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Sample records for watch gaw regional

  1. The first VOC intercomparison exercise within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, B.; Apel, E.; Bauerfeind, M.; Bottenheim, J.; Brickell, P.; Čavolka, P.; Cech, J.; Gatti, L.; Hakola, H.; Honzak, J.; Junek, R.; Martin, D.; Noone, C.; Plass-Dülmer, Ch.; Travers, D.; Wang, D.

    In 2003 the World Calibration Centre for volatile organic compounds (WCC-VOC) which forms part of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program coordinated the first comprehensive intercomparison exercise among the GAW-VOC community. The intercomparison focused on a synthetic C 2-C 11 VOC standard mixture in nitrogen (N 2) and involved nine different stations/laboratories (10 instruments) from seven countries (Brazil, Canada [two labs], Czech Republic, Finland, Germany [two labs; three instruments], Ireland, and Slovakia), representing four measurement programs (GAW, EMEP, CAPMoN, LBA). These sites either run canister or online measurements. WCC-VOC provided each participant of the intercomparison exercise with standard gas canisters which contained 73 VOCs prepared and certified by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder. The participating laboratories were expected to identify and quantify as many compounds of the WCC-VOC standard canister as possible based on their routine identification and calibration methods. The primary objective of this first intercomparison was to examine the current performance status of the analytical facilities of each laboratory and to check whether the results meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) developed by WCC-VOC. An additional objective was to establish a ranking of properly determined compounds among all laboratories in order to identify compounds which could be most accurately determined by all laboratories. Due to the variety of sampling and analytical methods among the participants both the number of identified species (16-150 VOCs) and their proper quantification differed largely. Focusing on a subset of 28 VOCs recognized as primary GAW target compounds the results show that the DQOs for repeatability are met in most cases. However for the deviation from the WCC-VOC reference values the picture is different. For some VOCs the concentrations differed significantly among the different laboratories. In terms of both uncertainty and repeatability a significant number of atmospherically relevant VOCs (e.g. propane, propylene, isoprene, and benzene) are properly determined by most labs. However, difficulties occur with other important VOCs (e.g. acetylene, i-pentane, toluene). From this subset of VOC results it appears imperative to strengthen harmonization procedures particular with regard to real air samplings. These processes have been initiated and include more frequent intercomparisons also covering ambient air samples, individual performance audits, and a future networkwide calibration standard.

  2. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  3. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-07-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC), on a statistical approach (REBS), on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX) and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2013.

  4. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  5. [Study on the in-situ measurement of atmospheric CH4 and CO by GC-FID method at the Shangdianzi GAW regional station].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhang, Fang; Yao, Bo; Liu, Li-Xin

    2012-01-01

    In-situ GC-FID system for atmospheric CH4 and CO mixing ratio measurements at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) GAW regional station in Beijing was designed and optimized in 2009 based on a comparable system at the Waliguan GAW global station in Qinhai. Results from this study indicate that the system's precisions for CH4 and CO are higher than 0.03% and 0.45% respectively, which can meet the quality target on background greenhouse gas observations by the World Meteorology Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) program. The selection method of working standards for this system was established: two working standards (WH for the high concentration and WL for the low concentration) were selected, the concentrations of CH4 and CO in these two standards can cover the ambient mixing ratios of CH4 (2 007.1 x 10(-9) and 1 809.5 x 10(-9)) and CO (405.6 x 10(-9) and 123.8 x 10(-9)), an injection sequence was programmed so that the two standards were analyzed alternatively for every three runs. The measurement accuracies are high, as shown by the standard deviations less than 1.7 x 10(-9) and 1 x 10(-9), for CH4 and CO, respectively. This method has been applied to in-situ measurement of atmospheric CH4 and CO in North China. PMID:22452181

  6. Long-term observations of tropospheric ozone: GAW Measurement Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Galbally, Ian E.; Schultz, Martin G.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) coordinates long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere which are relevant for understanding of atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Atmospheric observations of reactive gases (tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides) coordinated by the GAW Programme complement local and regional scale air quality monitoring efforts. As part of the GAW quality assurance (QA) system detailed measurement guidelines for atmospheric trace species are developed by international expert teams at irregular intervals. The most recent report focuses on continuous in-situ measurements of ozone in the troposphere, performed in particular at continental or island sites with altitudes ranging from sea level to mountain tops. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are defined for different applications of the data (e.g. trend analysis and verification of global model forecasts). These DQOs include a thorough discussion of the tolerable level of measurement uncertainty and data completeness. The guidelines present the best practices and practical arrangements adopted by the GAW Programme in order to enable the GAW station network to approach or achieve the defined tropospheric ozone DQOs. The document includes information on the selection of station and measurement locations, required skills and training of staff, recommendations on the measurement technique and the necessary equipment to perform highest quality measurements, rules for conducting the measurements, preparing the data and archiving them, and more. Much emphasis is given to discussions about how to ensure the quality of the data through tracing calibrations back to primary standards, proper calibration and data analysis, etc. In the GAW Programme the QA system is implemented through Central Facilities (Central Calibration Laboratories, World and Regional Calibration Centers and World Data Centers), Scientific Advisory Groups and GAW Training and Education Center. These bodies support primary standards, provide calibration and data archiving facilities, coordinate comparison campaigns, perform stations audit, provide documentation and training of personnel.

  7. The Wmo Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: Global Framework for Atmospheric Composition Observations and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Jalkanen, L.

    2010-12-01

    The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme is the only existing long-term international global programme providing an international coordinated framework for observations and analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. GAW is a partnership involving contributors from about 80 countries. It includes a coordinated global network of observing stations along with supporting facilities (Central Facilities) and expert groups (Scientific Advisory Groups, SAGs and Expert Teams, ETs). Currently GAW coordinates activities and data from 27 Global Stations and a substantial number of Regional and Contributing Stations. Station information is available through the GAW Station Information System GAWSIS (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/). There are six key groups of variables which are addressed by the GAW Programme, namely: ozone, reactive gases, greenhouse gases, aerosols, UV radiation and precipitation chemistry. GAW works to implement integrated observations unifying measurements from different platforms (ground based in situ and remote, balloons, aircraft and satellite) supported by modeling activities. GAW provides data for ozone assessments, Greenhouse Gas Bulletins, Ozone Bulletins and precipitation chemistry assessments published on a regular basis and for early warnings of changes in the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere. To ensure that observations can be used for global assessments, the GAW Programme has developed a Quality Assurance system. Five types of Central Facilities dedicated to the six groups of measurement variables are operated by WMO Members and form the basis of quality assurance and data archiving for the GAW global monitoring network. They include Central Calibration Laboratories (CCLs) that host primary standards (PS), Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centres (QA/SACs), World Calibration Centers (WCCs), Regional Calibration Centers (RCCs), and World Data Centers (WDCs) with responsibility for archiving and access to GAW data. Education, training, workshops, comparison campaigns, station audits/visits and twinning are also provided to build capacities in atmospheric sciences in Member countries.

  8. "If two witches would watch two watches, which witch would watch which watch?" tDCS over the left frontal region modulates tongue twister repetition in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fiori, V; Cipollari, S; Caltagirone, C; Marangolo, P

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical activity in the human brain. In the language domain, it has already been shown that during a naming task tDCS reduces vocal reaction times in healthy individuals and speeds up the recovery process in left brain-damaged aphasic subjects. In this study, we wondered whether tDCS would influence the ability to articulate tongue twisters during a repetition task. Three groups of 10 healthy individuals were asked to repeat a list of tongue twisters in three different stimulation conditions: one group performed the task during anodal tDCS (atDCS) (20 min, 2 mA) over the left frontal region; a second group during cathodal tDCS delivered over the same region; and, in a third group, sham stimulation was applied. Accuracy and vocal reaction times in repeating each tongue twister before, during and 1h after the stimulation were recorded. Participants were more accurate and faster at repeating the stimuli during atDCS than at baseline, while cathodal tDCS significantly reduced their performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times. No significant differences were observed among the three time points during the sham condition. We believe that these data clearly confirm that the left frontal region is critically involved in the process of speech repetition. They are also in line with recent evidence suggesting that frontal tDCS might be used as a therapeutic tool in patients suffering from articulatory deficits. PMID:24184977

  9. Long-range transport and its impact on trace gas variability at selected GAW stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Klausen, J.; Buchmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    To improve our understanding of the impact and the time-scales of atmospheric pollution transport and to understand the mixing ratios of non- or weakly reactive gases observed within monitoring programmes such as the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme global scale atmospheric transport models provide valuable and requisite information. Atmospheric transport described in a Lagrangian framework, contrary to the Eulerian approach, does not suffer from numerical diffusion. In addition, information on transport times of newly released emissions is easily accessible in the Lagragian concept. Therefore, Lagrangian models are the ideal tool to answer the questions raised above. To this end the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Version 8.0) was extended and set up on the global domain with 3 million particles that are permanently transported based on ECMWF wind fields. All particles carry 9 different counters that indicate times since certain atmospheric regions were left: 1 counter for each of the 6 WMO regions keeping track of atmospheric boundary layer contact, 2 counters for inter-hemispheric transport, and 1 counter for stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Thirteen different species are represented with each particle: 1 atmospheric air tracer, 6 carbon monoxide (CO) and 6 methane (CH4) tracers according to emissions from the 6 WMO regions. Gridded emissions are taken up by particles passing through the atmospheric boundary layer of each grid cell and are based on constant EDGAR3.2FT2000 (anthropogenic) and 8-daily GFED (v2) (biomass-burning) emission inventories. Degradation of CO and CH4 (and also CO production from CH4 degradation) is considered by temperature and pressure dependent reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). Monthly OH fields are taken from HTAP. Global monthly mean fields for each species, each clock and 11 age-classes are produced by the model and offer detailed insight into the time-scales of transport and the contributions from different source regions. Furthermore, receptor concentrations (daily temporal resolution) are produced for selected GAW sites and allow for model inter-comparison and interpretation of observations. In this contribution we present details on the model concept and first results obtained for an iterative spin-up run for the year 2001.

  10. Terpenoids from the Octocoral Sinularia gaweli

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wun-Jie; Wu, Tung-Ying; Su, Tzu-Rong; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung; Fang, Lee-Shing; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2015-01-01

    Two eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, verticillatol (1) and 5α-acetoxy-4(14)-eudesmene-1β-ol (2) and two cembrane diterpenoids, (–)-leptodiol acetate (3) and sinulacembranolide A (4) were isolated from the octocoral Sinularia gaweli and compounds 2–4 are new isolates. The structures of new terpenoids 2–4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison the spectral data with those of known analogues. Terpenoid 4 was found to inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 marcophage cells. PMID:26295226

  11. In situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Zhou, L. X.; Tans, P. P.; Ciais, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Xu, L.; Luan, T.

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were continuously measured from January 2009 to December 2011 at four atmospheric observatories in China using cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. The stations are Lin'an (LAN), Longfengshan (LFS), Shangdianzi (SDZ), and Waliguan (WLG), which are regional (LAN, LFS, SDZ) or global (WLG) measurement stations of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch program (WMO/GAW). LAN is located near the megacity of Shanghai, in China's economically most developed region. LFS is in a forest and rice production area, close to the city of Harbin in northeastern China. SDZ is located 150 km northeast of Beijing. WLG, hosting the longest record of measured CO2 mole fractions in China, is a high-altitude site in northwestern China recording background CO2 concentration. The CO2 growth rates are 3.7 ± 1.2 ppm yr-1 for LAN, 2.7 ± 0.8 ppm yr-1 for LFS, 3.5 ± 1.6 ppm yr-1 for SDZ, and 2.2 ± 0.8 ppm yr-1 (1σ) for WLG during the period of 2009 to 2011. The highest annual mean CO2 mole fraction of 404.2 ± 3.9 ppm was observed at LAN in 2011. A comprehensive analysis of CO2 variations, their diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the analysis of the influence of local sources on the CO2 mole fractions allows a characterization of the sampling sites and of the key processes driving the CO2 mole fractions. These data form a basis to improve our understanding of atmospheric CO2 variations in China and the underlying fluxes using atmospheric inversion models.

  12. Regional variations in cardiovascular risk factors in India: India heart watch

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Guptha, Soneil; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Gupta, Arvind; Deedwania, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Mortality statistics and morbidity surveys indicate substantial regional variations in CVD prevalence and mortality rates. Data from the Registrar General of India reported greater age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality in southern and eastern states of the country. Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is greater in south India while stroke is more common in the eastern Indian states. CHD prevalence is higher in urban Indian populations while stroke mortality is similar in urban and rural regions. Case-control studies in India have identified that the common major risk factors account for more than 90% of incident myocardial infarctions and stroke. The case-control INTERHEART and INTERSTROKE studies reported that hypertension, lipid abnormalities, smoking, obesity, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, low fruit and vegetable intake, and psychosocial stress are as important in India as in other populations of the world. Individual studies have reported that there are substantial regional variations in risk factors in India. At a macro-level these regional variations in risk factors explain some of the regional differences in CVD mortality. However, there is need to study the prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in different regions of India and to correlate them with variations in CVD mortality using a uniform protocol. There is also a need to determine the “causes of the causes” or fundamental determinants of these risk factors. The India Heart Watch study has been designed to study socioeconomic, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors in urban populations in different regions of the country in order to identify regional differences. PMID:22558490

  13. Metadata for WIS and WIGOS: GAW Profile of ISO19115 and Draft WIGOS Core Metadata Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Jörg; Howe, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) is a key WMO priority to underpin all WMO Programs and new initiatives such as the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of the WIGOS Operational Information Resource (WIR) is central to the WIGOS Framework Implementation Plan (WIGOS-IP). The WIR shall provide information on WIGOS and its observing components, as well as requirements of WMO application areas. An important aspect is the description of the observational capabilities by way of structured metadata. The Global Atmosphere Watch is the WMO program addressing the chemical composition and selected physical properties of the atmosphere. Observational data are collected and archived by GAW World Data Centres (WDCs) and related data centres. The Task Team on GAW WDCs (ET-WDC) have developed a profile of the ISO19115 metadata standard that is compliant with the WMO Information System (WIS) specification for the WMO Core Metadata Profile v1.3. This profile is intended to harmonize certain aspects of the documentation of observations as well as the interoperability of the WDCs. The Inter-Commission-Group on WIGOS (ICG-WIGOS) has established the Task Team on WIGOS Metadata (TT-WMD) with representation of all WMO Technical Commissions and the objective to define the WIGOS Core Metadata. The result of this effort is a draft semantic standard comprising of a set of metadata classes that are considered to be of critical importance for the interpretation of observations relevant to WIGOS. The purpose of the presentation is to acquaint the audience with the standard and to solicit informal feed-back from experts in the various disciplines of meteorology and climatology. This feed-back will help ET-WDC and TT-WMD to refine the GAW metadata profile and the draft WIGOS metadata standard, thereby increasing their utility and acceptance.

  14. In-situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Zhou, L. X.; Tans, P. P.; Ciais, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Xu, L.; Luan, T.

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were continuously measured from January 2009 to December 2011 at 4 atmospheric observatories in China ((Lin'an, LAN), (Longfengshan, LFS), (Shangdianzi, SDZ), and (Waliguan, WLG)) using Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. All sites are regional (LAN, LFS, SDZ) or global (WLG) measurement stations of the World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch program (WMO/GAW). LAN is located near the megacity of Shanghai, in China's most economically developed region. LFS is in a forest and rice production area, close to the city of Harbin in the northern east of China. SDZ is located 150 km north east of Beijing. WLG, hosting the longest record of measured CO2 mole fractions in China, is a high altitude site in northwest China recording background CO2 values. The CO2 growth rates are 2.2 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for LAN, 2.3 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for LFS, 2.0 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for SDZ, and 1.2 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1 (1σ) for WLG, during the period of 2009 to 2011. The growth rate at WLG may be underestimated due to the data gaps during the observation period. The highest annual mean CO2 mole fraction of 404.1 ± 4.1 ppm was observed at LAN in 2011. A comprehensive analysis of CO2 variations, their diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the analysis of the influence of different wind regimes on the CO2 mole fractions allows a thorough characterization of the sampling sites and of the key processes driving the CO2 mole fractions. These data form a basis to improve our understanding of atmospheric CO2 variations in China and the underlying fluxes, using atmospheric inversion models.

  15. Brain Regions Associated to a Kinesthetic Illusion Evoked by Watching a Video of One's Own Moving Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Blanchard, Caroline; Lebar, Nicolas; Nazarian, Bruno; Kavounoudias, Anne; Romaiguère, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that kinesthetic illusions can be induced by stimulation of several sensory systems (proprioception, touch, vision…). In this study we investigated the cerebral network underlying a kinesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans. Participants were instructed to keep their hand still while watching the video of their own moving hand (Self Hand) or that of someone else's moving hand (Other Hand). In the Self Hand condition they experienced an illusory sensation that their hand was moving whereas the Other Hand condition did not induce any kinesthetic illusion. The contrast between the Self Hand and Other Hand conditions showed significant activation in the left dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, in the left Superior and Inferior Parietal lobules, at the right Occipito-Temporal junction as well as in bilateral Insula and Putamen. Most strikingly, there was no activation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, whilst previous studies have reported significant activation in these regions for vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that indicates that humans can experience kinesthetic perception without activation in the primary motor and somatosensory areas. We conclude that under some conditions watching a video of one's own moving hand could lead to activation of a network that is usually involved in processing copies of efference, thus leading to the illusory perception that the real hand is indeed moving. PMID:26287488

  16. Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

    2013-05-01

    CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

  17. Watching People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Ben; Geddie, Catherine

    1980-01-01

    A "people watching" tour through a school depicts mature, professional, responsible people doing immature, unprofessional, irresponsible things. When priorities of institutions and individuals do not mesh, a staff may become frustrated. Types of people and ways to serve their individual needs are examined in the context of building a "sense of

  18. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  19. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2015-07-01

    The performance of 18 European institutions involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements in ambient air within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to data quality objectives (DQOs) of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW. Compared to previous intercomparison studies the DQOs define a novel approach to assess and ensure a high quality of the measurements. Having already been adopted by GAW, the ACTRIS DQOs are demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5 % and a repeatability of better than 2 % for NMHC mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol-1. The participants of the intercomparison analysed two dry gas mixtures in pressurised cylinders, a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2) at approximately 1 nmol mol-1 and a whole air sample (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, participants had to report details on their instruments and assess their measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the NMHC_N2 measurements, 62 % of the reported values were within the 5 % deviation class corresponding to the ACTRIS DQOs. For NMHC_air, generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed, with 50 % of the reported values within the 5 % deviation class. Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol-1). The performance of the participating laboratories were affected by the different measurement procedures such as the usage of a two-step vs. a one-step calibration, breakthroughs of C2-C3 hydrocarbons in the focussing trap, blank values in zero-gas measurements (especially for those systems using a Nafion® Dryer), adsorptive losses of aromatic compounds, and insufficient chromatographic separation.

  20. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are prototypic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) best known for their ability to activate the innate immune system in response to conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide and double-stranded RNA. Accumulating evidence indicates that the function of TLRs is not restricted to the elicitation of innate immune responses against invading pathogens. TLRs have indeed been shown to participate in tissue repair and injury-induced regeneration as well as in adaptive immune responses against cancer. In particular, TLR4 signaling appears to be required for the efficient processing and cross-presentation of cell-associated tumor antigens by dendritic cells, which de facto underlie optimal therapeutic responses to some anticancer drugs. Thus, TLRs constitute prominent therapeutic targets for the activation/intensification of anticancer immune responses. In line with this notion, long-used preparations such as the Coley toxin (a mixture of killed Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens bacteria) and the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis originally developed as a vaccine against tuberculosis), both of which have been associated with consistent anticancer responses, potently activate TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. Today, besides BCG, only one TLR agonist is FDA-approved for therapeutic use in cancer patients: imiquimod. In this Trial Watch, we will briefly present the role of TLRs in innate and cognate immunity and discuss the progress of clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of experimental TLR agonists as immunostimulatory agents for oncological indications. PMID:22934262

  1. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the clinical efficacy of selected anticancer drugs, including conventional chemotherapeutics as well as targeted anticancer agents, originates (at least in part) from their ability to elicit a novel or reinstate a pre-existing tumor-specific immune response. One of the mechanisms whereby chemotherapy can stimulate the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells is commonly known as immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cancer cells succumbing to ICD are de facto converted into an anticancer vaccine and as such elicit an adaptive immune response. Several common chemotherapeutics share the ability of triggering ICD, as demonstrated in vaccination experiments relying on immunocompetent mice and syngeneic cancer cells. A large number of ongoing clinical trials involve such ICD inducers, often (but not always) as they are part of the gold standard therapeutic approach against specific neoplasms. In this Trial Watch, we summarize the latest advances on the use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and mitoxantrone in cancer patients, discussing high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months as well as clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of these immunogenic drugs as off-label therapeutic interventions. PMID:24800173

  2. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of hybridoma technology, dating back to 1975, monoclonal antibodies have become an irreplaceable diagnostic and therapeutic tool for a wide array of human diseases. During the last 15 years, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved by FDA for cancer therapy. These mAbs are designed to (1) activate the immune system against tumor cells, (2) inhibit cancer cell-intrinsic signaling pathways, (3) bring toxins in the close proximity of cancer cells, or (4) interfere with the tumor-stroma interaction. More recently, major efforts have been made for the development of immunostimulatory mAbs that either enhance cancer-directed immune responses or limit tumor- (or therapy-) driven immunosuppression. Some of these antibodies, which are thought to facilitate tumor eradication by initiating or sustaining a tumor-specific immune response, have already entered clinical trials. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the clinical progress of the most important mAbs that are have entered clinical trials after January 2008. PMID:22720209

  3. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have first been characterized for their capacity to detect conserved microbial components like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, resulting in the elicitation of potent (innate) immune responses against invading pathogens. More recently, TLRs have also been shown to promote the activation of the cognate immune system against cancer cells. Today, only three TLR agonists are approved by FDA for use in humans: the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod. BCG (an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis) is mainly used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, but also for the immunotherapy of in situ bladder carcinoma. MPL (derived from the LPS of Salmonella minnesota) is included in the formulation of Cervarix®, a vaccine against human papillomavirus-16 and -18. Imiquimod (a synthetic imidazoquinoline) is routinely employed for actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts (condylomata acuminata). In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating FDA-approved TLR agonists as off-label medications for cancer therapy. PMID:23162757

  4. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Cremer, Isabelle; Henrik ter Meulen, Jan; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymatically inactive, single membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a wide panel of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Besides constituting a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens, TLRs appear to play a major role in anticancer immunosurveillance. In line with this notion, several natural and synthetic TLR ligands have been intensively investigated for their ability to boost tumor-targeting immune responses elicited by a variety of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Three of these agents are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or equivalent regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients: the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin, monophosphoryl lipid A, and imiquimod. However, the number of clinical trials testing the therapeutic potential of both FDA-approved and experimental TLR agonists in cancer patients is stably decreasing, suggesting that drug developers and oncologists are refocusing their interest on alternative immunostimulatory agents. Here, we summarize recent findings on the use of TLR agonists in cancer patients and discuss how the clinical evaluation of FDA-approved and experimental TLR ligands has evolved since the publication of our first Trial Watch dealing with this topic. PMID:25083332

  5. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Hervé Fridman, Wolf; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the possibility that preparations capable of eliciting tumor-specific immune responses would mediate robust therapeutic effects in cancer patients has received renovated interest. In this context, several approaches to vaccinate cancer patients against their own malignancies have been conceived, including the administration of DNA constructs coding for one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Such DNA-based vaccines conceptually differ from other types of gene therapy in that they are not devised to directly kill cancer cells or sensitize them to the cytotoxic activity of a drug, but rather to elicit a tumor-specific immune response. In spite of an intense wave of preclinical development, the introduction of this immunotherapeutic paradigm into the clinical practice is facing difficulties. Indeed, while most DNA-based anticancer vaccines are well tolerated by cancer patients, they often fail to generate therapeutically relevant clinical responses. In this Trial Watch, we discuss the latest advances on the use of DNA-based vaccines in cancer therapy, discussing the literature that has been produced around this topic during the last 13 months as well as clinical studies that have been launched in the same time frame to assess the actual therapeutic potential of this intervention. PMID:24800178

  6. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner’s work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

  7. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of several neoplasms. The term “oncolytic viruses” is generally employed to indicate naturally occurring or genetically engineered attenuated viral particles that cause the demise of malignant cells while sparing their non-transformed counterparts. From a conceptual standpoint, oncolytic viruses differ from so-called “oncotropic viruses” in that only the former are able to kill cancer cells, even though both display a preferential tropism for malignant tissues. Of note, such a specificity can originate at several different steps of the viral cycle, including the entry of virions (transductional specificity) as well as their intracellular survival and replication (post-transcriptional and transcriptional specificity). During the past two decades, a large array of replication-competent and replication-incompetent oncolytic viruses has been developed and engineered to express gene products that would specifically promote the death of infected (cancer) cells. However, contrarily to long-standing beliefs, the antineoplastic activity of oncolytic viruses is not a mere consequence of the cytopathic effect, i.e., the lethal outcome of an intense, productive viral infection, but rather involves the elicitation of an antitumor immune response. In line with this notion, oncolytic viruses genetically modified to drive the local production of immunostimulatory cytokines exert more robust therapeutic effects than their non-engineered counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy is significantly improved by some extent of initial immunosuppression (facilitating viral replication and spread) followed by the administration of immunostimulatory molecules (boosting antitumor immune responses). In this Trial Watch, we will discuss the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and antineoplastic potential of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:23894720

  8. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Martins, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Prophylactic vaccination constitutes one of the most prominent medical achievements of history. This concept was first demonstrated by the pioneer work of Edward Jenner, dating back to the late 1790s, after which an array of preparations that confer life-long protective immunity against several infectious agents has been developed. The ensuing implementation of nation-wide vaccination programs has de facto abated the incidence of dreadful diseases including rabies, typhoid, cholera and many others. Among all, the most impressive result of vaccination campaigns is surely represented by the eradication of natural smallpox infection, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The idea of employing vaccines as anticancer interventions was first theorized in the 1890s by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it soon became clear that while vaccination could be efficiently employed as a preventive measure against infectious agents, anticancer vaccines would have to (1) operate as therapeutic, rather than preventive, interventions (at least in the vast majority of settings), and (2) circumvent the fact that tumor cells often fail to elicit immune responses. During the past 30 y, along with the recognition that the immune system is not irresponsive to tumors (as it was initially thought) and that malignant cells express tumor-associated antigens whereby they can be discriminated from normal cells, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the development of anticancer vaccines. Some of these approaches, encompassing cell-based, DNA-based and purified component-based preparations, have already been shown to exert conspicuous anticancer effects in cohorts of patients affected by both hematological and solid malignancies. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23264902

  9. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Vitale, Ilio; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fučíková, Jitka; Cremer, Isabelle; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) occupy a privileged position at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity, orchestrating a large panel of responses to both physiological and pathological cues. In particular, whereas the presentation of antigens by immature DCs generally results in the development of immunological tolerance, mature DCs are capable of priming robust, and hence therapeutically relevant, adaptive immune responses. In line with this notion, functional defects in the DC compartment have been shown to etiologically contribute to pathological conditions including (but perhaps not limited to) infectious diseases, allergic and autoimmune disorders, graft rejection and cancer. Thus, the possibility of harnessing the elevated immunological potential of DCs for anticancer therapy has attracted considerable interest from both researchers and clinicians over the last decade. Alongside, several methods have been developed not only to isolate DCs from cancer patients, expand them, load them with tumor-associated antigens and hence generate highly immunogenic clinical grade infusion products, but also to directly target DCs in vivo. This intense experimental effort has culminated in 2010 with the approval by the US FDA of a DC-based preparation (sipuleucel-T, Provenge®) for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer. As an update to the latest Trial Watch dealing with this exciting field of research (October 2012), here we summarize recent advances in DC-based anticancer regimens, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to assess the antineoplastic potential of this variant of cellular immunotherapy. PMID:24286020

  10. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Galon, Jerome; Adjemian, Sandy; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Ma, Yuting; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors are constituted of a variety of cellular components, including bona fide malignant cells as well as endothelial, structural and immune cells. On one hand, the tumor stroma exerts major pro-tumorigenic and immunosuppressive functions, reflecting the capacity of cancer cells to shape the microenvironment to satisfy their own metabolic and immunological needs. On the other hand, there is a component of tumor-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) that has been specifically recruited in the attempt to control tumor growth. Along with the recognition of the critical role played by the immune system in oncogenesis, tumor progression and response to therapy, increasing attention has been attracted by the potential prognostic and/or predictive role of the immune infiltrate in this setting. Data from large clinical studies demonstrate indeed that a robust infiltration of neoplastic lesions by specific immune cell populations, including (but not limited to) CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and M1 macrophages constitutes an independent prognostic indicator in several types of cancer. Conversely, high levels of intratumoral CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, Th2 CD4+ T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages and neutrophils have frequently been associated with dismal prognosis. So far, only a few studies have addressed the true predictive potential of TILs in cancer patients, generally comforting the notion that—at least in some clinical settings—the immune infiltrate can reliably predict if a specific patient will respond to therapy or not. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating the prognostic and predictive value of the immune infiltrate in the context of solid malignancies. PMID:23243596

  11. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) occupy a central position in the immune system, orchestrating a wide repertoire of responses that span from the development of self-tolerance to the elicitation of potent cellular and humoral immunity. Accordingly, DCs are involved in the etiology of conditions as diverse as infectious diseases, allergic and autoimmune disorders, graft rejection and cancer. During the last decade, several methods have been developed to load DCs with tumor-associated antigens, ex vivo or in vivo, in the attempt to use them as therapeutic anticancer vaccines that would elicit clinically relevant immune responses. While this has not always been the case, several clinical studies have demonstrated that DC-based anticancer vaccines are capable of activating tumor-specific immune responses that increase overall survival, at least in a subset of patients. In 2010, this branch of clinical research has culminated with the approval by FDA of a DC-based therapeutic vaccine (sipuleucel-T, Provenge®) for use in patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Intense research efforts are currently dedicated to the identification of the immunological features of patients that best respond to DC-based anticancer vaccines. This knowledge may indeed lead to personalized combination strategies that would extend the benefit of DC-based immunotherapy to a larger patient population. In addition, widespread enthusiasm has been generated by the results of the first clinical trials based on in vivo DC targeting, an approach that holds great promises for the future of DC-based immunotherapy. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating DC-based interventions for cancer therapy. PMID:23170259

  12. Climatology of new particle formation at Izaa mountain GAW observatory in the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca, M. I.; Rodrguez, S.; Gonzlez, Y.; Garca, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    A climatology of new particle formation (NPF) events at high altitude in the subtropical North Atlantic is presented. A 4-year data set (June 2008-June 2012), which includes number size distributions (10-600 nm), reactive gases (SO2, NOx, and O3), several components of solar radiation and meteorological parameters, measured at Izaa Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) observatory (2373 m above sea level; Tenerife, Canary Islands) was analysed. NPF is associated with the transport of gaseous precursors from the boundary layer by orographic buoyant upward flows that perturb the low free troposphere during daytime. On average, 30% of the days contained an NPF event. Mean values of the formation and growth rates during the study period were 0.46 cm-3 s-1 and 0.42 nm h-1, correspondingly. There is a clearly marked NPF season (May-August), when these events account for 50-60% of the days per month. Monthly mean values of the formation and growth rates exhibit higher values in this season, 0.49-0.92 cm-3 s-1 and 0.48-0.58 nm h-1, respectively. During NPF events, SO2, UV radiation and upslope winds showed higher values than during non-events. The overall data set indicates that SO2 plays a key role as precursor, although other species seem to contribute during some periods. Condensation of sulfuric acid vapour accounts for most of the measured particle growth during most of the year (~70%), except for some periods. In May, the highest mean growth rates (~0.6 nm h-1) and the lowest contribution of sulfuric acid (~13%) were measured, suggesting a significant involvement of other condensing vapours. The SO2 availability seems also to be the most influencing parameter in the year-to-year variability in the frequency of NPF events. The condensation sink showed similar features to other mountain sites, showing high values during NPF events. Summertime observations, when Izaa is within the Saharan Air Layer, suggest that dust particles may play a significant role acting as coagulation sink of freshly formed nucleation particles. The contribution of dust particles to the condensation sink of sulfuric acid vapours seems to be modest (~8% as average). Finally, we identified a set of NPF events in which two nucleation modes, which may evolve at different rates, occur simultaneously and for which further investigations are necessary.

  13. Adults Watching Children Watch "South Park."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the satirical cartoon television series called "South Park." Discusses who watches this program, noting its immense popularity and the way it has entered the everyday lives of school children the world over. Looks at its cult appeal, and speculates as to reasons why some children might enjoy watching the program. (SR)

  14. YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

  15. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt. Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Xu, X. B.; Tang, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. C.

    2015-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The level of tropospheric ozone, particularly in the surface layer, is impacted by emissions of precursors and is subjected to meteorological conditions. Due its importance, the long-term variation trend of baseline ozone is highly needed for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies about the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China, a country with rapid economic growth for recent decades, and many other developing countries. To uncover the long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone, concentration in western China, measurements at a global baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt. Waliguan) for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed in this study, using a modified Mann-Kendall test and the Hilbert-Huang Transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Results reveal higher surface ozone during the night and lower during the day at Waliguan, due to mountain-valley breezes. A seasonal maximum in summer was found, which was probably caused by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange events and/or by tropospheric photochemistry. Analysis suggests that there is a season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds on top of Mt. Waliguan. Season-dependent daytime and nighttime ranges of 6 h were determined based on the season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds and were used to sort subsets of ozone data for trend analysis. Significant increasing trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (1.5-2.7 ppbv 10 a-1) and nighttime (1.3-2.9 ppbv 10 a-1). Autumn and spring revealed the largest increase rates, while summer and winter showed relatively weaker increases. The HHT spectral analysis confirmed the increasing trends in surface ozone concentration and could further identify four different stages with different increasing rates, with the largest increase occurring around May 2000 and October 2010. A 2-4, 7 and 11 year periodicity was found in the surface ozone concentration. The results are highly valuable for related climate and environment change assessments of western China and surrounding areas, and for the validation of chemical-climate models.

  16. Arctic Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  17. Effectiveness of spoilers on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a high performance Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path allowing lower surface air to escape to the upper surface as the spoiler opens alleviates control reversal and hysteresis tendencies. Spoiler cross-sectional shape variations generally have a modest influence on control characteristics. A series of comparative tests of vortex generators applied to the (GA-W)-1 airfoil show that triangular planform vortex generators are superior to square planform vortex generators of the same span.

  18. Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, L.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network (NEWNET) is a regional network of environmental monitoring stations and a data archival center that supports collaboration between communities, industry, and government agencies to solve environmental problems. The stations provide local displays of measurements for the public and transmit measurements via satellite to a central site for archival and analysis. Station managers are selected from the local community and trained to support the stations. Archived data and analysis tools are available to researchers, educational institutions, industrial collaborators, and the public across the nation through a communications network. Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency have developed a NEWNET pilot program for the Department of Energy. The pilot program supports monitoring stations in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and California. Additional stations are being placed in Colorado and New Mexico. Pilot stations take radiological and meteorological measurements. Other measurements are possible by exchanging sensors.

  19. Pressure Distributions for the GA(W)-2 Airfoil with 20% Aileron, 25% Slotted Flap and 30% Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    Surface pressure distributions were measured for the 13% thick GA(W)-2 airfoil section fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th power and a Mach number of 0.13. Pressure distribution and force and moment coefficient measurements are compared with theoretical results for a number of cases. Agreement between theory and experiment is generally good for low angles of attack and small flap deflections. For high angles and large flap deflections where regions of separation are present, the theory is inadequate. Theoretical drag predictions are poor for all flap-extended cases.

  20. The GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION) as a source of near-real time aerosol profile data for model evaluation and assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the WMO Global Atmospheric Watchs Science Advisory Group on Aerosols described a global network of lidar networks called GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION). GALION has a purpose of providing expanded coverage of aerosol observations for climate and air quality use. Comprised of networks in Asia (AD-NET), Europe (EARLINET and CIS-LINET), North America (CREST and CORALNET), South America (ALINE) and with contribution from global networks such as MPLNET and NDACC, the collaboration provides a unique capability to define aerosol profiles in the vertical. GALION is designed to supplement existing ground-based and column profiling (AERONET, PHOTONS, SKYNET, GAWPFR) stations. In September 2010, GALION held its second workshop and one component of discussion focussed how the network would integrate into model needs. GALION partners have contributed to the Sand and Dust Storm Warning and Analysis System (SDS-WAS) and to assimilation in models such as DREAM. This paper will present the conclusions of those discussions and how these observations can fit into a global model analysis framework. Questions of availability, latency, and aerosol parameters that might be ingested into models will be discussed. An example of where EARLINET and GALION have contributed in near-real time observations was the suite of measurements during the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland and its impact on European air travel. Lessons learned from this experience will be discussed.

  1. Swatch Watch in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, Swiss firms manufactured and sold precision watches and were the undisputed leaders in timekeeping. All this came to an abrupt end when, in the mid-1970s, the Japanese began to make reliable digital watches at a fraction of the cost of the expensive, labor-intensive Swiss product. In 1983, Switzerland answered with the introduction

  2. Swatch Watch in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, Swiss firms manufactured and sold precision watches and were the undisputed leaders in timekeeping. All this came to an abrupt end when, in the mid-1970s, the Japanese began to make reliable digital watches at a fraction of the cost of the expensive, labor-intensive Swiss product. In 1983, Switzerland answered with the introduction…

  3. Boise Watershed Watch

    USGS hydrologic technicians Erin Murray (far left) and Russ Miller collect water-quality data from the Boise River with citizen volunteers as part of the 2014 Boise Watershed Watch. Watershed Watch is an annual community outreach effort of the City of Boise's WaterShed Environmental Education Center...

  4. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded an RPD of 50% between years. However, they did not exceed the bioaccumulation critical values or the critical body residues corresponding to the no observed effect dose (NOED) and the lowest observed effect dose (LOED) with one exception. The Cd concentrations exceeded the NOED and LOED for the Manchester Lab Pier and the Pike Place Market samples. For the PAHs and PCB, the 2012 data were generally lower than 2010 and some cases significantly lower for PAHs and none of the available invertebrate benchmarks were exceeded.

  5. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groover, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Operation Waste Watch is a seven-unit program for grades K-6 which addresses such topics as litter control, recycling, and resources recovery. It is designed to instill in students positive feelings about the environment. (DS)

  6. Treasure Valley Watershed Watch

    USGS biologist Dorene MacCoy and a group of citizen volunteers collect and record water-quality data as part of the October 27 Watershed Watch citizen science event on the Boise River in Boise, ID....

  7. Uncertainty and bias of surface ozone measurements at selected Global Atmosphere Watch sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, JöRg; Zellweger, Christoph; Buchmann, Brigitte; Hofer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program currently coordinates 22 ground-based atmospheric background monitoring stations of global scope. The GAW World Calibration Centre for Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide and Methane (WCC-EMPA) is responsible for tracing surface ozone measurements at these stations to the designated reference within the GAW program, the Standard Reference Photometer SRP 2 maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The recommended method for surface ozone measurements is based on UV absorption at 254 nm (Hg line). Repeated and regular intercomparisons of station instruments are necessary to achieve and maintain high and known data quality. In this paper, the traceability chain is explained, and standard uncertainties for each element are evaluated. Data of 26 intercomparisons performed at 14 stations between 1996 and 2002 are analyzed. On 23 occasions, the instruments passed the audit with "good" agreement, in one case with "sufficient" agreement. On 2 occasions, both first audits at the site, the audited instrument did not comply with the minimal data quality requirements. The best instruments in use exhibit a median absolute bias of approximately 0.32 ppbv and a standard uncertainty of approximately 0.8 ppbv (0-100 ppbv). The quantitative improvement of data quality as a result of repeated audits can be demonstrated with several stations.

  8. Country watch: Malawi.

    PubMed

    Knox, G

    1995-01-01

    The Drought Network for information sharing eventually led to the establishment of the more formal Southern Region AIDS Network (SORAN) where representatives from government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focused on awareness raising, lobbying, and advocacy. As an initial step towards networking on HIV/AIDS issues, a festival was organized in Blantyre on December 4, 1993, by NGOs, private companies, church groups, school children, and volunteers to bring about behavior change. About 2000 people gathered to listen to music, learn about HIV transmission through drama group presentations, watch videos with HIV/STD prevention messages, and learn about proper condom use. The participants officially established SORAN in February 1994 to act as a coordinating body for organizations working in prevention and care for HIV/STD-infected persons and their families. Network activities endeavored: to assist organizations interested in developing HIV/AIDS programs and activities; to encourage the business communities to participate in multisectoral coordination and to help channel funds from them to HIV/AIDS programs; to act as a resource center for information about HIV/AIDS; and to lobby among politicians as well as traditional local and religious leaders. When the first multi-party parliamentary election approached in May 1994, SORAN challenged representatives of 7 political parties and a women's organization to speak out publicly on what they envisioned doing about HIV/AIDS. The Grand Walk was also organized by SORAN members representing the Catholic Episcopal Conference of Malawi, the Protestant Blantyre Synod, a local brewery, and UNICEF. About 500 walkers received support from passersby. 70% were school children 10-18 years old who sang AIDS awareness songs and passed out flyers. Three months later the National AIDS Program's Big Walk for AIDS, following a National AIDS Crisis Conference, signaled the government's public recognition of the need for a multisectoral approach to combatting HIV/AIDS. PMID:12289026

  9. South Asian Aerosols: Observations and regional scale modeling perspectives from the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, B.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Landi, T.; Putero, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Decesari, S.; Vuillermoz, E.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    SHARE (Stations at High Altitude Research on the Environment) project is promoted by Ev-K2-CNR and funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the Italian National Research Council (CNR). Today SHARE monitoring stations span four continents around the globe. This paper will present the results from the SHARE-Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) monitoring station located in the foothills of Mount Everest at an altitude of 5079 m.a.s.l. NCO-P is also one of the Global AtmosphericWatch stations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-GAW) and is the only currently operating GAW station in South Asia and the highest station of the UNEP ABC (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) project. Results obtained from the monitoring of aerosols and trace gases for multi years starting from 2006 will be presented. Seasonal distribution, composition, case studies and events related to high aerosol loadings will be discussed. A regional scale meteorological / chemical transport modeling projecthas been initiated to help put the measurements in perspective and provide decision support for policy makers. The paper will also describe themodeling framework,modeled case studiesillustrating sectoral and regional contribution to the aerosol loading over the Himalayan region will be presented.

  10. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  11. Watching the TV Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Peter

    Data were collected for this study of the relationship between television watching and family life via a recording device (C-Box) consisting of a television set and a video camera. Designed for the study, this device was installed in 20 homes for one week to record the viewing area in front of the television set together with information on

  12. The Monarch Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Science education can be an exciting process of observation and discovery. This article describes the use of the Monarch Watch project by environmental educators to study migratory behavior and scientific research through the tagging of Monarch butterflies. Discusses reasons the national project has been successful. (LZ)

  13. Wrist-watch dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Waechter, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1982-04-16

    The disclosure is directed to a wristwatch dosimeter utilizing a CdTe detector, a microprocessor and an audio and/or visual alarm. The dosimeter is entirely housable within a conventional digital watch case having an additional aperture enabling the detector to receive radiation.

  14. Treasure Valley Watershed Watch

    USGS biologist Dorene MacCoy and a group of citizen volunteers prepare to collect and record water-quality data as part of the October 27 Watershed Watch citizen science event on the Boise River in Boise, ID....

  15. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The International Halley Watch has been designed to maximize the scientific value of ground-based observations of Halley's Comet. Important in their own right, such observations have also enhanced the value of space observations, setting the brief duration flyby data in the context of the overall apparition, placing the extremely high resolution encounter data into the normal scale of observations, and filling in missing data. The IHW has standardized observing techniques wherever useful and possible, coordinated the observing, and is now collecting data from publication in a comprehensive Halley Archieve. The IHW has been designed to avoid the problems of 1910 where the two major monographs on Halley were not published until 21 and 24 years later and where much data remains unpublished to this day. The Giacobini-Zinner Watch preovided support to the ICE mission and complements the IHW by using the same ground-based techniques at the same time of study another very different comet for comparison.

  16. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) is a program designed to promote cooperation, standardization, and archival documentation in all phases of study of Comet Halley during its 1985-86 apparition. Discipline Specialists have been selected to create cooperative nets of ground-based observers encompassing seven different technical areas and to coordinate the observations and publication of results in each. The IHW will promote cooperation among ground-based and space studies of Comet Halley wherever reasonable and feasible. More specifically, the IHW will make ephemerides from the astrometric net available to any country flying a deep space mission. It will coordinate special Halley Watch Days with the arrival dates of space probes or periods of observation from earth orbit. And the IHW will provide a permanent archive in published form of all scientific observations of Comet Halley.

  17. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.; Rahe, J.

    1984-01-01

    An International Halley Watch has been established to coordinate worldwide ground-based observations of Halley's Comet in the upcoming apparition. Channels have been created for cooperation with the space missions being sent to Halley in order to maximize the value of the collective scientific results. Details are given of the IHW organization already established, which includes 722 astronomers from 42 countries. The ultimate goal of the IHW is the 1989 production of a 'Halley Archive' of all Halley scientific data.

  18. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which the IHW plans to interact are discussed and the ground based observing nets are described in detail. An outline of the history of observations of Halley's Comet and a synopsis of comet properties and physics are included.

  19. A low speed two-dimensional study of flow separation on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of flow fields with low speed turbulent boundary layers were made for the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 0.30 c Fowler flap deflected 40 deg at angles of attack of 2.7 deg, 7.7 deg, and 12.8 deg, at a Reynolds number of 2.2 million, and a Mach number of 0.13. Details of velocity and pressure fields associated with the airfoil flap combination are presented for cases of narrow, optimum and wide slot gaps. Extensive flow field turbulence surveys were also conducted employing hot-film anemometry. For the optimum gap setting, the boundaries of the regions of flow reversal within the wake were determined by this technique for two angles of attack. Local skin friction distributions for the basic airfoil and the airfoil with flap (optimum gap) were obtained using the razor blade technique.

  20. FIRST teams watch the competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  1. 47 CFR 80.301 - Watch requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements. 80.301 Section 80.301... MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches § 80.301 Watch... frequency(s) as are used for working or, at the licensee's discretion, maintain a watch on 2182 kHz....

  2. Forensic web watch 3.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    2000-03-01

    Since the publication of the first 'Forensic Web Watch' article a new search engine has become available, free of charge at the time of writing, to surfers of the Internet (Net). Fast Search claims to seek out sites of interest for the user from 'all the Web, all the time trade mark ' as opposed to parts of the Net as is more common with other search machines. It is easy to use, extremely fast but as it searches so much more of the Net, the end result is considerably larger. This, in turn, may lead to a longer time to seek out useful information as opposed to the obscure. Having said this, it is recommended to add to your search engine bookmarks. A search for sites on issues related to 'Police Surgeons' will yield limited information, as each country will have a different person filling this role, all referred to by different terms. The one common feature, however, to all such groups as well as forensic pathologists and scientists, is that they will work with, or in some cases for, the police services of their respective country. Thus, in this article we will look at sites related to the police which may have useful information related to their work, specific cases of interest and research and development which may effect our practice. PMID:15274993

  3. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

    1993-01-01

    A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images. PMID:12345382

  4. Pathway analysis approaches for rare and common variants: Insights from GAW18

    PubMed Central

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Almeida, Marcio; Tintle, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Pathway analysis, broadly defined as a group of methods incorporating a priori biological information from public databases, has emerged as a promising approach for analyzing high-dimensional genomic data. As part of Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 (GAW18), seven research groups applied pathway analysis techniques to whole genome sequence data from the San Antonio Family Study. Overall, the groups found that the potential of pathway analysis to improve detection of causal variants by lowering the multiple testing burden and incorporating biologic insight remains largely unrealized. Specifically, there is a lack of best practices at each stage of the pathway approach: annotation, analysis, interpretation, and follow-up. Annotation of genetic variants is inconsistent across databases, incomplete, and biased towards known genes. At the analysis stage, insufficient statistical power remains a major challenge. Analyses combining rare and common variants may have an inflated type 1 error rate and may not improve detection of causal genes. Inclusion of known causal genes may not improve statistical power, although the fraction of explained phenotypic variance may be a more appropriate metric. Interpretation of findings is further complicated by evidence in support of interactions between pathways as well as the lack of consensus on how to best incorporate functional information. Finally, all presented approaches warranted follow-up studies, both to reduce the likelihood of false positive findings and to identify specific causal variants within a given pathway. Despite the initial promise of pathway analysis for modeling biological complexity of disease phenotypes, many methodological challenges currently remain to be addressed. PMID:25112195

  5. Proposing a tornado watch scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Jonathan Brock

    This thesis provides an overview of language used in tornado safety recommendations from various sources, along with developing a rubric for scaled tornado safety recommendations, and subsequent development and testing of a tornado watch scale. The rubric is used to evaluate tornado refuge/shelter adequacy responses of Tuscaloosa residents gathered following the April 27, 2011 Tuscaloosa, Alabama EF4 tornado. There was a significant difference in the counts of refuge adequacy for Tuscaloosa residents when holding the locations during the April 27th tornado constant and comparing adequacy ratings for weak (EF0-EF1), strong (EF2-EF3) and violent (EF4-EF5) tornadoes. There was also a significant difference when comparing future tornado refuge plans of those same participants to the adequacy ratings for weak, strong and violent tornadoes. The tornado refuge rubric is then revised into a six-class, hierarchical Tornado Watch Scale (TWS) from Level 0 to Level 5 based on the likelihood of high-impact or low-impact severe weather events containing weak, strong or violent tornadoes. These levels represent maximum expected tornado intensity and include tornado safety recommendations from the tornado refuge rubric. Audio recordings similar to those used in current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio communications were developed to correspond to three levels of the TWS, a current Storm Prediction Center (SPC) tornado watch and a particularly dangerous situation (PDS) tornado watch. These were then used in interviews of Alabama residents to determine how changes to the information contained in the watch statements would affect each participant's tornado safety actions and perception of event danger. Results from interview participants (n=38) indicate a strong preference (97.37%) for the TWS when compared to current tornado watch and PDS tornado watch statements. Results also show the TWS elicits more adequate safety decisions from participants along with a more appropriate perception of the danger being conveyed by each statement.

  6. World Calibration Center for VOC (WCC-VOC), a new Facility for the WMO-GAW-Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglueck, B.-

    2002-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are recognized to be important precursors of tropospheric ozone as well as other oxidants and organic aerosols. In order to design effective control measures for the reduction of photooxidants, photochemical processes have to be understood and the sources of the precursors known. Reliable and representative measurements of VOCs are necessary to describe the anthropogenic and biogenic sources, to follow the photochemical degradation of VOCs in the troposphere. Measurement of VOCs is of key importance for the understanding of tropospheric chemistry. Tropospheric VOCs have been one of the recommended measurements to be made within the GAW programme. The purpose will be to monitor their atmospheric abundance, to characterize the various compounds with regard to anthropogenic and biogenic sources and to evaluate their role in the tropospheric ozone formation process. An international WMO/GAW panel of experts for VOC measurements developed the rational and objectives for this GAW activity and recommended the configuration and required activities of the WCC-VOC. In reflection of the complexity of VOC measurements and the current status of measurement technology, a "staged" approach was adopted. Stage 1 measurements: C2-C9 hydrocarbons, including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, dienes and monocyclics. (The WCC-VOC operates currently under this mode). Stage 2 measurements: C10-C14 hydrocarbons, including higher homologs of the Stage 1 set as well as biogenic hydrocarbon compounds. Stage 3 measurements: Oxygenated VOCs, including alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids. The Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centre (QA/SAC) Germany currently has established the World Calibration Centre for VOC (WCC-VOC). The WCC-VOC has operated in the research mode und has become operational recently. From now on, the WCC-VOC conducts one round-robin calibration audit per year at all global stations that measure VOCs and assists other stations in setting up VOC measurement capabilities. Furthermore, the WCC-VOC will promote inter-com-parison experiments with networks related to other programmes, notably EMEP and IGAC.

  7. Visual Skills: Watch the Ball?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Sue

    1989-01-01

    In tennis as well as in other racket/paddle sports, simply watching the ball does not guarantee success in hitting the ball to the desired location. Teachers and coaches should teach players to integrate available visual, spatial, and kinesthetic information. Several drills for good ball contact are outlined. (IAH)

  8. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  9. Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart I. (b) Posting fire watches. The employer must post a fire watch if during hot work any of the... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart I. (b) Posting fire watches. The employer must post a fire watch if during hot work any of the... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to...

  12. Boreal Forest Watch: A BOREAS Outreach Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Barrett N.

    1999-01-01

    The Boreal Forest Watch program was initiated in the fall of 1994 to act as an educational outreach program for the BOREAS project in both the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). Boreal Forest Watch (13FW) was designed to introduce area high school teachers and their students to the types of research activities occurring as part of the BOREAS study of Canadian boreal forests. Several teacher training workshops were offered to teachers from central and northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba between May, 1995 and February, 1999; teachers were introduced to techniques for involving their students in on-going environmental monitoring studies within local forested stands. Boreal Forest Watch is an educational outreach program which brings high school students and research scientists together to study the forest and foster a sustainable relationship between people and the planetary life-support system we depend upon. Personnel from the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC), with the cooperation from the Prince Albert National Park (PANP), instituted this program to help teachers within the BOREAS Study Areas offer real science research experience to their students. The program has the potential to complement large research projects, such as BOREAS, by providing useful student- collected data to scientists. Yet, the primary goal of BFW is to allow teachers and students to experience a hands-on, inquiry-based approach to leaming science - emulating the process followed by research scientists. In addition to introducing these teachers to on-going BOREAS research, the other goals of the BFW program were to: 1) to introduce authentic science topics and methods to students and teachers through hands-on, field-based activities; and, 2) to build a database of student-collected environmental monitoring data for future global change studies in the boreal region.

  13. Country watch: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ruranga, R

    1995-01-01

    The National Resistance Army (NRA) in Uganda has incorporated a component on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in its training and support programs since 1988. Staff trained by local agencies participate in educational campaigns using printed materials, videos, theater performances, seminars, and individual counseling. The messages stress positive actions and behavior changes, rather than fear. Condoms are linked with the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the treatment of which is encouraged. HIV testing, with pre- and post-test counseling, is offered on an anonymous voluntary basis. Soldiers living with AIDS receive care at four clinics. They may voluntarily leave the NRA, but there is no policy of mandatory discharge. The NRA agreed to expand its program in 1994, in collaboration with NGO World Learning Inc. The new initiative entails the training of health educators and community workers at four regional NRA offices, who will coordinate their activities with regional and/or district health educators in charge of community programs. Condom distribution will be expanded to places frequented by soldiers which are close to military installations. A referral service for counseling and HIV testing is being established for military personnel and their families. It will collaborate with the AIDS Information Centre, an NGO. Support clubs for HIV-positive persons will operate from new recreational facilities; a wide range of leisure activities (videos, games) will be offered. PMID:12289836

  14. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories. Second, a RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Academic Linkage) topic for FY12 was developed for medical systems and astronaut health under the Human-Focused Mars Mission Systems and Technologies theme. Announcement of the competition was made to the public in August 2011. Finally, critical Tech Watch information was prepared for public release in the form of gap reports. Complementing the ExMC technology gaps in the public domain, gap reports were generated, reviewed and revised through a series of technical, medical and subject matter expert reviews before approval for public release. An important vehicle for the public release of such documents was development of the ExMC wiki website, which will continue to be populated with gap reports and relevant documents throughout the upcoming year.

  15. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Program's (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASA's goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories. Second, a RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts - Academic Linkage) topic for FY12 was developed for medical systems and astronaut health under the Human-Focused Mars Mission Systems and Technologies theme. Announcement of the competition was made to the public in August 2011. Finally, critical Tech Watch information was prepared for public release in the form of gap reports. Complementing the ExMC technology gaps in the public domain, gap reports were generated, reviewed and revised through a series of technical, medical and subject matter expert reviews before approval for public release. An important vehicle for the public release of such documents was development of the ExMC wiki website, which will continue to be populated with gap reports and relevant documents throughout the upcoming year.

  16. The measurement of radioactive noble gases by DWD in the frame of the Global Atmospheric Watch programme of WMO.

    PubMed

    Steinkopff, T; Dyck, W; Frank, G; Frenzel, S; Salvamoser, J

    2004-01-01

    The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Meteorological Service) is integrated into the Global Atmospheric Watch programme (GAW) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). According to this programme a variety of chemical compounds and radionuclides are measured at global stations. At the research platform "Schneefernerhaus" 7Be, 222Rn, and its decay products, 14C in CO2, tritium as HTO, 85Kr and 133Xe are continuously monitored by the DWD or are sampled and then measured at the central laboratory in Offenbach. The results are used as additional information for studying atmospheric mixing processes or on the other hand as information about the background level of radioactivity. As a main subject of this paper the integration and partly the optimization of sampling and measuring procedures for the detection of noble gases are described. In particular, the methods of quality assurance are discussed for Kr and Xe. PMID:15177349

  17. Long-term surface ozone variability at the Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW Global Station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Scheel, Hans-Eckhart; Steinbacher, Martin; Saliba, Martin; Azzoppardi, Francelle; Ellul, Ray; Fröhlich, Marina; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Duchi, Rocco; Cristian Landi, Tony; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    While several studies have been analysed the long-term surface ozone variability and trends at remote and rural locations of continental Europe, such an analysis is still lacking for the Mediterranean basin. For this reason, here we analysed the surface ozone variability observed at the Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN, 44°12' N, 10°42' E, 2165 m a.s.l., Italy) from 1991 to 2011. The measurements performed at this high-mountain observatory represent the longest surface ozone record at a baseline site in the Mediterranean basin. The shape of the mean annual variation of ozone (a winter minimum and a spring - summer maxima) is well comparable with that observed at other 4 baseline sites in the Alps and in the Mediterranean region (Jungfraujoch - Swiss Alps, Sonnblick - Austrian Alps, Mt. Krvavec- Slovenia and Giordan Lightouse - Island of Malta). In general, CMN shows higher ozone during warm months, which is likely to be related with vertical transport of polluted air-masses at regional and continental scales. In agreement with other baseline measurements in Europe, the first part of the CMN measurement period (1991-1993) was characterised by lower mean monthly mixing ratios, compared to the subsequent part of the time series. Constant ozone mixing ratios were generally observed at CMN from 1998 to middle 2004, while larger positive ozone anomalies were observed for the years 2005 - 2008. In agreement with other Alpine and Mediterranean baseline sites lower ozone values were finally observed at CMN during the most recent years (i.e. from 2009 to 2011). This resulted in the appearance of a significant positive linear trends in the monthly O3 mixing ratios over the period 1991 - 2011. On a seasonal basis, a positive trend has been observed for 1996 - 2011 only for spring. Significant decreases of the seasonal ozone growth-rates have been detected at CMN from winter to spring (during 1991 - 2011) and for summer during 1996 - 2011.

  18. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Shaw, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is directed by the NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and primarily focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of multiple NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion, and advance NASA's goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In fiscal year 2013, the Tech Watch project maintained student project activity aimed at specific ExMC gaps, completed the gap report review cycle for all gaps through a maturated gap report review process, and revised the ExMC Tech Watch Sharepoint site for enhanced data content and organization. Through site visits, internships and promotions via aerospace journals, several student projects were initiated and completed this past year. Upon project completion, the students presented their results via telecom or WebEx to the ExMC Element as a whole. The upcoming year will continue to forge strategic alliances and student projects in the interest of technology and knowledge gap closure. Through the population of Sharepoint with technologies assessed by the gap owners, the database expansion will develop a more comprehensive technology set for each gap. By placing such data in Sharepoint, the gap report updates in fiscal year 2014 are anticipated to be streamlined since the evaluated technologies will be readily available to the gap owners in a sortable archive, and may be simply exported into the final gap report presentation

  19. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Shaw, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is directed by the NASA Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and primarily focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of multiple NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion, and advance NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In fiscal year 2013, the Tech Watch project maintained student project activity aimed at specific ExMC gaps, completed the gap report review cycle for all gaps through a maturated gap report review process, and revised the ExMC Tech Watch Sharepoint site for enhanced data content and organization. Through site visits, internships and promotions via aerospace journals, several student projects were initiated and completed this past year. Upon project completion, the students presented their results via telecom or WebEx to the ExMC Element as a whole. The upcoming year will continue to forge strategic alliances and student projects in the interest of technology and knowledge gap closure. Through the population of Sharepoint with technologies assessed by the gap owners, the database expansion will develop a more comprehensive technology set for each gap. By placing such data in Sharepoint, the gap report updates in fiscal year 2014 are anticipated to be streamlined since the evaluated technologies will be readily available to the gap owners in a sortable archive, and may be simply exported into the final gap report presentation.

  20. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Fung, Paul P.

    2013-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA project that is operated under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2012, the Tech Watch project expanded the scope of activities to cultivate student projects targeted at specific ExMC gaps, generate gap reports for a majority of the ExMC gaps and maturate a gap report review process to optimize the technical and managerial aspects of ExMC gap status. Through numerous site visits and discussions with academia faculty, several student projects were initiated and/or completed this past year. A key element to these student projects was the ability of the project to align with a specific ExMC technology or knowledge gap. These projects were mentored and reviewed by Tech Watch leads at the various NASA centers. Another result of the past years efforts was the population of the ExMC wiki website that now contains more the three quarters of the ExMC gap reports. The remaining gap reports will be completed in FY13. Finally, the gap report review process for all ExMC gaps was initiated. This review process was instrumental in ensuring that each gap report was thoroughly reviewed for accuracy and relevant content prior to its public release. In the upcoming year, the gap report review process will be refined such that in addition to the gap report update, programmatic information related to gap closure will also be emphasized.

  1. Watching How Planets Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be explained if the disc contains a large amount of gas, in this case, at least as much as 10 times the mass of Jupiter. It should also contain more than 50 Earth masses in dust. The dust mass derived here is more than thousand times larger than what is observed in debris discs and Kuiper belt-like structures found around older, 'Vega-like' stars, such as Beta Pictoris, Vega, Fomalhaut and HR 4796. The dust around these stars is thought to be produced by collisions of larger bodies. The dust mass observed around HD 97048 is similar to the mass invoked for the (undetected) parent bodies in the more evolved systems. HD 97048's disc is thus most likely a precursor of debris discs observed around older stars. "From the structure of the disc, we infer that planetary embryos may be present in the inner part of the disc," said Lagage. "We are planning follow-up observations at higher angular resolution with ESO's VLT interferometer in order to probe these regions." A video, made by the CEA, is also available. More Information The scientists report their discovery in the 28 September issue of Science Express, the rapid online publication service of the journal Science: "Anatomy of a flaring proto-planetary disc around a young intermediate-mass star", by P.-O. Lagage et al. The team is composed of Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Coralie Doucet, and Eric Pantin, (CEA Saclay, France), Sébastien Charnoz (Paris 7 Denis Diderot University), Emilie Habart (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France), Gaspard Duchêne, François Ménard, and Christophe Pinte (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), and Jan-Willem Pel (Groningen University, The Netherlands).

  2. Global atmospheric watch adds six new stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    With the growing awareness that global atmospheric change may well have far reaching implications for life on Earth, the study of atmospheric chemistry is rapidly intensifying. Essential to understanding the changing atmosphere are global measurements of several key components, for example carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone. As part of a large international effort, the World Meteorological Organization is organizing the Global Atmospheric Watch, a network of more than 300 regional monitoring stations scattered across the globe. There are also several stations that can sample air that is representative of large, unpolluted areas (see Figure 1), and this part of the network is being extended. Six new stations are being added in Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Indonesia, and Kenya, nations that until now have been minimally involved in studying atmospheric chemistry.

  3. Climatology of new particle formation events in the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaa GAW observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca, M. I.; Rodrguez, S.; Gonzlez, Y.; Garca, R. D.

    2013-09-01

    A climatology of new particle formation (NPF) events in the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere is presented. A four year data set (June 2008-June 2012), which includes number size distributions (10-600 nm), reactive gases (SO2, NOx, and O3), several components of solar radiation and meteorological parameters, measured at Izaa Global Atmospheric Watch observatory (2400 m above sea level; Tenerife, Canary Islands) was analysed. On average, NPF occurred during 30% of the days,the mean values of the formation and growth rates during the study period were 0.49 cm-3 s-1 and 0.42 nm h-1, correspondingly. There is a clearly marked NPF season (May to August), when these events account for 50 to 60% of the days/month. Monthly mean values of the formation and growth rates exhibit higher values during this season (0.50-0.95 cm-3 s-1 and 0.48-0.58 nm h-1, respectively) than during other periods. The two steps (formation and growth) of the NPF process mostly occur under the prevailing northern winds typical of this region. Sulphur dioxide and UV radiation show higher levels during NPF events than in other type of episodes. The presence of Saharan dust in the free troposphere is associated with a decrease in the formation rates of new particles. In the analysis of the year-to-year variability, mean sulphur dioxide concentration (within the range 60-300 ppt) was the parameter that exhibited the highest correlation with the frequency of NPF episodes. The availability of this trace gas (i.e. their oxidation products) seems also to have a influence on the duration of the events, number of formed nucleation particles, formation rates and growth rates. We identified a set of NPF events in which two nucleation modes (that may evolve at different rates) occur simultaneously and for which further investigations are necessary.

  4. Automatic soldering for watch circuit components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, Tohru; Furutani, Toshio; Takemoto, Mikio

    Automatic welding systems for watch circuits were developed to automate large variety small quantity production processes. The aim of the development was achieved by solving problems involving prevention of solder ball generation and development of a new heating method for components with low heat resistance, and development of a system that permits production of various watch circuits operations. As a result, it was possible to produce systems for stable soldering and switchover production of a variety of watch circuits with reduced switchover time.

  5. Antibodies to watch in 2015.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    The commercial pipeline of recombinant antibody therapeutics is robust and dynamic. As of early December 2014, a total of 6 such products (vedolizumab, siltuximab, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, blinatumomab) were granted first marketing approvals in 2014. As discussed in this perspective on antibodies in late-stage development, the outlook for additional approvals, potentially still in 2014 and certainly in 2015, is excellent as marketing applications for 7 antibody therapeutics (secukinumab, evolocumab, mepolizumab, dinutuximab, nivolumab, blinatumomab, necitumumab) are undergoing a first regulatory review in the EU or US. Of the 39 novel mAbs currently in Phase 3 studies, a marketing application for one (alirocumab) may be submitted in late 2014, and marketing application submissions for at least 4 (reslizumab, ixekizumab, ocrelizumab, obiltoxaximab) are expected in 2015. Other 'antibodies to watch' are those in Phase 3 studies with estimated primary completion dates in late 2014 or 2015, which includes 13 for non-cancer indications (brodalumab, bimagrumab, bococizumab, MABp1, gevokizumab, dupilumab, sirukumab, sarilumab, tildrakizumab, guselkumab, epratuzumab, combination of actoxumab + bezlotoxumab, romosozumab) and 2 (racotumomab and clivatuzumab tetraxetan) undergoing evaluation as treatments for cancer. In addition to the novel antibody therapeutics mentioned, biosimilar infliximab and biosimilar trastuzumab are 'antibodies to watch' in 2015 because of their potential for entry into the US market and regulatory review, respectively. PMID:25484055

  6. Multi-scale indicators in CropWatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.; Yan, N.; Zhang, N.; Zou, W.; Chang, S.; Liu, G.

    2013-12-01

    CropWatch is a crop monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information, mostly for Chinese users. In its 15th year of operation, CropWatch uses remote sensing data combined with selected field data to determine key crop descriptors: acreage, yield and production, condition, cropping intensity, planting proportion, total food availability, and the status and severity of droughts. Currently, CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite 3 (FY-3A) and geostationary meteorological satellites (FY-2). The new indicators can be assigned to three different scales: (1) global, (2) regional/Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ), and (3) National/sub-national level. At the global scale, CropWatch focuses on the growing environment including precipitation (R), soil moisture (SM), land surface temperature accumulation (LSTA) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). National values of these four descriptors of the current season and their departure from long term average (LTA) will be determined by spatial average weighted by the production potential. At regional/AEZ scale, CropWatch will use three indicators (biomass, fallow land ratio and cropping intensity) to represent crop condition. At the national/sub-national scale, CropWatch will focus on 30 countries plus China, covering 80% of exports and 80% of production, plus some additional countries. Indicators at global and AEZ scale will also be used for the 30 countries plus China but at a high resolution. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as well as Evapotranspiration (ET) will be incorporated to determine the crop condition and water stress. All these national/sub-national indicators will be analyzed by irrigated and rain-fed areas separately. For China, a special indicator (crop type proportion, CTP) will be used to estimate planting area by crop type. Based on the multi-scale remote sensing based indicators, CropWatch can identify recent and noteworthy changes affecting wheat, maize, rice and soybean, and focus on trends that are likely to continue.

  7. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  8. Long-term surface ozone variability at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Saliba, M.; Azzopardi, F.; Ellul, R.; Fröhlich, M.; Tositti, L.; Brattich, E.; Maione, M.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin represents a hot spot area for short-term O3 distribution and anthropogenic contributions to it. This is why we analysed in this work the surface O3 variability observed at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN, 44°12‧ N, 10°42‧ E, 2165 m a.s.l., Italy) from 1991 to 2011. The measurements performed at this mountain observatory represent the longest surface O3 record at a baseline site in the Mediterranean basin. Monthly O3 averages at CMN show a typical seasonal cycle characterised by a winter minimum and a spring - summer maxima. The shape of the mean annual variation of O3 is well comparable with those observed at other four baseline sites in the Alps and in the Mediterranean region: Jungfraujoch - Swiss Alps, Sonnblick - Austrian Alps, Mt. Krvavec- Slovenia and Giordan Lightouse - Island of Gozo, Malta. In general, O3 levels at CMN show higher values during warm months, which is likely to be related both to vertical transport of polluted air-masses at regional and continental scales and to enhanced photochemistry. Here, we also investigate the influence of specific atmospheric processes (i.e. the occurrence of heat-waves, North Atlantic Oscillation, thermal transport of air-masses from the regional PBL and stratospheric intrusions) in affecting O3 variability at CMN. Overall, a significant positive (95% confidence level) linear trend in monthly O3 mole fraction was observed over the period 1991-2011 (0.21 ± 0.10 nmol/mol yr-1) while no trend (-0.02 ± 0.12 nmol/mol yr-1) was detected for the 1996-2011, when measurements were carried out by an homogeneous experimental set-up. On a seasonal basis, a positive trend has been observed for 1996-2011 (0.34 ± 0.32 nmol/mol yr-1) only for spring. Significant decreases of the seasonal O3 growth-rates have been detected at CMN during 1991-2011 from winter to spring and only for summer during 1996-2011.

  9. 46 CFR 15.1109 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watches. 15.1109 Section 15.1109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW 15.1109 Watches. Except those serving on vessels listed in 15.105(f) and (g) of...

  10. 46 CFR 15.1109 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watches. 15.1109 Section 15.1109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1109 Watches. Each master of a vessel that operates beyond the Boundary Line...

  11. 46 CFR 15.1109 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watches. 15.1109 Section 15.1109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1109 Watches. Each master of a vessel that operates beyond the Boundary Line...

  12. 46 CFR 15.1109 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watches. 15.1109 Section 15.1109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1109 Watches. Each master of a vessel that operates beyond the Boundary Line...

  13. 46 CFR 15.1109 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watches. 15.1109 Section 15.1109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1109 Watches. Each master of a vessel that operates beyond the Boundary Line...

  14. Shared Struggles, Shared Triumphs: Watching Writers Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark

    When teachers base classroom discussion of literature, particularly poetry, on the authors' manuscripts, notebooks, and letters, they allow students to watch writers write and to appreciate the craft involved in creative writing. Watching the writer at work--examining the drafts and correspondence for such poems as Blake's "London" or Keats'"To

  15. 'Watching' medicine: do bioethicists respect patients' privacy?

    PubMed

    Ainslie, D C

    2000-11-01

    Agich has identified 'watching' --the formal or informal observation of the medical setting-- as one of the four main roles of the clinical bioethicist. By an analysis of a case study involving a bioethics student who engaged in watching at an HIV/AIDS clinic as part of his training, I raise questions about the ethical justification of watching. I argue that the invasion of privacy that watching entails makes the activity unacceptable unless the watcher has received prior consent from the patients who are being observed. I conclude that, even though it is important for bioethics students to understand the complexities of actual medical practice, watching should play a prominent role in bioethics education only if the privacy problems in it can be resolved. PMID:11196220

  16. Force and pressure tests of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 20% aileron and pressure tests with a 30% Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Seetharam, H. C.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel force and pressure tests were conducted for the GA(W)-1 airfoil equipped with a 20% aileron, and pressure tests were conducted with a 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 and a Mach number of 0.13. The aileron provides control effectiveness similar to ailerons applied to more conventional airfoils. Effects of aileron gaps from 0% to 2% chord were evaluated, as well as hinge moment characteristics. The aft camber of the GA(W)-1 section results in a substantial up-aileron moment, but the hinge moments associated with aileron deflection are similar to other configurations. Fowler flap pressure distributions indicate that unseparated flow is achieved for flap settings up to 40 deg., over a limited angle of attack range. Theoretical pressure distributions compare favorably with experiments for low flap deflections, but show substantial errors at large deflections.

  17. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  18. Development of a new concept diver's watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Takeo; Aizawa, Hitomi

    The 'Scuba Master' diver's watch represents a new concept. It was developed and announced in 1990. This watch automatically displays information necessary for safe scuba diving and records diving data. The watch was well accepted by divers all over the world. Safe diving techniques were investigated. This led to the need for developing a highly accurate, highly reliable depth measurement system. The functions and features of 'Scuba Masters' are described. The way to make the depth measurement system highly accurate and highly reliable is explained.

  19. Antibodies to watch in 2016.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, are projected to gain first approvals in 2016. Commercial late-stage antibody therapeutics development exceeded expectations by increasing from 39 candidates in Phase 3 studies as of late 2014 to 53 as of late 2015. Of the 53 candidates, transitions to regulatory review by the end of 2016 are projected for 8 (atezolizumab, benralizumab, bimagrumab, durvalumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, lebrikizumab, ocrelizumab, tremelimumab). Other "antibodies to watch" include 15 candidates (bavituximab, bococizumab, dupilumab, fasinumab, fulranumab, gevokizumab, guselkumab, ibalizumab, LY2951742, onartuzumab, REGN2222, roledumab, romosozumab, sirukumab, Xilonix) undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies that have estimated primary completion dates in 2016. As evidenced by the antibody therapeutics discussed in this perspective, the biopharmaceutical industry has a highly active late-stage clinical pipeline that may deliver numerous new products to the global market in the near future. *See Note added in proof for updates through December 31, 2015. PMID:26651519

  20. 46 CFR 78.30-5 - Pilothouse watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pilothouse watch. 78.30-5 Section 78.30-5 Shipping COAST... Watch, Patrolmen, and Watchmen 78.30-5 Pilothouse watch. (a) In addition to the licensed deck officer or pilot, there shall be at least one member of the crew also on watch in or near the pilothouse...

  1. 46 CFR 78.30-5 - Pilothouse watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pilothouse watch. 78.30-5 Section 78.30-5 Shipping COAST... Watch, Patrolmen, and Watchmen 78.30-5 Pilothouse watch. (a) In addition to the licensed deck officer or pilot, there shall be at least one member of the crew also on watch in or near the pilothouse...

  2. 47 CFR 80.304 - Watch requirement during silence periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirement during silence periods. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.304 Watch requirement during silence periods. Each ship station operating...

  3. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by voluntary vessels. 80.310... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC...

  4. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by voluntary vessels. 80.310... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC...

  5. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by voluntary vessels. 80.310... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC...

  6. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by voluntary vessels. 80.310... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC...

  7. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lookouts and watches. 131.980 Section 131.980 Shipping... Miscellaneous 131.980 Lookouts and watches. Nothing in this part exonerates any master or officer of the watch from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  8. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lookouts and watches. 131.980 Section 131.980 Shipping... Miscellaneous 131.980 Lookouts and watches. Nothing in this part exonerates any master or officer of the watch from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  9. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lookouts and watches. 131.980 Section 131.980 Shipping... Miscellaneous 131.980 Lookouts and watches. Nothing in this part exonerates any master or officer of the watch from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  10. 46 CFR 78.30-5 - Pilothouse watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pilothouse watch. 78.30-5 Section 78.30-5 Shipping COAST... Watch, Patrolmen, and Watchmen 78.30-5 Pilothouse watch. (a) In addition to the licensed deck officer or pilot, there shall be at least one member of the crew also on watch in or near the pilothouse...

  11. 46 CFR 78.30-5 - Pilothouse watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pilothouse watch. 78.30-5 Section 78.30-5 Shipping COAST... Watch, Patrolmen, and Watchmen 78.30-5 Pilothouse watch. (a) In addition to the licensed deck officer or pilot, there shall be at least one member of the crew also on watch in or near the pilothouse...

  12. 47 CFR 80.304 - Watch requirement during silence periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirement during silence periods. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.304 Watch requirement during silence periods. Each ship station operating...

  13. 47 CFR 80.304 - Watch requirement during silence periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch requirement during silence periods. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.304 Watch requirement during silence periods. Each ship station operating...

  14. 47 CFR 80.304 - Watch requirement during silence periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirement during silence periods. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches 80.304 Watch requirement during silence periods. Each ship station operating...

  15. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lookouts and watches. 131.980 Section 131.980 Shipping... Miscellaneous 131.980 Lookouts and watches. Nothing in this part exonerates any master or officer of the watch from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  16. 47 CFR 80.304 - Watch requirement during silence periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirement during silence periods. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.304 Watch requirement during silence periods. Each ship station operating...

  17. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by voluntary vessels. 80.310... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC...

  18. 46 CFR 78.30-5 - Pilothouse watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilothouse watch. 78.30-5 Section 78.30-5 Shipping COAST... Watch, Patrolmen, and Watchmen § 78.30-5 Pilothouse watch. (a) In addition to the licensed deck officer or pilot, there shall be at least one member of the crew also on watch in or near the pilothouse...

  19. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lookouts and watches. 131.980 Section 131.980 Shipping... Miscellaneous § 131.980 Lookouts and watches. Nothing in this part exonerates any master or officer of the watch from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  20. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S68 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S68 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel C-11, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-5, & on ridge above Tunnel D-14, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S82 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S82 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Additional flow field studies of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap including slot-gap variations and cove shape modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made to determine the effects of slot gap opening and flap cove shape on flap and airfoil flow fields. Test model was the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 0.30c Fowler flap deflected 35 degrees. Tests were conducted with optimum, wide and narrow gaps, and with three cove shapes. Three test angles were selected, corresponding to pre-stall and post-stall conditions. Reynolds number was 2,200,000 and Mach number was 0.13. Force, surface pressure, total pressure, and split-film turbulence measurements were made. Results were compared with theory for those parameters for which theoretical values were available.

  4. Radium dial watches, a potentially hazardous legacy?

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin K; Crockett, Robin; Denman, Tony; Flowers, Alan; Harris, Richard

    2012-09-15

    This study re-examines the risk to health from radium ((226)Ra) dial watches. Ambient dose equivalent rates have been measured for fifteen pocket watches giving results of up to 30 μSv h(-1) at a distance of 2 cm taken with a series 1000 mini-rad from the front face (arithmetic mean ambient dose equivalent for pocket watches being 13.2 μSv h(-1)). A pocket compass gave rise to a similar ambient dose equivalent rate, of 20 μSv h(-1), to the pocket watches, with its cover open. Eighteen wristwatches have also been assessed, but their dose rates are generally much lower (the arithmetic mean being 3.0 μSv h(-1)), although the highest ambient dose equivalent rate noted was 20 μSv h(-1). A phantom experiment using a TLD suggested an effective dose equivalent of 2.2 mSv/y from a 1 μCi (37 kBq) radium dial worn for 16 h/day throughout the year (dose rate 0.375 μSv h(-1)). For this condition we estimated maximum skin dose for our pocket watches as 16 mSv per year, with effective doses of 5.1 mSv and 1.169 mSv when worn in vest and trouser pockets respectively. This assumes exposure from the back of the watch which is generally around 60-67% of that from the front. The maximum skin dose from a wristwatch was 14 mSv, with 4.2 mSv effective dose in vest pocket. Radium ((226)Ra) decays to the radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn), and atmospheric radon concentration measurements taken around a pocket watch in a small sealed glass sphere recorded 18,728 B qm(-3). All watches were placed in a room with a RAD7 real-time radon detector. Radon concentration average was 259±9 Bq m(-3) over 16 h, compared to background average over 24h of 1.02 Bq m(-3). Over 6 weeks highs of the order of 2000 Bq m(-3) were routinely recorded when the heating/ventilation system in the room was operating at reduced rates, peaking at over 3000 Bq m(-3) on several occasions. Estimates of the activity of (226)Ra in the watches ranged from 0.063 to 1.063 μCi (2.31 to 39.31 kBq) for pocket watches and from 0.013 to 0.875 μCi (0.46 to 32.38 kBq) for wrist watches. The risk from old watches containing radium appears to have been largely forgotten today. This paper indicates a health risk, particular to collectors, but with knowledge and appropriate precautions the potential risks can be reduced. PMID:22580295

  5. BioWatch in a Box

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M T; Dzentis, J M; Meyer, R M

    2006-02-01

    BioWatch, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) environmental monitoring program, has been successfully operating in many of the nation's urban centers since early 2003. This early warning environmental monitoring system can detect trace amounts of biological materials in the air, and has been used to provide information to assist public health experts determine whether detected materials are due to an intentional release (bioterrorism incident) or due to minute quantities that occur naturally in the environment. BioWatch information enables federal, state, and local officials to more quickly determine appropriate emergency response, medical care and consequence management.

  6. Whale Watching in the Gulf of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carkin, Clayton A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a variety of teaching strategies to prepare a class for a whale watching field trip. Guidelines for recording a sighting, pictures and statistics for commonly and/or occasionally seen whales, and hints for avoiding sea sickness are included. (DH)

  7. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and... manning levels specified in a vessel's certificate of inspection take into consideration...

  8. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and... manning levels specified in a vessel's certificate of inspection take into consideration...

  9. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and... manning levels specified in a vessel's certificate of inspection take into consideration...

  10. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and... manning levels specified in a vessel's certificate of inspection take into consideration...

  11. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and... daily basis does not in itself constitute the establishment of a watch. The minimum safe manning levels specified in a vessel's COI or other safe manning document take into consideration routine...

  12. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  13. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  14. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  15. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,

  16. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  17. 10 Trends to Watch in Campus Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James; Samels, James E.

    2007-01-01

    College and university presidents are increasingly called upon to make informed choices about technology. The rapidly shifting landscape makes it tough to keep up with change and innovation, let alone stay ahead of the curve. In this article, the authors discuss 10 trends to watch in campus technology. These trends are the following: (1) increased…

  18. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire..., overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire..., overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;...

  20. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  1. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  2. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  3. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  4. Impact on Psychiatric Interns of Watching Live Electroconvulsive Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazdag, Gabor; Sebestyen, Gabor; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Tolna, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Watching a live electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has both positive and negative effects on spectators. The authors aim to survey the attitude change towards ECT in interns after watching a live ECT session. Methods: A 23-item questionnaire was administered to 66 interns before and after watching ECT. Results: In five statements, the…

  5. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  10. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  11. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  12. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  13. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  14. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  15. Impact on Psychiatric Interns of Watching Live Electroconvulsive Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazdag, Gabor; Sebestyen, Gabor; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Tolna, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Watching a live electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has both positive and negative effects on spectators. The authors aim to survey the attitude change towards ECT in interns after watching a live ECT session. Methods: A 23-item questionnaire was administered to 66 interns before and after watching ECT. Results: In five statements, the

  16. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  17. The GAW-PFR aerosol optical depth network: The 2008-2013 time series at Cape Point Station, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Gröbner, J.; Kouremeti, N.; Wacker, S.; Labuschagne, C.; Mbatha, N.; Brunke, E.-G.

    2015-05-01

    A ground-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) climatology is presented for Cape Point (CPT) station, South Africa, for the 2008-2013 period. CPT is part of the Global Atmosphere Watch-Precision Filter Radiometer network which conducts long-term AOD measurements at remote background sites. AOD (λ = 500 nm) and Ångström exponent (368 to 862 nm; α368-862) averages for the entire period were 0.059 and 0.68, displaying only a weak seasonality. Based on an established method for air mass classification using the in situ wind direction and 222Rn concentration, the following four air mass types were used to further investigate AOD: background marine, marine, mixed, and continental. AOD was similar for all types, but α368-862 was distinctly lower (0.43) for background marine and higher (1.07) for continental air masses, illustrating the presence of coarse mode and anthropogenic aerosols, respectively. Trajectory cluster analysis of 5 day back trajectories confirmed/augmented this classification. AOD for background marine and marine air mass types were consistent with ship-based (Maritime Aerosol Network) and island (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements, suggesting that CPT is a suitable site to monitor pristine conditions in the South Atlantic and Southern Oceans when 222Rn concentrations are < 100 mBq m-3.

  18. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  19. Wind tunnel tests of the GA(W)-2 airfoil with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap, 30% Fowler flap and 10% slot-lip spoiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensional wind tunnel tests were conducted for the GA(W)-2 airfoil section with: 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap; 30% Fowler flap, and 10% slot-lip spoiler. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2,200,000 and a Mach Number of 0.13. In addition to force measurements, tuft studies were conducted for the slotted and Fowler flap configurations. Aileron and spoiler hinge moments were obtained by integration of surface pressure measurements. Tests results show that a value of 3.82 was obtained with 30% Fowler flap. Aileron control effectiveness and hinge moments were similar to other airfoils. The slot-lip spoiler provided powerful, positive roll control at all flap settings.

  20. Television watching and risk of colorectal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Keum, N N; Chan, A T; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prolonged TV watching, a major sedentary behaviour, is associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may involve in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 31 065 men with ⩾1 endoscopy in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988–2008) to evaluate sitting while watching TV and its joint influence with leisure-time physical activity on risk of colorectal adenoma. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Prolonged sitting while watching TV was significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma (n=4280), and adjusting for physical activity or a potential mediator body mass index did not change the estimates. The ORs (95% CIs) across categories of TV watching (0–6, 7–13, 14–20, and 21+ h per week) were 1.00 (referent), 1.09 (1.01–1.17), 1.16 (1.06–1.27), and 1.10 (0.97–1.25) (OR per 14-h per week increment=1.11; 95% CI: 1.04–1.18; Ptrend=0.001). Compared with the least sedentary (0–6 h per week of TV) and most physically active (highest quintile) men, the most sedentary (14+ h per week) and least active (lowest quintile) men had a significant increased risk of adenoma (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.05–1.49), particularly for high-risk adenoma. Conclusions: Prolonged TV viewing is associated with modest increased risk of colorectal adenoma independent of leisure-time physical activity and minimally mediated by obesity. PMID:25590667

  1. Quartz analog watch with perpetual calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Eric; Schmidli, Pierre; Erni, Bruno

    The Caliber ETA 252.411 with perpetual calendar, which is similar in dimensions and display to classic quartz watch movements, is described. The main characteristics are: the date display in the window is always correct (until 28 Feb. 2100); the change of time zones is operated without losing minute and second by means of a date correction at each midnight passage; and the use of nonvolatile memories for information concerning the perpetual calendar allows an easy time resetting after change of battery.

  2. Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  3. The Verification of MACC-II Global Reactive Gas Forecasts with Global Atmosphere Watch Surface Observations and Ozonesonde Measurements from the NDACC, WOUDC, NILU and SHADOZ Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.

    2012-04-01

    The MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate- phase II) project, funded under the 7th framework program of the European Union, provides a comprehensive monitoring and operational forecasting system for atmospheric constituents relevant to climate and air quality issues and surface solar radiation. The MACC-II forecast system is based on the global weather forecasting system operated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) coupled with the chemistry transport models MOZART (Model for OZone and Related chemical Tracers) and TM5. On a near real time (NRT) basis observational data and forecasts, as well as reanalyses are made available for greenhouse and reactive gases, UV radiation and aerosol optical density. The sub group "VAL" is focusing on the evaluation of reactive gases, thus, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone as well as its precursors and aerosols. The GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) network provides the ground-based observational data for the evaluation of model simulation forecast and reanalysis of the reactive gases CO and O3 at surface levels on a global scale. Contributing stations in this validation process provide their data in rapid delivery mode (within 1 day to 1 month), thus enabling a fast evaluation process. Currently, there are 12 stations providing data in Near-Real-Time. The validation process is performed online and daily updates of the results are displayed on the MACC website (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/d/services/gac/verif/grg/gaw/). For the validation of stratospheric and free tropospheric ozone forecasts, balloon sonde measurements from the data bases NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre), NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional OZon Sondes) are used. Here, we will give an overview on the status and the results of this Near-Real-Time (NRT) validation of the coupled forecast system for surface O3 and CO, based on GAW observational data, as well as for stratospheric ozone based on NDACC, WOUDC, NILU and SHADOZ sonde data. This work is supported by the EU-funded project MACC-II.

  4. WaterWatch - Maps, Graphs, and Tables of Current, Recent, and Past Streamflow Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jian, Xiaodong; Wolock, David; Lins, Harry

    2008-01-01

    WaterWatch (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/) is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Wide Web site that dis-plays maps, graphs, and tables describing real-time, recent, and past streamflow conditions for the United States. The real-time information generally is updated on an hourly basis. WaterWatch provides streamgage-based maps that show the location of more than 3,000 long-term (30 years or more) USGS streamgages; use colors to represent streamflow conditions compared to historical streamflow; feature a point-and-click interface allowing users to retrieve graphs of stream stage (water elevation) and flow; and highlight locations where extreme hydrologic events, such as floods and droughts, are occurring. The streamgage-based maps show streamflow conditions for real-time, average daily, and 7-day average streamflow. The real-time streamflow maps highlight flood and high flow conditions. The 7-day average streamflow maps highlight below-normal and drought conditions. WaterWatch also provides hydrologic unit code (HUC) maps. HUC-based maps are derived from the streamgage-based maps and illustrate streamflow conditions in hydrologic regions. These maps show average streamflow conditions for 1-, 7-, 14-, and 28-day periods, and for monthly average streamflow; highlight regions of low flow or hydrologic drought; and provide historical runoff and streamflow conditions beginning in 1901. WaterWatch summarizes streamflow conditions in a region (state or hydrologic unit) in terms of the long-term typical condition at streamgages in the region. Summary tables are provided along with time-series plots that depict variations through time. WaterWatch also includes tables of current streamflow information and locations of flooding.

  5. Reliability control for wrist watches and their casements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean-Claude

    The reliability tests developed for controlling wrist watch movements and their casements are summarized. For controlling the watch movements, ageing accelerated tests and impact tests were performed. Testing the performance of a wrist watch casement is of great importance: since it is this which is initially attacked by the environment. The casement is submitted to impact, fatigue, vibration, and corrosion tests. The waterproof capabilities and ageing behavior of the casements are examined.

  6. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; West, R.; Harrington, R.; Marsden, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Astrometry Network of the International Halley Watch (IHW) has organized and coordinated more than 300 astrometric observers from 47 countries in an effort to provide for accurate positional information on comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner. This information is being used to constantly update the existing orbits and ephemerides for the various flight projects to these two comets and also for the other ground-based observers within the IHW organization. The astrometric data, as well as the resultant orbits and ephemerides, are being distributed to all requesting observers and they will be cataloged within the general IHW archive system.

  7. The IHW island network. [International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm B., Jr.; Liller, William

    1987-01-01

    Early astronomical photography of comets at perihelion encouraged the establishment of an International Halley Watch (IHW) Team for regularly photographing the Comet. The February 1986 period was particularly troublesome due to the limitations of cometary visibility in the Southern Hemisphere. Schmidt cameras were placed on Tahiti, Easter Island, Faraday Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, Reunion Island and in South Africa. Blue- and red-filter B/W images were obtained every night and color prints were occasionally shot. Each night's images were examined before the next night's photography. Several interesting anecdotes are recounted from shipping, manning and operation of the telescopes.

  8. The Nurse Watch: Design and Evaluation of a Smart Watch Application with Vital Sign Monitoring and Checklist Reminders

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Magnus; Solnevik, Katarina; Eriksson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Computerized wearable devices such as smart watches will become valuable nursing tools. This paper describes a smart-watch system developed in close collaboration with a team of nurses working in a Swedish ICU. The smart-watch system provides real-time vital-sign monitoring, threshold alarms, and to-do reminders. Additionally, a Kanban board, visualized on a multitouch screen provides an overview of completed and upcoming tasks. We describe an approach to implement automated checklist systems with smart watches and discuss aspects of importance when implementing such memory and attention support. The paper is finalized with an in-development formative evaluation of the system. PMID:26958162

  9. The Nurse Watch: Design and Evaluation of a Smart Watch Application with Vital Sign Monitoring and Checklist Reminders.

    PubMed

    Bang, Magnus; Solnevik, Katarina; Eriksson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Computerized wearable devices such as smart watches will become valuable nursing tools. This paper describes a smart-watch system developed in close collaboration with a team of nurses working in a Swedish ICU. The smart-watch system provides real-time vital-sign monitoring, threshold alarms, and to-do reminders. Additionally, a Kanban board, visualized on a multitouch screen provides an overview of completed and upcoming tasks. We describe an approach to implement automated checklist systems with smart watches and discuss aspects of importance when implementing such memory and attention support. The paper is finalized with an in-development formative evaluation of the system. PMID:26958162

  10. Tropospheric ozone variations at the Everest-Pyramid GAW-WMO station (5079 m a.s.l., Nepal): natural and anthropogenic contributions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Bonasoni, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Bonafe', U.; Roccato, F.; Vuillermoz, E.; Verza, G. P.; Sprenger, M.

    2009-04-01

    Surface ozone is a key species controlling the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere and a powerful greenhouse gas. Since March 2006, continuous measurements of its concentration have been carried out at the Everest-Pyramid GAW-WMO station (5079 m a.s.l., Nepal), which is considered representative for the South-East Himalayas. The aim of this activity, conducted in the framework of Ev-K2-CNR "SHARE ASIA" and UNEP -"ABC" projects, is twofold: (a) to characterize the atmospheric background composition at the high Himalayan altitudes; and (b) to investigate the possible influence of polluted air mass transports. In this work, we present the first systematic evaluation about the influence played by natural (i.e. stratospheric intrusion events) and anthropogenic (i.e. transport of polluted air masses) processes in determining the ozone variations at this measurement site. For this purpose, we analysed two years of continuous measurements concerning in-situ surface ozone, black carbon and meteorological parameters as well as total ozone values from OMI satellite measurements. Further information about the origin of air masses affecting the measurement site was gained from three-dimensional backward trajectories (calculated with the LAGRANTO model) and consideration of potential vorticity values along these trajectories. Preliminary results suggest that the stratospheric intrusions and the pollution transport events significantly affect tropospheric ozone levels during pre-monsoon and dry seasons, even if strong episodes of pollution transport are also observed during the onset period of the monsoon season.

  11. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  12. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  13. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  14. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  15. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  16. Healthy Skepticism's new AdWatch: understanding drug promotion.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Peter R

    The AdWatch section of the Healthy Skepticism website (http://www.healthyskepticism.org/adwatch.asp) aims to improve medical decision-making by illuminating the techniques used in drug advertising. AdWatch draws on 20 years of dialogue about drug promotion plus ideas from many disciplines, especially logic, psychology and marketing. PMID:14636142

  17. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  18. Watching television by kids: How much and why?

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Karimi, Masoud; Ghorbanzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Television (TV) viewing by children may be linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. This study was aimed at examining the relationship between socioeconomic factors of families and TV watching behavior among 3–5 years old children in Ardakan, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: In the cross-sectional study, mothers of 188 children (93 boys and 95 girls) between 3 and 5 years old completed a researcher-designed questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS, using bivariate correlations and t-test for independent samples. Results: The mean of TV viewing was 2.68 ± 1.6 h daily, ranging from 0 to 9 h. There were no statistically significant gender differences on the basis of daily TV watching. There were positive associations between the children's daily TV watching and age as well aschildren's daily TV watching and their mothers’ time spent on watching TV. Children who lived in houses with the yard and could use it as a playground watched less TV than did the children who lived in houses without the yard. Conclusion: The results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of the association between different socioeconomic status aspects of families, such as the children's and mothers’ time spent on watching TV and having a yard in the house in an attempt to develop effective strategies and interventions to prevent excess TV watching. PMID:26097850

  19. Solenoid permits remote control of stop watch and assures restarting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodai, C.

    1964-01-01

    Stop watch which may be remotely controlled by the use of a solenoid mechanism is described. When the solenoid is energized, the coil spring pulls the lever arm and starts the balance wheel. When it is not energized, the spring pulls the lever and stops the watch.

  20. Radio science and the International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Gerard, E.

    1983-01-01

    The radio observations planned for the perihelion passage of Halley's comet in 1986 within the framework of the International Halley Watch (IHW) are reviewed. The roles of radar astronomy, continuum radio astronomy, and spectral-line radio astronomy in investigating the size and surface characteristics of the cometary nucleus, the nature and kinematics of the parent molecules sublimating into the coma, the properties of the coma particulate matter, and the cometary plasma are examined. Problems related to the inaccuracy of comet position data and lacks of background-source information, simultaneous submillimeter observations, and Southern-Hemisphere radio observing time are discussed; and the observatories participating in the IHW network are listed in tables with their instrument parameters.

  1. BioWatch - a wrist watch based signal acquisition system for physiological signals including blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simi Susan; Nathan, Viswam; Chengzhi Zong; Akinbola, Ebunoluwa; Aroul, Antoine Lourdes Praveen; Philipose, Lijoy; Soundarapandian, Karthikeyan; Xiangrong Shi; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    A wrist watch based system, which can measure electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG), is presented in this work. By using both ECG and PPG we also measure pulse transit time (PTT), which studies show to correlate well with blood pressure (BP). The system is also capable of monitoring heart rate using either ECG or PPG and can monitor blood oxygenation by easily replacing the PPG sensors with a different set. In this work, we investigate methods to train a fitting function to convert a PTT measurement to its corresponding systolic BP. We also validate measurements on different postures and show the value of calibrating the device for each posture. This system, called BioWatch, can potentially facilitate continuous and ubiquitous monitoring of ECG, PPG, heart rate, blood oxygenation and BP. PMID:25570444

  2. 76 FR 62760 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; LVMH Watch and Jewelry U.S.A., Inc.; (Watches, Jewelry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ..., filed 1-14-2011); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR....; (Watches, Jewelry Products and Leather Goods) Springfield, NJ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign... for activity related to watch, jewelry and leather goods warehousing and distribution at the...

  3. Out of the SHADOW: watch parts in the spotlight -- laser beam microwelding of delicate watch components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Thorsten; Olowinsky, Alexander M.

    2003-07-01

    Conventional joining techniques like press fitting or crimping require the application of mechanical forces to the parts which, in combination with the tolerances of both parts to be joined, lead to imprecision and poor tensile strength. In contrast, laser beam micro welding provides consistent joining and high flexibility and it acts as an alternative as long as press fitting, crimping, screwing or gluing are not capable of batch production. Different parts and even different metals can be joined in a non-contact process at feed rates of up to 60 m/min and with weld seam lengths from 0.6 mm to 15.7 mm. Due to the low energy input, typically 1 J to 6 J, a weld width as small as 50 μm and a weld depth as small as 20 μm have been attained. This results in low distortion of the joined watch components. Since the first applications of laser beam micro welding of watch components showed promising results, the process has further been enhanced using the SHADOW technique. Aspects of the technique such as tensile strength, geometry and precision of the weld seam as well as the acceptance amongst the -mostly conservative- watch manufacturers have been improved.

  4. Characterising Radon Emanations from Radium-Dial Watches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Robin; Gillmore, Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Research during the latter half of 2011 has indicated that in addition to the hazard arising from the radium content of radium-dial watches, significant radon concentrations that exceed the UK Domestic and Workplace Action Levels of 200 Bq/m3 and 400 Bq/m3, respectively, can arise from watches stored in the built environment (1). In an extension to that earlier research, the radon emanations from the watches are being investigated in order to evaluate the radon hazard and the effective radium content of the watches. These radon measurements are made by placing the watches in a sealed chamber in a closed loop with a Durridge RAD7. We report here preliminary results from this ongoing investigation which suggest that radon emanation is not necessarily a straightforward function of radium content, as anticipated, but also depends on chamber temperature and humidity impacting upon watch-dependent factors such as design, construction, materials and wear-and-tear. Reference. 1. Gillmore G K, Crockett R G M, Denman A R, Flowers A, Harris R; Radium dial watches, a potentially hazardous legacy? Environment International. 45, 91-98. 2012. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2012.03.013.

  5. Global positioning system watches for estimating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Orr, Barron J; Roe, Denise J; Reed, Rebecca G; Going, Scott B

    2013-11-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) watches have been introduced commercially, converting frequent measurements of time, location, speed (pace), and elevation into energy expenditure (EE) estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare EE estimates of 4 different GPS watches (Forerunner, Suunto, Polar, Adeo), at various walking speeds, with EE estimate from a triaxial accelerometer (RT3), which was used as a reference measure in this study. Sixteen healthy young adults completed the study. Participants wore 4 different GPS watches and an RT3 accelerometer and walked at 6-minute intervals on an outdoor track at 3 speeds (3, 5, and 7 km/hr). The statistical significance of differences in EE between the 3 watches was assessed using linear contrasts of the coefficients from the overall model. Reliability across trials for a given device was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients as estimated in the mixed model. The GPS watches demonstrated lower reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) across trials when compared with the RT3, particularly at the higher speed, 7 km/hr. Three GPS watches (Forerunner, Polar, and Suunto) significantly and consistently underestimated EE compared with the reference EE given by the RT3 accelerometer (average mean difference: Garmin, -50.5%; Polar, -41.7%; and Suunto, -41.7%; all p < 0.001). Results suggested that caution should be exercised when using commercial GPS watches to estimate EE in athletes during field-based testing and training. PMID:23439338

  6. Discontinuous daily temperatures in the WATCH forcing data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Henning; Kruschke, Tim; Dobler, Andreas; Fischer, Madlen; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    The WATCH forcing data sets have been created to support the use of hydrological and land surface models for the assessment of the water cycle within climate change studies. They are based on ECMWF reanalysis products (ERA-40 or ERA-Interim) with temperature (among other variables) adjusted such that their monthly means match the monthly temperature data set from the Climatic Research Unit. To this end, daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures within one calendar month have been subjected to a correction involving monthly means of the respective month. As these corrections can be largely different for adjacent months this procedure is potentially leading to unplausible differences in daily temperatures across the boundaries of calendar months. We analyze day-to-day temperature fluctuations within and across months and find that across months differences are significantly larger, mostly in the tropics and frigid zones. Average across-months differences in daily mean temperature are typically between 10% to 40% larger than their corresponding average within-months temperature differences. However, regions with differences up to 200% can be found in the tropical Africa. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the same regions but in a less sever way.

  7. Ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides time series at four alpine GAW mountain stations in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.; Steinbacher, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of ozone (O3) and its precursor gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period, 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites independent of wind sector. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the strongest O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest or even decline in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti-correlation with NO2 was found due to reduced O3 values on working days. Trends are discussed with respect to anthropogenic impacts and vertical mixing. The observed trends for NO2 at the alpine mountain sites are less pronounced than trends estimated based on emission inventories.

  8. Ozone, Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides time series at four Alpine GAW mountain stations in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-08-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of Ozone (O3) and its precursor gases Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites. This was observed independent of wind sector and for most seasons, with a tendency to higher positive trends in winter and lower and partly negative trends in summer. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the highest rate of O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti-correlation with NO2, was found due to reduced O3 values on working days. Trends are discussed with respect to anthropogenic impacts and vertical mixing. The observed trends for NO2 at the alpine mountain sites are less pronounced than trends estimated based on emission inventories.

  9. Watching outside while under a carpet cloak of invisibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Zhu; Wang, De-Lin; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate in this work a unique approach for watching outside while hiding in a carpet cloaking based on transformation optics. Unlike conventional carpet cloaking, which screens all the incident electromagnetic waves, we break the cloak and allow incident light get into the carpet. Hence outside information is detected inside the cloak. To recover the invisible cloaking, complementary techniques are applied in the broken space. Consequently, a hiding-inside and watching-outside (HIWO) carpet cloak is sewed, which works as an invisible cloaking and allows surveillance of the outside at the same time. Our work provides a strategy for an ideal cloak with "hiding" and "watching" functions simultaneously. PMID:22181296

  10. Sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance while on watch in a simulated 4 hours on/8 hours off maritime watch system.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Wessel M A; Kircher, Albert; Dahlgren, Anna; Lützhöft, Margareta; Barnett, Mike; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2013-11-01

    Seafarer sleepiness jeopardizes safety at sea and has been documented as a direct or contributing factor in many maritime accidents. This study investigates sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance in a simulated 4 h on/8 h off watch system as well as the effects of a single free watch disturbance, simulating a condition of overtime work, resulting in 16 h of work in a row and a missed sleep opportunity. Thirty bridge officers (age 30 ± 6 yrs; 29 men) participated in bridge simulator trials on an identical 1-wk voyage in the North Sea and English Channel. The three watch teams started respectively with the 00-04, the 04-08, and the 08-12 watches. Participants rated their sleepiness every hour (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) and carried out a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) test at the start and end of every watch. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during 6 watches in the first and the second half of the week. KSS was higher during the first (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 0.2) compared with the second (3.3 ± 0.2) watch of the day (p < 0.001). In addition, it increased with hours on watch (p < 0.001), peaking at the end of watch (4.1 ± 0.2). The free watch disturbance increased KSS profoundly (p < 0.001): from 4.2 ± 0.2 to 6.5 ± 0.3. PVT reaction times were slower during the first (290 ± 6 ms) compared with the second (280 ± 6 ms) watch of the day (p < 0.001) as well as at the end of the watch (289 ± 6 ms) compared with the start (281 ± 6 ms; p = 0.001). The free watch disturbance increased reaction times (p < 0.001) from 283 ± 5 to 306 ± 7 ms. Similar effects were observed for PVT lapses. One third of all participants slept during at least one of the PSG watches. Sleep on watch was most abundant in the team working 00-04 and it increased following the free watch disturbance. This study reveals that-within a 4 h on/8 h off shift system-subjective and objective sleepiness peak during the night and early morning watches, coinciding with a time frame in which relatively many maritime accidents occur. In addition, we showed that overtime work strongly increases sleepiness. Finally, a striking amount of participants fell asleep while on duty. PMID:23879695

  11. Watch Walking to Gauge Health After Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158791.html Watch Walking to Gauge Health After Heart Surgery Patients' pre-op gait is ... on: Heart Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Walking Problems About MedlinePlus Site ...

  12. Flammable gas project: Criteria for flammable gas watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.

    1997-01-29

    The Flammable Gas Watch List is the listing of tanks that are subject to the provisions of Public Law 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation`` (Appendix A). Tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List are judged to have a serious potential for release of high-level waste due to the ignition of flammable gases released from the waste in the tank. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for identifying and categorizing the Hanford Site high4evel waste tanks to be included on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document also provides criteria on which to base a recommendation to remove tanks from the Flammable Gas Watch List.

  13. Watch Out for Glaucoma | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Watch Out for Glaucoma Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents A ... used to check eye pressure for signs of glaucoma. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma is a group ...

  14. Electronic digital display watch having solar and geographical functions

    SciTech Connect

    Salah, I.M.

    1984-10-30

    In order to provide easily accessible knowledge of the correlations between time, the geographical locale and the solar positions, the watch in question in addition to time-keeping means capable of displaying the current time also provides means capable of storing, processing in a microprocessor mode and displaying in a particular panel mode data of solar elevation and azimuth as well as date data, a computer performing correlating operations between these various values. Pushbuttons (BPH', BPM', BPB') allow using this watch in various operational and correction situations, and other pushbuttons (BPH, BPM, BPB) allow more specific commands for correction, for search operations regarding date and place based on the solar data, for storage and call from memory of the various processed data. This watch can easily be implemented as a small wrist watch. It will be advantageously used by those interested in knowing the solar positions, by solar facility engineers, architects, airline pilots, believers in the Moslem faith etc.

  15. "Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality. PMID:23855943

  16. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section... Watches 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain a watch for radiotelephone distress calls on 156.800 MHz whenever such station is not being used...

  17. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  18. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section... Watches 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain a watch for radiotelephone distress calls on 156.800 MHz whenever such station is not being used...

  19. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  20. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  1. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  2. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches 80.147 Watch on 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by 80.304....

  3. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches 80.147 Watch on 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by 80.304....

  4. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section... Watches 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain a watch for radiotelephone distress calls on 156.800 MHz whenever such station is not being used...

  5. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches 80.147 Watch on 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by 80.304....

  6. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section... Watches 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain a watch for radiotelephone distress calls on 156.800 MHz whenever such station is not being used...

  7. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches 80.147 Watch on 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by 80.304....

  8. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  9. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  10. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  11. 76 FR 24504 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log AGENCY: Department of... information from BioWatch jurisdictions. The BioWatch Program operates aerosol collector equipment in... representative of a BioWatch jurisdiction (either an employee, or a contractor) assigned responsibility...

  12. 77 FR 9622 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Applications for Watch Duty-Exemption and 7113...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Applications for Watch Duty... watch duty- exemptions and watch and jewelry duty-refunds to program producers in the U.S. insular... the duty-refund program for the watch and jewelry producers. Form ITA-360P requires no...

  13. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches § 80.147 Watch on 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  14. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section... Watches § 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain a watch for radiotelephone distress calls on 156.800 MHz whenever such station is not being used...

  15. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches § 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  17. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  18. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  19. Watch Dog detector for beam diagnostic in hadrontherapy application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojatti, E.; Bazzano, G.; Bosser, J.; Caldara, M.; Calvi, G.; Lanzavecchia, L.; Parravicini, A.; Pullia, M.; Viviani, C.

    2013-12-01

    The "Watch Dog" is a beam monitor designed for medical accelerators, that will be installed at the end of the CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica) extraction lines. Its main goal is to achieve a real time monitoring of the beam position during patient treatments; the system can generate an interlock signal in case the measured quantity is out of the nominal range. In this paper the Watch Dog is described, and preliminary tests are presented.

  20. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and seventeen non-smokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowd us to keep both smoking and non-smoking participants naïve to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by scenes of movie smoking was contrasted with non-smoking control scenes which were matched for frequency and duration. Compared to non-smokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, both regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking vs. control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking. PMID:21248113

  1. The modelling and assessment of whale-watching impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    New, Leslie; Hall, Ailsa J.; Harcourt, Robert; Kaufman, Greg; Parsons, E.C.M.; Pearson, Heidi C.; Cosentino, A. Mel; Schick, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in modelling cumulative effects and the population consequences of individual changes in cetacean behaviour and physiology due to disturbance. One potential source of disturbance that has garnered particular interest is whale-watching. Though perceived as ‘green’ or eco-friendly tourism, there is evidence that whale-watching can result in statistically significant and biologically meaningful changes in cetacean behaviour, raising the question whether whale-watching is in fact a long term sustainable activity. However, an assessment of the impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans requires an understanding of the potential behavioural and physiological effects, data to effectively address the question and suitable modelling techniques. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the viability of long-term whale-watching, as well as logistical limitations and potential opportunities. We conclude that an integrated, coordinated approach will be needed to further understanding of the possible effects of whale-watching on cetaceans.

  2. Trial watch: Peptide vaccines in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Martins, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Prophylactic vaccination constitutes one of the most prominent medical achievements of history. This concept was first demonstrated by the pioneer work of Edward Jenner, dating back to the late 1790s, after which an array of preparations that confer life-long protective immunity against several infectious agents has been developed. The ensuing implementation of nation-wide vaccination programs has de facto abated the incidence of dreadful diseases including rabies, typhoid, cholera and many others. Among all, the most impressive result of vaccination campaigns is surely represented by the eradication of natural smallpox infection, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The idea of employing vaccines as anticancer interventions was first theorized in the 1890s by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it soon became clear that while vaccination could be efficiently employed as a preventive measure against infectious agents, anticancer vaccines would have to (1) operate as therapeutic, rather than preventive, interventions (at least in the vast majority of settings), and (2) circumvent the fact that tumor cells often fail to elicit immune responses. During the past 30 y, along with the recognition that the immune system is not irresponsive to tumors (as it was initially thought) and that malignant cells express tumor-associated antigens whereby they can be discriminated from normal cells, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the development of anticancer vaccines. Some of these approaches, encompassing cell-based, DNA-based and purified component-based preparations, have already been shown to exert conspicuous anticancer effects in cohorts of patients affected by both hematological and solid malignancies. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23264902

  3. Trial watch: DNA vaccines for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner's work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

  4. Progress in Heat Watch Warning System Technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Scott C.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

    2004-12-01

    Among all atmospheric hazards, heat is the most deadly. With such recent notable heat events as the Chicago Heat Wave of 1995, much effort has gone into redeveloping both the methods by which it is determined whether a day will be “oppressive,” as well as the mitigation plans that are implemented when an oppressive day is forecast to occur.This article describes the techniques that have been implemented in the development of new synoptic-based heat watch warning systems. These systems are presently running for over two dozen locations worldwide, including Chicago, Illinois; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Rome, Italy; and Shanghai, China; with plans for continued expansion. Compared to traditional systems based on arbitrary thresholds of one or two meteorological variables, these new systems account for the local human response by focusing upon the identification of the weather conditions most strongly associated with historical increases in mortality. These systems must be constructed based on the premise that weather conditions associated with increased mortality show considerable variability on a spatial scale. In locales with consistently hot summers, weather/mortality relationships are weaker, and it is only the few hottest days each year that are associated with a response. In more temperate climates, relationships are stronger, and a greater percentage of days can be associated with an increase in mortality.Considering the ease of data transfer via the World-Wide Web, the development of these systems includes Internet file transfers and Web page creation as components. Forecasts of mortality and recommendations to call excessive-heat warnings are available to local meteorological forecasters, local health officials, and other civic authorities, who ultimately determine when warnings are called and when intervention plans are instituted.

  5. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...

  6. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...

  7. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement contained in § 80.148, all vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must keep a watch on the...

  10. Making the Venus Concept Watch 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Melchiorri, Julian P.

    2014-08-01

    Over the past year we have celebrated the 50th anniversary of planetary exploration, which started with the Venus flyby of Mariner-2; and the 35th anniversary of the Pioneer-Venus multi-probe mission where one large and three small probes descended to the surface of Venus, encountering extreme environmental conditions. At the surface of Venus the temperature is about 460 °C, and the pressure is 92 bar, with a highly corrosive super-critical CO2 atmosphere. At a Venusian altitude of 50 km the pressure and temperature conditions are near Earth-like, but the clouds carry sulfuric acid droplets. Deep probe missions to Jupiter and Saturn, targeting the 100 bar pressure depth encounter similar pressure and temperature conditions as the Pioneer-Venus probes did. Mitigating these environments is highly challenging and requires special considerations for designs and materials. While assessing such space mission concepts, we have found that there is an overlap between the extreme environments in planetary atmospheres and the environments experienced by deep-sea explorers back on Earth. Consequently, the mitigation approaches could be also similar between planetary probes and diver watches. For example, both need to tolerate about 100 bar of pressure-although high temperatures are not factors on Earth. Mitigating these environments, the potential materials are: titanium for the probe and the watch housing; sapphire for the window and glass; resin impregnated woven carbon fiber for the aeroshell's thermal protection system and for the face of the watch; and nylon ribbon for the parachute and for the watch band. Planetary probes also utilize precision watches; thus there is yet another crosscutting functionality with diver watches. Our team, from the Innovation Design Engineering Program of the Royal College of Art, has designed and built a concept watch to commemorate these historical events, while highlighting advances in manufacturing processes over the past three to five decades, relevant to both future planetary mission designs and can be used to produce deep diver watches. In this paper we describe our design considerations; give a brief overview of the extreme environments these components would experience on both Venus and Earth; the manufacturing techniques and materials we used to build the Venus Watch; and its outreach potential to bring a distant concept of planetary exploration closer to Earth. We will also address lessons learned from this project and new ideas forward, for the next generation of this concept design.

  11. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig R; Johnson, Erin L; Burke, Aran Z; Martin, Kyle P; Miura, Tanya A; Wichman, Holly A; Brown, Celeste J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens. PMID:26925318

  12. It's About Time:Mark Twain's ``My Watch'' and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Hugh

    2005-09-01

    Over three decades before Einstein's year of miracles, the American humorist Mark Twain published an essay titled "My Watch," in which he recounts his experiences with a previously reliable pocket watch and those who tried to rehabilitate it. He begins his essay by confessing his first error: My beautiful new watch had run eighteen months without losing or gaining, and without breaking any part of its machinery or stopping. I had come to believe it infallible in its judgments about the time of day, and to consider its constitution and its anatomy imperishable. But at last, one night, I let it run down. I grieved about it as if it were a recognized messenger and forerunner of calamity. Twain then sets the watch by guess, and takes it to the "chief jeweler's to set it by the exact time." To Twain's dismay, the jeweler insists on opening it up and adjusting the regulator inside the watch, and the watch begins to gain time. It gained faster and faster day by day. Within a week it sickened to a raging fever, and its pulse went up to a hundred and fifty in the shade. At the end of two months, it had left all the timepieces of the town far in the rear, and was a fraction over thirteen days ahead of the almanac. It was away into November enjoying the snow, while the October leaves were still turning. It hurried up house rent, bills payable, and such things, in such a ruinous way that I could not abide it.

  13. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erin L.; Burke, Aran Z.; Martin, Kyle P.; Miura, Tanya A.; Wichman, Holly A.; Brown, Celeste J.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens. PMID:26925318

  14. MedWatch, the FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Safety Home Safety MedWatch The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Share Tweet ...

  15. GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun - Duration: 4 minutes, 47 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data i...

  16. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  17. The Students are Watching: Schools and the Moral Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizer, Theodore R.; Sizer, Nancy Faust

    This book claims that morality is a two-way street, and adolescent students learn by watching teachers. It argues that schools should incorporate morality as a pivotal tool in education, noting that the American school is an exhausting, inefficient, and often dehumanizing place of work for teenagers and their elders. Students learn not just from…

  18. Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James N.

    1993-01-01

    Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

  19. Foreign-Grammar Acquisition while Watching Subtitled Television Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lommel, Sven; Laenen, Annouschka; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2006-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that watching a subtitled foreign movie (i.e. foreign language in the soundtrack and native language in the subtitles) leads to considerable foreign-language vocabulary acquisition; however, acquisition of the grammatical rules has failed to emerge. Aims: The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the…

  20. Environmental Thought, the Language of Sustainability, and Digital Watches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Examines the limitations associated with the language of sustainability and their implications for environmental thinking. Explores what sustainability is not by using the idea of digital watches as a metaphor. Uses contemporary examples from advertising, curriculum development, and wildlife management to illustrate the central theme. (Author/SAH)

  1. Watch Out for Children: A Mothers' Statement to Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for American Values, New York, NY.

    This report explains that all adults must watch out for all children, cautioning that marketing is harmful to children. Advertisers are aggressively targeting age groups that, until recently, have been considered off-limits and occupying more of children's psychic and physical space. The report presents a commitment by mothers to all children to…

  2. Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

  3. Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kathleen England (foreground and on monitor) watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

  4. Trash Trends, Level 3. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and

  5. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  8. Watching MOOCs Together: Investigating Co-Located MOOC Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Verma, Himanshu; Skevi, Afroditi; Zufferey, Guillaume; Blom, Jan; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that massive open online course (MOOC) students prefer to study in groups, and that social facilitation within the study groups may render the learning of difficult concepts a pleasing experience. We report on a longitudinal study that investigates how co-located study groups watch and study MOOC videos together. The study was…

  9. A Neighborhood Watch Program for Inner-City School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcido, Ramon M.; Ornelas, Vincent; Garcia, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a multimethod study of a neighborhood watch program designed to protect inner city school children from violence while traveling from home and school. Analysis indicated that in addition to contributing to perceptions of enhanced safety, the program also served to improve the quality of neighborhood interaction. Discusses implications…

  10. Litter Pollution, Level 2. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and

  11. Framework for a Technology-Watch Relay Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. A.; Palmer, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    At the centre of the PRIME Faraday Partnership's Technology Watch service is a growing series of technology and market reviews for managers and engineers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) producing "smart" products. Its aim is to help them maintain their awareness of new technologies and markets and thereby seize opportunities to…

  12. Watch Out for Children: A Mothers' Statement to Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for American Values, New York, NY.

    This report explains that all adults must watch out for all children, cautioning that marketing is harmful to children. Advertisers are aggressively targeting age groups that, until recently, have been considered off-limits and occupying more of children's psychic and physical space. The report presents a commitment by mothers to all children to

  13. Litter Pollution, Level 2. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  14. Presidential Debate Watching, Issue Knowledge, Character Evaluation, and Vote Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2004-01-01

    This study employs NES (National Election Survey) data from several presidential elections to investigate the effects of presidential debate watching on voters' issue knowledge, character evaluation, and vote choice. Debates can instill issue knowledge; however, voters are less likely to learn about incumbent presidents seeking re-election after a…

  15. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System...

  16. Trash Trends, Level 3. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  17. Trash Treasures, Level 5. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  18. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  20. Can positive matrix factorization help to understand patterns of organic trace gases at the continental Global Atmosphere Watch site Hohenpeissenberg?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchner, M.; Gubo, S.; Schunk, C.; Wastl, C.; Kirchner, M.; Menzel, A.; Plass-Dlmer, C.

    2015-02-01

    From the rural Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site Hohenpeissenberg in the pre-alpine area of southern Germany, a data set of 24 C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons over a period of 7 years was analyzed. Receptor modeling was performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and the resulting factors were interpreted with respect to source profiles and photochemical aging. Differing from other studies, no direct source attribution was intended because, due to chemistry along transport, mass conservation from source to receptor is not given. However, at remote sites such as Hohenpeissenberg, the observed patterns of non-methane hydrocarbons can be derived from combinations of factors determined by PMF. A six-factor solution showed high stability and the most plausible results. In addition to a biogenic and a background factor of very stable compounds, four additional anthropogenic factors were resolved that could be divided into two short- and two long-lived patterns from evaporative sources/natural gas leakage and incomplete combustion processes. The volume or mass contribution at the site over the entire period was, in decreasing order, from the following factor categories: background, gas leakage and long-lived evaporative, residential heating and long-lived combustion, short-lived evaporative, short-lived combustion, and biogenic. The importance with respect to reactivity contribution was generally in reverse order, with the biogenic and the short-lived combustion factors contributing most. The seasonality of the factors was analyzed and compared to results of a simple box model using constant emissions and the photochemical decay calculated from the measured annual cycles of OH radicals and ozone. Two of the factors, short-lived combustion and gas leakage/long-lived evaporative, showed winter/summer ratios of about 9 and 7, respectively, as expected from constant source estimations. Contrarily, the short-lived evaporative emissions were about 3 times higher in summer than in winter, while residential heating/long-lived combustion emissions were about 2 times higher in winter than in summer.

  1. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern Colorado, which infuses ecology graduate students into the public school system to assist in the delivery of science content. The extension of Forest Watch to northern Colorado will provide a test-bed for the possible extension of the program to the rest of the state.

  2. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  3. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  4. LifeWatch - a Large-scale eScience Infrastructure to Assist in Understanding and Managing our Planet's Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Ernst, Vera; Poigné, Axel; Los, Walter

    2010-05-01

    Understanding and managing the complexity of the biodiversity system in relation to global changes concerning land use and climate change with their social and economic implications is crucial to mitigate species loss and biodiversity changes in general. The sustainable development and exploitation of existing biodiversity resources require flexible and powerful infrastructures offering, on the one hand, the access to large-scale databases of observations and measures, to advanced analytical and modelling software, and to high performance computing environments and, on the other hand, the interlinkage of European scientific communities among each others and with national policies. The European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) selected the "LifeWatch e-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity research" as a promising development to construct facilities to contribute to meet those challenges. LifeWatch collaborates with other selected initiatives (e.g. ICOS, ANAEE, NOHA, and LTER-Europa) to achieve the integration of the infrastructures at landscape and regional scales. This should result in a cooperating cluster of such infrastructures supporting an integrated approach for data capture and transmission, data management and harmonisation. Besides, facilities for exploration, forecasting, and presentation using heterogeneous and distributed data and tools should allow the interdisciplinary scientific research at any spatial and temporal scale. LifeWatch is an example of a new generation of interoperable research infrastructures based on standards and a service-oriented architecture that allow for linkage with external resources and associated infrastructures. External data sources will be established data aggregators as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) for species occurrences and other EU Networks of Excellence like the Long-Term Ecological Research Network (LTER), GMES, and GEOSS for terrestrial monitoring, the MARBEF network for marine data, and the Consortium for European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF) and its European Distributed Institute for Taxonomy (EDIT) for taxonomic data. But also "smaller" networks and "volunteer scientists" may send data (e.g. GPS supported species observations) to a LifeWatch repository. Autonomous operating wireless environmental sensors and other smart hand-held devices will contribute to increase data capture activities. In this way LifeWatch will directly underpin the development of GEOBON, the biodiversity component if GEOSS, the Global Earth observation System. To overcome all major technical difficulties imposed by the variety of currently and future technologies, protocols, data formats, etc., LifeWatch will define and use common open interfaces. For this purpose, the LifeWatch Reference Model was developed during the preparatory phase specifying the service-oriented architecture underlying the ICT-infrastructure. The Reference Model identifies key requirements and key architectural concepts to support workflows for scientific in-silico experiments, tracking of provenance, and semantic enhancement, besides meeting the functional requirements mentioned before. It provides guidelines for the specification and implementation of services and information models, defining as well a number of generic services and models. Another key issue addressed by the Reference Model is that the cooperation of many developer teams residing in many European countries has to be organized to obtain compatible results in that conformance with the specifications and policies of the Reference Model will be required. The LifeWatch Reference Model is based on the ORCHESTRA Reference Model for geospatial-oriented architectures and services networks that provides a generic framework and has been endorsed as best practice by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The LifeWatch Infrastructure will allow (interdisciplinary) scientific researchers to collaborate by creating e-Laboratories or by composing e-Services which can be shared and jointly developed. For it a long-term vision for the LifeWatch Biodiversity Workbench Portal has been developed as a one-stop application for the LifeWatch infrastructure based on existing and emerging technologies. There the user can find all available resources such as data, workflows, tools, etc. and access LifeWatch applications that integrate different resource and provides key capabilities like resource discovery and visualisation, creation of workflows, creation and management of provenance, and the support of collaborative activities. While LifeWatch developers will construct components for solving generic LifeWatch tasks, users may add their own facilities to fulfil individual needs. Examples for application of the LifeWatch Reference Model and the LifeWatch Biodiversity Workbench Portal will be given.

  5. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  6. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  7. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  9. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by covered... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft...

  10. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on...

  11. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by covered... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft...

  12. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by covered... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft...

  13. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on...

  14. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  15. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on...

  16. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  17. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on...

  18. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by covered... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft...

  19. 76 FR 42130 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... collection request (ICR) in the Federal Register on May 2, 2011 at 76 FR 24504, for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log AGENCY: Department of... information from BioWatch jurisdictions. The BioWatch Program operates aerosol collector equipment...

  20. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  1. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of

  2. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by covered... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft...

  3. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on...

  4. Globe Watch. Teachers' Guide for Globe Watch IV: Mexico, Canada, Finland, Japan, the Arms Race, the Iran-Iraq War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ginny

    To enhance the use of the Globe Watch IV public television series, produced jointly by Hampden-Sydney College (Virginia) and the University of North Carolina Center for Public Television, each lesson in this guide provides: (1) a statement of the objective of the program; (2) a synopsis of the issue discussed; (3) background information; (4) brief…

  5. Globe Watch. Teachers' Guide for Globe Watch IV: Mexico, Canada, Finland, Japan, the Arms Race, the Iran-Iraq War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ginny

    To enhance the use of the Globe Watch IV public television series, produced jointly by Hampden-Sydney College (Virginia) and the University of North Carolina Center for Public Television, each lesson in this guide provides: (1) a statement of the objective of the program; (2) a synopsis of the issue discussed; (3) background information; (4) brief

  6. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  7. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10).

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A; Furlong, Edward T; Kimbrough, Kimani L; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Christensen, John D

    2014-04-30

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009-10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California's coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation. PMID:23886247

  8. ESR response of watch glasses to neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrale, Maurizio; Longo, Anna; Brai, Maria; Tomarchio, Elio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we report the results of the electron spin resonance (ESR) study of the radiation-induced signal of watch glasses exposed to neutrons. This work extends the series of analyses of the response of watch glasses to various radiation beams which our research group is carrying out for possible applications in retrospective dosimetry. We have considered fluences up to about 3 × 1011 cm-2. We evaluated the signal fading and we found that in the first hours after exposure the signal rapidly decreases. After about 1000 h, it decreases much more slowly. The signal was reduced by about 25% in about 5 months. The radiation induced signal is found to be linearly dependent on neutron fluence and an estimate of the lowest detectable fluence is provided.

  9. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  10. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David A; Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual's appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person's appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  11. The weather watch/warning system for stroke and asthma in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaiyong; Ha, Jong-Sik; Jun, Sangil; Park, Tae-Sun; Kim, Ho

    2008-04-01

    Weather watch/warning systems have been established for human health outcomes. Our study aims to develop and demonstrate a weather watch/warning system for asthma and stroke within the whole of South Korea, using a stratified regression approach. We converted claim-based health insurance data covering almost all medical claims for the only health insurance system in Korea for asthma and stroke from 1996-2003 into personalized disease episode data, and combined them with meteorological data. We utilized a step-wise regression method using factors extracted from the meteorological data to develop stratified models for six (stroke) and nine (asthma) regional and day-of-week strata. Validation studies showed that the actual number of hospitalizations in 2003 increased according to the three-leveled predictions (levels I, II, and III) from the model based on the 1996-2002 data. This system is accessible via the internet (http://industry.kma.go.kr/APP/sub_APP15_H01.htm) at the Korean Meteorological Administration website. PMID:18365801

  12. Evaluating the completeness and accuracy of MedWatch data.

    PubMed

    Getz, Kenneth A; Stergiopoulos, Stella; Kaitin, Kenneth I

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's MedWatch system--a voluntary surveillance program--received 600,000 adverse event reports on marketed drugs and devices in 2011. The Food and Drug Administration credits the MedWatch system with improving awareness, and expediting early detection, of drug and device risks and in illuminating the adoption of medical treatments. Reporting bias has been acknowledged as a limitation of the MedWatch system. No systematic assessment of the accuracy and completeness of adverse event reporting has been conducted, yet inaccurate adverse event reporting may lead drug safety professionals to draw incorrect conclusions, manufacturers may be wrongly forced to suspend and withdraw medications and interventions, health professionals may mistakenly alter their clinical practices, and patients may be denied safe and effective treatments. In 2011, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development gathered and analyzed 10.2 million adverse event reports filed with the MedWatch system. Patient information was generally complete and accurate. Suspect product information, on the other hand, showed high levels of incomplete and inaccurate data. Start and end dates of suspect product use had 37% and 23% completion rates, respectively. Dosage level was completed only 31% of the time, and product lot numbers had only a 9% completion rate. More than 25% of the names of reported suspect products were inaccurate, and 31% of suspect product start dates were inaccurate. Higher levels of completion and accuracy were associated with reports filed closer to the date when the adverse event was observed. Implications of the results and suggested improvements are discussed. PMID:23011177

  13. The international AGN watch: A multiwavelength monitoring consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alloin, D.; Clavel, J.; Peterson, B. M.; Reichert, G. A.; Stirpe, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    The International AGN Watch, an informal consortium of over 100 astronomers, was established to coordinate multiwavelength monitoring of a limited number of active galactic nuclei and thus obtain comprehensive continuum and emission-line variability data with unprecedented temporal and wavelength coverage. We summarize the principal scientific results from two completed space-based and ground-based campaigns on the Seyfert galaxies NGC 5548 and NGC 3783. We describe a project in progress and outline our future plans.

  14. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  15. Watching the fetal brain at 'rest'.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, V; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2012-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of human brain networks. According to the neurophysiological property of the fetal brain to generate spontaneous activity, we aimed to determine the feasibility of investigating the maturation of intrinsic networks, beginning at gestational week 20 in healthy human fetuses by combining resting-state fMRI and an analytical approach, independent component analysis (ICA). In this study, functional images of 16 fetuses with morphologically normal brain development, from 20 to 36 gestational weeks of age, were acquired on a 1.5T unit (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) using single-shot, gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging. After preprocessing (motion correction, brain extraction), images were analyzed using single-subject ICA. We visualized a bilateral occipital network and medial and lateral prefrontal activity pattern that involved the future Brodmann areas 9-11. Furthermore, there was one either predominantly right (3/7 cases) or left (4/7 cases) hemispheric lateralized network that involved the superior temporal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 22 and 39). Frequency oscillations were in the range of 0.01-0.06Hz for all networks. This study shows that resting-state networks (RSNs) are shaped and are detectable in utero. Further investigations of resting-state measurements in the fetus may therefore allow developmental brain activity monitoring and may provide insights into early brain function. PMID:22044604

  16. 47 CFR 80.302 - Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impairment of service involving a distress watch. 80.302 Section 80.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.302 Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch. (a) When changes occur in the operation of...

  17. 47 CFR 80.302 - Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... impairment of service involving a distress watch. 80.302 Section 80.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.302 Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch. (a) When changes occur in the operation of...

  18. 47 CFR 80.302 - Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... impairment of service involving a distress watch. 80.302 Section 80.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.302 Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch. (a) When changes occur in the operation of...

  19. 47 CFR 80.302 - Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... impairment of service involving a distress watch. 80.302 Section 80.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches 80.302 Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch. (a) When changes occur in the operation of...

  20. 47 CFR 80.302 - Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impairment of service involving a distress watch. 80.302 Section 80.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety Watches § 80.302 Notice of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of service involving a distress watch. (a) When changes occur in the operation of...

  1. Watching the World Rev its Heat Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of solar energy heats up our planet's surface and the atmosphere and makes life for us possible. But the energy cannot stay bound up in the Earth's environment forever. If it did then the Earth would be as hot as the Sun. Instead, as the surface and the atmosphere warm, they emit thermal longwave radiation, some of which escapes into space and allows the Earth to cool. This false-color image of the Earth was produced on September 30, 2001, by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows where more or less heat, in the form of longwave radiation, is emanating from the top of Earth's atmosphere. As one can see in the image, the thermal radiation leaving the oceans is fairly uniform. The blue swaths across the central Pacific represent thick clouds, the tops of which are so high they are among the coldest places on Earth. In the American Southwest, which can be seen in the upper righthand corner of the globe, there is often little cloud cover to block outgoing radiation and relatively little water to absorb solar energy. Consequently, the amount of outgoing radiation in the American Southwest exceeds that of the oceans. Also, that region was experiencing an extreme heatwave when these data were acquired. Recently, NASA researchers discovered that incoming solar radiation and outgoing thermal radiation increased in the tropics from the 1980s to the 1990s. (Click to read the press release.) They believe that the reason for the unexpected increase has to do with an apparent change in circulation patterns around the globe, which effectively reduced the amount of water vapor and cloud cover in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. Without the clouds, more sunlight was allowed to enter the tropical zones and more thermal energy was allowed to leave. The findings may have big implications for climate change and future global warming. 'This suggests that the tropical heat engine increased its speed,' observes Dr. Bruce Wielicki, of NASA Langley Research Center. 'It's as if the heat engine in the tropics has become less efficient, using more fuel in the 1990s than in the 1980s.' Image courtesy Barbara Summey, NASA Goddard Visualization Analysis Lab, based upon data processed by Takmeng Wong, CERES Science Team, NASA Langley Research Center

  2. Watching the Birth of a Galaxy Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    First Visiting Astronomers to VLT ANTU Observe the Early Universe When the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) was "handed over" to the scientists on April 1, 1999, the first "visiting astronomers" at Paranal were George Miley and Huub Rottgering from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) [1]. They obtained unique pictures of a distant exploding galaxy known as 1138 - 262 . These images provide new information about how massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies may have formed in the early Universe. Formation of clusters of galaxies An intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first galaxies and groupings or clusters of galaxies emerged from the primeval gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theories predict that giant galaxies, often found at the centres of rich galaxy clusters, are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in this gas and stars condense out of those clumps to form small galaxies. Finally these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. An enigmatic class of objects important for investigating such scenarios are galaxies which emit intense radio emission from explosions that occur deep in their nuclei. The explosions are believed to be triggered when material from the merging swarm of smaller galaxies is fed into a rotating black hole located in the central regions. There is strong evidence that these distant radio galaxies are amongst the oldest and most massive galaxies in the early Universe and are often located at the heart of rich clusters of galaxies. They can therefore help pinpoint regions of the Universe in which large galaxies and clusters of galaxies are being formed. The radio galaxy 1138-262 The first visiting astronomers pointed ANTU towards a particularly important radio galaxy named 1138-262 . It is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water Snake). This galaxy was discovered some years ago using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla. Because 1138-262 is at a distance of about 10,000 million light-years from the Earth (the redshift is 2.2), the VLT sees it as it was when the Universe was only about 20% of its present age. Previous observations of this galaxy by the same team of astronomers showed that its radio, X-ray and optical emission had many extreme characteristics that would be expected from a giant galaxy, forming at the centre of a rich cluster. However, because the galaxy is so distant, the cluster could not be seen directly. Radio data obtained by the Very Large Array (VLA) in the USA and X-ray data with the ROSAT satellite both indicated that the galaxy is surrounded by a hot gas similar to that observed at the centres of nearby rich clusters of galaxies. Most telling was a picture taken by the Hubble Space Telescope that revealed that the galaxy comprises a large number of clumps, and which bore a remarkable resemblance to computer models of the birth of giant galaxies in clusters. From these observations, it was concluded that 1138-262 is likely to be a massive galaxy in the final stage of assemblage through merging with many smaller galaxies in an infant rich cluster and the most distant known X-ray cluster. VLT obtains Lyman-alpha images ESO PR Photo 33a/99 ESO PR Photo 33a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 483 x 400 pix - 86k] [Normal - JPEG: 966 x 800 pix - 230k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2894 x 2396 pix - 1.1M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 33a/99 : False-colour picture of the ionized hydrogen gas surrounding 1138-262 (Lyman-alpha). The size of this cloud is about 5 times larger than the optical extent of the Milky Way Galaxy. A contour plot, as observed with VLT ANTU + FORS1 in a narrow-band filter around the wavelength of the redshifted Lyman-alpha line, is superposed on a false-colour representation of the same image. The contour levels are a geometric progression in steps of 2 1/2. The image has not been flux calibrated, so the first contour level is arbitrary. The field measures 35 x 25 arcsec 2 , corresponding to about 910,000 x 650,000 light-years (280 x 200 kpc). The linear scale is indicated at the lower left. North is up and East is left. The Leiden astronomers used the FORS1 instrument on ANTU to take long-exposure pictures of 1138-262 and a surrounding field of 36 square arcmin. Images were obtained through two optical filters, one which tunes in to light produced by hydrogen gas (the redshifted Lyman-alpha line) and the other which is dominated by light from stars (the B-band). The "difference" between the images shows that the hydrogen gas surrounding the galaxy and from which the galaxy is presumably forming is huge ( Photo 33a/99 ). The measured size is about 20 arcsec or, at the distance of the cluster, somewhat more than 500,000 light-years (160 kpc), making it the largest such structure ever seen. It corresponds to about 5 times the size of the optical extent of the Milky Way Galaxy ! ESO PR Photo 33b/99 ESO PR Photo 33b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 593 pix - 149k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1185 pix - 335k] [High-Res - JPEG: 1982 x 2935 pix - 1.1M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 33b/99 : Three small fields near radio galaxy 1138-262 as observed with VLT ANTU + FORS1 in a narrow-band filter at the redshifted wavelength of Lyman-alpha emission in that galaxy (left) and a broader filter in the surrounding spectral region (right), respectively. Three excellent candidates of Lyman-alpha emitters are seen at the centres of the fields. They are clearly visible in the narrow-band image (that mostly shows the gas), but are not detected in the broad-band image (that mostly shows the stars). Each field measures 24 x 24 arcsec 2 , corresponding to about 620,000 x 620,000 light-years (190 x 190 kpc); North is up and East is left. Even more intriguing is the presence of a number of objects in the gas picture (to the left in PR Photo 33b/99 ), but absent from the stars' picture (right). These are galaxies whose hydrogen gas is emitting the bright Lyman-alpha spectral line within a distance of the order of about 3 million light-years (1 Mpc) from the radio galaxy, and probably in the surrounding cluster. The team has pinpointed a total of 26 objects in the surrounding field that may be companion galaxies with fainter hydrogen emission. The detection by the VLT of the huge gas halo and of the companion galaxies is further evidence that 1138-262 is a massive galaxy, forming in a group or cluster of galaxies. The next step The next step in the project will be to confirm the distances of the candidate companion galaxies and establish that they are indeed members of a cluster of galaxies surrounding 1138-262 . This can be done using one of the spectrographs on the VLT. Note [1] The project on 1138-262 is being carried out by a large international consortium of scientists led by astronomers from the Leiden Observatory. Besides George Miley and Huub Rottgering , the team includes Jaron Kurk , Laura Pentericci , and Bram Venemans (Leiden), Alan Moorwood (ESO), Chris Carilli (US National Radio Astronomy Observatory - NRAO), Wil van Breugel (University of California, USA) Holland Ford and Tim Heckman (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA) and Pat McCarthy (Carnegie Institute, Pasadena, USA). Technical information about the VLT images of 1138-262 Narrow and broad-band imaging was carried out on April 12 and 13, 1999, with the ESO VLT ANTU (UT1), using the FORS1 multi-mode instrument in imaging mode. A narrow-band filter was used which has a central wavelength of 381.4 nm and a bandpass of 6.5 nm. For 1138-262 (redshift z = 2.2), the emission of Lyman-alpha at 121.6 nm is redshifted to 383.8 nm, which falls in this narrow band. The broad-band filter was a Bessel-B with central wavelength of 429.0 nm. The detector was a Tektronix CCD with 2048 x 2046 pixels and an image scale of 0.20 arcsec/pixel. Eight separate 30-min exposures were taken in the narrow band and six 5-min in the broad band, shifted by about 20 arcsec with respect to each other to minimize problems due to flat-fielding and to facilitate cosmic ray removal. The average seeing was 1.0 arcsec. Image reduction was carried out by means of the IRAF reduction package. The individual images were bias subtracted and flat-fielded using twilight exposures (narrow band) or an average of the unregistered science exposures (broad-band). The images were then registered by shifting them in position by an amount determined from the location of several stars on the CCD. The registered images were co-added and dark pixels from cosmic rays were cleaned. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the resulting images were smoothed with a Gaussian function having full-width-at half-maximum (FWHM) = 1 arcsec (5 pixels). How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../ ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  3. Home environmental influences on children's television watching from early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Nader, Philip R; Broyles, Shelia L; Berry, Charles C; Taras, Howard L

    2002-06-01

    Identifying correlates of children's television (TV) watching could help identify strategies to reduce children's TV watching and impact children's weight status. Children's TV time and home environment factors were assessed longitudinally among 169 families with children followed from 6 to 12 years of age. TV watching increased with age, as did the number of in-home TVs and the presence of videocassette recorders (VCRs), the frequency of meal eating while watching TV, and the percentage of children with bedroom TVs. Greater meal eating while watching TV was consistently related to overall TV watching and increases in TV watching over time. The number of in-home TVs and the presence of a bedroom TV were less consistent correlates. TV watching was related to weight status when children were younger, and when children were older, more than 2 hours of TV daily was a risk factor for higher weight. Modifying TV access, particularly by reducing the frequency of meals eaten while watching TV, could promote lower children's TV watching and adiposity. PMID:12055494

  4. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (19902012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV. PMID:23986894

  5. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10,000 years. Then the stellar wind collided with the material around the star and swept it up into a thin shell. That shell broke apart into the network of bright clumps seen in the image. The present-day strong wind of the Wolf-Rayet star has only now caught up with the outer edge of the shell, and is stripping away matter as it flows past [the tongue-shaped material in the upper right of the Hubble image]. The stellar wind continues moving outside the shell, slamming into more material and creating a shock wave. This powerful force produces an extremely hot, glowing skin [seen in blue], which envelops the bright nebula. A shock wave is analogous to the sonic boom produced by a jet plane that exceeds the speed of sound; in a cosmic setting, this boom is seen rather than heard. The outer material is too thin to see in the image until the shock wave hits it. The cosmic collision and subsequent shock wave implies that a large amount of matter resides outside the visible shell. The discovery of this material may explain the discrepancy between the mass of the entire shell (four solar masses) and the amount of matter the star lost when it was a red super-giant (15 solar masses). The nebula's short-term fate is less spectacular. As the stellar wind muscles past the clumps of material, the pressure around them drops. A decrease in pressure means that the clumps expand, leading to a steady decline in brightness and fading perhaps to invisibility. Later, the shell may be compressed and begin glowing again, this time as the powerful blast wave of the Wolf-Rayet star completely destroys itself in a powerful supernova explosion. The nebula resides in the constellation Cygnus, 4,700 light-years from Earth. If the nebula were visible to the naked eye, it would appear in the sky as an ellipse one-quarter the size of the full moon. The observations were taken in June 1995 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Scientists selected the colors in this composite image to correspond with the ionization (the process of stripping electrons from atoms) state of the gases, with blue representing the highest and red the lowest observed ionization. Credits: NASA, Brian D. Moore, Jeff Hester, Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), Reginald Dufour (Rice University)

  6. Listening, watching, and reading: the structure and correlates of entertainment preferences.

    PubMed

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Zilca, Ran

    2011-04-01

    People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of more than 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences. PMID:20649744

  7. Listening, Watching, and Reading: The Structure and Correlates of Entertainment Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Zilca, Ran

    2010-01-01

    People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of over 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences. PMID:20649744

  8. A ``solar watch'' program for the Human Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H.; Hildner, E.

    1990-07-01

    Because of the healt hazards of solar activity, human traffic in deep space will require facilities for monitoring, predicting, and altering the astronauts to potential danger. This suggests a ``solar watch'' program consisting of a network of platforms at one A.U. from the Sun, capable of monitoring its global behavior. The instrumentation carried by these network platforms can evolve in sophistication with successive launches, in order to lead to a deep understanding of the physical mechanisms of solar activity - the best basis for maximally reliable activity forecasts. The possibility of steroscopic viewing of the solar surface and corona will confer unique advantages for the physical understanding of these physical mechanisms.

  9. STS-113 visitors watch the Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Watching the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 are NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe (left) and Associate Administrator of Public Affairs Glen Mahone. Liftoff occurred ontime at 7:49:47 p.m. EST. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Also onboard are the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5. Endeavour is scheduled to land at KSC after an 11-day journey.

  10. The Canadian Ozone Watch and UV-B advisory programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, J. B.; Mcelroy, C. T.; Tarasick, D. W.; Wardle, D. I.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozone Watch, initiated in March, 1992, is a weekly bulletin describing the state of the ozone layer over Canada. The UV-B advisory program, which started in May, 1992, produces daily forecasts of clear-sky UV-B radiation. The forecast procedures use daily ozone measurements from the eight-station monitoring network, the output from the Canadian operational forecast model and a UV-B algorithm based on three years of spectral UV-B measurements with the Brewer spectrophotometer.

  11. The Applicability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing in Identifying Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) sources using NOAA National Status & Trends Mussel Watch Program Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, P. L.; Edwards, M.; Branch, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    - With an ongoing assessment of more than two decades, the Mussel Watch Program is one of the longest running contaminant monitoring programs in coastal ocean research. Mussel Watch uses bivalves (Mussels, Oysters, and Zebra Mussels) as a means to assess water quality. The purpose of the program was geared towards assessing contaminants nationally. Utilizing tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing data assessment, an attempt was made within this project to identify possible releasers of effluent waste into the major coastal watershed regions pertaining to ongoing research conducted within monitored mussel watch sites. The categorization of possible contaminating locations was made available through spatial data verification development. This dataset was derived from agencies such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS ), as well as independent state government databases. Utilizing platforms such as ESRI® ArcMap™ software, spatially referenced locations, via point data, vector data, line data, and polygons depicting points and sites of interest was created using latitude and longitude information. Points and areas of interest (AOI) were verified using Remote Sensing imagery. As such, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) within observable mussel watch sites were assessed by NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA). Using this data, present and future researchers will be more able to identify possible sources of contributors to the present contaminant areas.

  12. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Marcos E; Fang, Sandy H

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage III (node-positive) disease. For stage II and III colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluation-this is known as complete clinical response (cCR). The “watch and wait” approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with cCR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the “watch and wait” approach and its outcomes. PMID:26649153

  13. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Marcos E; Fang, Sandy H

    2015-11-27

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage III (node-positive) disease. For stage II and III colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluation-this is known as complete clinical response (cCR). The "watch and wait" approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with cCR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the "watch and wait" approach and its outcomes. PMID:26649153

  14. College students who wear watches: locus of control and motivational sources.

    PubMed

    Spencer, B

    2001-02-01

    119 undergraduate college students were administered the Rotter I-E Scale and the Motivation Sources Inventory. Scores were compared for a group of 66 students who were wearing watches and 53 students who were not wearing watches. The former had higher scores on External locus of control and higher scores on a measure of Instrumental Motivation as anticipated. PMID:11293057

  15. TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12–15, 2012 ... percentage of youth watched TV or used a computer daily? Almost all (98.5%) youth aged 12– ...

  16. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  17. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  18. 33 CFR 80.155 - Watch Hill, RI to Montauk Point, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Watch Hill, RI to Montauk Point, NY. 80.155 Section 80.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.155 Watch Hill, RI...

  19. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  20. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  1. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters...

  2. 75 FR 61165 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval Agreements with FHA... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had their...

  3. Media Richness and Social Norms in the Choice to Attend Lectures or to Watch Them Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassili, John N.

    2008-01-01

    Lectures in a large psychology course were taped and posted online where they could be viewed by streaming video. All students in the course had the option to attend lectures or watch them online, a choice that could be exercised on a lecture-by-lecture basis. The proportion of lectures watched online revealed that students chose between…

  4. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 WITH RANGE POLE Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 WITH RANGE POLE - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. In-situ measurements of atmospheric hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) at the Shangdianzi regional background station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, B.; Vollmer, M. K.; Zhou, L. X.; Henne, S.; Reimann, S.; Li, P. C.; Wenger, A.; Hill, M.

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) were measured in-situ at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) regional background station, China, from May 2010 to May 2011. The time series for five HFCs and three PFCs showed occasionally high-concentration events while background conditions occurred for 36% (HFC-32) to 83% (PFC-218) of all measurements. The mean mixing ratios during background conditions were 24.5 ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, molar) for HFC-23, 5.86 ppt for HFC-32, 9.97 ppt for HFC-125, 66.0 ppt for HFC-134a, 9.77 ppt for HFC-152a, 79.1 ppt for CF4, 4.22 ppt for PFC-116, and 0.56 ppt for PFC-218. The background mixing ratios for the compounds at SDZ are consistent with those obtained at mid to high latitude sites in the Northern Hemisphere. North-easterly winds were associated with negative contributions to atmospheric HFC and PFC loadings (mixing ratio anomalies weighted by time associated with winds in a given sector), whereas south-westerly advection (urban sector) showed positive loadings. Chinese emissions estimated by a tracer ratio method using carbon monoxide as tracer were 3.6 ± 3.2 kt yr-1 for HFC-23, 4.3 ± 3.6 kt yr-1 for HFC-32, 2.7 ± 2.3 kt yr-1 for HFC-125, 6.0 ± 5.6 kt yr-1 for HFC-134a, 2.0 ± 1.8 kt yr-1 for HFC-152a, 2.4 ± 2.1 kt yr-1 for CF4, 0.27 ± 0.26 kt yr-1 for PFC-116, and 0.061 ± 0.095 kt yr-1 for PFC-218. The lower HFC-23 emissions compared to earlier studies may be a result of the HFC-23 abatement measures taken as part of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects that started in 2005.

  6. Watching as an ordinary affect: Care and mothers’ preemption of injury in child supervision

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    As unintentional injuries continue to be the leading cause of hospitalization and death for toddlers between the ages of 1 and 4, the Centers for Disease Control has argued that child supervision is a key factor in reducing these injuries and fatalities. This article focuses on the affective relationships in the concept of supervision and practice of watching as an injury prevention method. Three parts frame our argument. First, we describe how watching is an ordinary affect. Second, as part of the ethos of caring, watching is embedded in a temporal frame of anticipation and gives rise to an affectsphere of watching and to a parents’ subjectivity as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ supervisors. Third, these affective relationships generate seemingly contradictory outcomes wherein children are expected to gain independence and experience injury. The affective qualities of watching provide a critique of the individualizing forces of supervision and an analysis of subjectivities generated by gender and class. PMID:25114724

  7. Watching as an ordinary affect: Care and mothers' preemption of injury in child supervision.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Juliet; Dao, Amy

    2014-07-01

    As unintentional injuries continue to be the leading cause of hospitalization and death for toddlers between the ages of 1 and 4, the Centers for Disease Control has argued that child supervision is a key factor in reducing these injuries and fatalities. This article focuses on the affective relationships in the concept of supervision and practice of watching as an injury prevention method. Three parts frame our argument. First, we describe how watching is an ordinary affect. Second, as part of the ethos of caring, watching is embedded in a temporal frame of anticipation and gives rise to an affectsphere of watching and to a parents' subjectivity as 'good' or 'bad' supervisors. Third, these affective relationships generate seemingly contradictory outcomes wherein children are expected to gain independence and experience injury. The affective qualities of watching provide a critique of the individualizing forces of supervision and an analysis of subjectivities generated by gender and class. PMID:25114724

  8. Development of ultrasonic motor and application to silent alarm analog quartz watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuga, Masao; Satoh, Takashi; Hirotomi, Jun; Kawata, Masayuki

    An ultrasonic motor was developed for use in new generation watches and portable information devices. This motor shows promise as a new principle actuator. Measuring 10 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm thick, this ultrasonic motor is the world's smallest for practical use. Powered by a single lithium coin battery, this motor is expected to be applied to a broad range of miniature devices, including watches. The structure of the motor makes it possible to reduce its size and drive frequency. This motor was used to incorporate a silent alarm into an analog quartz watch. Unlike conventional electronic alarm watches, an eccentric weight rotates intermittently at high speed generating gentle vibration which notifies the wearer. The silent alarm analog quartz watch which incorporates the new ultrasonic motor, as well as the influence of design parameters on the performance of the ultrasonic motor, are described.

  9. 75 FR 10463 - Office of Insular Affairs; Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2010 for Watch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Changes in Watch, Watch Movement and Jewelry Program for the U.S. Insular Possessions, 65 FR 8048... producer allocation Belair Quartz, Inc 500,000 The balance of the units allocated to the USVI is...

  10. Current status of the international Halley Watch infrared net archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguinness, Brian B.

    1988-01-01

    The primary purposes of the Halley Watch have been to promote Halley observations, coordinate and standardize the observing where useful, and to archive the results in a database readily accessible to cometary scientists. The intention of IHW is to store the observations themselves, along with any information necessary to allow users to understand and use the data, but to exclude interpretations of these data. Each of the archives produced by the IHW will appear in two versions: a printed archive and a digital archive on CD-ROMs. The archive is expected to have a very long lifetime. The IHW has already produced an archive for P/Crommelin. This consists of one printed volume and two 1600 bpi tapes. The Halley archive will contain at least twenty gigabytes of information.

  11. Which are the antibodies to watch in 2013?

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The start of the new year signals that it is time for mAbs' annual review of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in active Phase 2/3 or Phase 3 clinical studies. The entire clinical pipeline currently includes ~350 mAbs, but most of these are in early development. As of the beginning of 2013, our "Antibodies to watch" list includes 28 single mAbs and one mAb mixture that are undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies for inflammatory or immunological disorders, cancers, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease and infectious disease. In alphabetical order, the 28 mabs are alirocumab, AMG 145, elotuzumab, epratuzumab, farletuzumab, gantenerumab, gevokizumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, itolizumab, ixekizumab, lebrikizumab, mepolizumab, naptumomab estafenatox, necitumumab, nivolumab, obinutuzumab, ocrelizumab, onartuzumab, racotumomab, ramucirumab, reslizumab, romosozumab, sarilumab, secukinumab, sirukumab, solanezumab, tabalumab, and vedolizumab. The mixture of actoxumab and bezlotoxumab is being evaluated in two Phase 3 studies as a treatment for Clostridium difficile infection. PMID:23254906

  12. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) U.S. President Bill Clinton, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, Astronaut Robert Cabana and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

  13. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) Astronaut Eileen Collins (in flight suit) with unidentified companions, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, Astronaut Robert Cabana, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, and U.S. President Bill Clinton. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Collins will command the crew of STS-93, the first woman to hold that position. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

  14. The digital archive of the International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinglesmith, D. A., III; Niedner, M. B.; Grayzeck, E.; Aronsson, M.; Newburn, R. L.; Warnock, A., III

    1992-01-01

    The International Halley Watch was established to coordinate, collect, archive, and distribute the scientific data from Comet P/Halley that would be obtained from both the ground and space. This paper describes one of the end products of that effort, namely the IHW Digital Archive. The IHW Digital Archive consists of 26 CD-ROM's containing over 32 gigabytes of data from the 9 IHW disciplines as well as data from the 5 spacecraft missions flown to comet P/Haley and P/Giacobini-Zinner. The total archive contains over 50,000 observations by 1,500 observers from at least 40 countries. The first 24 CD's, which are currently available, contain data from the 9 IHW disciplines. The two remaining CD's will have the spacecraft data and should be available within the next year. A test CD-ROM of these data has been created and is currently under review.

  15. Experimental study for rechargeable sealed Ni/Cd watch batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haelbig, H.

    1981-08-01

    The potential feasibility of using Ni/Cd cells as energy storage devices in electronic wrist watches powered by solar cells was evaluated. It is shown that the necessary special requirements can only be met, if the following conditions are fulfilled: a minimal capacity of 35 mAh in a cell of the dimensions 11,4 mm in diameter and 5,1 mm in height; and a hermetic seal to prevent leakage. Long periods of overcharge with currents higher than 50 microns must be avoided in order to achieve a service life of 10 years. The minimal charge current must be 350 mA to provide an autonomy of 6 months, with a discharge current of 5 micro A.

  16. STS-113 visitors watch the Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Among the visitors watching the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 are NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe (top, center) and Glen Mahone, associate administrator for public affairs, NASA (left of O'Keefe). Liftoff occurred ontime at 7:49:47 p.m. EST. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Also onboard are the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5. Endeavour is scheduled to land at KSC after an 11-day journey.

  17. Watching films with magical content facilitates creativity in children.

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene; Hysted, Claire; Jones, Nicola

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the possible link between magical thinking and creativity in preschool children. In Exp. 1, 4- and 6-yr.-old children were shown a film with either a magical or nonmagical theme. Results indicated that the mean scores of children shown the magical film was significantly higher than that of children watching the nonmagical film on the majority of subsequent creativity tests for both age groups. This trend was also found for 6-yr.-olds' drawings of impossible items. In Exp. 2, Exp. 1 was replicated successfully with 6- and 8-yr.-old children. Exposing children to a film with a magical theme did not affect their beliefs about magic. The results were interpreted to accentuate the role of magical thinking in children's cognitive development. Classroom implications of the results were also discussed. PMID:21058605

  18. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Victor C; Thune, Hanna ; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Le Grevs, Madeleine; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Benedict, Christian; Schith, Helgi B

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture), an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P?=?0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P?=?0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P?=?0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta?=?0.317, P?=?0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake. PMID:24983245

  19. 46 CFR 11.319 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as Officer in Charge of a Navigational Watch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Officer in Charge of a Navigational Watch (OICNW) of vessels of less than 500 GT (operational level). 11... for an STCW endorsement as Officer in Charge of a Navigational Watch (OICNW) of vessels of less than... Navigational Watch (OICNW) of Vessels of Less Than 500 GT. Entry path from national endorsements Sea...

  20. Sleepiness and sleep in a simulated "six hours on/six hours off" sea watch system.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Claire A; Gillberg, Mats; Vestergren, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ships are operated around the clock using rapidly rotating shift schedules called sea watch systems. Sea watch systems may cause fatigue, in the same way as other irregular working time arrangements. The present study investigated subjective sleepiness and sleep duration in connection with a 6 h on/6 h off duty system. The study was performed in a bridge simulator, very similar to those found on ships. Twelve officers divided into two groups participated in the study that lasted 66 h. Half of the subjects started with the 06:00-12:00 h watch and the other half with the 12:00-18:00 h watch. The subjects alternated between off-duty and on-duty for the remainder of the experimental period. Approximately halfway through the experiment, the 12:00-18:00 h watch was divided into two 3 h watches/off-duty periods. The effect of this was to reverse the on-duty/off-duty pattern between the two groups. This enabled all subjects to work the four possible watches (00:00-06:00 h, 06:00-12:00 h, 12:00-18:00 h, and 18:00-24:00 h) in an order that was essentially counterbalanced between groups. Ratings of sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; KSS) were obtained every 30 min during on-duty periods and if subjects were awake during off-duty periods. The subjectively rated duration of sleep was recorded after each off-duty period that preceded watch periods when KSS was rated. The results showed that the average level of sleepiness was significantly higher during the 00:00-06:00 h watch compared to the 12:00-18:00 h and 18:00-24:00 h watches, but not to the 06:00-12:00 h watch. Sleepiness also progressed significantly from the start toward the end of each watch, with the exception of the 06:00-12:00 h watch, when levels remained approximately stable. There were no differences between groups (i.e., the order between watches). Sleep duration during the 06:00-12:00 h off-duty period (3 h 29 min) was significantly longer than during the 12:00-18:00 h period (1 h 47 min) and the 18:00-24:00 h period (2 h 7 min). Sleep during the 00:00-06:00 h period (4 h 23 min) was longer than all sleep periods except the 06:00-12:00 h period. There were no differences between groups. In spite of sufficient opportunities for sleep, sleep was on the average around 1-1 h 30 min shorter than the 7-7 h 30 min that is considered "normal" during a 24 h period. This is probably a consequence of the difficulty to sleep during daytime due to the alerting effects of the circadian rhythm. Also, sleepiness during the night and early mornings reached high levels, which may be explained by a combination of working close to or during the circadian trough of alertness and the relatively short sleep periods obtained. An initial suppression of sleepiness was observed during all watches, except for the 06:00-12:00 h watch. This suppression may be explained by the "masking effect" exerted by the relative high levels of activity required when taking over the responsibility of the ship. Toward the end of watches, the levels of sleepiness progressively increased to relatively high levels, at least during the 00:00-06:00 h watch. Presumably, initially high levels of activity are replaced by routine and even boredom. PMID:17190705

  1. Is Watching Television a Realistic Leisure Option for People with Dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Gústafsdóttir, Margrét

    2015-01-01

    Background Watching television is a common leisure activity, not least among older people. However, watching television may become difficult when it is disturbed by symptoms of dementia. Method A total of 284 questionnaires were handed out to relatives of people with dementia in Iceland, in the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital and in specialized units for people with dementia (6 day-care units and 8 units within nursing homes). The response rate was just below 58%. Results Watching television was shown to play a less important role in the course of the daily life of people with dementia as soon as the symptoms of the disease became evident, and it increasingly became less relevant. So, this previous leisure activity left an ever-growing void of time to fill. However, watching television may provide an important social context for contact and togetherness during the progress of the disease, as watching television with someone close to them was important for the individuals with dementia. Conclusion It is not a viable option for people with dementia to watch television on their own, but they may enjoy watching television while sharing this activity with a person close to them. This may even provide quality time. PMID:25941531

  2. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.; Christensen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009–10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California’s coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation.

  3. Effects of 6/6 and 4/8 watch systems on sleepiness among bridge officers.

    PubMed

    Hrm, Mikko; Partinen, Markku; Repo, Risto; Sorsa, Matti; Siivonen, Pertti

    2008-04-01

    During the last ten years, severe sleepiness or falling asleep by watch keeping officers has been a direct or a contributing factor in a number of maritime accidents. This study examined the relationship between two watch systems and its impact on fatigue and sleepiness in bridge officers. A questionnaire and a sleep/work diary were sent to a representative sample of the Finnish Maritime Officer Association. In all, 185 bridge officers answered the questionnaire on sleep, work hours, and safety, including the Skogby Excessive Daytime Sleepiness index (SEDS); 42% of the bridge officers worked two 4 h watches (4/8) per day, while 26% worked two 6 h watches per day (6/6). Ninety-five of the participants completed a sleep diary for seven consecutive days while at sea. The timing of the watch duties and sleep was recorded, as was subjective sleepiness every 2 h using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). 17.6% of the participants had fallen asleep at least once while on duty during their career. Compared to the 4/8 watch system, the officers working the 6/6 watch system reported shorter sleep durations, more frequent nodding-off on duty (7.3% vs. 1.5%), and excessive sleepiness (32% vs. 16% with SEDS>14). Based on a logistic regression analysis, high SEDS was significantly related with probable obstructive sleep apnea (OR 5.7), the 6/6 watch system (OR 4.0), and morningness-eveningness while controlling simultaneously several individual and sleep-related factors. Subjective sleepiness (KSS) was highest at 04:00 and 06:00 h. In a multivariate analysis, the KSS was significantly related to time of day, time after awaking, sleep length, and interactions of the watch systems with age, morningness-eveningness, and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) score. Severe sleepiness at 04:00-06:00 h was especially problematic in the 6/6 watch system among evening types and among the bridge officers with high ESS. The results suggest the 6/6 watch system is related to a higher risk of severe sleepiness during the early morning hours compared to the 4/8 and the other watch systems assessed. PMID:18484371

  4. International Jupiter Watch - A program to study the time variability of the Jovian system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Caldwell, J. J.; De Pater, I.; Goguen, J.; Klein, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Jupiter Watch is a program for the encouragement and coordination of the study of temporal variations in the Jovian system. It consists of six discipline working groups concerned with: the Io torus under N. Schneider; the Jovian atmosphere under R. West; the magnetosphere and radio emissions under I. de Peter and M. Klein; aurora under J. Caldwell; the Galilean satellites under W. Sinton and J. Goguen; and laboratory measurement and theory under B. Lutz. To date the IJW has held two workshops and selected several Jupiter Watch periods for coordinated observations. The next Jupiter Watch workshop is tentatively scheduled for 1990 in association with the next COSPAR meeting.

  5. Watching pornography: gender differences, violence and victimization. An exploratory study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Beltramini, Lucia

    2011-10-01

    The aims of this article are to analyze exposure to pornography, its content, and the associations between victimization and pornography in a sample of 303 students (49.2% female). The questionnaire included questions on pornography exposure, psychological and physical family violence, and sexual violence. Almost all male students and 67% of female students had ever watched pornography; 42% and 32%, respectively, had watched violence against women. Female students exposed to family psychological violence and to sexual violence were significantly more likely to watch pornography, especially violent pornography than those who had not been exposed. No such association was found among male students. PMID:21997464

  6. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  7. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for large scale phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The largest scale structures of comets, their tails, are extremely interesting from a physical point of view, and some of their properties are among the most spectacular displayed by comets. Because the tail(s) is an important component part of a comet, the Large-Scale Phenomena (L-SP) Discipline was created as one of eight different observational methods in which Halley data would be encouraged and collected from all around the world under the aspices of the International Halley Watch (IHW). The L-SP Discipline Specialist (DS) Team resides at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center under the leadership of John C. Brandt, Malcolm B. Niedner, and their team of image-processing and computer specialists; Jurgan Rahe at NASA Headquarters completes the formal DS science staff. The team has adopted the study of disconnection events (DE) as its principal science target, and it is because of the rapid changes which occur in connection with DE's that such extensive global coverage was deemed necessary to assemble a complete record.

  8. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for radio science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Gerard, E.; Brown, R. D.; Godfrey, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some 34 radio observatories in 18 countries are participating in the Radio Science Net of the International Halley Watch. Approximately 100 radio astronomers are contributing to this effort, which has included observations of comets P/Crommelin and P/Giacobini-Zinner as well as P/Halley. It is clear that the record of data for the 18 cm OH ground state lambda doublet, which provides fundamental information on the gas production rate, kinematics, and potentially the magnetic field in the coma, will be vastly more complete and of higher accuracy than has even been obtained on any previous comet. The coverage by a number of radio observatories will enable short period variations to be studied and correlated with simultaneous data obtained at other wavelengths. Likewise, the first definitive detection of the important parent molecule hydrogen cyanide in a comet was obtained and is being studied by groups in the United States, Sweden, and France. The first detection of the comet with the Very Large Array telescope operated by NRAO was achieved and has produced exciting results for the distribution of emission at high angular resolution from the OH radical. At this writing data are still being obtained and being processed, and there are still strong indications that exciting information will be obtained from radar studies of P/Halley and from searches for additional parent molecules.

  9. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creton, Costantino

    2014-03-01

    Most unfilled elastomers are relatively brittle, in particular when the average molecular weight between crosslinks is lower than the average molecular weight between entanglements. We created a new class of tough elastomers by introducing isotropically prestretched chains inside ordinary acrylic elastomers by successive swelling and polymerization steps. These new materials combine a high entanglement density with a densely crosslinked structure reaching elastic moduli of 4 MPa and fracture strength of 25 MPa. The highly prestretched chains are the minority in the material and can break in the bulk of the material before catastrophic failure occurs, increasing the toughness of the material by two orders of magnitude up to 5 kJ/m2. To investigate the details of the toughening mechanism we introduced specific sacrificial dioxetane bonds in the prestretched chains that emit light when they break. In uniaxial extension cyclic experiments, we checked that the light emission corresponded exactly and quantitatively to the energy dissipation in each cycle demonstrating that short chains break first and long chains later. We then watched crack propagation in notched samples and mapped spatially the location of bond breakage ahead of the crack tip before and during propagation. This new toughening mechanism for elastomers creates superentangled rubbers and is ideally suited to overcome the trade-off between toughness and stiffness of ordinary elastomers. We gratefully acknowledge funding from DSM Ahead

  10. Confined quantum Zeno dynamics of a watched atomic arrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoles, Adrien; Facon, Adrien; Grosso, Dorian; Dotsenko, Igor; Haroche, Serge; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Brune, Michel; Gleyzes, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    In a quantum world, a watched arrow never moves. This is the quantum Zeno effect. Repeatedly asking a quantum system `are you still in your initial state?' blocks its coherent evolution through measurement back-action. Quantum Zeno dynamics (QZD; refs , ) gives more freedom to the system. Instead of pinning it to a single state, it sets a border in its evolution space. Repeatedly asking the system `are you beyond the border?' makes this limit impenetrable. As the border can be designed by choosing the measured observable, QZD allows one to dynamically tailor the system's Hilbert space. Recent proposals, particularly in the cavity quantum electrodynamics context, highlight the interest of QZD for quantum state engineering tasks, which are the key to quantum-enabled technologies and quantum information processing. We report the observation of QZD in the 51-dimensional Hilbert space of a large angular momentum J = 25. Continuous selective interrogation limits the evolution of this angular momentum to an adjustable multi-dimensional subspace. This confined dynamics leads to the production of non-classical `Schrödinger cat' states, quantum superpositions of angular momenta pointing in different directions. These states are promising for sensitive metrology of electric and magnetic fields. This QZD approach could also be generalized to cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments by replacing the angular momentum with a photonic harmonic oscillator.

  11. Summary of information on flammable gas watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Brager, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    This document compiles and summarizes available, relevant information pertaining to Hanford Site waste tanks designated as Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) tanks. There are four primary objectives of this document. First, it provides summary data, including surface level readings, chemical composition, and temperature readings for each FGWL tank. This document also is intended to be used as a source of information on FGWL tanks references. More than 400 documents were used to compile the information presented in this report, and the Endnotes at the conclusion of each section; Section 5.0, {open_quotes}References;{close_quotes} and Section 6.0, {open_quotes}Sources of Information{close_quotes} are all included to direct the reader to further, more detailed sources of information that pertain to specific FGWL tanks or information. The third objective of this document is to present the specific fill history of each FGWL double-shell tank (DST), including data obtained from detailed Evaporator 242-A documents. Finally, this document includes an assessment of the total organic carbon (TOC) content of each DST.

  12. The death watch: certifying death using cardiac criteria.

    PubMed

    DeVita, M A

    2001-03-01

    In the past, inadequate diagnostic instruments sometimes led to incorrect diagnoses of death, so careful and prolonged observation--the "death watch"--was required. Diagnostic instruments are now accurate and determining the presence or absence of circulation and cerebral function is easy in virtually all cases. Still, ambiguity and controversy in diagnosing death persists because the current criteria, irreversible cessation of cardiac or whole brain function, are ambiguous. Recent reintroduction of non-heart-beating organ donation has highlighted the controversy. Data on the ability to achieve restoration of spontaneous circulation are quite consistent, but they support several different sets of reasonable death criteria. This article concludes with a rejection of a fixed notion of "irreversibility" because it does not conform to current practice, is potentially deleterious to social events at the time of death, and the reversibility of cardiopulmonary arrest is dependent on available means of resuscitation. Finally, the time required to ensure irreversible cessation of cardiac function despite potential intervention is too broad to be clinically applicable and is unreasonable. Diagnosis of death should be based on the context in which it occurs because the medical means available determine what is irreversible. PMID:11357558

  13. Antibodies to watch in 2014: mid-year update.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    The commercial pipeline of monoclonal antibodies is highly dynamic, with a multitude of transitions occurring during the year as product candidates advance through the clinical phases and onto the market. The data presented here add to that provided in the extensive "Antibodies to watch in 2014" report published in the January/February 2014 issue of mAbs. Recent phase transition data suggest that 2014 may be a banner year for first approvals of antibody therapeutics. As of May 2014, three products, ramucirumab (Cyramza®), siltuximab (Sylvant®) and vedolizumab (Entyvio™), had been granted first approvals in the United States, and four additional antibody therapeutics (secukinumab, dinutuximab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab) are undergoing regulatory review in either the US or the European Union. Other notable events include the start of first Phase 3 studies for seven antibody therapeutics (dupilumab, SA237, etrolizumab, MPDL3280A, bavituximab, clivatuzumab tetraxetan, blinatumomab). Relevant data for these product candidates are summarized, and metrics for antibody therapeutics development are discussed. PMID:24846335

  14. The French Ambassador in Firing Room to watch launch.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On hand in the Firing Room to watch the launch of STS-103 are (left to right) Joseph Rothenberg, associate administrator, Office of Space Flight; JoAnn Morgan, associate director for Advanced Development and Shuttle Upgrades; and Francois Bujon de L'Estang, ambassador of France. Behind the ambassador is his wife, Madam de L'Estang. One of the STS-103 crew, Mission Specialist Jean-Francois Clervoy, is from France, and a member of the European Space Agency (ESA). Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. , Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland (also with ESA). The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 19 at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST

  15. A Novel Easy-to-Use Prediction Scheme for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Cologne-WATCH (C-WATCH) Risk Score.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Vera; Neubauer, Henrik; Heinzler, Julia; Smarczyk, Anna; Hellmich, Martin; Bowe, Andrea; Kuetting, Fabian; Demir, Muenevver; Pelc, Agnes; Schulte, Sigrid; Toex, Ullrich; Nierhoff, Dirk; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2015-09-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the leading indication for emergency endoscopy. Scoring schemes have been developed for immediate risk stratification. However, most of these scores include endoscopic findings and are based on data from patients with nonvariceal bleeding. The aim of our study was to design a pre-endoscopic score for acute UGIB--including variceal bleeding--in order to identify high-risk patients requiring urgent clinical management. The scoring system was developed using a data set consisting of 586 patients with acute UGIB. These patients were identified from the emergency department as well as all inpatient services at the University Hospital of Cologne within a 2-year period (01/2007-12/2008). Further data from a cohort of 322 patients who presented to our endoscopy unit with acute UGIB in 2009 served for external/temporal validation.Clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic parameters, as well as further data on medical history and medication were retrospectively collected from the electronic clinical documentation system. A multivariable logistic regression was fitted to the development set to obtain a risk score using recurrent bleeding, need for intervention (angiography, surgery), or death within 30 days as a composite endpoint. Finally, the obtained risk score was evaluated on the validation set. Only C-reactive protein, white blood cells, alanine-aminotransferase, thrombocytes, creatinine, and hemoglobin were identified as significant predictors for the composite endpoint. Based on the regression coefficients of these variables, an easy-to-use point scoring scheme (C-WATCH) was derived to estimate the risk of complications from 3% to 86% with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.723 in the development set and 0.704 in the validation set. In the validation set, no patient in the identified low-risk group (0-1 points), but 38.7% of patients in the high-risk group (≥ 2 points) reached the composite endpoint. Our easy-to-use scoring scheme is able to distinguish high-risk patients requiring urgent endoscopy, from low-risk cases who are suitable candidates for outpatient management or in whom endoscopy may be postponed. Based on our findings, a prospective validation of the C-WATCH score in different patient populations outside the university hospital setting seems warranted. PMID:26402828

  16. Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Bodenlos, Jamie S; Wormuth, Bernadette M

    2013-02-01

    Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session to determine amount consumed. After controlling for dietary restraint, hunger and food preference, significantly more chocolate covered candies were consumed among individuals who watched the cooking program compared to the nature program. No significant differences between conditions were found for overall caloric intake or for cheese curl or carrot consumption. Findings suggest that watching food-related television programs may affect eating behavior and has implications for obesity prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23154219

  17. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-12-30

    The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts.

  18. World mussel watch database. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is an internationally cooordinated system for systematic operational data collection and analysis. This contribution to GOOS is an attempt to determine the levels of contaminants in mussels and oysters collected worldwide and to compare the results with the long-term Mussel Watch programs of the United States and France. A comprehensive literature search of studies using any species of mussels and/or oysters worldwide to monitor the levels of trace metals and organic contaminants was conducted and the data compiled into the World Mussel Watch database. Data sources and statistics of the database are included. Results of the World Mussel Watch and the US and France Mussel Watch programs were compared and typical levels of some trace metals in uncontaminated mussels and oysters were calculated.

  19. Case study illustrating risks of garrison unit watch for soldiers at risk of suicide.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher S; Sheridan, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Unit watch over suicidal patients by nonmedical soldiers is often necessary in a deployed environment, but this strategy's risks may outweigh its benefits in a garrison environment. This case study illustrates risks of unit watches that are difficult for medical personnel to effectively mitigate. The suicidal soldier in question was placed on a unit watch in lieu of psychiatric hospitalization, utilizing a plan agreed upon by all parties. However, within 2 days, the plan had degenerated to an unacceptable degree. A commander is always legally responsible for subordinate soldiers' conduct, but from a patient safety perspective, medical professionals must account for the inevitable periods of decreased oversight within a unit. Medical professionals who recommend a unit watch must consider the risks associated with this course of action, including instances such as the error chain detailed in this case. PMID:26032390

  20. How Things Work: A Spinning Top, Lenz's Law and Electric Watches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a physics explanation for a toy top driven by a magnet. Draws parallels to electric watches which use balance wheels with small permanent magnet mounts on them and having the coils mounted at one side. (JM)

  1. Barbara Morgan and Christa McAuliffe watch the STS 61-A launch of Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Barbara R. Morgan and Sharon Christa McAuliffe (right) watch the STS 61-A launch of Challenger at Kennedy Space Center's Launch complex 39 (25293); McAuliffe turns to camera as STS 61-A launch progresses (25294).

  2. Effect of Watching 3-Dimensional Television on Refractive Error in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Yong-Min; Han, Ji-Yoon; Nam, Gi-Tae; You, Eun-Joo; Cho, Yoonae A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. Methods Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. Results The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. Conclusions Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children. PMID:25646061

  3. A Timely Intervention: Endoscopic Retrieval of a Swallowed Magnetized Activity Watch

    PubMed Central

    Radowsky, Jason S.; Lee, Joseph S.; Schlussel, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    The accidental ingestion of a foreign object often presents a difficult scenario for the clinician. This includes not only the decision to retrieve the material but also the appropriate technique to use. We present the case of a young asymptomatic girl who swallowed a magnetic activity watch, which was then successfully retrieved with an endoscopic snare. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of salvaging an operational watch from the stomach using an endoscopic technique. PMID:26904319

  4. A Timely Intervention: Endoscopic Retrieval of a Swallowed Magnetized Activity Watch.

    PubMed

    Radowsky, Jason S; Lee, Joseph S; Schlussel, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    The accidental ingestion of a foreign object often presents a difficult scenario for the clinician. This includes not only the decision to retrieve the material but also the appropriate technique to use. We present the case of a young asymptomatic girl who swallowed a magnetic activity watch, which was then successfully retrieved with an endoscopic snare. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of salvaging an operational watch from the stomach using an endoscopic technique. PMID:26904319

  5. Assessing the Function of Cypress Knees - A Watershed Watch Student Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. D.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Porter, W.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research presented here was conducted on cypress knees of different ages from the campus of Elizabeth City State University in northeastern North Carolina. Samples were collected from Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) knees and thin sections were cut from the distal, medial, and proximal regions of each knee. Three specimens of each of young and old knees were analyzed. Structural differences in the location and amount of wood (secondary xylem), parenchyma, and aerenchyma tissues were compared in order to determine if both younger and older knees function as pneumatophores, and if only the younger knees are capable of providing oxygen to roots in waterlogged soils. Our findings include: younger knees have the most aerenchyma tissue (living cells associated with air canals) and a thinner bark (likely pervious) on the distal tips. The older knees are more woody with distinct growth rings, exhibit less aerenchyma tissue, and have a much thicker (likely impervious) bark at the distal tip. The conclusion regarding the purpose of cypress knees is that the younger knees likely function as aerating organs (peumatophores) for the growing roots tips, while the older knees have reduced amounts of aerenchyma tissue and a thicker bark, and therefore may lose the ability to function as an aerating organ for the older roots.

  6. Death by hanging while watching violent pornographic videos on the Internet - suicide or accidental autoerotic death?

    PubMed

    Vennemann, B; Pollak, S

    2006-03-01

    In deaths by hanging, it may sometimes be difficult to differentiate between autoerotic accident and suicide. Our report deals with a 30-year-old man who was found hanged in the living room of his flat. The deceased was wearing headphones connected to a PC. Within the deceased's view was a computer screen showing the last picture of a video file downloaded from the Internet with the head of an unclothed, allegedly hanged female. The deceased's left hand was inside his trousers in the genital region. The autopsy did not only show findings typical for hanging, but also advanced sarcoidosis, which was known to the victim. Although this basic illness could have been a possible motive for suicide, the circumstances in the presented case pointed more in the direction of an accidental autoerotic death. As far as we know, this is the first description of a death during autoerotic activity in which sexual stimulation was achieved by watching a video file downloaded from the Internet. PMID:16059712

  7. Outcomes following watchful waiting for stage II-IV follicular lymphoma patients in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Nastoupil, Loretta J; Sinha, Rajni; Byrtek, Michelle; Ziemiecki, Ryan; Zhou, Xiaolei; Taylor, Michael; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Link, Brian K; Cerhan, James R; Dawson, Keith; Flowers, Christopher R

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an initial management strategy of watchful waiting for follicular lymphoma (FL) in clinical practice, we compared outcomes for patients diagnosed 2004-2007 in the United States initially managed with watchful waiting with outcomes following initial rituximab monotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy. In total, 1754 stage II-IV patients in the National LymphoCare Study underwent watchful waiting (n = 386), rituximab monotherapy (n = 296) or rituximab plus chemotherapy (n = 1072) as initial management strategy. Female patients and those who received treatment in the Northeast or in an academic setting more commonly underwent watchful waiting versus initial chemoimmunotherapy; whereas patients with grade 3 histology, anaemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, extranodal involvement, B symptoms or performance status ≥1 more commonly received chemoimmunotherapy. Although time to new treatment and progression-free survival following first- and second-line therapy were improved with chemoimmunotherapy, and time to chemotherapy was improved with rituximab monotherapy, there were no differences in overall survival between watchful waiting and chemoimmunotherapy or rituximab monotherapy. With 8-year overall survival estimates of 74%, initial management with watchful waiting in the context of sequential therapy remains a viable option for FL patients in the modern era. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00097565). PMID:26729445

  8. Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for a Self-Powered Electronic Watch.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ting; Wang, Xue; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2015-12-22

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator including a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and six electromagnetic generators (EMGs) that can effectively scavenge biomechanical energy for sustainably powering an electronic watch. Triggered by the natural motions of the wearer's wrist, a magnetic ball at the center in an acrylic box with coils on each side will collide with the walls, resulting in outputs from both the EMGs and the TENG. By using the hybridized nanogenerator to harvest the biomechanical energy, the electronic watch can be continuously powered under different motion types of the wearer's wrist, where the best approach is to charge a 100 μF capacitor in 39 s to maintain the continuous operation of the watch for 456 s. To increase the working time of the watch further, a homemade Li-ion battery has been utilized as the energy storage unit for realizing the continuous working of the watch for about 218 min by using the hybridized nanogenerator to charge the battery within 32 min. This work will provide the opportunities for developing a nanogenerator-based built-in power source for self-powered wearable electronics such as an electronic watch. PMID:26565597

  9. Preliminary Results of Observations of Comets De Vico and Hyakutake by the Ulysses Comet Watch Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, C. C.; Brandt, J. C.; Yi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cometary interactions with the solar wind allow us to use comets as probes of the inner regions of the heliosphere. During their close passage to the Sun, comets are exposed to different environments depending on their latitude. Until recently, characterizing these environments has been difficult because most spacecraft studying the sun have been confined to studying its mid-latitudes. A valuable source of information about the differing regimes of the solar wind is the joint ESA/NASA ULYSSES mission, which is the first spacecraft to explore the polar regions of the heliosphere. In 1995, ULYSSES' orbit covered a range of solar latitudes from -80 degrees to +80 degrees - an interval referred to as the 'fast latitude scan.' The Ulysses Comet Watch incorporates in-situ measurements during these periods by the ULYSSES spacecraft with images contributed by a world-wide network of observers (both amateur and professional). Bright comets whose paths come within 20 degrees solar latitude of the spacecraft are considered especially good targets for correlation between spacecraft data and plasma tail activity. Ulysses findings of interest to cometary plasma research are: Verification of global differences in solar wind properties (speed and density) at different solar latitudes. At polar latitudes - ranging from roughly +/-30 degrees to +/-80 degrees - the solar wind speed is about 750 kilometers/sec, and has a proton density (1 AU) around 3 cm(exp -3). Changes in properties are small and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is not seen. In the equatorial latitudes (roughly +30 to -30 degrees), the average solar wind speed is about 450 kilometers/sec, with an average proton density (at 1 AU) around 9 cm(exp -3). The HCS is seen and changes in properties can be large. An object, spacecraft or comet, at a given latitude, can be entirely in the polar, entirely in the equatorial, or can experience both - sort of a transition region.

  10. Forest Watch: A K-12 Outreach Program to Engage Pre-College Students in Authentic, Hands-On Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, M. T.; Rock, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Forest Watch Program is a K-12 hands-on science outreach program developed at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991. The program has engaged students and their teachers in assisting researchers at UNH in the assessment of the state-of-health of white pine (Pinus strobus), a known bio-indicator species for exposure to elevated levels of ground-level ozone. Students are introduced to the scientific method while participating in an authentic on-going research program. The program was designed in partnership with participating teachers, and thus the field and classroom activities meet specific New England state science and mathematics curricula standards for K-12 education. Student participation in Forest Watch has resulted in an improved understanding and characterization of inter-annual white pine response to changes in air quality across the region over the past two decades. Forest Watch, students participate in three types of activities: 1. the analysis of remote sensing data (Landsat TM) provided for their local area using MultiSpec freeware. Through image processing, students learn the concepts of spatial and spectral resolution; how to identify landcover features; how plants interact with visible and infrared energy; and how to use this information to determine vegetation types and identify vegetation conditions. 2. students select 5 white pine trees to be permanently tagged near their school within a 30x30 meter (pixel sized sampling plot - the spatial resolution of the TM dataset), followed by collection and analysis of needle samples, and a suite of forest plot biometric measurements such as tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and canopy closure and ground cover. 3. the students send a set of their needle samples to UNH for spectral analysis of key reflectance features such as the Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP), the TM 5/4 moisture stress index, and the NIR 3/1. Over 250 schools from all six New England states have participated in the program over the past 19 years. Combining student-derived data plus the reflectance indices and other spectral measures, allows UNH researchers to characterize annual variations in tree state-of-health and relate it to the previous summer’s ozone levels. Results from annual student-provided data between 1991 and 2008 suggest that regional air quality and the state-of-health of white pine have improved since 1991. This improvement in white pine health corresponds with improved regional air quality, in part due to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment.

  11. Forest Watch: a K-12 Outreach Program to Engage Young Students in Authentic, Hands-On Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Gagnon, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Forest Watch Program is a K-12 science outreach program developed at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991. The program engages pre-college teachers and their students in assisting researchers at UNH in the assessment of the state-of-health of white pine (Pinus strobus), a known bio- indicator species for exposure to elevated levels of ground-level ozone. Students participate in three types of activities: 1. selection, collection, and analysis of needle samples from five permanently tagged white pine trees near their school; 2. Study of needles in their classroom and sending a set of needles to UNH for spectral analysis; and 3. analysis of remote sensing data (Landsat TM) provided of their local area using freeware software (MultiSpec). Student-derived foliar symptomology, needle length, needle retention, and tree biometrics, plus the spectral indices, allow UNH researchers to characterize annual variations in tree state-of-health, and to correlate that state-of-health with annual summer ozone levels collected by the EPA and state environmental monitoring networks. The results suggest that regional air quality and state- of-health of trees has improved since 1991. Annual student data and the yearly spectral variations, for the same trees, suggest that white pine health has improved dramatically since 1997/8. This improvement in tree health corresponds with improved regional air quality. An evaluation of student data reliability has been conducted and suggests that the DBH measurements are a most reliable indicator of tree growth. Student data are more reliable if multiple sets of measurements are made and averaged together, compared with single sets of measurements. Based on both student data and spectral analysis of student-provided branch samples, the greatest damage (chlorosis) occurs in trees located along the seacoast areas. Participation in Forest Watch introduces students to the scientific method via an authentic research program. The program is designed in partnership with participating teachers, and thus meets New England state science and mathematics curricula for K-12 education. Student participation in Forest Watch has resulted in an improved understanding of inter-annual white pine state-of-health response to improved air quality across the New England region.

  12. Hydro-climatic control of stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) across northern catchments within the North-Watch program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Seibert, Jan; Soulsby, Chris; Carey, Sean; Buttle, Jim; McDonnell, Jeff; McGuire, Kevin; Caissie, Daniel; Shanley, Jamie

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in understanding the regulating mechanisms of surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) the last decade. A majority of this recent work has been based on individual well characterized research catchments or on regional synoptic datasets combined with readily available landscape and climatic variables. However, as the production and transport of DOC primarily is a function of hydro-climatic conditions a better description of catchment hydrological functioning across large geographic regions would be favorable for moving the mechanistic understanding forward. To do this we report from a first assessment of catchment DOC within the international inter-catchment comparison program North-Watch (http://www.abdn.ac.uk/northwatch/). North-Watch includes long-term research catchments ranging from northern temperate regions to the boreal and sub-arctic biomes with the aim to better understand the variable hydrological and biogeochemical responses in Northern catchments to climate change. The North-Watch catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the US (Sleepers River and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). The annual average DOC concentration in the nine catchments investigated were directly linked to hydro-climatic influences (e.g. temperature, water storage) and landscape configuration. In general, the DOC concentration followed a parabolic shape with temperature, where the highest concentrations were found in the boreal and near boreal sites and with the lowest concentrations in the temperate and sub-arctic catchments. The between catchment variability in DOC concentration could also be explained by catchment water storage and amount of wetlands in the catchment. Whereas there is a mechanistic link between long-term climatic conditions and the areal coverage of wetlands, the total catchment storage of water is more strongly linked to topography, parent material and soil depth. The result from this analysis will serve as a conceptual framework for understanding biogeochemical response to environmental change across northern catchments. The next step in this work will be to include more detailed comparisons of the role catchment hydrological functioning for explaining the patterns and dynamics of catchment DOC of these northern watersheds.

  13. Acoustic interaction of humpback whales and whale-watching boats.

    PubMed

    Au, W W; Green, M

    2000-06-01

    The underwater acoustic noise of five representative whale-watching boats used in the waters of west Maui was measured in order to study the effects of boat noise on humpback whales. The first set of measurements were performed on 9 and 10 March, close to the peak of the whale season. The ambient noise was relatively high with the major contribution from many chorusing humpback whales. Measurements of boat sounds were contaminated by this high ambient background noise. A second set of measurements was performed on 28 and 29 April, towards the end of the humpback whale season. In both sets of measurements, two of the boats were inflatables with outboard engines, two were larger coastal boats with twin inboard diesel engines and the fifth was a small water plane area twin hull (SWATH) ship with inter-island cruise capabilities. The inflatable boats with outboard engines produced very complex sounds with many bands of tonal-like components. The boats with inboard engines produced less intense sounds with fewer tonal bands. One-third octave band measurements of ambient noise measured on 9 March indicated a maximum sound pressure level of about 123 dB re 1 microPa at 315 Hz. The maximum sound pressure level of 127 dB at 315 Hz was measured for the SWATH ship. One of the boats with outboard engines produced sounds between 2 and 4 kHz that were about 8-10 dB greater than the level of background humpback whale sounds at the peak of the whale season. We concluded that it is unlikely that the levels of sounds produced by the boats in our study would have any grave effects on the auditory system of humpback whales. PMID:11285724

  14. US Mussel Watch Program: Transuranic element data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1976-1983. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Palmieri, J.; Livingston, H.; Farrington, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus californianus, Crassostrea virginica and Ostrea equestris) were collected once per year during 1976, 1977, and 1978 along the United States coast and analyzed for (239,240)Pu, (241)Am and (137)Cs as part of the U.S. Mussel Watch program. Monthly samples were collected during 1976-1980 from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Bodega Head, California and analyzed for (239,240)Pu, (241)Am, and (137)Cs. There is no evidence in the data for systematic regional or local elevated concentrations of radionuclides as a result of releases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Monthly fluctuations in radionuclide concentrations in the Narragansett Bay mussels appear to be primarily influenced by spawning.

  15. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  16. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  17. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N.; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T.

    2014-01-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  18. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T

    2014-07-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  19. Watching sport on television, physical activity, and risk of obesity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing has been associated with obesity although the effects of specific TV content on health and other behaviours remains unknown. We examined the association between watching sport on TV, physical activity levels, and risk of obesity. Methods We studied 6,733 (aged 64.9 ± 9.2 yrs) men and women from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Data were collected on self reported TV time and content, and physical activity. Nurses measured height and weight for the calculation of body mass index. Results On average, participants reported viewing TV for 5.3 ± 4.1 hours per day and 30.3% of the sample watched sport on TV at least twice a week. There was no association between watching sport and physical activity levels. Participants that watched sports every day were at higher risk of obesity [odds ratio = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.15, 1.68) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, total TV time, disability, and self-rated health. Conclusions Watching elite athletes may have no role in the promotion of physical activity in older adults, which has implications for staging large sporting events with physical activity legacy promises. PMID:24400697

  20. The associations of physical activity and television watching with change in kidney function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Marquis; Newman, Anne B.; Madero, Magdalena; Patel, Kushang V.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Cooper, Jennifer; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Fried, Linda F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults. METHODS The Health, Aging and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3,075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function. RESULTS Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.05, 1.52) compared to individuals who watched television < 2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome. CONCLUSIONS High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study. PMID:24762526

  1. Television and families: what do young children watch with their parents?

    PubMed

    St Peters, M; Fitch, M; Huston, A C; Wright, J C; Eakins, D J

    1991-12-01

    A sample of 271 3- and 5-year-olds and their families participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of television viewing patterns. 5 1-week diaries for all family members were collected at 6-month intervals. Programs were categorized as: (1) child informative, (2) child entertainment, (3) news and informative, (4) sports, (5) comedy, (6) drama, (7) action-adventure, and (8) variety-game. The majority of child programs were viewed without parents, while the majority of adult programs were watched with parents. Coviewing patterns of adult programs were predicted from parents' individual viewing habits, but not from the child's. Coviewing declined with age. Parental encouragement and regulation of viewing were orthogonal. Children whose parents encouraged viewing watched more child informative programming; children of restrictive parents watched less entertainment programming. Encouraging parents coviewed more than nonencouraging parents. Results support the assertion that parental viewing preferences, habits, and orientations toward television influence children's viewing, both with and without parents. PMID:1786724

  2. Geothermal chemistry thermodynamics: The WatchWorks program for MS-Windows{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.W.

    1997-12-31

    The WATCH computer code, which calculates composition and aqueous speciation in geothermal reservoir waters, has been upgraded and transferred to MS-Windows{trademark} under the name WatchWorks. Program output includes pH, redox potential, the partial pressures of dissolved gases, and mineral solubilities. WatchWorks assists analyses of scaling and corrosion potential, calculates reservoir steam composition, effects of boiling and cooling, and excess steam in the wellflow. The amount of acid, base or CO{sub 2} gas needed to adjust brine pH can be calculated, as may be needed to inhibit scale formation or neutralize a low pH. The Windows environment provides for extensive input-output control and on-screen recalculation of data units. Examples of applications are provided.

  3. New current reduction system for watches with integrated current regulation motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Stephan

    An optimized system, comprising watch motor and an Integrated Current (IC) with motor current regulation enables a reduction of the system current (IC and motor) up to 50% when compared to a solution with no motor current regulation. This leads to a significantly longer battery life, or alternatively permits the development of even flatter modules, and reduces the noise level. This kind of system improvement is not only applicable to watches, but also to clocks (IC with motor current regulation). However only watch applications are considered. In order to cover the complete spectrum of application areas, two algorithms are offered for motor current regulation. These can for example supply the means to system optimization for 1.5 V and 3 V applications.

  4. Children's discrimination of fantastic vs. realistic visual displays after watching a film with magical content.

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene; Slater, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Six- and nine-yr.-old children (n=28 of each) were divided into equal experimental and control groups. The experimental groups were shown a film with a magical theme, and the control groups were shown a film with a nonmagical theme. All groups then were presented with a choice task requiring them to discriminate between ordinary and fantastic visual displays on a computer screen. Statistical analyses indicated that mean scores for correctly identifying the ordinary and fantastic displays were significantly different between experimental and control groups. The children in the experimental groups who watched the magical film had significantly higher scores on correct identifications than children in the control groups who watched the nonmagical film for both age groups. The results suggest that watching films with a magical theme might enhance children's sensitivity toward the fantasy/reality distinction. PMID:21667768

  5. Motor familiarity: brain activation when watching kinematic displays of one's own movements.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Balser, Nils; Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Hohmann, Tanja; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Munzert, Jörn

    2012-07-01

    The perception of action is influenced by the observer's familiarity with its movement. However, how does motor familiarity with own movement patterns modulate the visual perception of action effects? Cortical activation was examined with fMRI while 20 observers were watching videotaped point-light displays of markers on the shoulders, the right elbow, and wrist of an opposing table tennis player. The racket and ball were not displayed. Participants were asked to predict the invisible effect of the stroke, that is, the ball flight direction. Different table tennis models were used without the observers knowing and being informed in advance that some of the presented videos displayed their own movements from earlier training sessions. Prediction had to be made irrespective of the identity of the player represented by the four moving markers. Results showed that participants performed better when observing their "own" strokes. Using a region-of-interest approach, fMRI data showed that observing own videos was accompanied by stronger activation (compared to other videos) in the left angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobe and the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex. Other videos elicited stronger activation than own videos in the left intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus. We suggest that during action observation of motorically familiar movements, the compatibility between the observed action and the observers' motor representation is already coded in the parietal angular gyrus--in addition to the paracingulate gyrus. The activation in angular gyrus is presumably part of an action-specific effect retrieval that accompanies actor-specific prefrontal processing. The intraparietal sulcus seems to be sensitive to incongruence between observed kinematics and internal model representations, and this also influences processing in the supramarginal gyrus. PMID:22609578

  6. What Physiological Changes and Cerebral Traces Tell Us about Adhesion to Fiction During Theater-Watching?

    PubMed Central

    Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle; Bressan, Yannick; Heider, Nathalie; Otzenberger, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Live theater is typically designed to alter the state of mind of the audience. Indeed, the perceptual inputs issuing from a live theatrical performance are intended to represent something else, and the actions, emphasized by the writing and staging, are the key prompting the adhesion of viewers to fiction, i.e., their belief that it is real. This phenomenon raises the issue of the cognitive processes governing access to a fictional reality during live theater and of their cerebral underpinnings. To get insight into the physiological substrates of adhesion we recreated the peculiar context of watching live drama in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, with simultaneous recording of heart activity. The instants of adhesion were defined as the co-occurrence of theatrical events determined a priori by the stage director and the spectators’ offline reports of moments when fiction acted as reality. These data served to specify, for each spectator, individual fMRI time-series, used in a random-effect group analysis to define the pattern of brain response to theatrical events. The changes in this pattern related to subjects’ adhesion to fiction, were investigated using a region of interest analysis. The results showed that adhesion to theatrical events correlated with increased activity in the left BA47 and posterior superior temporal sulcus, together with a decrease in dynamic heart rate variability, leading us to discuss the hypothesis of subtle changes in the subjects’ state of awareness, enabling them to mentally dissociate physical and mental (drama-viewing) experiences, to account for the phenomenon of adhesion to dramatic fiction. PMID:20838472

  7. What Physiological Changes and Cerebral Traces Tell Us about Adhesion to Fiction During Theater-Watching?

    PubMed

    Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle; Bressan, Yannick; Heider, Nathalie; Otzenberger, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Live theater is typically designed to alter the state of mind of the audience. Indeed, the perceptual inputs issuing from a live theatrical performance are intended to represent something else, and the actions, emphasized by the writing and staging, are the key prompting the adhesion of viewers to fiction, i.e., their belief that it is real. This phenomenon raises the issue of the cognitive processes governing access to a fictional reality during live theater and of their cerebral underpinnings. To get insight into the physiological substrates of adhesion we recreated the peculiar context of watching live drama in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, with simultaneous recording of heart activity. The instants of adhesion were defined as the co-occurrence of theatrical events determined a priori by the stage director and the spectators' offline reports of moments when fiction acted as reality. These data served to specify, for each spectator, individual fMRI time-series, used in a random-effect group analysis to define the pattern of brain response to theatrical events. The changes in this pattern related to subjects' adhesion to fiction, were investigated using a region of interest analysis. The results showed that adhesion to theatrical events correlated with increased activity in the left BA47 and posterior superior temporal sulcus, together with a decrease in dynamic heart rate variability, leading us to discuss the hypothesis of subtle changes in the subjects' state of awareness, enabling them to mentally dissociate physical and mental (drama-viewing) experiences, to account for the phenomenon of adhesion to dramatic fiction. PMID:20838472

  8. Night Watch in One Brain Hemisphere during Sleep Associated with the First-Night Effect in Humans.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Masako; Bang, Ji Won; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-05-01

    We often experience troubled sleep in a novel environment [1]. This is called the first-night effect (FNE) in human sleep research and has been regarded as a typical sleep disturbance [2-4]. Here, we show that the FNE is a manifestation of one hemisphere being more vigilant than the other as a night watch to monitor unfamiliar surroundings during sleep [5, 6]. Using advanced neuroimaging techniques [7, 8] as well as polysomnography, we found that the temporary sleep disturbance in the first sleep experimental session involves regional interhemispheric asymmetry of sleep depth [9]. The interhemispheric asymmetry of sleep depth associated with the FNE was found in the default-mode network (DMN) involved with spontaneous internal thoughts during wakeful rest [10, 11]. The degree of asymmetry was significantly correlated with the sleep-onset latency, which reflects the degree of difficulty of falling asleep and is a critical measure for the FNE. Furthermore, the hemisphere with reduced sleep depth showed enhanced evoked brain response to deviant external stimuli. Deviant external stimuli detected by the less-sleeping hemisphere caused more arousals and faster behavioral responses than those detected by the other hemisphere. None of these asymmetries were evident during subsequent sleep sessions. These lines of evidence are in accord with the hypothesis that troubled sleep in an unfamiliar environment is an act for survival over an unfamiliar and potentially dangerous environment by keeping one hemisphere partially more vigilant than the other hemisphere as a night watch, which wakes the sleeper up when unfamiliar external signals are detected. PMID:27112296

  9. A general and flexible methodology to define thresholds for heat health watch and warning systems, applied to the province of Québec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Chebana, Fateh; Martel, Barbara; Gosselin, Pierre; Giroux, Jean-Xavier; Ouarda, Taha B M J

    2013-07-01

    Several watch and warning systems have been established in the world in recent years to prevent the effects of heat waves. However, many of these approaches can be applied only in regions with perfect conditions (e.g., enough data, stationary series or homogeneous regions). Furthermore, a number of these approaches do not account for possible trend in mortality and/or temperature series, whereas others are generally not adapted to regions with low population densities or low daily mortality levels. In addition, prediction based on multiple days preceding the event can be less accurate if it attributes the same importance to each of these days, since the forecasting accuracy actually decreases with the period. The aim of the present study was to identify appropriate indicators as well as flexible and general thresholds that can be applied to a variety of regions and conditions. From a practical point of view, the province of Québec constitutes a typical case where a number of the above-mentioned constraints are present. On the other hand, until recently, the province's watch and warning system was based on a study conducted in 2005, covering only the city of Montreal and applied to the whole province. The proposed approach is applied to each one of the other health regions of the province often experiencing low daily counts of mortality and presenting trends. The first constraint led to grouping meteorologically homogeneous regions across the province in which the number of deaths is sufficient to carry out the appropriate data analyses. In each region, mortality trends are taken into account. In addition, the proposed indicators are defined by a 3-day weighted mean of maximal and minimal temperatures. The sensitivity of the results to the inclusion of traumatic deaths is also checked. The application shows that the proposed method improved the results in terms of sensitivity, specificity and number of yearly false alarms, compared to those of the existing and other classical approaches. An additional criterion based on the Humidex is applied in a second step and a local validation is applied to historical observations at reference forecasting stations. An integrated heat health watch and warning system with thresholds that are adapted to the regional climate has thus been established for each sub-region of the province of Quebec and became operational in June 2010. PMID:23100100

  10. A general and flexible methodology to define thresholds for heat health watch and warning systems, applied to the province of Qubec (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebana, Fateh; Martel, Barbara; Gosselin, Pierre; Giroux, Jean-Xavier; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2013-07-01

    Several watch and warning systems have been established in the world in recent years to prevent the effects of heat waves. However, many of these approaches can be applied only in regions with perfect conditions (e.g., enough data, stationary series or homogeneous regions). Furthermore, a number of these approaches do not account for possible trend in mortality and/or temperature series, whereas others are generally not adapted to regions with low population densities or low daily mortality levels. In addition, prediction based on multiple days preceding the event can be less accurate if it attributes the same importance to each of these days, since the forecasting accuracy actually decreases with the period. The aim of the present study was to identify appropriate indicators as well as flexible and general thresholds that can be applied to a variety of regions and conditions. From a practical point of view, the province of Qubec constitutes a typical case where a number of the above-mentioned constraints are present. On the other hand, until recently, the province's watch and warning system was based on a study conducted in 2005, covering only the city of Montreal and applied to the whole province. The proposed approach is applied to each one of the other health regions of the province often experiencing low daily counts of mortality and presenting trends. The first constraint led to grouping meteorologically homogeneous regions across the province in which the number of deaths is sufficient to carry out the appropriate data analyses. In each region, mortality trends are taken into account. In addition, the proposed indicators are defined by a 3-day weighted mean of maximal and minimal temperatures. The sensitivity of the results to the inclusion of traumatic deaths is also checked. The application shows that the proposed method improved the results in terms of sensitivity, specificity and number of yearly false alarms, compared to those of the existing and other classical approaches. An additional criterion based on the Humidex is applied in a second step and a local validation is applied to historical observations at reference forecasting stations. An integrated heat health watch and warning system with thresholds that are adapted to the regional climate has thus been established for each sub-region of the province of Quebec and became operational in June 2010.

  11. Children under the age of two are more likely to watch inappropriate background media than older children

    PubMed Central

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Brockmeyer Cates, Carolyn; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule, Samantha B; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Aim To establish whether young children watched foreground electronic media or background media that was not aimed at them or was inappropriate for their age. Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis of mother-infant dyads participating in a larger parenting study. The primary dependent variable was maternal reports of watching habits from media diaries at six, 14, 24 and 36 months. Independent variables were child age, programme content and whether the programme was turned on specifically for the child. Results We analysed 3,570 programme exposures in 527 children, mostly from television. Children were significantly more likely to actually watch programmes if they were older, if the content was coded as “educational-young child” or if the parent tuned on the programme specifically so the child could watch it. Children under the age of two were more likely than older children to watch background media that featured age-inappropriate content or had not been turned on for them to watch (30% versus 16% of programmes; AOR = 2.19, [95%CI 1.82-2.65]). Conclusions Young children under the age of two frequently watch background media that has age-inappropriate content or has not been turned on for them to watch. PMID:24812713

  12. 46 CFR 12.605 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as ratings forming part of a navigational watch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as ratings forming part of a navigational watch (RFPNW). 12.605 Section 12.605 Shipping COAST GUARD... forming part of a navigational watch (RFPNW). (a) To qualify for endorsement as an RFPNW on a...

  13. Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with

  14. Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

  15. 78 FR 26770 - NaturEner Wind Watch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NaturEner Wind Watch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of NaturEner Wind Watch, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  16. 75 FR 18787 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; The Swatch Group (U.S.) Inc. (Watch and Jewelry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 41382, 8/17/09) and... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; The Swatch Group (U.S.) Inc. (Watch and... watch and jewelry warehousing and distribution at the facility of The Swatch Group (U.S.) Inc.,...

  17. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to Tarpaulin Cove Light on the southeastern side of Naushon Island; thence from the southernmost tangent of Naushon.... longitude 71°02.3′ W. (c) A line drawn from Sakonnet Breakwater Light 2 tangent to the southernmost part...

  18. Is the "Idiot's Box" Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munasib, Abdul; Bhattacharya, Samrat

    2010-01-01

    There is widespread belief that exposure to television has harmful effects on children's cognitive development. Most studies that point to a negative correlation between hours of television watching and cognitive outcomes, fail to establish causality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we study young children between 5 and 10…

  19. Validity of the Smarthealth Watch to Measure Heart Rate during Rest and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. Matthew; Gorelick, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the Smarthealth watch (Salutron, Inc., Fremont, California, USA), a heart rate monitor that includes a wristwatch without an accompanying chest strap. Twenty-five individuals participated in 3-min periods of standing, 2.0 mph walking, 3.5 mph walking, 4.5 mph jogging, and 6.0 mph running.

  20. Folklore in Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God." [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Zora Neale Hurston's work is lively, lyrical, funny, and poignant, but this consummate literary craftsperson was also a first-rate ethnographer, conducting field work for Franz Boas and for the Works Progress Administration (WPA). "Their Eyes Were Watching God," often acclaimed as Hurston's masterpiece, is perhaps the richest beneficiary of her…

  1. 33 CFR 157.420 - Vessel specific watch policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel specific watch policy and procedures. 157.420 Section 157.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim...

  2. 76 FR 74788 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From HealthWatch, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From HealthWatch, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS....

  3. Effects of watching eyes and norm cues on charitable giving in a surreptitious behavioral experiment.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Moe; Bateson, Melissa; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A series of experimental studies by multiple groups of researchers have found that displaying images of watching eyes causes people to behave more prosocially. It is not yet clear whether watching eyes increase prosocial motivation per se, or whether they simply make people's behavior more normative. Here, we report results from a surreptitious behavioral experiment examining the impacts of watching eye images and cues to local norms on charitable donations in a controlled setting. Eye images significantly increased average donations. Eye images did not make people conform more closely to the apparent norm overall. Instead, there were different patterns according to the apparent norm. For an apparent norm of small donations, eye images made many participants more generous than the norm. For an apparent norm of large donations, there was an excess of participants giving zero in the no-eyes treatment, which was abolished in the eyes treatment. Our results can be explained by a combination of watching eyes increasing prosocial motivation and reluctance to leave a donation visibly less generous than the norm. PMID:25331033

  4. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay,...

  5. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay,...

  6. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay,...

  7. 78 FR 30389 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE BAY WATCH; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE BAY... the applicant the intended service of the vessel LITTLE BAY WATCH is: Intended Commercial Use...

  8. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay,...

  9. An Early Warning System for Schools: An Examination of Illinois' Financial Watch List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William L.; Lair, Wiliferd R.

    This paper describes Illinois' program for warning school districts of impending financial troubles and the reactions of superintendents to the state's "early warning" program. In February 192, the State of Illinois issued a list of 111 school districts, out of a total of 946 districts, that were on the Financial Watch list. Of questionnaires sent…

  10. The Use of Common Planning Time: A Case Study of Two Kentucky Schools to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Christopher M.; Faulkner, Shawn A.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teams with common planning time have been a hallmark of the middle school organizational structure since the 1960s, yet research on the effective use of common planning time is limited. This study explores how interdisciplinary teams at schools designated Kentucky Schools to Watch use common planning time, including the factors

  11. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality

  12. STS-93: Crew Watch the Installation of Chandra's Solar Panel in the VPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers, Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman and Michel Tognini, watching the installation of Chandra's Solar Panel in the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at Kennedy Space Center. Crewmembers ask the engineers questions about different components in order to familiarize themselves.

  13. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 7 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  14. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 6 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 6 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  15. Community Solutions for Solid Waste Pollution, Level 6. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  16. Watch This! A Guide to Implementing Video Modeling in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynkoop, Kaylee Stahr

    2016-01-01

    The video modeling (VM) teaching strategy is one in which a student watches a video of someone performing a specific behavior, skill, or task and is then expected to complete the behavior, skill, or task. This column discusses the variety of ways in which VM has been documented within the literature and supports teacher interest in the strategy by

  17. Promotion and Prevention Orientations in the Choice to Attend Lectures or Watch Them Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassili, J. N.

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the option to use a new instructional technology, students often face an approach-avoidance conflict. This study explored promotion and prevention orientations, concepts linked to approach and avoidance in Higgins's regulatory focus theory, in the choice to attend lectures or watch them online. Openness, a core disposition in…

  18. Video Preference Assessment of Students with Autism for Watching Self, Adults, or Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Moser, Sara V.

    2010-01-01

    The preferences of students with autism for watching themselves, a familiar adult, or a familiar peer in video recordings were examined. A multi-stimulus video preference assessment was used to evaluate the preferences of five students with autism. Three video options of a preferred activity (e.g., vacuuming) or daily/routine activity (e.g., snack

  19. 76 FR 4126 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Origination Approval Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Origination Approval Agreements taken by HUD's Federal Housing Administration (FHA) against HUD-approved mortgagees through the FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had their Origination Approval Agreements...

  20. 76 FR 22120 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Origination Approval Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... 17, 1999 HUD published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Origination Approval Agreements..., Office of Housing, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room...

  1. 76 FR 22119 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... HUD published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room B133-P3214, Washington, DC...

  2. 76 FR 4364 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval Agreements with FHA... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Room B133-P3214, Washington, DC...

  3. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O’Connor, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22–0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04–0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering. PMID:26644979

  4. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  5. Let's Waste Less Waste, Level 4. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and

  6. Watching Learning Happen: Results of a Longitudinal Study of Journalism Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Margy

    2009-01-01

    The results from a five-year study of the information skills of journalism students provide insights into what students use and how that usage evolves, and have implications for information literacy instruction. Using a simple tool, the author watched learning happen in response to classes, work, and the changing information environment. (Contains

  7. Watching Learning Happen: Results of a Longitudinal Study of Journalism Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Margy

    2009-01-01

    The results from a five-year study of the information skills of journalism students provide insights into what students use and how that usage evolves, and have implications for information literacy instruction. Using a simple tool, the author watched learning happen in response to classes, work, and the changing information environment. (Contains…

  8. GUIDON-WATCH: A Graphic Interface for Viewing a Knowledge-Based System. Technical Report #14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Mark H.; Clancey, William J.

    This paper describes GUIDON-WATCH, a graphic interface that uses multiple windows and a mouse to allow a student to browse a knowledge base and view reasoning processes during diagnostic problem solving. The GUIDON project at Stanford University is investigating how knowledge-based systems can provide the basis for teaching programs, and this…

  9. Effects of Watching Captioned Movie Clip on Vocabulary Development of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan; Tanriverdi, Belgin

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of watching a closed-captioned movie clip on incidental vocabulary learning in a pre-test post-test experimental design. 120 college students from a college preparatory class, who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL), participated in the study. Two weeks before the treatment, all of the…

  10. International Television Programing. If People Could Have It, Would They Watch It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Donald R.

    Most of the literature on communication satellites deals with the technological, legal, and political problems of international communication. Few writers have considered what sorts of programing the international audiences might wish to receive or would watch. Several sources of evidence suggest what the choices might be if the entire world is

  11. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O'Connor, Abby; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22-0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04-0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering. PMID:26644979

  12. Technology Watch and Competitive Intelligence: A New Challenge in Education for Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Henri; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for education of information professionals in France to change because of changing needs for scientific, technological, and economic information. The functions of technology watch and competitive intelligence based on an organization's critical success factor are shown to be important. (13 references) (EAM)

  13. STS-26 MS Nelson watches as Boeing personnel alter his flight coveralls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson watches as Boeing personnel alter his flight coveralls (jump suit) during wardrobe fitting conducted at the Boeing Building near JSC. Dr. Nelson will be joined be five other veteran NASA astronauts for the Space Agency's first Shuttle flight since the Challenger accident 01-28-86.

  14. Watch This! A Guide to Implementing Video Modeling in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynkoop, Kaylee Stahr

    2016-01-01

    The video modeling (VM) teaching strategy is one in which a student watches a video of someone performing a specific behavior, skill, or task and is then expected to complete the behavior, skill, or task. This column discusses the variety of ways in which VM has been documented within the literature and supports teacher interest in the strategy by…

  15. FDA 101: How to Use the Consumer Complaint System and MedWatch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Consumer Complaint System and MedWatch Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Get Consumer Updates by ... is important and is recorded in an FDA database for review and comparison to similar previous reports. ...

  16. Natural and Man-Made Objects, Level K. Teacher's Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  17. Waste Out of Place, Level 1. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  18. Let's Waste Less Waste, Level 4. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  19. STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Cameron juggle cassettes on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron juggle cassette tapes on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Laughing at Cameron's stunt are Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin (foreground), Commander Steven R. Nagel (behind Cameron), and MS Jerry L. Ross (at floor level). Ross snacks on chocolate candy during the performance.

  20. A watch-and-wait approach to the management of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D

    2013-10-01

    There has been increasing interest in whether a watch-and-wait strategy can be pursued instead of routine surgery in selected rectal cancer patients who have a clinical complete response (cCR) after chemoradiation. The watch-and-wait approach could potentially reduce treatment-related toxicity in selected rectal cancer patients. A large study from Brazil and a prospective trial from the Netherlands appear to support this approach, although multiple other studies have raised concerns about the high rate of local recurrence with this strategy. This article reviews current evidence in support of a watch-and-wait approach to rectal cancer management, and discusses the challenges and limitations of this approach. Among these are the facts that current methods of assessing tumor response have limited accuracy, and that a cCR does not necessarily imply pathologic complete response. Careful patient selection and systematic methods of response assessment and follow-up will be critical to the success of nonoperative approaches. Based on the available evidence, ideally a watch-and-wait approach for patients with rectal cancer should be pursued within the context of a prospective clinical trial. PMID:24367851

  1. OT1_swampfle_1: WATCH - WATer Chemistry with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampfler, S.

    2010-07-01

    Water is one of the most abundant species in star-forming regions and plays important roles in both the energy balance, acting as a coolant, and the chemistry of star formation. Many of the species involved in the water chemistry emit in the far-infrared and are thus not observable from ground based facilities because of atmospheric absorption. Therefore, the Herschel Space Observatory provides a unique opportunity to study the chemical reactions involved in the formation and destruction of water and to probe the energetic processes in star-forming regions. Previous results from Herschel have shown that two species, OH+ and H2O+, that were thought to be important in the water chemistry of young stellar objects, are now mainly attributed to foreground clouds. These results raised the question on which chemical paths the formation and destruction of water takes place in the interior of protostellar envelopes. In this proposal, we plan to observe the different formation and destruction routes of water in a sample of eight nearby young stellar objects, which were chosen to cover a broad range of masses, luminosities and evolutionary stages. We propose to observe H3O+ and HCO+, two species that are closely linked to the formation and destruction of H2O and require high temperatures for excitation, in serveral high-J lines. This effort is complementary to the observations of H2O and OH done in the 'Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)' key project. The combination of the information from the H2O, OH, H3O+ and HCO+ emission will tell us on which routes the formation and destruction of H2O in protostellar envelopes proceeds.

  2. Methodology for evaluating lateral boundary conditions in the regional chemical transport model MATCH (v5.5.0) using combined satellite and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, E.; Kahnert, M.; Devasthale, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hemispheric transport of air pollutants can have a significant impact on regional air quality, as well as on the effect of air pollutants on regional climate. An accurate representation of hemispheric transport in regional chemical transport models (CTMs) depends on the specification of the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). This study focuses on the methodology for evaluating LBCs of two moderately long-lived trace gases, carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), for the European model domain and over a 7-year period, 2006-2012. The method is based on combining the use of satellite observations at the lateral boundary with the use of both satellite and in situ ground observations within the model domain. The LBCs are generated by the global European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West (EMEP MSC-W) model; they are evaluated at the lateral boundaries by comparison with satellite observations of the Terra-MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) sensor (CO) and the Aura-OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) sensor (O3). The LBCs from the global model lie well within the satellite uncertainties for both CO and O3. The biases increase below 700 hPa for both species. However, the satellite retrievals below this height are strongly influenced by the a priori data; hence, they are less reliable than at, e.g. 500 hPa. CO is, on average, underestimated by the global model, while O3 tends to be overestimated during winter, and underestimated during summer. A regional CTM is run with (a) the validated monthly climatological LBCs from the global model; (b) dynamical LBCs from the global model; and (c) constant LBCs based on in situ ground observations near the domain boundary. The results are validated against independent satellite retrievals from the Aqua-AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) sensor at 500 hPa, and against in situ ground observations from the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) network. It is found that (i) the use of LBCs from the global model gives reliable in-domain results for O3 and CO at 500 hPa. Taking AIRS retrievals as a reference, the use of these LBCs substantially improves spatial pattern correlations in the free troposphere as compared to results obtained with fixed LBCs based on ground observations. Also, the magnitude of the bias is reduced by the new LBCs for both trace gases. This demonstrates that the validation methodology based on using satellite observations at the domain boundary is sufficiently robust in the free troposphere. (ii) The impact of the LBCs on ground concentrations is significant only at locations in close proximity to the domain boundary. As the satellite data near the ground mainly reflect the a priori estimate used in the retrieval procedure, they are of little use for evaluating the effect of LBCs on ground concentrations. Rather, the evaluation of ground-level concentrations needs to rely on in situ ground observations. (iii) The improvements of dynamic over climatological LBCs become most apparent when using accumulated ozone over threshold 40 ppb (AOT40) as a metric. Also, when focusing on ground observations taken near the inflow boundary of the model domain, one finds that the use of dynamical LBCs yields a more accurate representation of the seasonal variation, as well as of the variability of the trace gas concentrations on shorter timescales.

  3. A crowd watches practice sessions for the FIRST competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Visitors to Kennedy Space Center, team members and their families fill the stands during practice sessions of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 at the KSC Visitor Complex. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at KSC, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  4. The New Product Watch: Successes and Challenges of Crowdsourcing as a Method of Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Amy L; Biener, Lois

    2016-01-01

    New smokeless tobacco (eg, snus and dissolvable tobacco products) and nontobacco nicotine products (eg, e-cigarettes) have emerged in recent years amid widespread speculation about locations of test marketing, toxic constituents, and consumer targeting. The New Product Watch was a pilot online monitoring system aimed at filling these information gaps by using a form of crowdsourcing: recruiting volunteers to visit local retailers and report their findings. With very little funding, the New Product Watch gathered county-specific data on new product availability in 19 states as well as trend data on product marketing and demand, and completed 2 rounds of product purchases and subsequent toxic constituent analyses. Data were collected over a 2-year period, between 2009 and 2011. Despite the successes, we found that this small-scale, volunteer effort was not a sustainable method for ensuring continuous, systematic surveillance of new product availability, marketing, and toxicity. PMID:24335713

  5. The Association of TV Watching to Sleep Problems in a Church-going Population

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Salim; Lee, Jerry W.; Dehom, Salem; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli/inactivity may affect sleep. Sleep problems are associated with multiple health problems. We assessed TV habits in the Adventist Health Study-2 at baseline and sleep problems in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study 1–4 years later. After exclusions, 3,914 subjects split equally into TV watchers <2 hours/day or ≥2 hours/day. Watching TV ≥2 hours/day predicted problems falling asleep, middle of the night awakening and waking early with inability to sleep again in multiple logistic regression. Excess TV watching disturbed sleep induction and quality, though the relationship may be bidirectional. TV habits should be considered in individuals with sleep problems. PMID:25167068

  6. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M.; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Nemes, Bogdan; Mars Bitenc, Urša; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging. PMID:26694431

  7. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Nemes, Bogdan; Mars Bitenc, Urša; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-12-01

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging. PMID:26694431

  8. Choking under monitoring pressure: being watched by the experimenter reduces executive attention.

    PubMed

    Belletier, Clément; Davranche, Karen; Tellier, Idriss S; Dumas, Florence; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Performing more poorly given one's skill level ("choking") is likely in situations that offer an incentive if a certain outcome is achieved (outcome pressure) or when one is being watched by others-especially when one's performance is being evaluated (monitoring pressure). According to the choking literature, outcome pressure is associated with reduced executive control of attention, whereas monitoring pressure is associated with increased, yet counterproductive, attention to skill processes. Here, we show the first evidence that monitoring pressure-being watched by the experimenter-may lead individuals with higher working memory to choke on a classic measure of executive control-just the task effect thought to result from outcome pressure. Not only does this finding help refine our understanding of the processes underlying choking under monitoring pressure, but it also leads to a new look at classic audience effects, with an important implication for experimental psychology. PMID:25673216

  9. Adapting SugarWatch to Manage Metabolic Syndrome in a Partial Hospitalization Program: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Clute, Rose

    2015-01-01

    A successful worksite diabetes prevention program, SugarWatch,was adapted for a seriously mentally ill patient population in a partial hospitalization program in Hawai‘i. A feasibility study was implemented using an intervention with 3 components:SugarWatch curriculum, structured physical activity,and Create a Plate lunch. Twenty participants completed the three month intervention. Only systolic blood pressure showed statistically significant improvement. However, trends in improvement were also seen with diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Despite minimal improvement in physiological measures, the project changed practice in the setting to align with the 2004 American Diabetes Association and American Psychiatric Association Guidelines for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and better management of patients taking second generation antipsychotic medications. PMID:25821649

  10. Gear train behavior analyzer using laser beam scanning for watch movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Toshio; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Ohmuro, Makoto; Fujita, Hiroo

    The method and technology to analyze the train wheel behavior of a watch using a laser beam are described. Progress in automatic assembly of analog watch movement is considered. After assembling, however, the train wheel behavior is manually inspected, and automation is desired. A laser beam scanning method was developed to analyze wheel behavior. The system comprises a beam control unit in which an acoustic optical element is used, a signal processing unit, and a personal computer. In this system, the teeth of train wheels running at high speed and from the background of the teeth is continuously analyzed to permit time series understanding of the quantity and direction of wheel rotation. The dynamic train wheel behavior of the movement can be analyzed in detail. The configuration and measuring method are described in detail, and the result of the behavior analysis is touched upon.

  11. Data handling and analysis for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Phillips, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The overall corn blight watch experiment data flow is described and the organization of the LARS/Purdue data center is discussed. Data analysis techniques are discussed in general and the use of statistical multispectral pattern recognition methods for automatic computer analysis of aircraft scanner data is described. Some of the results obtained are discussed and the implications of the experiment on future data communication requirements for earth resource survey systems is discussed.

  12. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048

  13. Electrostatic micrometers: Recent developments and perspectives of uses in clock and watch making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornand, Etienne; Paratte, Lionel; Racine, Georges-Andre; Derooij, Nico

    The characteristics of construction and operation of electrostatic micromotors built by silicon surface micromachining are summarized. Two particular realizations, the comb and the wobble micromotors, are presented. Their torques are larger than those of other silicon micromotors. Their characteristics are compared with the one's of a watch motor (Lavet motor). The investigation shows that questions on their lifetime, on their mechanical outputs, and on their closures remain to be solved.

  14. Validity of the Smarthealth Watch to Measure Heart Rate during Rest and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. Matthew; Gorelick, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the Smarthealth watch (Salutron, Inc., Fremont, California, USA), a heart rate monitor that includes a wristwatch without an accompanying chest strap. Twenty-five individuals participated in 3-min periods of standing, 2.0 mph walking, 3.5 mph walking, 4.5 mph jogging, and 6.0 mph running.…

  15. Eye Movements While Watching Narrative Film: A Dissociation of Eye Movements and Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hutson, John; Smith, Tim; Magliano, Joseph; Heidebrecht, Grace; Hinkel, Thomas; Tang, Jia Li; Loschky, Lester

    2015-01-01

    During reading there is a strong relationship between eye-movements and comprehension, but does this extend to the ubiquitous activity of watching movies? In four experiments we tested two competing hypotheses: H1) Mental Model: viewers' narrative comprehension guides their visual attention, versus H2) Tyranny of Film: Attentional synchrony across viewers washes out comprehension-based differences in attention. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating comprehension through the presence/absence of context while participants watched a clip from "Touch of Evil" (Welles, 1958): the Context condition saw a bomb put in a car to begin the clip, which the No-context condition did not see. We measured comprehension by having participants predict what would happen next after watching the clip. Experiment 1 established a strong comprehension difference; only the Context condition predicted the car exploding. Experiment 2, which added eyetracking, replicated the comprehension difference, but found no differences in eye movements in either attentional synchrony or looking at the car. Experiments 3 and 4 altered the perceived protagonist of the clip by what was shown first: the Context condition still saw the bomb and car first (i.e., car passengers = protagonists), but the No-context began watching later, first seeing a couple walking (i.e., couple = protagonists) and the car temporarily off-screen. Experiment 3 again showed the comprehension difference and overall eye movement similarity; however, when the No-context condition later first saw the car, they looked at it less than the Context condition. Experiment 4 measured on-line comprehension by having participants press a button whenever they perceived a new event. Results showed large differences in comprehension-the No-context condition perceived more events-thus demonstrating substantial differences in comprehension using two qualitatively different measures. However, these comprehension differences minimally affected eye-movements, with one small difference when the protagonist was manipulated, thus generally supporting the Tyranny of Film hypothesis. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325804

  16. [Watching, listening and sharing: field work for psychosocial autopsies].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Grubits, Sonia; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    The article describes the research realization phases of field work in ten municipalities in five regions entitled "Is it possible to prevent the anticipation of the end? Suicide among the elderly in Brazil and the possibilities for action by the Health Sector." The sample comprises 51 psychosocial autopsies of 5 elderly people who committed suicide in 9 locations and 6 in another. 84 family members were interviewed. Semi-structured psychosocial autopsies and contextual observations were used. Each interview lasted 60 minutes on average and in the majority of the cases there was more than one encounter with family members. The study consisted of a collective process that involved bibliographic review, discussion of the samples, approach strategies, field results and empirical analysis. This article highlights the theoretical, conceptual and practical preparation of researchers and production and standardization of instruments; information about existing data sources and those that are actually used; introduction of institutional credentials; assessment of the family context, difficulties and strategies for empirical study; entrance to and exit from the field; and the impact of the research on the investigators. PMID:22899144

  17. Wireless glucose monitoring watch enabled by an implantable self-sustaining glucose sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    Implantable glucose sensors can measure real time blood glucose as compared to conventional techniques involving drawing blood samples and in-vitro processing. An implantable sensor requires energy source for operation with wire inout provision for power and sending signals. Implants capable of generation-transmission of sensory signals, with minimal or no power requirement, can solve this problem. An implantable nanosensor design has been presented here, which can passively detect glucose concentration in blood stream and transmit data to a wearable receiver-recorder system or a watch. The glucose sensitive component is a redox pair of electrodes that generates voltage proportional to glucose concentration. The bio-electrode, made of carbon nanotubes-enzyme nanocluster, has been investigated because of the large surface area for taping electrical signals. This glucose sensor can charge a capacitor, which can be a part of a LCR resonance/inductive coupling based radio frequency (RF) sensor telemetry. Such a system can measure change in glucose concentration by the induced frequency shift in the LCR circuit. A simultaneous power transmission and signal transmission can be achieved by employing two separate LCR oscillating loops, one for each operation. The corresponding coupling LCR circuits can be housed in the wearable receiving watch unit. The data logged in this glucose monitoring watch can be instrumental in managing blood glucose as trigger for an insulin dispensing payload worn on person or implanted.

  18. Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Ijzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A M; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem. PMID:22529940

  19. Viewers vs. doers. The relationship between watching food television and BMI.

    PubMed

    Pope, Lizzy; Latimer, Lara; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine where nutritional gatekeepers obtain information about new foods, and whether information source is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as whether any association varied according to how often the participant cooked from scratch. A national panel survey of 501 females aged 20-35 assessed how participants obtained information on new recipes, and asked a series of questions about their cooking habits, their weight and height. Linear regressions were run to determine associations between information source, cooking from scratch, and BMI. Obtaining information from cooking shows was positively correlated with BMI (p <0.05), as was obtaining information from social media (p <0.05), whereas obtaining information from other print, online, or in-person sources was not significantly associated with BMI. A significant interaction between watching cooking shows and cooking from scratch indicated that cooking from scratch, as well as watching cooking shows was associated with higher BMI (p <0.05). Obtaining information about new foods from television cooking shows or social media - versus other sources - appears to have a unique relationship with BMI. Furthermore, watching cooking shows may have a differential effect on BMI for those who are merely TV "viewers," versus those who are "doers." Promoting healthy foods on cooking shows may be one way to positively influence the weight status of "doers" as well as "viewers." PMID:25747286

  20. Testosterone and Cortisol Release among Spanish Soccer Fans Watching the 2010 World Cup Final

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; IJzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A. M.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem. PMID:22529940

  1. Star Watch: The Amateur Astronomer's Guide to Finding, Observing, and Learning about Over 125 Celestial Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Philip S.

    2003-07-01

    Your Passport to the Universe The night sky is alive with many wonders--distant planets, vast star clusters, glowing nebulae, and expansive galaxies, all waiting to be explored. Let respected astronomy writer Philip Harrington introduce you to the universe in Star Watch, a complete beginner's guide to locating, observing, and understanding these celestial objects. You'll start by identifying the surface features of the Moon, the banded cloud tops of Jupiter, the stunning rings of Saturn, and other members of our solar system. Then you'll venture out beyond our solar system, where you'll learn tips and tricks for finding outstanding deep-sky objects from stars to galaxies, including the entire Messier catalog--a primary goal of every serious beginner. Star Watch features a detailed physical description of each target, including size, distance, and structure, as well as concise directions for locating the objects, handy finder charts, hints on the best times to view each object, and descriptions of what you'll really see through a small telescope or binoculars and with the naked eye. Star Watch will transport you to the farthest depths of space--and return you as a well-traveled, experienced stargazer.

  2. The effects of being watched on resource acquisition in chimpanzees and human children.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals react in many different ways to being watched by others. In the context of cooperation, many theories emphasize reputational effects: Individuals should cooperate more if other potential cooperators are watching. In the context of competition, individuals might want to show off their strength and prowess if other potential competitors are watching. In the current study, we observed chimpanzees and human children in three experimental conditions involving resource acquisition: Participants were either in the presence of a passive observer (observed condition), an active observer who engaged in the same task as the participant (competition condition), or in the presence of but not directly observed by a conspecific (mere presence condition). While both species worked to acquire more resources in the competition condition, children but not chimpanzees also worked to acquire more resources in the observer condition (compared to the mere presence condition). These results suggest evolutionary continuity with regard to competition-based observer effects, but an additional observer effect in young children, potentially arising from an evolutionary-based concern for cooperative reputation. PMID:26376987

  3. Audience influence on EGM gambling: the protective effects of having others watch you play.

    PubMed

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Greer, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    One component of social facilitation on gambling is the potential for an audience of people to observe the play of Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) gamblers and influence their behaviour without participating directly in gambling themselves. An experiment was conducted with an audience of onlookers, purported to be students of research methods, taking notes while watching the participants play an EGM. Forty-three male and 82 female participants (N = 125), aged 18-79 (M = 49.2, SD = 15.6), played a laptop simulated 3-reel EGM using a $20 stake in three conditions: (1) alone, (2) watched by a simulated audience of six persons, or (3) watched by an audience of 26. Outcomes on the poker machine were rigged with a fixed sequence of five wins in the first 20 spins and indefinite losses thereafter. The results found smaller bet-sizes associated with larger audiences of onlookers, and this outcome is consistent with a hypothesized motivation to display more wins to the audience. Moreover, final payouts were greater in the audience conditions compared to the control, further suggesting that an audience may be a protective factor limiting player losses. PMID:20714792

  4. Treatment of indolent lymphomas: watchful waiting v aggressive combined modality treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.C.; Longo, D.L.; Glatstein, E.; Ihde, D.C.; Jaffe, E.S.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Patients with advanced indolent lymphoma often have long survival (median, 4 to 8 years) in spite of frequent relapses. The inability of combination chemotherapy or radiation therapy (RT) to render patients disease free has led to radically divergent treatment approaches. Initial treatment may vary from aggressive combined modality therapy to no initial treatment. We sought to evaluate these two divergent approaches in a randomized trial of advanced indolent lymphomas (nodular, poorly differentiated lymphocytic; nodular mixed; diffuse, well-differentiated lymphocytic; diffuse, intermediately differentiated lymphocytic; and diffuse, poorly differentiated lymphocytic). A total of 104 patients were entered: 44 were randomly assigned to watch and wait in which only carefully defined, limited RT was administered if necessary; 45 were randomly assigned to aggressive combined modality treatment with prednisone, methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, plus etoposide plus mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone (ProMACE-MOPP), followed by total nodal irradiation (TNI); and 15, with symptoms requiring initial therapy, received the identical combined treatment but were not randomly assigned. Of 41 evaluable patients on watch and wait, 23 (56%) have still not required systemic therapy, although 16 (39%) have received limited RT. Median time to crossover was 34 months. Of 18 patients crossed over, seven of the 16 who completed therapy (43%) achieved CR; two (11%) have relapsed. Histologic progression was seen in six (15%) of 41 patients on watch and wait without intervening chemotherapy. Of 45 patients randomly assigned to chemotherapy, 37 (82%) have completed induction therapy, and 29 of the 37 (78%) achieved CR.

  5. The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 2; Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Halley's Comet (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft, subsequently renamed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini- Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

  6. Television watching, diet quality, and physical activity and diabetes among three ethnicities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

  7. Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young Seok; Chang, Won-du; Park, Jinsick; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects’ visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie. PMID:26529091

  8. The Watcher and the Watched: Social Judgments about Privacy in a Public Place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Batya; Kahn, Peter H.; Hagman, Jennifer; Severson, Rachel L.; Gill, Brian

    Digitally capturing and displaying real-time images of people in public places raises concerns for individual privacy. Applying the principles of Value Sensitive Design, we conducted two studies of people's social judgments about this topic. In Study I, 750 people were surveyed as they walked through a public plaza that was being captured by a HDTV camera and displayed in real-time in the office of a building overlooking the plaza. In Study II, 120 individuals were interviewed about the same topic. Moreover, Study II controlled for whether the participant was a direct stakeholder of the technology (inside the office watching people on the HDTV large-plasma display window) or an indirect stakeholder (being watched in the public venue). Taking both studies together, results (showed the following): (a) the majority of participants upheld some modicum of privacy in public; (b) people's privacy judgments were not a one-dimensional construct, but often involved considerations based on physical harm, psychological well-being, and informed consent; and (c) more women than men expressed concerns about the installation, and, unlike the men, equally brought forward their concerns, whether they were The Watcher or The Watched.

  9. Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F(2,102)=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f(2)=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television. PMID:23274126

  10. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - March thru June, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These four views of the Pacific Ocean were produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The images show sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions from March 1997 through June 1997. This evolutionary view is providing oceanographers with more convincing information that the weather-disrupting phenomenon known as El Nino is back and getting stronger. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it s about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21-30 degrees Celsius (70-85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of the early indications of El Nino conditions.

  11. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - June 25, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on June 25, 1997 and provides more convincing information that the weather-disrupting phenomenon known as El Nino is back and getting stronger. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it s about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21-30 degrees Celsius (70-85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of the early indications of El Nino conditions.

  12. Watching PrePNe Evolve: 15 Years of HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, B.; Gomez, T.; Frank, A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Alcolea, J.; Vinkovich, D.

    Multi-epoch HST images have been obtained for the pre planetary nebulae CRL618, CRL2688, and Hen3-1475. Each object shows clear and idiosyncratic expansion patterns. CRL618 consists of several well defined fingers with sharp tips. The lengths of the tips have increased by identical factors, ˜7%, over the course of seven years, suggesting a common expansion age of 100 years. The corresponding proper motions range up to ˜400 km s^{-1} assuming a distance of 900 pc. Trailing filaments of starlight-scattering dust expand at a far lower rate, ˜1-2%, in the same time. The bright lobes of CRL2688 expand uniformly at a rate of 2.6% in seven years, suggesting a brief ejection 250 y ago. Surprisingly, the set of concentric and nearly circular arcs that surround the lobes also expand uniformly, but at a third of the rate of the lobes. Thus it appears that the arcs were all formed in a brief event 750 years ago rather than episodically over several hundred years as is commonly believed. Finally, Hen3-1475 shows two expanding components. The first consists of a symmetric pair of two large arcs of dust extending over 5000 AU on opposite sides of the nucleus that expand radially and uniformly at 2% per decade (assuming a distance of 5 kpc). This implies speeds at the leading edge of the arcs as high as 1000 km s^{-1}. The second component is pairs of bright knots seen best in emission-line images. These move along and through the dust arcs at even higher proper motions leaving no disturbances in their wakes. The innermost pair of knots is being launched from the tips of a pair of narrow emission-line cones that straddle the nuclear region and whose base seems anchored to the nucleus.

  13. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - October 3, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Oct. 3, 1997 as the warm water associated with El Nino (in white) spreads northward along the entire coast of North America from the equator all the way to Alaska. The warm water pool in tropical Pacific resulting from El Nino seems to have stabilized. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21 and 30 C (70 to 85 F), carries the amount of heat equal to 100 times the amount of fossil fuel energy consumed by the entire U.S. population during one year. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has issued an advisory indicating the presence of a strong El Nino condition throughout the coming winter.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  14. TOPEX/El Nino Watch- September 20, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on September 20, 1997 and provides more convincing information that the weather-disrupting phenomenon known as El Nino is back and getting stronger. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters ( 6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21-30 degrees Celsius (70-85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of the early indications of El Nino conditions.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  15. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - October 23, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Oct. 23, 1997 as the warm water associated with El Nino (in white) spreads northward along the entire coast of North America from the equator all the way to Alaska. The warm water pool associated with the El Nino has returned to the volume it was in mid-September after dropping to a temporary low at the beginning of October. The sea surface elevation just north of the El Nino warm pool continues to drop (purple area), enhancing the eastward flowing North Equatorial Counter Current. The intensification of this current is another tell-tale sign of the El Nino phenomenon. This flow contributes to the rise in sea level along the western coasts of the Americas that will progress towards both the north and south poles over the next several months. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21-30 degrees Celsius (70- 85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of a strong El Nino condition throughout the winter.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  16. Drug watch.

    PubMed

    Whitson, S

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments on new anti-HIV agents and drugs for opportunistic infections are highlighted. Information is provided on the infusion inhibitor T-20; DuPont's second generation non-nukes, DPC 961 and DPC 963; Papirine (PEN203) for the human papilloma virus; Sporanox for treating fungal infections; and the antiretroviral protein, lysozyme. In addition, information is given on a plant found in the Bolivian rainforest that may contain compounds to prevent HIV infection by blocking the enzyme, integrase. Other promising new drugs addressed at the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections are listed in a table. Contact information for US clinical trials is provided. PMID:11366758

  17. Neighborhood Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsen, Jan

    1989-01-01

    A university's commitment to community service is vital to establishing productive working relationships with important community offices and committees. Several public relations officers were asked to describe the different ways they cultivate understanding. Experiences of Syracuse University and the University of Scranton are described. (MLW)

  18. Suicide Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Researchers say the best way to prevent suicide is to find and treat kids with depression and substance-abuse problems. Schools should also develop a suicide-prevention policy, make curriculum decisions wisely, train staff as detectives, notify parents, make sure affected children get help, and attend to survivors. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  19. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The…

  20. Standing Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    Russlynn Ali, Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights at the Department of Education, is charged with enforcing a wide range of education equity laws. Ali was a passionate activist in California helping champion educational equity for minorities. Today, as Ali approaches her third year working as assistant secretary for civil rights, she says she has…

  1. Trial Watch:

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Cremer, Isabelle; Erbs, Philippe; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Preville, Xavier; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are natural or genetically modified viral species that selectively infect and kill neoplastic cells. Such an innate or exogenously conferred specificity has generated considerable interest around the possibility to employ oncolytic viruses as highly targeted agents that would mediate cancer cell-autonomous anticancer effects. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy is not a simple consequence of the cytopathic effect, but strongly relies on the induction of an endogenous immune response against transformed cells. In line with this notion, superior anticancer effects are being observed when oncolytic viruses are engineered to express (or co-administered with) immunostimulatory molecules. Although multiple studies have shown that oncolytic viruses are well tolerated by cancer patients, the full-blown therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy, especially when implemented in the absence of immunostimulatory interventions, remains unclear. Here, we cover the latest advances in this active area of translational investigation, summarizing high-impact studies that have been published during the last 12 months and discussing clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy in oncological indications. PMID:25097804

  2. Night watch.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kathy

    2005-12-01

    In many hospitals, the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) functions 24 hours per day. Nurses "on-call" often cover nights, weekends, and holidays. It has been a struggle for some facilities to meet the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN) standard of care that recommends 2 nurses be present whenever an anesthetized patient recovers in Phase I PACU. Recent practice issues of "holding" patients for inpatient beds, not transferring ICU patients, and admission of patients from the ER to the PACU has complicated staff coverage for the overnight hours in PACU. ASPAN has crafted position statements in response to these issues to guide nurses. This author chronicles one hospital's use of a night nurse to provide staffing stability and care for PACU patients after hours. PMID:16387271

  3. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting immune responses provide a significant contribution to (when they do not entirely account for) the clinical activity of diverse antineoplastic regimens, encompassing not only a large panel of immunotherapeutic strategies but also conventional cytotoxic molecules, targeted anticancer agents and irradiation. In line with this notion, several approaches have been devised to elicit novel or boost existing anticancer immune responses, including the administration of immunomodulatory cytokines. Such a relatively unspecific intervention suffices to mediate clinical effects in (at least a subset of) patients bearing particularly immunogenic tumors, like melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. More often, however, immunostimulatory cytokines are administered to boost the immunogenic potential of other agents, including (but not limited to) immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies, anticancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses and immunogenic chemotherapeutics. Here, we summarize the latest advances in the clinical development of recombinant cytokines as an immunomodulatory intervention for cancer therapy. PMID:25083328

  4. Television watching

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saunders; 2011:chap 36. Committee on Public Education. Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics . 2001;107:423-6. PMID: 11158483 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11158483 . Feigelman S. Language, cognition, and play. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  5. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, Michaela; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lenalidomide is a synthetic derivative of thalidomide currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients affected by multiple myeloma (in combination with dexamethasone) and low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndromes that harbor 5q cytogenetic abnormalities. For illustrative purposes, the mechanism of action of lenalidomide can be subdivided into a cancer cell-intrinsic, a stromal, and an immunological component. Indeed, lenalidomide not only exerts direct cell cycle-arresting and pro-apoptotic effects on malignant cells, but also interferes with their physical and functional interaction with the tumor microenvironment and mediates a robust, pleiotropic immunostimulatory activity. In particular, lenalidomide has been shown to stimulate the cytotoxic functions of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, to limit the immunosuppressive impact of regulatory T cells, and to modulate the secretion of a wide range of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-12. Throughout the last decade, the antineoplastic and immunostimulatory potential of lenalidomide has been investigated in patients affected by a wide variety of hematological and solid malignancies. Here, we discuss the results of these studies and review the status of clinical trials currently assessing the safety and efficacy of this potent immunomodulatory drug in oncological indications. PMID:24482747

  6. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Bloy, Norma; Pol, Jonathan; Manic, Gwenola; Vitale, Ilio; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, it has become increasingly clear that the antineoplastic effects of radiation therapy do not simply reflect the ability of X-, β- and γ-rays to damage transformed cells and directly cause their permanent proliferative arrest or demise, but also involve cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms. Indeed, among other activities, radiotherapy has been shown to favor the establishment of tumor-specific immune responses that operate systemically, underpinning the so-called ‘out-of-field’ or ‘abscopal’ effect. Thus, ionizing rays appear to elicit immunogenic cell death, a functionally peculiar variant of apoptosis associated with the emission of a particularly immunostimulatory combination of damage-associated molecular patterns. In line with this notion, radiation therapy fosters, and thus exacerbates, the antineoplastic effects of various treatment modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy and various immunotherapeutic agents. Here, we summarize recent advances in the use of ionizing rays as a means to induce or potentiate therapeutically relevant anticancer immune responses. In addition, we present clinical trials initiated during the past 12 months to test the actual benefit of radioimmunotherapy in cancer patients. PMID:25941606

  7. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have long been known for their ability to initiate innate immune responses upon exposure to conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA. More recently, this family of pattern recognition receptors has been attributed a critical role in the elicitation of anticancer immune responses, raising interest in the development of immunochemotherapeutic regimens based on natural or synthetic TLR agonists. In spite of such an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation, only three TLR agonists are currently licensed by FDA for use in cancer patients: bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that operates as a mixed TLR2/TLR4 agonist; monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a derivative of Salmonella minnesota that functions as a potent agonist of TLR4; and imiquimod, a synthetic imidazoquinoline that activates TLR7. One year ago, in the August and September issues of OncoImmunology, we described the main biological features of TLRs and discussed the progress of clinical studies evaluating the safety and therapeutic potential of TLR agonists in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on preclinical studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the antineoplastic activity of TLR agonists. PMID:24083080

  8. Nature Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

  9. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  10. Nature Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing

  11. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Vitale, Ilio; Tartour, Eric; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has extensively been employed as a curative or palliative intervention against cancer throughout the last century, with a varying degree of success. For a long time, the antineoplastic activity of X- and γ-rays was entirely ascribed to their capacity of damaging macromolecules, in particular DNA, and hence triggering the (apoptotic) demise of malignant cells. However, accumulating evidence indicates that (at least part of) the clinical potential of radiotherapy stems from cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms, including the normalization of tumor vasculature as well as short- and long-range bystander effects. Local bystander effects involve either the direct transmission of lethal signals between cells connected by gap junctions or the production of diffusible cytotoxic mediators, including reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and cytokines. Conversely, long-range bystander effects, also known as out-of-field or abscopal effects, presumably reflect the elicitation of tumor-specific adaptive immune responses. Ionizing rays have indeed been shown to promote the immunogenic demise of malignant cells, a process that relies on the spatiotemporally defined emanation of specific damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Thus, irradiation reportedly improves the clinical efficacy of other treatment modalities such as surgery (both in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant settings) or chemotherapy. Moreover, at least under some circumstances, radiotherapy may potentiate anticancer immune responses as elicited by various immunotherapeutic agents, including (but presumably not limited to) immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies, cancer-specific vaccines, dendritic cell-based interventions and Toll-like receptor agonists. Here, we review the rationale of using radiotherapy, alone or combined with immunomodulatory agents, as a means to elicit or boost anticancer immune responses, and present recent clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of this approach in cancer patients. PMID:24319634

  12. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the past 3 decades, along with the recognition that the immune system not only influences oncogenesis and tumor progression, but also determines how established neoplastic lesions respond therapy, renovated enthusiasm has gathered around the possibility of using vaccines as anticancer agents. Such an enthusiasm quickly tempered when it became clear that anticancer vaccines would have to be devised as therapeutic, rather than prophylactic, measures, and that malignant cells often fail to elicit (or actively suppress) innate and adaptive immune responses. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence indicates that a variety of anticancer vaccines, including cell-based, DNA-based, and purified component-based preparations, are capable of circumventing the poorly immunogenic and highly immunosuppressive nature of most tumors and elicit (at least under some circumstances) therapeutically relevant immune responses. Great efforts are currently being devoted to the identification of strategies that may provide anticancer vaccines with the capacity of breaking immunological tolerance and eliciting tumor-associated antigen-specific immunity in a majority of patients. In this sense, promising results have been obtained by combining anticancer vaccines with a relatively varied panels of adjuvants, including multiple immunostimulatory cytokines, Toll-like receptor agonists as well as inhibitors of immune checkpoints. One year ago, in the December issue of OncoImmunology, we discussed the biological mechanisms that underlie the antineoplastic effects of peptide-based vaccines and presented an abundant literature demonstrating the prominent clinical potential of such an approach. Here, we review the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on high-profile studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to evaluate purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic anticancer agents. PMID:24498550

  13. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, for the first time in history, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), i.e., the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of mAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has not stopped to expand, nowadays encompassing a stunning amount of 15 distinct molecules. This therapeutic armamentarium includes mAbs that target tumor-associated antigens, as well as molecules that interfere with tumor-stroma interactions or exert direct immunostimulatory effects. These three classes of mAbs exert antineoplastic activity via distinct mechanisms, which may or may not involve immune effectors other than the mAbs themselves. In previous issues of OncoImmunology, we provided a brief scientific background to the use of mAbs, all types confounded, in cancer therapy, and discussed the results of recent clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach. Here, we focus on mAbs that primarily target malignant cells or their interactions with stromal components, as opposed to mAbs that mediate antineoplastic effects by activating the immune system. In particular, we discuss relevant clinical findings that have been published during the last 13 months as well as clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of hitherto investigational tumor-targeting mAbs. PMID:24605265

  14. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, dozens—if not hundreds—of monoclonal antibodies have been developed and characterized for their capacity to mediate antineoplastic effects, either as they activate/enhance tumor-specific immune responses, either as they interrupt cancer cell-intrinsic signal transduction cascades, either as they specifically delivery toxins to malignant cells or as they block the tumor-stroma interaction. Such an intense research effort has lead to the approval by FDA of no less than 14 distinct molecules for use in humans affected by hematological or solid malignancies. In the inaugural issue of OncoImmunology, we briefly described the scientific rationale behind the use of monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy and discussed recent, ongoing clinical studies investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach in patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of clinical research, focusing on high impact studies that have been published during the last 15 months and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of promising, yet hitherto investigational, monoclonal antibodies. PMID:23482847

  15. Earthquake watch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.

    1976-01-01

     When the time comes that earthquakes can be predicted accurately, what shall we do with the knowledge? This was the theme of a November 1975 conference on earthquake warning and response held in San Francisco called by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Jack W. Carlson. Invited were officials of State and local governments from Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, utah, Washington, and Wyoming and representatives of the news media. 

  16. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The

  17. How older people watch television. Telemetric data on the TV use in Germany in 1996.

    PubMed

    Grajczyk, A; Zöllner, O

    1998-01-01

    This study has been prompted by the relatively small body of knowledge on the media use of the elderly. The aim of this study was to show how people 50 years and older use the medium television in Germany. Therefore, the 1996 television usership data collected in a representative 'peoplemeter' panel of about 4,800 German television households have been surveyed, processed and analyzed using standard audience research software. In 1996, Germans 50 years and above watched on average 233 min television per day. The older a person, the longer he or she watches television. Individuals 65 years and older watch television for 253 min per day. This subgroup appears to comprise the most intensive users of the medium. Men 65 years and above may be depicted as the heaviest weekend TV watchers, older women as the medium's closest followers from Monday to Friday. Television program broadcast late in the afternoon and early in the evening have by far the best chances to be chosen by seniors. The affinity of the elderly for the medium can be explained by its potential for offering entertainment, information, and companionship, being a substitute for primary interpersonal communication, a tool for structuring time patterns and keeping up the rhythms of long-established everyday rituals. On the one hand, television can be a 'lifeline' and a 'window to the outside world' for people with little opportunity for direct, unmediated social contact, thus possibly raising their satisfaction of life. On the other hand, prolonged TV use may be seen as an indicator for the degree of loneliness and neglect of the elderly. PMID:9592692

  18. Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.

    PubMed

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-03-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥ 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

  19. This (Sandpiper like) bird, as well as many other species keep watch over Moffett Field wetlands.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This (Sandpiper like) bird, as well as many other species keep watch over Moffett Field wetlands. The shorebird in this picture is a greater yellowlegs (Tinga melanoleuca) which is a common bird found in our coastal salt marsh and tidal zones in winter months. Generally, they summer/breed up north in Canada and Alaska and then migrate in the fall to winter along the west coast of the U.S. and Mexico. Known for their loud call of a slightly descending series of three or more tew notes. Diet consists of small fish, insects, snails, worms, and tadpoles. used in Ames 60 yr. History NASA SP-2000-4314

  20. STS-39 Commander Coats on OV-103's flight deck watches SPAS-II/IBSS deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Commander Michael L. Coats smiles as he watches the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS-II) / Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spacecraft deployment through the aft flight deck windows while aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The SPAS-II/IBSS spacecraft is visible through the overhead window W7 after its release from the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector. The crewman optical alignment sight (COAS) is fastened to the sill of window W7. SPAS-II is a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO).