experiment suggests that there may be potentially harmful impacts of an urban environment with the data that at ECSU. The growth rings of the ECSU campus tree cores are noticeably narrow, especially in the loblolly pine from the ECSU outdoor classroom, and multiple fluctuations in more recent tree rings of the bald cypress in the ECSU campus. Growth ring compression, beginning approximately in 1956 in 100-year old loblolly pines, corresponds in timing with the nearby construction of two student dormitories within 100 feet of the trees. The other student team studied cores for evidence of possible impacts from four recent hurricanes (Isabel, category 5, 2003; Floyd, category 4, 1999; Bonnie, category 3, 1998; and Fran, Category 3, 1996) on trees from the Alligator River (near Cape Hatteras, NC) and from the ECSU campus (well inland). Cores were evaluated for the presence or absence of false growth rings that could be the result of saltwater impoundment associated with storm surges. False growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the Alligator River site, but only for the years 2003 and 1999. No false growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the ECSU campus. Both hurricanes Isabel and Floyd were stronger storms and had higher storm surges (8-10 ft) than either Bonnie or Fran (storm surges of 3-5 feet). The team hypothesized that the false growth rings were related to the impacts of the two stronger storms.

Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.

2009-12-01

402

Programm Umwelt- und Klimaforschung 1988/89. (Environmental and climate research programme 1988/89).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Study Group of the Large-scale Research Institutes (AGF) has been reporting on these projects since 1972, in its programme for 'Environmental and Climate Research'. The programme, which is worked out by the AGF's Coordination Office for Environmental ...

1987-01-01

403

The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

Salajan, Florin D.

2007-01-01

404

Programme Theory, Programme Documents and State Standards in Evaluating Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the USA as well as worldwide, numerous universities offer teacher preparation programmes and award such degrees. However, there are no consistent valid or reliable indicators for determining the coherence and quality of these programmes. An effective way of starting to evaluate these programmes is by looking at their standards and their…

Papanastasiou, Elena C.; Tatto, Maria Teresa; Neophytou, Lefkios

2012-01-01

405

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Stockholm, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) studies a wide range of interactions between both biological and physical processes and interactions with human systems. Their research agenda is impressive, and visitors to their homepage can dive right into their materials by reading one of their recent newsletters or by looking at the news updates. In the "Resources" area, visitors can download some of the IGBP's research reports and browse some of their recent conference presentations. Scientists and policy analysts alike will want to look at the "Earth System Science Partnership" area in order to learn more about their very ambitious work towards an "integrated study of the Earth System." This is being done in partnership with three additional international global change research institutions, and it is well worth a look.

406

Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats  

SciTech Connect

Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

2012-12-01

407

DNA-programmable nanoparticle crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was first shown more than ten years ago that DNA oligonucleotides can be attached to gold nanoparticles rationally to direct the formation of larger assemblies. Since then, oligonucleotide-functionalized nanoparticles have been developed into powerful diagnostic tools for nucleic acids and proteins, and into intracellular probes and gene regulators. In contrast, the conceptually simple yet powerful idea that functionalized nanoparticles might serve as basic building blocks that can be rationally assembled through programmable base-pairing interactions into highly ordered macroscopic materials remains poorly developed. So far, the approach has mainly resulted in polymerization, with modest control over the placement of, the periodicity in, and the distance between particles within the assembled material. That is, most of the materials obtained thus far are best classified as amorphous polymers, although a few examples of colloidal crystal formation exist. Here, we demonstrate that DNA can be used to control the crystallization of nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates to the extent that different DNA sequences guide the assembly of the same type of inorganic nanoparticle into different crystalline states. We show that the choice of DNA sequences attached to the nanoparticle building blocks, the DNA linking molecules and the absence or presence of a non-bonding single-base flexor can be adjusted so that gold nanoparticles assemble into micrometre-sized face-centred-cubic or body-centred-cubic crystal structures. Our findings thus clearly demonstrate that synthetically programmable colloidal crystallization is possible, and that a single-component system can be directed to form different structures.

Park, Sung Yong; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Lee, Byeongdu; Weigand, Steven; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

2008-01-01

408

A Framework for Evaluating Transferable Development Rights Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While theoretical aspects of transferable development rights (TDR) programmes have been explored, there is little research into programmatic elements of successful TDR programmes. The reported research systematically analyses characteristics of TDR programmes that correspond with successful programme implementation. After describing the basic elements of TDR programmes, this paper uses an iterative, case-study approach to: (1) identify and classify TDR programmatic

Patricia Machemer; Michael Kaplowitz

2002-01-01

409

Watching elderly and disabled person's physical condition by remotely controlled monorail robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a nursing system using robots and cameras. The cameras are mounted on a remote controlled monorail robot which moves inside a room and watches the elderly. It is necessary to pay attention to the elderly at home or nursing homes all time. This requires staffs to pay attention to them at every time. The purpose of our system is to help those staffs. This study intends to improve such situation. A host computer controls a monorail robot to go in front of the elderly using the images taken by cameras on the ceiling. A CCD camera is mounted on the monorail robot to take pictures of their facial expression or movements. The robot sends the images to a host computer that checks them whether something unusual happens or not. We propose a simple calibration method for positioning the monorail robots to track the moves of the elderly for keeping their faces at center of camera view. We built a small experiment system, and evaluated our camera calibration method and image processing algorithm.

Nagasaka, Yasunori; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Fukaya, Yasutoshi; Takahashi, Tomoichi; Takeshita, Toru

2001-10-01

410

Properties of ion-plated TiN films from watch case exteriors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion plating was first proposed in 1963 in the USA and the good cohesion and coverage of the coating attracted much interest. More recently, widespread use has begun to be made of reactive ion-plating, in which the coating is formed while the evaporated material is reacted with an atmospheric gas. Of the various coatings that may be formed by reactive ion-plating, titanium nitride films are now beginning to be widely used for decorative components, chiefly watch case exteriors, on account of their fine gold color coupled with great hardness (Hv greater than 1500). Although, as an alternative to ion plating, titanium nitride coatings can be formed by chemical vapor deposition utilizing titanium halide, this method requires high temperatures (approx. 1000 C) and is unsuitable for decorative applications owing to the coarse grain of the film formed. On the other hand, a variety of ion-plating methods have been devised, examples being active reaction evaporation, the hollow cathode process, and the hot cathode process, and the formation of dense titanium nitride ion-plated films for decorative purposes is described.

Kishi, M.; Watanabe, A.; Shimoyama, R.

1985-11-01

411

Watching bats find food: Do we classify the signals, the strategies, or the bats?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that different families, genera, and even species of echolocating bats broadcast characteristic sonar signals has motivated numerous efforts to classify bats according to signal design, which has received support from correlations with both peripheral and central auditory physiology. Signal types vary according to the situations in which bats have been observed hunting for food, so this classification has been extended to the hunting strategies they use. The availability of new technical means for watching and documenting the behavior of echolocating bats in real time (thermal infrared video cameras, night-vision video with infrared illumination, video recorders with ultrasonic audio channels) makes it possible to follow individual bats long enough to observe variations in their behavior over periods of seconds to minutes. These observations reveal that at least some species nominally classified as using just one hunting strategy in fact use several strategies according to prevailing conditions, sometimes using different strategies in the course of only a few minutes. The historic inaccessibility of bats to real-time observation in the dark may have lead to exaggerated stereotyping of their behavior. [Work supported by ONR, NSF.

Simmons, James A.

2001-05-01

412

Discrimination of LINAC photon and sunlight contributions in watch glass analyzed by means of thermoluminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research described in this paper shows how to extract from the glow curves of watch glasses exposed to LINAC photons and sunlight a contribution sensitive to LINAC photons dose. As first step, the dependence of the TL signal due to sunlight on the exposure duration was studied and a signal saturation was observed after about 20 weeks. The comparison of TL signals due to solar light and to LINAC photons highlights a partial overlap of the two signals. Here, two different analysis procedures of glow curves (general order kinetics deconvolution and principal components analysis) are reported to point out components which depend differently on LINAC photon radiation dose. For both analyses two components were used and the dependence on dose was investigated. In order to evaluate the ability of both techniques to reconstruct absorbed doses a blind test was performed. The reconstructed dose with both techniques is significantly consistent with the initial dose value. The procedures here described are valuable because they could be used to discriminate any background signal from that due to ionizing radiation irradiation and could be used as useful tools for dose reconstruction in retrospective dosimetry.

Longo, Anna; Brai, Maria; Carlino, Antonio; Marrale, Maurizio

2012-06-01

413

Assessing the Function of Cypress Knees - A Watershed Watch Student Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research presented here was conducted on cypress knees of different ages from the campus of Elizabeth City State University in northeastern North Carolina. Samples were collected from Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) knees and thin sections were cut from the distal, medial, and proximal regions of each knee. Three specimens of each of young and old knees were analyzed. Structural differences in the location and amount of wood (secondary xylem), parenchyma, and aerenchyma tissues were compared in order to determine if both younger and older knees function as pneumatophores, and if only the younger knees are capable of providing oxygen to roots in waterlogged soils. Our findings include: younger knees have the most aerenchyma tissue (living cells associated with air canals) and a thinner bark (likely pervious) on the distal tips. The older knees are more woody with distinct growth rings, exhibit less aerenchyma tissue, and have a much thicker (likely impervious) bark at the distal tip. The conclusion regarding the purpose of cypress knees is that the younger knees likely function as aerating organs (peumatophores) for the growing roots tips, while the older knees have reduced amounts of aerenchyma tissue and a thicker bark, and therefore may lose the ability to function as an aerating organ for the older roots.

Harris, M. D.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Porter, W.

2007-12-01

414

Perception while watching movies: Effects of physical screen size and scene type  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, television screens and display monitors have increased in size considerably, but has this improved our televisual experience? Our working hypothesis was that the audiences adopt a general strategy that “bigger is better.” However, as our visual perceptions do not tap directly into basic retinal image properties such as retinal image size (C. A. Burbeck, 1987), we wondered whether object size itself might be an important factor. To test this, we needed a task that would tap into the subjective experiences of participants watching a movie on different-sized displays with the same retinal subtense. Our participants used a line bisection task to self-report their level of “presence” (i.e., their involvement with the movie) at several target locations that were probed in a 45-min section of the movie “The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly.” Measures of pupil dilation and reaction time to the probes were also obtained. In Experiment 1, we found that subjective ratings of presence increased with physical screen size, supporting our hypothesis. Face scenes also produced higher presence scores than landscape scenes for both screen sizes. In Experiment 2, reaction time and pupil dilation results showed the same trends as the presence ratings and pupil dilation correlated with presence ratings, providing some validation of the method. Overall, the results suggest that real-time measures of subjective presence might be a valuable tool for measuring audience experience for different types of (i) display and (ii) audiovisual material.

Troscianko, Tom; Meese, Timothy S.; Hinde, Stephen

2012-01-01

415

Tracking temporal trend breaks of anthropogenic change in Mussel Watch (MW) databases.  

PubMed

The potential for structural changes in time trend concentrations of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, was examined in Mussel Watch (MW) databases of metal pollution at eighteen coastal stations over a decadal period, from 1992 to 2007. Simultaneously, by using two statistical methods representing both the classical hypothesis-testing and the Bayesian approaches, we found single and multiple trend breaks for Hg (28% of the stations), Cd (17%), and Pb (11%) within trends in connection with anthropogenic and subtle natural environmental changes. Also called change point problems, if not accounted for, these could bias time trend investigations and interpretations. We calculated trend rate differences of 39% and switches up to 1 order of magnitude from classical linear trend assessments. We discuss sampling, analytical, and environmental (both natural and anthropogenic) sources of data set variabilities, showing that, in practice, the overall 16-year analytical performance could be as elevated as the yearly sampling reproducibility. We demonstrate that environmental time trend interpretations benefit from undertaking prior structural change analysis. After decades of MW marine chemical pollution assessments these have proven extremely useful, although the occurrence of trend breaks directly affects the long-term marine environmental monitoring strategies. Our results suggest a broader concept to design monitoring programs in agreement with rapid global anthropogenic and environmental changes. PMID:23035902

Guitart, Carlos; Hernández-del-Valle, Adrian; Marín, J Miguel; Benedicto, José

2012-11-01

416

Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: generation-after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Confinement and isolation have always confounded the extraordinary endeavor of human spaceflight. Psychosocial health is at the forefront in considering risk factors that imperil missions of 1- to 2-yr duration. Current crewmember selection metrics restricted to behavioral observation by definition observe rather than prevent performance degradation and are thus inadequate when preflight training cannot simulate an entire journey. Nascent techniques to monitor functional and task-related cortical neural activity show promise and can be extended to include whole-brain monitoring. Watching spaceflight crews think can reveal the efficiency of training procedures. Moreover, observing subcortical emotion centers may provide early detection of developing neuropsychiatric disorders. The non-invasive functional neuroimaging modalities electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and highlights of how they may be engineered for spacecraft are detailed. Preflight and in-flight applications to crewmember behavioral health from current generation, next generation, and generation-after-next neuroscience research studies are also described. The emphasis is on preventing the onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, thus reducing the risk of mission failure due to human error. PMID:15943214

Genik, Richard J; Green, Christopher C; Graydon, Francis X; Armstrong, Robert E

2005-06-01

417

Digital Earth Watch And Picture Post Network: Measuring The Environment Through Digital Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Earth Watch (DEW) involves individuals, schools, organizations and communities in a systematic monitoring project of their local environment, especially vegetation health. The program offers people the means to join the Picture Post network and to study and analyze their own findings using DEW software. A Picture Post is an easy-to-use and inexpensive platform for repeatedly taking digital photographs as a standardized set of images of the entire 360° landscape, which then can be shared over the Internet on the Picture Post website. This simple concept has the potential to create a wealth of information and data on changing environmental conditions, which is important for a society grappling with the effects of environmental change. Picture Posts may be added by anyone interested in monitoring a particular location. The value of a Picture Post is in the commitment of participants to take repeated photographs - monthly, weekly, or even daily - to build up a long-term record over many years. This poster will show examples of Picture Post pictures being used for monitoring and research applications, and a DEW mobile app for capturing repeat digital photographs at a virtual post. We invite individuals, schools, informal education centers, groups and communities to join.; A new post and its website. ; Creating a virtual post using the mobile app.

Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Pickle, J.; Carrera, F.

2012-12-01

418

NOAA Coral Reef Watch: Decision Support Tools for Coral Reef Managers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors exert substantial influence on coral reef ecosystems and contribute to bleaching events, slower coral growth, infectious disease outbreaks, and mortality. Satellite-based observations can monitor, at a global scale, environmental conditions that influence both short-term and long-term coral reef ecosystem health. From research to operations, NOAA Coral Reef Watch (CRW) incorporates paleoclimatic, in situ, and satellite-based biogeophysical data to provide near-real-time and forecast information and tools to help managers, researchers, and other stakeholders interpret coral health and stress. CRW has developed an operational, near-real-time product suite that includes sea surface temperature (SST), SST time series data, SST anomaly charts, coral bleaching HotSpots, and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW). Bi-weekly global SST analyses are based on operational nighttime-only SST at 50-km resolution. CRW is working to develop high-resolution products to better address thermal stress on finer scales and is applying climate models to develop seasonal outlooks of coral bleaching. Automated Satellite Bleaching Alerts (SBAs), available at Virtual Stations worldwide, provide the only global early-warning system to notify managers of changing reef environmental conditions. Currently, CRW is collaborating with numerous domestic and international partners to develop new tools to address ocean acidification, infectious diseases of corals, combining light and temperature to detect coral photosystem stress, and other parameters.

Rauenzahn, J.; Eakin, C.; Skirving, W. J.; Burgess, T.; Christensen, T.; Heron, S. F.; Li, J.; Liu, G.; Morgan, J.; Nim, C.; Parker, B. A.; Strong, A. E.

2010-12-01

419

The effect of left-right reversal on film: Watching Kurosawa reversed  

PubMed Central

The mirror reversal of an image is subtly different from the original. Often such change goes unnoticed in pictures, although it can affect preference. For the first time we studied the effect of mirror reversal of feature films. People watched Yojimbo or Sanjuro in a cinema, both classic films by Akira Kurosawa. They knew that this was a study and filled out a questionnaire. On one day Yojimbo was shown in its original orientation, and on another day the film was mirror reversed. Sanjuro was shown reversed on one day and non-reversed on another day. Viewers did not notice the reversal, even when they had seen the film before and considered themselves fans of Kurosawa. We compared this with estimates from a survey. In addition, the question about the use of space (scenography) revealed that although people who had seen the film before gave higher ratings compared with those who had not, this was only true when the film was not reversed.

Bertamini, Marco; Bode, Carole; Bruno, Nicola

2011-01-01

420

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

421

How chocolate keeps you slim. The effect of food temptations on weight watching goal importance, intentions, and eating behavior.  

PubMed

In the Western rich food environment, people are constantly confronted with palatable but unhealthy food products. For those who would like to watch their weight, the appeal of immediate satisfaction is in conflict with their long-term weight watching goal, constituting a classic self-control dilemma. The current studies were designed to test the effect of food temptations on self-regulation mechanisms. Hypotheses were based on counteractive control theory stating that temptations trigger goal-directed behavior, thereby forming an adaptive self-regulation mechanism. Two experimental studies showed that exposure to food temptations, compared to a control condition, yielded enhanced goal importance (Study 1), goal intentions, and goal-directed behavior (i.e., healthy eating; Study 2). It is concluded that confrontation with temptations is not always undermining self-control and may even be beneficial for long-term goal pursuit. PMID:19666065

Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

2009-12-01

422

Television Watching and Other Sedentary Behaviors in Relation to Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The last few years have seen a number of studies linking a sedentary lifestyle to obesity and an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. This problem has been rather pronounced in the United States, as more Americans tend towards watching or being "passive" participants in activities. In a study released in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Professor Frank B. Hu and his colleagues at Harvard examined the relationship between various sedentary behaviors (particularly prolonged television watching) and the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in women. Looking at approximately 50,000 women from 11 states, Dr. Hu and his colleagues determined that sedentary behaviors were associated with a significantly elevated risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. For persons interested in public health and women's health in particular, this report will be of great importance.

Colditz, Graham A.; Hu, Frank B.; Li, Tricia Y.; Manson, Joann E.; Willett, Walter.

2003-01-01

423

An RSFQ Superconductive Programmable Gate Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) allow circuit reconfiguration in the field, which adds to the flexibility of electronic systems. Applied to superconductive electronics, reprogrammability allows system functionality to be changed without remanufacturing the circuit or dismantling a cryogenic setup. We discuss the design issues relevant to a superconducting programmable gate array (SPGA), and report an elementary 4200-junction SPGA. The SPGA is

Coenrad J. Fourie; Hein van Heerden

2007-01-01

424

Teaching and Learning National Transformation Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a research project undertaken on behalf of the Standards Unit to research the impact of the Teaching and Learning National Transformation Programme for the Learning and Skills sector. The transformational programme is best described as having three enablers, namely teaching and learning resources to support practitioners,…

Browne, Liz

2006-01-01

425

Controller-Programmer for telemetry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development, testing, and implementation of modern, sophisticated telemetry systems requires a controller capable of adequately exercising the telemeter. A flight test requires a programmer to cycle through the flight events. This report describes an adaptable, programmable system that encompasses both of these requirements.

Daniels, R. Michael

1988-10-01

426

Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

2009-01-01

427

Low-Power Programmable Signal Processing, invited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the potential of using programmable analog signal processing techniques for impacting low-power portable applications like imaging, audio processing, and speech recognition. The range of analog signal processing functions available results in many potential opportunities to incorporate these analog signal processing systems with digital signal processing systems for improved overall system performance. Programmable, dense analog techniques enable these

Paul E. Hasler

2005-01-01

428

Diagrams and Programming Languages for Programmable Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In many domain specific languages diagrammatic notation isused because it conforms to notations used by domain specialists beforethe deployment of programmable components. The aim is to lessen thepossibility of error by changing as little as possible. However the switchto programmable components often means a radical change in the detailsof the implementation. Such changes can mean that the domain experts'interpretation

Stuart Anderson; Konstantinos Tourlas

1997-01-01

429

IP services creation in a programmable router  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a framework for programming value-added services into an edge router, such as a router used by a local enterprise domain for access to external IP transport services. Service programming modules and policies are downloaded from servers by CORBA object invocations made by an operator to the programmable router. The programmable functions include creation of virtual networks (VNs) providing

Jens-Peter Redlich; Masaaki Suzuki; Aleksandar Kolarov; Stephen Weinstein

1999-01-01

430

Embedding information security curricula in existing programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for educators of information technology professionals to monitor the demands of the market and to adjust their programmes and curriculum accordingly. A number of universities and colleges have sought opportunities to extend their programmes to incorporate the fast developing area of information security. The School of Computing and Information Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology

Krassie Petrova; Anne Philpott; Petteri Kaskenpalo; Jim Buchan

2004-01-01

431

Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

2010-01-01

432

Programmable group communication services over IP multicast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in high speed routing and switching devices in have made it possible to facilitate both new network services such as group communication, and to increase the level of router programmability. Programmability is considered as a feature not only allowing to better meet applications requirements (user viewpoint) but also to optimise network resources (provider viewpoint). We show how multicast-one of

Michael Smirnov; Henning Sanneck; Dorota Witaszek

2000-01-01

433

Programmable active memories: a performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present some quantitative performance measurements for the computing power of Programmable Active Memories (PAM), as introduced by [BRV 89]. Based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology, the PAM is a universal hardware co-processor closely coupled to a standard host computer. The PAM can speed up many critical software applications running on the host, by executing part of the

P. Bertin; D. Roncin; J. Vuillemin

434

Intermediate Representations for HLL Programmable Logic Compilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable logic based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) has been used in the past decade to accelerate computation by 10? or more. Unfortunately, the cost of developing a hardware implementation remains prohibitively high due to the use of hardware description language (HDL) to express the desired algorithm. It is desirable to target code written in algorithmic High Level Languages

Maya B. Gokhale; Justin L. Tripp; Kristopher D. Peterson

435

The fuzzy controller by programmable logic circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces a fuzzy controller based on an in-system programmable logic circuit. The fuzzy transformation of accurate input data, fuzzy control rules based on observing the control action and the user's experience, fuzzy decision of output can be carried out by the programmable device. Owing to using VHDL language to write fuzzy rules, the characteristic of this controller is

Luyi Xia; Yuntian Qu

2002-01-01

436

Equivalency Programmes (EPs) for Promoting Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equivalency programmes (EPs) refers to alternative education programmes that are equivalent to the formal education system in terms of curriculum and certification, policy support mechanisms, mode of delivery, staff training, and other support activities such as monitoring, evaluation and assessment. The development of EPs is potentially an…

Haddad, Caroline, Ed.

2006-01-01

437

The role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes: the THAW project.  

PubMed

Whilst the education of young people is often seen as a part of the solution to current environmental problems seeking urgent attention, it is often forgotten that their parents and other household members can also be educated/influenced via home-based educational activities. This paper explores the theory of intergenerational influence in relation to school based waste education. Waste Watch, a UK-based environmental charity (www.wastewatch.org.uk), has pioneered a model that uses practical activities and whole school involvement to promote school based action on waste. This methodology has been adopted nationally. This paper outlines and evaluates how effective school based waste education is in promoting action at a household level. The paper outlines Waste Watch's 'Taking Home Action on Waste (THAW)' project carried out for two and half years in Rotherham, a town in South Yorkshire, England. The project worked with 6705 primary age children in 39 schools (44% of primary schools in the project area) to enable them to take the "reduce, reuse and recycle message" home to their families and to engage these (i.e. families) in sustainable waste management practices. As well as substantial increases in students' knowledge and understanding of waste reduction, measurement of the impact of the project in areas around 12 carefully chosen sample schools showed evidence of increased participation in recycling and recycling tonnages as well as declining levels of residual waste. Following delivery of the project in these areas, an average increase of 8.6% was recorded in recycling set out rates which led to a 4.3% increase in paper recycling tonnages and an 8.7% increase in tonnages of cans, glass and textiles collected for recycling. Correspondingly, there was a 4.5% fall in tonnages of residual waste. Waste Watch's THAW project was the first serious attempt to measure the intergenerational influence of an education programme on behaviour at home (i.e. other than schools' own waste). It clearly shows that household recycling behaviour can be positively impacted by intergenerational influence via a practical school-based waste education model. However, although the model could potentially have a big impact if rolled out nationally, it will require seed funding and the long-term durability of the model has not yet been fully quantified. PMID:21868211

Maddox, P; Doran, C; Williams, I D; Kus, M

2011-12-01

438

The development of ShortWatch, a novel overtemperature or mechanical damage sensing technology for wires or cables. Final report  

SciTech Connect

'ShortWatch' is a patented technology which for the first time offers electrical wire/cable products providing real-time, 'in-situ' (1) condition monitoring that warns of insulation damage before an electrical fault occurs, (2) assessment of the ability to perform in a Design Basis event, (3) distributed sensor warning of overtemperature, and (4) insulation leakage measurement capability providing arc sensing and a reliable tool for wire age prediction.

Watkins, Ken; Morris, Jack; Wong, C.P.; Luo, Shijian

2001-09-07

439

Accuracy of StepWatch(TM) and ActiGraph Accelerometers for Measuring Steps Taken among Persons with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been increased interest in the objective monitoring of free-living walking behavior using accelerometers in clinical research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The current investigation examined and compared the accuracy of the StepWatch activity monitor and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer for capturing steps taken during various speeds of prolonged, over-ground ambulation in persons with MS who had mild, moderate, and severe disability. Methods Sixty-three persons with MS underwent a neurological examination for generation of an EDSS score and undertook two trials of walking on the GAITRite electronic walkway. Participants were fitted with accelerometers, and undertook three modified six-minute walk (6MW) tests that were interspersed with 10–15 minutes of rest. The first 6MW was undertaken at a comfortable walking speed (CWS), and the two remaining 6MW tests were undertaken above (faster walking speed; FWS) or below (slower walking speed; SWS) the participant's CWS. The actual number of steps taken was counted through direct observation using hand-tally counters. Results The StepWatch activity monitor (99.8%–99.9%) and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer (95.6%–97.4%) both demonstrated highly accurate measurement of steps taken under CWS and FWS conditions. The StepWatch had better accuracy (99.0%) than the ActiGraph (95.5%) in the overall sample under the SWS condition, and this was particularly apparent in those with severe disability (StepWatch: 95.7%; ActiGraph: 87.3%). The inaccuracy in measurement for the ActiGraph was associated with alterations of gait (e.g., slower gait velocity, shorter step length, wider base of support). Conclusions This research will help inform the choice of accelerometer to be adopted in clinical trials of MS wherein the monitoring of free-living walking behavior is of particular value.

Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Ensari, Ipek; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Klaren, Rachel E.; Balantrapu, Swathi; Riskin, Barry J.

2014-01-01

440

Test plan for evaluation of primary exhaust ventilation flow meters for double shell hydrogen watch list tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a plan for testing four different flow meters for use in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of Double Shell Tanks on the hydrogen watch list that do not already have this capability. This currently includes tanks 241-AW-101, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, and 241-SY-103. The anticipated airflow velocity in these tanks range from 0.25 m\\/s(50 ft\\/min) to 1.78 m\\/s

Willingham

1996-01-01

441

DECREASES IN MIGRATING SHARP-SHINNED HAWKS (ACCIPITER STRIATUS) AT TRADITIONAL RAPTOR-MIGRATION WATCH SITES IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each fall, migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) are counted at traditional raptor-migration watch sites in eastern North America. During the 1980s and early 1990s, declines in the numbers of Sharp-shinned Hawks sighted at many of these sites raised concerns about the population status of the species. Using count data from Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Pennsylvania, and Cape May Point, New Jersey,

CATHERINE B. VIVERETTE; SUSANNA STRUVE; LAURIE J. GOODRICH; KEITH L. BILDSTEIN

442

A High-Resolution SST Climatology Set for Next Generation NOAA Coral Reef Watch Decision Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite-based observations provide a tool for synoptic, near-real-time monitoring of sea surface temperature (SST) at global scales. The current NOAA Coral Reef Watch's (CRW) decision support system uses a suite of operational, near-real-time global satellite products for monitoring and predicting mass coral bleaching. The key products include SST, SST anomaly, coral bleaching HotSpots, and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW). Historically, the

J. Li; C. Eakin; F. E. Muller-Karger; L. S. Guild; R. R. Nemani; C. Hu; S. E. Lynds; M. S. McCaffrey; K. Teleki; T. Christensen; G. Liu; C. Nim; T. Burgess; S. F. Heron; W. J. Skirving; M. Vega-Rodriguez

2010-01-01

443

Multicenter study shows an investigational urine test can predict high-risk prostate cancer in men who choose ‘watchful waiting’  

Cancer.gov

Initial results of a multicenter study coordinated by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center indicates that two investigational urine-based biomarkers are associated with prostate cancers that are likely to be aggressive and potentially life-threatening among men who take a “watchful waiting,” or active-surveillance approach to manage their disease. Ultimately, these markers may lead to the development of a urine test that could complement prostate biopsy for predicting disease aggressiveness and progression.

444

XML does Real Programmers a Service  

SciTech Connect

As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

Gorton, Ian

2008-09-01

445

Incurable, invisible and inconclusive: watchful waiting for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and implications for doctor-patient communication.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) find it hard to accept a diagnosis of an incurable cancer for which no treatment is recommended and which may not cause symptoms for many years. We used qualitative interviews with 12 people with CLL managed by watchful waiting, drawn from a maximum variation sample of 39 adults with leukaemia, to explore accounts of watchful waiting and implications for clinical management. Patients with CLL recalled being given little information about the condition and wanted to know more about how it might affect them in the future. The invisibility of CLL meant that some chose not to disclose the diagnosis to others. Check-ups sometimes felt cursory, causing dissatisfaction. As symptoms increased, lifestyle adaptations became essential, well before treatment was warranted. Patients with CLL on watchful waiting experience levels of depression, anxiety and quality of life similar to those in active treatment; our qualitative approach has illuminated some of the reasons for the negative psychological impacts. We relate our findings to perceptions of the illness state, doctor-patient communication, and work pressure. We recommend that specialists could better support patients by acknowledging psychological impacts of CLL, actively listening to patients' concerns, and meeting their needs for information. PMID:21883563

Evans, J; Ziebland, S; Pettitt, A R

2012-01-01

446

Children's hostile attribution bias is reduced after watching realistic playful fighting, and the effect is mediated by prosocial thoughts.  

PubMed

Hostile attribution bias (HAB) has been found to characterize aggressive children. Watching prosocial media has been shown to have positive effects on children, and the general learning model has been used to account for these observations. This study tested the hypotheses derived from this theory that exposure to playful fighting would lead to a reduction in HAB, both immediately and after a 1-day delay, and that this effect would be mediated by positive thoughts. Four studies exposed child participants (N=242) to playful fighting versus neutral behavior primes and then tested their HAB. In two studies, thoughts about playful fighting and about children were assessed and tested as mediators. The main hypotheses were supported. The positive effect of watching playful fighting on HAB was evident immediately but not after 1 day. This effect was mediated by positive thoughts. In line with the general learning model, watching playful fighting reduced HAB in children, and positive thoughts contribute to this effect. This extends the realm of the general learning model and suggests interventions to help children avoid aggression. PMID:22704038

Boulton, Michael J

2012-09-01

447

The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 1; Comet Giacobini-Zinner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Halley's Comet (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft, subsequently renamed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini-Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

1966-01-01

448

The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 1; Comet Giacobini-Zinner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Comet Halley (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini-Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

1996-01-01

449

Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch  

PubMed Central

Introduction Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

2013-01-01

450

World Weather Watch: Global Observing System - Satellite sub-System. Information on the Application of Meteorological Satellite Data in Routine Operations and Research: Abstracts, Annual Summaries and Bibliographies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contributions from countries participating in the World Weather Watch program are listed. Emphasis is on the Global Observing System: Satellite sub-system. Bibliographic information and an abstract of each contribution are provided.

1978-01-01

451

Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller  

SciTech Connect

CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01

452

21 CFR 870.1425 - Programmable diagnostic computer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Programmable diagnostic computer. 870.1425 Section 870.1425...870.1425 Programmable diagnostic computer. (a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can be...

2013-04-01

453

Programmes for parents with a mental illness.  

PubMed

Parents with a mental illness experience the same parenting stressors that other parents do, and at the same time need to manage their mental illness. However, few programmes are designed for parents who have a mental illness, with older children (as opposed to interventions for mothers with infants). This study identified the common components across six programmes developed for parents with a mental illness who have older children. Australian clinicians, responsible for six parenting programmes for those with a mental illness, participated in individual, semi-structured interviews, during 2008. Programme manuals and evaluation reports were also sourced. Analyses involved thematic analysis, inter-rater reliability and respondent validation. Data were organized in three main areas: (1) programme description (format, goals, length and participants' inclusion criteria); (2) theoretical framework (including clinicians' beliefs and evidence underpinning programmes); and (3) evaluation designs and methodologies. It was found that clinicians facilitated education and support via a peer intervention model for parents with various mental illness diagnoses, responsive to the needs of parents and in a time flexible manner. At the same time, clinicians found it difficult to articulate the theoretical framework of their programmes and employed mostly simplistic evaluation strategies. PMID:21395917

Reupert, A; Maybery, D

2011-04-01

454

UNIX programmer`s environment and configuration control  

SciTech Connect

A package of UNIX utilities has been developed which unities the advantages of the public domain utility ``imake`` and a configuration control system. The ``imake`` utility is portable It allows a user to make Makefiles on a wide variety of platforms without worrying about the machine-dependent idiosyncracies of the UNIX utility ``make.`` Makefiles are a labor-saving device for compiling and linking complicated programs, and ``imake`` is a labor-saving device for making Makefiles, as well as other useful software (like a program`s internal dependencies on included files). This ``Environment,`` which has been developed around ``imake,`` allows a programmer to manage a complicated project consisting of multiple executables which may each link with multiple user-created libraries. The configuration control aspect consists of a directory hierarchy (a baseline) which is mirrored in a developer`s workspace. The workspace includes a minimum of files copied from the baseline; it employs soft links into the baseline wherever possible. The utilities are a multi-tiered suite of Bourne shells to copy or check out sources, check them back in, import new sources (sources which are not in the baseline) and link them appropriately, create new low-level directories and link them, compare with the baseline, update Makefiles with minimal effort, and handle dependencies. The directory hierarchy utilizes a single source repository, which is mirrored in the baseline and in a workspace for a several platform architectures. The system was originally written to support C code on Sun-4`s and RS6000`s. It has now been extended to support FORTRAN as well as C on SGI and Cray YMP platforms as well as Sun-4`s and RS6000`s.

Arnold, T.R. [Mead Data Central, Dayton, OH (United States); Wyatt, P.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-12-31

455

Single Molecule Visualization of Protein-DNA Complexes: Watching Machines at Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We can now watch individual proteins acting on single molecules of DNA. Such imaging provides unprecedented interrogation of fundamental biophysical processes. Visualization is achieved through the application of two complementary procedures. In one, single DNA molecules are attached to a polystyrene bead and are then captured by an optical trap. The DNA, a worm-like coil, is extended either by the force of solution flow in a micro-fabricated channel, or by capturing the opposite DNA end in a second optical trap. In the second procedure, DNA is attached by one end to a glass surface. The coiled DNA is elongated either by continuous solution flow or by subsequently tethering the opposite end to the surface. Protein action is visualized by fluorescent reporters: fluorescent dyes that bind double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), fluorescent biosensors for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), or fluorescently-tagged proteins. Individual molecules are imaged using either epifluorescence microscopy or total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Using these approaches, we imaged the search for DNA sequence homology conducted by the RecA-ssDNA filament. The manner by which RecA protein finds a single homologous sequence in the genome had remained undefined for almost 30 years. Single-molecule imaging revealed that the search occurs through a mechanism termed ``intersegmental contact sampling,'' in which the randomly coiled structure of DNA is essential for reiterative sampling of DNA sequence identity: an example of parallel processing. In addition, the assembly of RecA filaments on single molecules of single-stranded DNA was visualized. Filament assembly requires nucleation of a protein dimer on DNA, and subsequent growth occurs via monomer addition. Furthermore, we discovered a class of proteins that catalyzed both nucleation and growth of filaments, revealing how the cell controls assembly of this protein-DNA complex.

Kowalczykowski, Stephen

2013-03-01

456

Preliminary Results of Observations of Comets De Vico and Hyakutake by the Ulysses Comet Watch Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cometary interactions with the solar wind allow us to use comets as probes of the inner regions of the heliosphere. During their close passage to the Sun, comets are exposed to different environments depending on their latitude. Until recently, characterizing these environments has been difficult because most spacecraft studying the sun have been confined to studying its mid-latitudes. A valuable source of information about the differing regimes of the solar wind is the joint ESA/NASA ULYSSES mission, which is the first spacecraft to explore the polar regions of the heliosphere. In 1995, ULYSSES' orbit covered a range of solar latitudes from -80 degrees to +80 degrees - an interval referred to as the 'fast latitude scan.' The Ulysses Comet Watch incorporates in-situ measurements during these periods by the ULYSSES spacecraft with images contributed by a world-wide network of observers (both amateur and professional). Bright comets whose paths come within 20 degrees solar latitude of the spacecraft are considered especially good targets for correlation between spacecraft data and plasma tail activity. Ulysses findings of interest to cometary plasma research are: Verification of global differences in solar wind properties (speed and density) at different solar latitudes. At polar latitudes - ranging from roughly +/-30 degrees to +/-80 degrees - the solar wind speed is about 750 kilometers/sec, and has a proton density (1 AU) around 3 cm(exp -3). Changes in properties are small and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is not seen. In the equatorial latitudes (roughly +30 to -30 degrees), the average solar wind speed is about 450 kilometers/sec, with an average proton density (at 1 AU) around 9 cm(exp -3). The HCS is seen and changes in properties can be large. An object, spacecraft or comet, at a given latitude, can be entirely in the polar, entirely in the equatorial, or can experience both - sort of a transition region.

Petersen, C. C.; Brandt, J. C.; Yi, Y.

1996-01-01

457

Motor familiarity: brain activation when watching kinematic displays of one's own movements.  

PubMed

The perception of action is influenced by the observer's familiarity with its movement. However, how does motor familiarity with own movement patterns modulate the visual perception of action effects? Cortical activation was examined with fMRI while 20 observers were watching videotaped point-light displays of markers on the shoulders, the right elbow, and wrist of an opposing table tennis player. The racket and ball were not displayed. Participants were asked to predict the invisible effect of the stroke, that is, the ball flight direction. Different table tennis models were used without the observers knowing and being informed in advance that some of the presented videos displayed their own movements from earlier training sessions. Prediction had to be made irrespective of the identity of the player represented by the four moving markers. Results showed that participants performed better when observing their "own" strokes. Using a region-of-interest approach, fMRI data showed that observing own videos was accompanied by stronger activation (compared to other videos) in the left angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobe and the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex. Other videos elicited stronger activation than own videos in the left intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus. We suggest that during action observation of motorically familiar movements, the compatibility between the observed action and the observers' motor representation is already coded in the parietal angular gyrus--in addition to the paracingulate gyrus. The activation in angular gyrus is presumably part of an action-specific effect retrieval that accompanies actor-specific prefrontal processing. The intraparietal sulcus seems to be sensitive to incongruence between observed kinematics and internal model representations, and this also influences processing in the supramarginal gyrus. PMID:22609578

Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Balser, Nils; Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Hohmann, Tanja; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Munzert, Jörn

2012-07-01

458

Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology: Evidence From Veterans Affairs Colorectal Cancer Oncology Watch Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluated the Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Oncology Watch intervention, a clinical reminder implemented in Veterans Integrated Service Network 7 (including eight hospitals) to improve CRC screening rates in 2008. Patients and Methods Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data were used to construct four cross-sectional groups of veterans at average risk, age 50 to 64 years; one group was created for each of the following years: 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010. We applied hospital fixed effects for estimation, using a difference-in-differences model in which the eight hospitals served as the intervention sites, and the other 121 hospitals served as controls, with 2006 to 2007 as the preintervention period and 2009 to 2010 as the postintervention period. Results The sample included 4,352,082 veteran-years in the 4 years. The adherence rates were 37.6%, 31.6%, 34.4%, and 33.2% in the intervention sites in 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010, respectively, and the corresponding rates in the controls were 31.0%, 30.3%, 32.3%, and 30.9%. Regression analysis showed that among those eligible for screening, the intervention was associated with a 2.2–percentage point decrease in likelihood of adherence (P < .001). Additional analyses showed that the intervention was associated with a 5.6–percentage point decrease in likelihood of screening colonoscopy among the adherent, but with increased total colonoscopies (all indicators) of 3.6 per 100 veterans age 50 to 64 years. Conclusion The intervention had little impact on CRC screening rates for the studied population. This absence of favorable impact may have been caused by an unintentional shift of limited VA colonoscopy capacity from average-risk screening to higher-risk screening and to CRC surveillance, or by physician fatigue resulting from the large number of clinical reminders implemented in the VA.

Bian, John; Bennett, Charles L.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Ribeiro, Maria; Lipscomb, Joseph

2012-01-01

459

Decision analysis for continuous cover gas monitoring of Ferrocyanide Watch List tanks  

SciTech Connect

This document pertains to underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been identified to potentially contain a significant amount of ferrocyanide compounds. This document evaluates the need for continuously monitoring the headspace vapors in Ferrocyanide Watch List tanks to detect flammable gases or gases that could indicate the occurrence of a propagating ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite reaction. The results of modeling studies and gas monitoring, and sludge sample analyses of actual ferrocyanide tank wastes have indicated no need to continuously monitor the vapor spaces in ferrocyanide tanks. This conclusion is based in part on the following factors: (1) a study performance on waste aging suggests that the ferrocyanide has degraded in the tanks during the more than 35 years of storage; therefore, the ferrocyanide is not present in concentrations that could support an exothermic reaction, also, the moisture present in the waste is sufficient to preclude a self-sustaining (propagating) ferrocyanide-nitrate reaction; (2) evaluation of core sample results from Tank 241-C-109 and Tank 241-C-112 support laboratory studies showing that ferrocyanide has degraded and the fuel concentration in the tanks is considerably lower than postulated by flowsheet simulants; (3) no gases have been identified that would indicate the occurrence of a ferrocyanide nitrate/nitrite reaction; additionally, a self-sustaining ferrocyanide nitrate/nitrite reaction is not possible under current and future planned storage conditions. After reviewing the available information, it is evident that there would be little safety benefit from continuous in-tank vapor monitoring, and the time and commitment of operations schedule and equipment funds are not justified in the face of competing needs.

Fowler, K.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Graves, R.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1994-07-01

460

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Recovery. Standing next to the President is astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 Commander. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

461

Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable pulse-position-modulation (PPM) encoder has been designed for use in testing an optical communication link. The encoder includes a programmable state machine and an electronic code book that can be updated to accommodate different PPM coding schemes. The encoder includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that is programmed to step through the stored state machine and code book and that drives a custom high-speed serializer circuit board that is capable of generating subnanosecond pulses. The stored state machine and code book can be updated by means of a simple text interface through the serial port of a personal computer.

Zhu, David; Farr, William

2006-01-01

462

Lessons from a microfinance recapitalisation programme.  

PubMed

Following a major disaster, microfinance institutions (MFIs) often face high levels of bad debt, which may require the institutions to be recapitalised. This paper describes a recapitalisation programme implemented by the SANASA movement of Sri Lanka in 390 microfinance societies following the December 2004 tsunami, and highlights lessons for other similar programmes. MFI recapitalisation is a good use of funds in post-disaster situations. To create successful programmes, donors should expect to relax some of their usual project requirements and MFIs should focus on maintaining credit discipline. PMID:19863569

Poston, Angus

2010-04-01

463

SGEMP Analysis using the Programmable Calculator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis package developed for the quantification of SGEMP effects on the Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculator is described. The code system is designed for use on a standard calculator using magnetic card inputs, and enables the analyst to ...

A. J. Woods R. E. Leadon B. Nichols K. Brannon E. P. Wenaas

1980-01-01

464

Programmable Materia1s and Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summarizes the findings of our effort to exploit the concept of programmable structures and related topics. Results indicate that modeling and control methods are extremely significant in the performance of such integrated structures. In addition res...

D. J. Inman

1995-01-01

465

Programmable Analog Voltage Multiplier Circuit Means.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved programmable analog voltage multiplier circuit means (PAVMCM) including various embodiments thereof that are operable in linear/nonlinear fashion. The PAVMCM is generally made up of multiplier circuit means, at least one switch means and at le...

F. J. Kub

1988-01-01

466

Cryogenics in United States National Programmes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the importance of cryogenics to national programmes, such as space, health, agriculture, transportation, conservation, and education. The purpose is to demonstrate the inter-relation between the cryogenic industry and United States ...

T. M. Flynn B. W. Birmingham

1968-01-01

467

Modern Coding Practices and Programmer Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late 70' s find structured programming increasingly popular—this and other techniques are programming's future. But what does experimental evaluation say about their actual effects on programmer performance?

S. B. Sheppard; B. Curtis; P. Milliman; T. Love

1979-01-01

468

Software Production Technology for Programmable Controller Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Programmable controllers are such familiar and convenient devices indispensable to control systems that their demand has increased year after year. It is problems now in the production of PC softwares to raise productivity, to improve quality, and to mini...

H. Kamimoto N. Nyui Y. Yoahida

1987-01-01

469

Programmable logic in the military environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will review the status of user programmable logic devices (PLDs) for military applications. The design, reliability, testability, and radiation hardness of PLDs is discussed. 14 refs. (GHH)

G. C. Bergeson

1990-01-01

470

Programmable logic in the military environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper will review the status of user programmable logic devices (PLDs) for military applications. The design, reliability, testability, and radiation hardness of PLDs is discussed. 14 refs. (GHH)

Bergeson, G.C.

1990-01-01

471

Programmable alpha -Spectrometer for Radiochemical Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The description of a programmable alpha -spectrometer developed on the base of an immersed spectrometric surface-barrier detector and the 15 VSM-5 microcomputer is given. Possibilities of spectrometer application for studying Am and Cm behaviour on the AH...

V. V. Pevtsov N. I. Pushkarskii Y. V. Efremov V. D. Loginov V. I. Shipilov

1980-01-01

472

Accessibility Programme and School Restoration in Lisbon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Lisbon, Portugal, is working to better integrate children with disabilities at primary school level. It recently has undertaken an accessible school programme and has restored an historic building as part of this effort.

de Gouveia, Pedro Homem; Morais, Nuno; Miranda, Antonio

2006-01-01

473

DGGG Guidelines Programme: Status Quo - Quo Vadis!  

PubMed Central

The Guidelines programme of the German Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) is an executive part of the DGGG Guidelines Commission. It includes in-house planning and organisation of all guidelines as well as representation outside of the DGGG. This article does not concern the development of the guidelines as much as it concerns the planning, organisation, registration, editing and publication of the guidelines in context of the DGGG Guidelines programme. It targets interested parties, especially authors and coordinators of guidelines.

Beckmann, M. W.; Linde, I.; Butof, C.; Kreienberg, R.; Gass, P.

2014-01-01

474

Paramedir: A Tool for Programmable Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance analysis of parallel scientific applications is time consuming and requires great expertise in areas such as programming paradigms, system software, and computer hardware architectures. In this paper we describe a tool that facilitates the programmability of performance metric calculations thereby allowing the automation of the analysis and reducing the application development time. We demonstrate how the system can be used to capture knowledge and intuition acquired by advanced parallel programmers in order to be transferred to novice users.

Jost, Gabriele; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

2004-01-01

475

Nanowire-based sublithographic programmable logic arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can Programmable Logic Arrays (PLAs) be built without relying on lithography to pattern their smallest features? In this paper, we detail designs which exploit emerging, bottom-up material synthesis techniques to build PLAs using molecular-scale nanowires. Our new designs accommodate technologies where the only post-fabrication programmable element is a non-restoring diode. We introduce stochastic techniques which allow us to restore

Andre DeHon; Michael J. Wilson

2004-01-01

476

Cost effectiveness analysis of radon remediation programmes.  

PubMed

The economic implications of regulations governing radon gas level identification and remediation in buildings are poorly understood, and attempts to address these issues have been criticised for lack of comparability. It is imperative therefore that a general model for the economic evaluation of radon remediation programmes is adopted to ensure comparability between studies and settings and to increase the usefulness of the results to decision makers. This paper presents general guidelines for the use of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) as an economic appraisal tool in the evaluation of radon reduction and prevention programmes. The data requirements for a CEA of radon remediation programmes concern both costs and outcomes. These components are discussed with respect to: programme objectives, comparator choice, perspective, time horizon, discounting, uncertainty, and final ratios. Adhering to clear guidelines concerning these aspects of evaluations will facilitate meaningful evaluation of radon remediation programmes. Finally, by evaluating the radon remediation programmes using methods applied to other health interventions (such as lung cancer prevention interventions), comparisons using the same metric can be made across policy areas. PMID:11379943

Kennedy, C A; Gray, A M

2001-05-14

477

Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme.

Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

2008-01-01

478

Television Watching, Leisure-Time Physical Activity and the Genetic Predisposition in Relation to Body Mass Index in Women and Men  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies on gene-lifestyle interaction and obesity have mostly focused on the FTO gene and physical activity, while little attention has been paid to sedentary behavior as indicated by television (TV) watching. Methods and Results We analyzed interactions between TV watching, leisure-time physical activity and genetic predisposition in relation to body mass index (BMI) in 7740 women and 4564 men from 2 prospective cohorts: the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Data on physical activity and TV watching were collected 2 years prior to assessment of BMI. A weighted genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated on the basis of 32 established BMI-associated variants. In both women and men, the genetic associations with BMI strengthened with increased hours of TV watching. An increment of 10 points in the weighted GRS was associated with 0.8 [SE 0.4], 0.8 [0.2], 1.4 [0.2], 1.5 [0.2] and 3.4 [1.0] kg/m2 higher BMI across the 5 categories of TV watching (0-1, 2-5, 6-20, 21-40, and >40h/wk) (P for interaction=0.001). In contrast, the genetic association with BMI weakened with increased levels of physical activity. An increment of 10 points in the weighted GRS was associated with 1.5 [0.2], 1.3 [0.2], 1.2 [0.2], 1.2 [0.2] and 0.8 [0.2] kg/m2 higher BMI across the quintiles of physical activity. The interactions of TV watching and physical activity with genetic predisposition in relation to BMI were independent of each other. Conclusions Sedentary lifestyle indicated by prolonged TV watching may accentuate predisposition to elevated adiposity, whereas greater leisure-time physical activity may attenuate the genetic association.

Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Kang, Jae H.; Curhan, Gary C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

2013-01-01

479

Biomonitoring of physiological status and cognitive performance of underway submariners undergoing a novel watch-standing schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 ?g/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 ?g/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 ?g/ml (normal range: 100-500 ?g/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.

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