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Sample records for watch gaw regional

  1. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  2. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-07-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC), on a statistical approach (REBS), on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX) and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2013.

  3. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  4. [In situ measurement of atmospheric HCFC-22 at the Shangdianzi GAW regional station].

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Zhou, Ling-xi; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-chun; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-ling; Zhou, Huai-gang; Dong, Fan; Zhou, Li-yan

    2010-08-01

    An in situ GC-ECD monitoring system was established at the Shangdianzi GAW Regional station from April 2007 to March 2008, and the mixing ratio of atmospheric HCFC-22 was (278.1 +/- 113.6) x 10(-12) (mol/mol). A "R" statistical software was applied to the HCFC-22 time series to separate background and pollution data. The background HCFC-22 mixing ratio was (199.5 +/- 5.1) x 10(-12), close to northern hemisphere background level observed at Mace Head and Trinidad Head stations. The pollution HCFC-22 mixing ratio was (312.1 +/- 121.0) x 10(-12) due to anthropogenic emission from various regions and air mass transport. There was no significant seasonal variability of background data. However, pollution data was much higher in summer than that in winter, and elevated up to 100.9 x 10(-12) in July than in January attribute to seasonal emission characteristics. The mean HCFC-22 mixing ratio from southwest wind sector (327.3 x 10(-12)) was much higher than that of northeast sector (236.2 x 10(-12)). The W-WSW-SW wind sector has a positive contribution to the HCFC-22 level, while NNE-N-NE has a large negative contribution. PMID:21090288

  5. Long-term observations of tropospheric ozone: GAW Measurement Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Galbally, Ian E.; Schultz, Martin G.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) coordinates long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere which are relevant for understanding of atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Atmospheric observations of reactive gases (tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides) coordinated by the GAW Programme complement local and regional scale air quality monitoring efforts. As part of the GAW quality assurance (QA) system detailed measurement guidelines for atmospheric trace species are developed by international expert teams at irregular intervals. The most recent report focuses on continuous in-situ measurements of ozone in the troposphere, performed in particular at continental or island sites with altitudes ranging from sea level to mountain tops. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are defined for different applications of the data (e.g. trend analysis and verification of global model forecasts). These DQOs include a thorough discussion of the tolerable level of measurement uncertainty and data completeness. The guidelines present the best practices and practical arrangements adopted by the GAW Programme in order to enable the GAW station network to approach or achieve the defined tropospheric ozone DQOs. The document includes information on the selection of station and measurement locations, required skills and training of staff, recommendations on the measurement technique and the necessary equipment to perform highest quality measurements, rules for conducting the measurements, preparing the data and archiving them, and more. Much emphasis is given to discussions about how to ensure the quality of the data through tracing calibrations back to primary standards, proper calibration and data analysis, etc. In the GAW Programme the QA system is implemented through Central Facilities (Central Calibration Laboratories, World and Regional

  6. The Wmo Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: Global Framework for Atmospheric Composition Observations and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Jalkanen, L.

    2010-12-01

    The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme is the only existing long-term international global programme providing an international coordinated framework for observations and analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. GAW is a partnership involving contributors from about 80 countries. It includes a coordinated global network of observing stations along with supporting facilities (Central Facilities) and expert groups (Scientific Advisory Groups, SAGs and Expert Teams, ETs). Currently GAW coordinates activities and data from 27 Global Stations and a substantial number of Regional and Contributing Stations. Station information is available through the GAW Station Information System GAWSIS (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/). There are six key groups of variables which are addressed by the GAW Programme, namely: ozone, reactive gases, greenhouse gases, aerosols, UV radiation and precipitation chemistry. GAW works to implement integrated observations unifying measurements from different platforms (ground based in situ and remote, balloons, aircraft and satellite) supported by modeling activities. GAW provides data for ozone assessments, Greenhouse Gas Bulletins, Ozone Bulletins and precipitation chemistry assessments published on a regular basis and for early warnings of changes in the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere. To ensure that observations can be used for global assessments, the GAW Programme has developed a Quality Assurance system. Five types of Central Facilities dedicated to the six groups of measurement variables are operated by WMO Members and form the basis of quality assurance and data archiving for the GAW global monitoring network. They include Central Calibration Laboratories (CCLs) that host primary standards (PS), Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centres (QA/SACs), World Calibration Centers (WCCs), Regional Calibration Centers (RCCs), and World Data Centers (WDCs) with responsibility for

  7. The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: New Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, D. E.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme, one of the tree research Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GAW) is the only existing long-term international global programme that coordinates observations and analysis of atmospheric composition changes. The GAW Programme builds on a partnership of more than 100 countries. Within its 25 years of existence WMO/GAW has matured to the system that provides reliable long-term high quality observations in support of international policy making. WMO/GAW includes globally coordinated observational network, complemented by a comprehensive quality assurance system and capacity development. In spite of the fact that GAW has embraced the IGACO strategy (Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations), the programme in its current form still has a strong observational bias. Future development of WMO/GAW requires the further evolution of the programme concept toward "science for services". New challenges call for the changes in the GAW station requirements and data managements, for new approaches to collaboration with the contributing networks and better involvement of the modelling community. The programme structure is evolving to streamline better to user requirements with the move from precipitation chemistry to total deposition and from near-real-time data delivery to applications (modeling) requiring such data delivery. The updated concept of GAW will include more cross-cutting applications. A new category of local station is introduced to help with the verification of some applications including those related to urban areas and the impacts of urban complexes regionally and globally. The evolution of the GAW Programme towards user driven cross-cutting applications provides a new opportunity to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in partnership with other science - based institutions to increase their relevance to society.

  8. Characteristics of aerosols and mass closure study at two WMO GAW regional background stations in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Zhang, Renjian; Huan, Ning; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Yangmei; Zhou, Huaigang; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-12-01

    In the summer and winter of 2004 and 2005, size-segregated atmospheric aerosols were sampled with modified Andersen KA200 Multi-stage impactor at two regional background stations in the eastern China, the Shangdianzi station (SDZ) in the suburb of Beijing and the Lin'An station (LA) in the Yangtze river delta region, both are WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station, which represent the regional background of air pollutions of the two rapid developing economical zone of China, the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin region. The aerosol mass size distributions, ionic compositions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and elemental components were analyzed. The mass concentrations for TSP (total suspend particle), PM11 (aerodynamic diameter less than 11 μm), and PM2.1 (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.1 μm) at both sites showed obviously different between the winter and summer, with higher mass concentrations measured in the winter time. All seasonal mean mass concentrations of PM2.1 accounted for over 50% of PM11 at both sites. The aerosol mass closure study indicated that the total mass concentration reconstructed from the aerosol chemical composition agreed well with the measured gravimetric mass at the two stations. The fine aerosol particles at the two stations were composed mainly of sulfate and organic matter. In the summer, more than half of the PM2.1 mass was sulfate, suggesting a dominant contribution of secondary aerosol to the fine particles in these two regions. In the winter, the contribution of nitrate to the fine particles increased significantly due to the lower volatile losses under the cold weather. The proportions of soil type components in the PM2.1 showed similar magnitude in the winter and summer at Lin'An station but significant seasonal differences with higher fractions in the winter at Shangdianzi station. On average EC accounted for about 2%-6% of the fine particle mass (PM2.1) at both sites with proportionally lower EC

  9. The global atmosphere watch of the WMO

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Many urgent global environmental problems confronting society, such as climate change, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and acid rain, are connected with the man-made changes in the state and composition of the atmosphere and its interactions with other environmental media. Within the United Nations system the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has a continuing responsibility to coordinate global activities related to the state and behavior of the earth`s atmosphere and climate using a number of its operational observation networks, one of which is the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The data collected at the GAW monitoring stations are particularly essential in two ways: (1) To understand the relationship between changing atmospheric composition and changes of global and regional climate (2) To describe the regional and long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of potentially harmful substances. The purpose of this presentation is two-fold. One is to give a description of overall programme of the GAW system and to show the different aspects of the global monitoring which is coordinated through the WMO. The second is to describe the activities of the GAW Regional network and air quality measurements.

  10. [Atmospheric CO2 data filtering method and characteristics of the molar fractions at the Longfengshan WMO/GAW regional station in China].

    PubMed

    Luan, Tian; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Fang, Shuang-Xi; Yao, Bo; Wang, Hong-Yang; Liu, Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Based on the in-situ observation results of atmospheric CO2 molar fractions at two levels (10 m and 80 m above the ground) at Longfengshan (LFS) regional background station in Heilongjiang Province during January 2009 to December 2011, this study mainly focused on the results from 10 m above the ground level (a. g. l.). The results indicated that the observed data from 10 m were strongly affected by the local sources/sinks. The differences between the 10 m and 80 m results were relatively small during the daytime (08:00-17:00) with values smaller than (0.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(-6). In spring, summer and winter, higher CO2 molar fractions were observed when surface winds came from the E-ESE-SE-SSE sectors, while, in winter, surface winds from the N-NNW-NW-WNW sectors obviously enhanced the observed values. Generally, lower CO2 values were accompanied with higher wind speed in the four seasons. This phenomenon was most obvious in winter. Based on the analysis of the observed diurnal cycles and the local meteorological conditions, the observed data from 10 m were filtered into background/non-background events. About 30.7% valid hourly data were filtered as regional background representative. The background CO2 variation displayed a peak in winter and a valley in summer with a seasonal peak to peak amplitude of (36.3 +/- 1.4) x 10(-6), which was higher than the values at similar latitude from Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) References and WMO/GAW stations. The yearly CO2 increasing rate at LFS was roughly estimated to be 2.4 x 10(-6) a(-1). PMID:25338353

  11. "If two witches would watch two watches, which witch would watch which watch?" tDCS over the left frontal region modulates tongue twister repetition in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fiori, V; Cipollari, S; Caltagirone, C; Marangolo, P

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical activity in the human brain. In the language domain, it has already been shown that during a naming task tDCS reduces vocal reaction times in healthy individuals and speeds up the recovery process in left brain-damaged aphasic subjects. In this study, we wondered whether tDCS would influence the ability to articulate tongue twisters during a repetition task. Three groups of 10 healthy individuals were asked to repeat a list of tongue twisters in three different stimulation conditions: one group performed the task during anodal tDCS (atDCS) (20 min, 2 mA) over the left frontal region; a second group during cathodal tDCS delivered over the same region; and, in a third group, sham stimulation was applied. Accuracy and vocal reaction times in repeating each tongue twister before, during and 1h after the stimulation were recorded. Participants were more accurate and faster at repeating the stimuli during atDCS than at baseline, while cathodal tDCS significantly reduced their performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times. No significant differences were observed among the three time points during the sham condition. We believe that these data clearly confirm that the left frontal region is critically involved in the process of speech repetition. They are also in line with recent evidence suggesting that frontal tDCS might be used as a therapeutic tool in patients suffering from articulatory deficits. PMID:24184977

  12. Regional variations in cardiovascular risk factors in India: India heart watch

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Guptha, Soneil; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Gupta, Arvind; Deedwania, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Mortality statistics and morbidity surveys indicate substantial regional variations in CVD prevalence and mortality rates. Data from the Registrar General of India reported greater age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality in southern and eastern states of the country. Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is greater in south India while stroke is more common in the eastern Indian states. CHD prevalence is higher in urban Indian populations while stroke mortality is similar in urban and rural regions. Case-control studies in India have identified that the common major risk factors account for more than 90% of incident myocardial infarctions and stroke. The case-control INTERHEART and INTERSTROKE studies reported that hypertension, lipid abnormalities, smoking, obesity, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, low fruit and vegetable intake, and psychosocial stress are as important in India as in other populations of the world. Individual studies have reported that there are substantial regional variations in risk factors in India. At a macro-level these regional variations in risk factors explain some of the regional differences in CVD mortality. However, there is need to study the prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in different regions of India and to correlate them with variations in CVD mortality using a uniform protocol. There is also a need to determine the “causes of the causes” or fundamental determinants of these risk factors. The India Heart Watch study has been designed to study socioeconomic, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors in urban populations in different regions of the country in order to identify regional differences. PMID:22558490

  13. In situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Zhou, L. X.; Tans, P. P.; Ciais, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Xu, L.; Luan, T.

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were continuously measured from January 2009 to December 2011 at four atmospheric observatories in China using cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. The stations are Lin'an (LAN), Longfengshan (LFS), Shangdianzi (SDZ), and Waliguan (WLG), which are regional (LAN, LFS, SDZ) or global (WLG) measurement stations of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch program (WMO/GAW). LAN is located near the megacity of Shanghai, in China's economically most developed region. LFS is in a forest and rice production area, close to the city of Harbin in northeastern China. SDZ is located 150 km northeast of Beijing. WLG, hosting the longest record of measured CO2 mole fractions in China, is a high-altitude site in northwestern China recording background CO2 concentration. The CO2 growth rates are 3.7 ± 1.2 ppm yr-1 for LAN, 2.7 ± 0.8 ppm yr-1 for LFS, 3.5 ± 1.6 ppm yr-1 for SDZ, and 2.2 ± 0.8 ppm yr-1 (1σ) for WLG during the period of 2009 to 2011. The highest annual mean CO2 mole fraction of 404.2 ± 3.9 ppm was observed at LAN in 2011. A comprehensive analysis of CO2 variations, their diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the analysis of the influence of local sources on the CO2 mole fractions allows a characterization of the sampling sites and of the key processes driving the CO2 mole fractions. These data form a basis to improve our understanding of atmospheric CO2 variations in China and the underlying fluxes using atmospheric inversion models.

  14. Terpenoids from the Octocoral Sinularia gaweli

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wun-Jie; Wu, Tung-Ying; Su, Tzu-Rong; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung; Fang, Lee-Shing; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2015-01-01

    Two eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, verticillatol (1) and 5α-acetoxy-4(14)-eudesmene-1β-ol (2) and two cembrane diterpenoids, (–)-leptodiol acetate (3) and sinulacembranolide A (4) were isolated from the octocoral Sinularia gaweli and compounds 2–4 are new isolates. The structures of new terpenoids 2–4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison the spectral data with those of known analogues. Terpenoid 4 was found to inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 marcophage cells. PMID:26295226

  15. Metadata for WIS and WIGOS: GAW Profile of ISO19115 and Draft WIGOS Core Metadata Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Jörg; Howe, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) is a key WMO priority to underpin all WMO Programs and new initiatives such as the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of the WIGOS Operational Information Resource (WIR) is central to the WIGOS Framework Implementation Plan (WIGOS-IP). The WIR shall provide information on WIGOS and its observing components, as well as requirements of WMO application areas. An important aspect is the description of the observational capabilities by way of structured metadata. The Global Atmosphere Watch is the WMO program addressing the chemical composition and selected physical properties of the atmosphere. Observational data are collected and archived by GAW World Data Centres (WDCs) and related data centres. The Task Team on GAW WDCs (ET-WDC) have developed a profile of the ISO19115 metadata standard that is compliant with the WMO Information System (WIS) specification for the WMO Core Metadata Profile v1.3. This profile is intended to harmonize certain aspects of the documentation of observations as well as the interoperability of the WDCs. The Inter-Commission-Group on WIGOS (ICG-WIGOS) has established the Task Team on WIGOS Metadata (TT-WMD) with representation of all WMO Technical Commissions and the objective to define the WIGOS Core Metadata. The result of this effort is a draft semantic standard comprising of a set of metadata classes that are considered to be of critical importance for the interpretation of observations relevant to WIGOS. The purpose of the presentation is to acquaint the audience with the standard and to solicit informal feed-back from experts in the various disciplines of meteorology and climatology. This feed-back will help ET-WDC and TT-WMD to refine the GAW metadata profile and the draft WIGOS metadata standard, thereby increasing their utility and acceptance.

  16. Identifying rare variants from exome scans: the GAW17 experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) provided a platform for evaluating existing statistical genetic methods and for developing novel methods to analyze rare variants that modulate complex traits. In this article, we present an overview of the 1000 Genomes Project exome data and simulated phenotype data that were distributed to GAW17 participants for analyses, the different issues addressed by the participants, and the process of preparation of manuscripts resulting from the discussions during the workshop. PMID:22373325

  17. Mussel watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

  18. In-situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Zhou, L. X.; Tans, P. P.; Ciais, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Xu, L.; Luan, T.

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were continuously measured from January 2009 to December 2011 at 4 atmospheric observatories in China ((Lin'an, LAN), (Longfengshan, LFS), (Shangdianzi, SDZ), and (Waliguan, WLG)) using Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. All sites are regional (LAN, LFS, SDZ) or global (WLG) measurement stations of the World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch program (WMO/GAW). LAN is located near the megacity of Shanghai, in China's most economically developed region. LFS is in a forest and rice production area, close to the city of Harbin in the northern east of China. SDZ is located 150 km north east of Beijing. WLG, hosting the longest record of measured CO2 mole fractions in China, is a high altitude site in northwest China recording background CO2 values. The CO2 growth rates are 2.2 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for LAN, 2.3 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for LFS, 2.0 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for SDZ, and 1.2 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1 (1σ) for WLG, during the period of 2009 to 2011. The growth rate at WLG may be underestimated due to the data gaps during the observation period. The highest annual mean CO2 mole fraction of 404.1 ± 4.1 ppm was observed at LAN in 2011. A comprehensive analysis of CO2 variations, their diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the analysis of the influence of different wind regimes on the CO2 mole fractions allows a thorough characterization of the sampling sites and of the key processes driving the CO2 mole fractions. These data form a basis to improve our understanding of atmospheric CO2 variations in China and the underlying fluxes, using atmospheric inversion models.

  19. Brain Regions Associated to a Kinesthetic Illusion Evoked by Watching a Video of One's Own Moving Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Blanchard, Caroline; Lebar, Nicolas; Nazarian, Bruno; Kavounoudias, Anne; Romaiguère, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that kinesthetic illusions can be induced by stimulation of several sensory systems (proprioception, touch, vision…). In this study we investigated the cerebral network underlying a kinesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans. Participants were instructed to keep their hand still while watching the video of their own moving hand (Self Hand) or that of someone else's moving hand (Other Hand). In the Self Hand condition they experienced an illusory sensation that their hand was moving whereas the Other Hand condition did not induce any kinesthetic illusion. The contrast between the Self Hand and Other Hand conditions showed significant activation in the left dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, in the left Superior and Inferior Parietal lobules, at the right Occipito-Temporal junction as well as in bilateral Insula and Putamen. Most strikingly, there was no activation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, whilst previous studies have reported significant activation in these regions for vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that indicates that humans can experience kinesthetic perception without activation in the primary motor and somatosensory areas. We conclude that under some conditions watching a video of one's own moving hand could lead to activation of a network that is usually involved in processing copies of efference, thus leading to the illusory perception that the real hand is indeed moving. PMID:26287488

  20. Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

    2013-05-01

    CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

  1. Regent Watching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Earl F.

    Although government and order in colleges are the object of almost constant public discussion, there is little public discussion of the governing boards themselves. "Regent watching" should be encouraged because the regents, or the trustee model of university government, is better than its alternatives, and it should be studied, criticized, and…

  2. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO-GAW and EMEP observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerger, C. C.; Werner, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2014-10-01

    The performance of 20 European laboratories involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements within the framework of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW data quality objectives (DQOs). Compared to previous intercomparisons the DQOs of ACTRIS are much more demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5% and repeatability of better than 2% for mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol-1. The participants were asked to measure both a 30 component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2) at approximately 1 nmol mol-1 and whole air (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, they had to report details on their instruments and they were asked to assess measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection or gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. Most systems performed well for the NMHC_N2 measurements (88% of the reported values were within the GAW DQOs and even 58% within the ACTRIS DQOs). For NMHC_air generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed compared to NMHC_N2 (77% of the reported values were within the GAW DQOs, but only 48% within the ACTRIS DQOs). Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol-1). Issues, which affected both NMHC mixtures, are the usage of direct vs. two-step calibration, breakthrough of C2-C3 hydrocarbons, blank values in zero-gas measurements (especially for those systems using a Nafion® Dryer), adsorptive losses of aromatic compounds, and insufficient chromatographic resolution. Essential for high-quality results are experienced operators, a comprehensive quality

  3. Tropospheric CH4 signals as observed by NDACC FTIR at globally distributed sites and comparison to GAW surface in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Barthlott, S.; Dubravica, D.; García, O. E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; González, Y.; Guerra, J. C.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Brailsford, G. W.; Robinson, J.; Meinhardt, F.; Steinbacher, M.; Aalto, T.; Worthy, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present lower/middle tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH4 signal, largely independent of the local small-scale signals of the boundary layer, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH4 variations. In order to achieve the weak dependency on the UTLS, we use an a posteriori correction method. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5% and a systematic error of about 2.5%. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in-situ CH4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in-situ datasets in order to obtain the in-situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in-situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of time scales that are interesting for CH4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual. The comparison study confirms our theoretical estimations and proves that the NDACC FTIR measurements can provide valuable data for investigating the cycle of CH4.

  4. Tropospheric CH4 signals as observed by NDACC FTIR at globally distributed sites and comparison to GAW surface in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Barthlott, S.; Dubravica, D.; García, O. E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; González, Y.; Guerra, J. C.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Brailsford, G. W.; Robinson, J.; Meinhardt, F.; Steinbacher, M.; Aalto, T.; Worthy, D.

    2014-07-01

    We present lower/middle tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH4 signal, largely independent of the local surface small-scale signals, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH4 variations. In order to achieve the weak dependency on the UTLS, we use an a posteriori correction method. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5% and a systematic error of about 2.5%. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in situ CH4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in situ data sets in order to obtain the in situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of timescales that are interesting for CH4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual. The comparison study confirms our theoretical estimations and proves that the NDACC FTIR measurements can provide valuable data for investigating the cycle of CH4.

  5. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  6. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The long-established notion that apoptosis would be immunologically silent, and hence it would go unnoticed by the immune system, if not tolerogenic, and hence it would actively suppress immune responses, has recently been revisited. In some instances, indeed, cancer cells undergo apoptosis while emitting a spatiotemporally-defined combination of signals that renders them capable of eliciting a long-term protective antitumor immune response. Importantly, only a few anticancer agents can stimulate such an immunogenic cell death. These include cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin, which are currently approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple hematologic and solid malignancies, as well as mitoxantrone, which is being used in cancer therapy and against multiple sclerosis. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the progress of recent (initiated after January 2008) clinical trials evaluating the off-label use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone. PMID:22720239

  7. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have first been characterized for their capacity to detect conserved microbial components like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, resulting in the elicitation of potent (innate) immune responses against invading pathogens. More recently, TLRs have also been shown to promote the activation of the cognate immune system against cancer cells. Today, only three TLR agonists are approved by FDA for use in humans: the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod. BCG (an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis) is mainly used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, but also for the immunotherapy of in situ bladder carcinoma. MPL (derived from the LPS of Salmonella minnesota) is included in the formulation of Cervarix®, a vaccine against human papillomavirus-16 and -18. Imiquimod (a synthetic imidazoquinoline) is routinely employed for actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts (condylomata acuminata). In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating FDA-approved TLR agonists as off-label medications for cancer therapy. PMID:23162757

  8. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of hybridoma technology, dating back to 1975, monoclonal antibodies have become an irreplaceable diagnostic and therapeutic tool for a wide array of human diseases. During the last 15 years, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved by FDA for cancer therapy. These mAbs are designed to (1) activate the immune system against tumor cells, (2) inhibit cancer cell-intrinsic signaling pathways, (3) bring toxins in the close proximity of cancer cells, or (4) interfere with the tumor-stroma interaction. More recently, major efforts have been made for the development of immunostimulatory mAbs that either enhance cancer-directed immune responses or limit tumor- (or therapy-) driven immunosuppression. Some of these antibodies, which are thought to facilitate tumor eradication by initiating or sustaining a tumor-specific immune response, have already entered clinical trials. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the clinical progress of the most important mAbs that are have entered clinical trials after January 2008. PMID:22720209

  9. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Hervé Fridman, Wolf; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the possibility that preparations capable of eliciting tumor-specific immune responses would mediate robust therapeutic effects in cancer patients has received renovated interest. In this context, several approaches to vaccinate cancer patients against their own malignancies have been conceived, including the administration of DNA constructs coding for one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Such DNA-based vaccines conceptually differ from other types of gene therapy in that they are not devised to directly kill cancer cells or sensitize them to the cytotoxic activity of a drug, but rather to elicit a tumor-specific immune response. In spite of an intense wave of preclinical development, the introduction of this immunotherapeutic paradigm into the clinical practice is facing difficulties. Indeed, while most DNA-based anticancer vaccines are well tolerated by cancer patients, they often fail to generate therapeutically relevant clinical responses. In this Trial Watch, we discuss the latest advances on the use of DNA-based vaccines in cancer therapy, discussing the literature that has been produced around this topic during the last 13 months as well as clinical studies that have been launched in the same time frame to assess the actual therapeutic potential of this intervention. PMID:24800178

  10. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2015-07-01

    The performance of 18 European institutions involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements in ambient air within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to data quality objectives (DQOs) of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW. Compared to previous intercomparison studies the DQOs define a novel approach to assess and ensure a high quality of the measurements. Having already been adopted by GAW, the ACTRIS DQOs are demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5 % and a repeatability of better than 2 % for NMHC mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol-1. The participants of the intercomparison analysed two dry gas mixtures in pressurised cylinders, a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2) at approximately 1 nmol mol-1 and a whole air sample (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, participants had to report details on their instruments and assess their measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the NMHC_N2 measurements, 62 % of the reported values were within the 5 % deviation class corresponding to the ACTRIS DQOs. For NMHC_air, generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed, with 50 % of the reported values within the 5 % deviation class. Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol-1). The performance of the participating laboratories were affected by the different measurement procedures such as the usage of a two-step vs. a one-step calibration, breakthroughs of C2-C3 hydrocarbons in the focussing trap, blank values in zero

  11. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) represents a prominent form of immunotherapy against malignant diseases. ACT is conceptually distinct from dendritic cell-based approaches (which de facto constitute cellular vaccines) and allogeneic transplantation (which can be employed for the therapy of hematopoietic tumors) as it involves the isolation of autologous lymphocytes exhibiting antitumor activity, their expansion/activation ex vivo and their reintroduction into the patient. Re-infusion is most often performed in the context of lymphodepleting regimens (to minimize immunosuppression by host cells) and combined with immunostimulatory interventions, such as the administration of Toll-like receptor agonists. Autologous cells that are suitable for ACT protocols can be isolated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or generated by engineering their circulating counterparts for the expression of transgenic tumor-specific T-cell receptors. Importantly, lymphocytes can be genetically modified prior to re-infusion for increasing their persistence in vivo, boosting antitumor responses and minimizing side effects. Moreover, recent data indicate that exhausted antitumor T lymphocytes may be rejuvenated in vitro by exposing them to specific cytokine cocktails, a strategy that might considerably improve the clinical success of ACT. Following up the Trial Watch that we published on this topic in the third issue of OncoImmunology (May 2012), here we summarize the latest developments in ACT-related research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months and clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of this form of cellular immunotherapy. PMID:23762803

  12. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of several neoplasms. The term “oncolytic viruses” is generally employed to indicate naturally occurring or genetically engineered attenuated viral particles that cause the demise of malignant cells while sparing their non-transformed counterparts. From a conceptual standpoint, oncolytic viruses differ from so-called “oncotropic viruses” in that only the former are able to kill cancer cells, even though both display a preferential tropism for malignant tissues. Of note, such a specificity can originate at several different steps of the viral cycle, including the entry of virions (transductional specificity) as well as their intracellular survival and replication (post-transcriptional and transcriptional specificity). During the past two decades, a large array of replication-competent and replication-incompetent oncolytic viruses has been developed and engineered to express gene products that would specifically promote the death of infected (cancer) cells. However, contrarily to long-standing beliefs, the antineoplastic activity of oncolytic viruses is not a mere consequence of the cytopathic effect, i.e., the lethal outcome of an intense, productive viral infection, but rather involves the elicitation of an antitumor immune response. In line with this notion, oncolytic viruses genetically modified to drive the local production of immunostimulatory cytokines exert more robust therapeutic effects than their non-engineered counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy is significantly improved by some extent of initial immunosuppression (facilitating viral replication and spread) followed by the administration of immunostimulatory molecules (boosting antitumor immune responses). In this Trial Watch, we will discuss the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and antineoplastic potential of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:23894720

  13. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner’s work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

  14. In-flight measurements of the GA/W/-2 aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Weislogel, G. S.; Vogel, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests of a new 13% General Aviation Airfoil - the GA(W)-2 - gloved full span onto the existing wing of a Beech Sundowner have generated chordwise pressure distributions and wake surveys. Section lift, drag and moment coefficients derived from these measurements verify wind tunnel data and theory predicting the performance of this airfoil. The effect of steps, rivets and surface coatings upon the drag of the GA(W)-2 was also evaluated.

  15. Adults Watching Children Watch "South Park."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the satirical cartoon television series called "South Park." Discusses who watches this program, noting its immense popularity and the way it has entered the everyday lives of school children the world over. Looks at its cult appeal, and speculates as to reasons why some children might enjoy watching the program. (SR)

  16. YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

  17. Arctic Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  18. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt. Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Xu, X. B.; Tang, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. C.

    2015-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The level of tropospheric ozone, particularly in the surface layer, is impacted by emissions of precursors and is subjected to meteorological conditions. Due its importance, the long-term variation trend of baseline ozone is highly needed for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies about the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China, a country with rapid economic growth for recent decades, and many other developing countries. To uncover the long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone, concentration in western China, measurements at a global baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt. Waliguan) for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed in this study, using a modified Mann-Kendall test and the Hilbert-Huang Transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Results reveal higher surface ozone during the night and lower during the day at Waliguan, due to mountain-valley breezes. A seasonal maximum in summer was found, which was probably caused by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange events and/or by tropospheric photochemistry. Analysis suggests that there is a season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds on top of Mt. Waliguan. Season-dependent daytime and nighttime ranges of 6 h were determined based on the season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds and were used to sort subsets of ozone data for trend analysis. Significant increasing trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (1.5-2.7 ppbv 10 a-1) and nighttime (1.3-2.9 ppbv 10 a-1). Autumn and spring revealed the largest increase rates, while summer and winter showed relatively weaker increases. The HHT spectral analysis confirmed the increasing

  19. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wanyun; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Tang, Jie; Huang, Jianqing; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, climate, human and vegetation health can be impacted by the increase of the ozone level. Therefore, long-term determination of trends of baseline ozone is highly needed information for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies on the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China and many other developing countries. Measurements of surface ozone were carried out at a baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt Waliguan, 36°17' N, 100°54' E, 3816 m a.s.l.) for the period of 1994 to 2013. To uncover the variation characteristics, long-term trends and influencing factors of surface ozone at this remote site in western China, a two-part study has been carried out, with this part focusing on the overall characteristics of diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations and the trends of surface ozone. To obtain reliable ozone trends, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the ozone data. Our results confirm that the mountain-valley breeze plays an important role in the diurnal cycle of surface ozone at Waliguan, resulting in higher ozone values during the night and lower ones during the day, as was previously reported. Systematic diurnal and seasonal variations were found in mountain-valley breezes at the site, which were used in defining season-dependent daytime and nighttime periods for trend calculations. Significant positive trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (0.24 ± 0.16 ppbv year-1) and nighttime (0.28 ± 0.17 ppbv year-1). The largest nighttime increasing rate occurred in autumn (0.29 ± 0.11 ppbv year-1), followed by spring (0.24 ± 0.12 ppbv year-1), summer (0.22 ± 0

  20. Effectiveness of spoilers on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a high performance Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path allowing lower surface air to escape to the upper surface as the spoiler opens alleviates control reversal and hysteresis tendencies. Spoiler cross-sectional shape variations generally have a modest influence on control characteristics. A series of comparative tests of vortex generators applied to the (GA-W)-1 airfoil show that triangular planform vortex generators are superior to square planform vortex generators of the same span.

  1. Pressure Distributions for the GA(W)-2 Airfoil with 20% Aileron, 25% Slotted Flap and 30% Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    Surface pressure distributions were measured for the 13% thick GA(W)-2 airfoil section fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th power and a Mach number of 0.13. Pressure distribution and force and moment coefficient measurements are compared with theoretical results for a number of cases. Agreement between theory and experiment is generally good for low angles of attack and small flap deflections. For high angles and large flap deflections where regions of separation are present, the theory is inadequate. Theoretical drag predictions are poor for all flap-extended cases.

  2. Swatch Watch in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, Swiss firms manufactured and sold precision watches and were the undisputed leaders in timekeeping. All this came to an abrupt end when, in the mid-1970s, the Japanese began to make reliable digital watches at a fraction of the cost of the expensive, labor-intensive Swiss product. In 1983, Switzerland answered with the introduction…

  3. Uncertainty and bias of surface ozone measurements at selected Global Atmosphere Watch sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, JöRg; Zellweger, Christoph; Buchmann, Brigitte; Hofer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program currently coordinates 22 ground-based atmospheric background monitoring stations of global scope. The GAW World Calibration Centre for Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide and Methane (WCC-EMPA) is responsible for tracing surface ozone measurements at these stations to the designated reference within the GAW program, the Standard Reference Photometer SRP 2 maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The recommended method for surface ozone measurements is based on UV absorption at 254 nm (Hg line). Repeated and regular intercomparisons of station instruments are necessary to achieve and maintain high and known data quality. In this paper, the traceability chain is explained, and standard uncertainties for each element are evaluated. Data of 26 intercomparisons performed at 14 stations between 1996 and 2002 are analyzed. On 23 occasions, the instruments passed the audit with "good" agreement, in one case with "sufficient" agreement. On 2 occasions, both first audits at the site, the audited instrument did not comply with the minimal data quality requirements. The best instruments in use exhibit a median absolute bias of approximately 0.32 ppbv and a standard uncertainty of approximately 0.8 ppbv (0-100 ppbv). The quantitative improvement of data quality as a result of repeated audits can be demonstrated with several stations.

  4. South Asian Aerosols: Observations and regional scale modeling perspectives from the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, B.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Landi, T.; Putero, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Decesari, S.; Vuillermoz, E.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    SHARE (Stations at High Altitude Research on the Environment) project is promoted by Ev-K2-CNR and funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the Italian National Research Council (CNR). Today SHARE monitoring stations span four continents around the globe. This paper will present the results from the SHARE-Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) monitoring station located in the foothills of Mount Everest at an altitude of 5079 m.a.s.l. NCO-P is also one of the Global AtmosphericWatch stations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-GAW) and is the only currently operating GAW station in South Asia and the highest station of the UNEP ABC (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) project. Results obtained from the monitoring of aerosols and trace gases for multi years starting from 2006 will be presented. Seasonal distribution, composition, case studies and events related to high aerosol loadings will be discussed. A regional scale meteorological / chemical transport modeling projecthas been initiated to help put the measurements in perspective and provide decision support for policy makers. The paper will also describe themodeling framework,modeled case studiesillustrating sectoral and regional contribution to the aerosol loading over the Himalayan region will be presented.

  5. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded

  6. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groover, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Operation Waste Watch is a seven-unit program for grades K-6 which addresses such topics as litter control, recycling, and resources recovery. It is designed to instill in students positive feelings about the environment. (DS)

  7. Country watch: Malawi.

    PubMed

    Knox, G

    1995-01-01

    The Drought Network for information sharing eventually led to the establishment of the more formal Southern Region AIDS Network (SORAN) where representatives from government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focused on awareness raising, lobbying, and advocacy. As an initial step towards networking on HIV/AIDS issues, a festival was organized in Blantyre on December 4, 1993, by NGOs, private companies, church groups, school children, and volunteers to bring about behavior change. About 2000 people gathered to listen to music, learn about HIV transmission through drama group presentations, watch videos with HIV/STD prevention messages, and learn about proper condom use. The participants officially established SORAN in February 1994 to act as a coordinating body for organizations working in prevention and care for HIV/STD-infected persons and their families. Network activities endeavored: to assist organizations interested in developing HIV/AIDS programs and activities; to encourage the business communities to participate in multisectoral coordination and to help channel funds from them to HIV/AIDS programs; to act as a resource center for information about HIV/AIDS; and to lobby among politicians as well as traditional local and religious leaders. When the first multi-party parliamentary election approached in May 1994, SORAN challenged representatives of 7 political parties and a women's organization to speak out publicly on what they envisioned doing about HIV/AIDS. The Grand Walk was also organized by SORAN members representing the Catholic Episcopal Conference of Malawi, the Protestant Blantyre Synod, a local brewery, and UNICEF. About 500 walkers received support from passersby. 70% were school children 10-18 years old who sang AIDS awareness songs and passed out flyers. Three months later the National AIDS Program's Big Walk for AIDS, following a National AIDS Crisis Conference, signaled the government's public recognition of the need for a

  8. Logistic transmission models of insulin dependent diabetes from GAW5 data

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, B.R.; Harley, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    A nonparametric and general method of linkage analysis has been developed. The repeated measure strategy of Speilman has been adapted to the conditional logistic function to establish linkage by stepwise modeling of transmission from parent to progeny. No foreknowledges of genetic association, linkage nor mode of inheritance is required. The effects at multiple loci are easily modelled. Such logistic transmission models have been developed from GAW5 data. Serology at HLA-DR is more closely linked to the phenotype than are the other GAW5 HLA loci with coefficients at DR2 of -1.4 (S.E. of 0.4), DR3 of 1.1 (S.E. of 0.2), and DR4 of 1.2 (S.E. of 0.2). Relative to the random transmission of alleles, the model achieves a {chi}{sub 3}{sup 2} of 114 (p<10{sup -24}). From the GAW5 subset with insulin gene data, models incorporating either the insulin gene 1 or the 3 alleles are similar. Overall models from this GAW5 subset are also consistent with genetic heterogeneity at HLA and the insulin gene (e.g., {chi}{sub 1}{sup 2} for improvement > 4.6, overall model {chi}{sub 4}{sup 2} = 71, p=10{sup -18}). Properties of the logistic transmission model suggest this approach will be useful when linkage is sought over small recombination distances, when resistance and susceptibility alleles coexist at a locus, and when a complex mode of inheritance is suspected.

  9. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  10. Wrist-watch dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Waechter, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1982-04-16

    The disclosure is directed to a wristwatch dosimeter utilizing a CdTe detector, a microprocessor and an audio and/or visual alarm. The dosimeter is entirely housable within a conventional digital watch case having an additional aperture enabling the detector to receive radiation.

  11. The Monarch Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Science education can be an exciting process of observation and discovery. This article describes the use of the Monarch Watch project by environmental educators to study migratory behavior and scientific research through the tagging of Monarch butterflies. Discusses reasons the national project has been successful. (LZ)

  12. Climatology of new particle formation at Izaña mountain GAW observatory in the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M. I.; Rodríguez, S.; González, Y.; García, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    A climatology of new particle formation (NPF) events at high altitude in the subtropical North Atlantic is presented. A 4-year data set (June 2008-June 2012), which includes number size distributions (10-600 nm), reactive gases (SO2, NOx, and O3), several components of solar radiation and meteorological parameters, measured at Izaña Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) observatory (2373 m above sea level; Tenerife, Canary Islands) was analysed. NPF is associated with the transport of gaseous precursors from the boundary layer by orographic buoyant upward flows that perturb the low free troposphere during daytime. On average, 30% of the days contained an NPF event. Mean values of the formation and growth rates during the study period were 0.46 cm-3 s-1 and 0.42 nm h-1, correspondingly. There is a clearly marked NPF season (May-August), when these events account for 50-60% of the days per month. Monthly mean values of the formation and growth rates exhibit higher values in this season, 0.49-0.92 cm-3 s-1 and 0.48-0.58 nm h-1, respectively. During NPF events, SO2, UV radiation and upslope winds showed higher values than during non-events. The overall data set indicates that SO2 plays a key role as precursor, although other species seem to contribute during some periods. Condensation of sulfuric acid vapour accounts for most of the measured particle growth during most of the year (~70%), except for some periods. In May, the highest mean growth rates (~0.6 nm h-1) and the lowest contribution of sulfuric acid (~13%) were measured, suggesting a significant involvement of other condensing vapours. The SO2 availability seems also to be the most influencing parameter in the year-to-year variability in the frequency of NPF events. The condensation sink showed similar features to other mountain sites, showing high values during NPF events. Summertime observations, when Izaña is within the Saharan Air Layer, suggest that dust particles may play a significant role acting as

  13. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) is a program designed to promote cooperation, standardization, and archival documentation in all phases of study of Comet Halley during its 1985-86 apparition. Discipline Specialists have been selected to create cooperative nets of ground-based observers encompassing seven different technical areas and to coordinate the observations and publication of results in each. The IHW will promote cooperation among ground-based and space studies of Comet Halley wherever reasonable and feasible. More specifically, the IHW will make ephemerides from the astrometric net available to any country flying a deep space mission. It will coordinate special Halley Watch Days with the arrival dates of space probes or periods of observation from earth orbit. And the IHW will provide a permanent archive in published form of all scientific observations of Comet Halley.

  14. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The International Halley Watch has been designed to maximize the scientific value of ground-based observations of Halley's Comet. Important in their own right, such observations have also enhanced the value of space observations, setting the brief duration flyby data in the context of the overall apparition, placing the extremely high resolution encounter data into the normal scale of observations, and filling in missing data. The IHW has standardized observing techniques wherever useful and possible, coordinated the observing, and is now collecting data from publication in a comprehensive Halley Archieve. The IHW has been designed to avoid the problems of 1910 where the two major monographs on Halley were not published until 21 and 24 years later and where much data remains unpublished to this day. The Giacobini-Zinner Watch preovided support to the ICE mission and complements the IHW by using the same ground-based techniques at the same time of study another very different comet for comparison.

  15. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.; Rahe, J.

    1984-01-01

    An International Halley Watch has been established to coordinate worldwide ground-based observations of Halley's Comet in the upcoming apparition. Channels have been created for cooperation with the space missions being sent to Halley in order to maximize the value of the collective scientific results. Details are given of the IHW organization already established, which includes 722 astronomers from 42 countries. The ultimate goal of the IHW is the 1989 production of a 'Halley Archive' of all Halley scientific data.

  16. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which the IHW plans to interact are discussed and the ground based observing nets are described in detail. An outline of the history of observations of Halley's Comet and a synopsis of comet properties and physics are included.

  17. Cembrane derivatives from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Chung; Yen, Wei-Hsuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chiang, Michael Yen-Nan; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yung-Husan; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2013-06-01

    A new norcembranoidal diterpene, 1-epi-sinulanorcembranolide A (1), and a new cembranoidal diterpene, flexibilin D (2), were isolated from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis, respectively. The structures of new metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and compound 2 was found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, S. flexibilis yielded a known cembrane, 5-dehydrosinulariolide (3); the structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:23774887

  18. Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Chung; Yen, Wei-Hsuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chiang, Michael Yen-Nan; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yung-Husan; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2013-01-01

    A new norcembranoidal diterpene, 1-epi-sinulanorcembranolide A (1), and a new cembranoidal diterpene, flexibilin D (2), were isolated from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis, respectively. The structures of new metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and compound 2 was found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, S. flexibilis yielded a known cembrane, 5-dehydrosinulariolide (3); the structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:23774887

  19. FIRST teams watch the competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  20. A low speed two-dimensional study of flow separation on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of flow fields with low speed turbulent boundary layers were made for the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 0.30 c Fowler flap deflected 40 deg at angles of attack of 2.7 deg, 7.7 deg, and 12.8 deg, at a Reynolds number of 2.2 million, and a Mach number of 0.13. Details of velocity and pressure fields associated with the airfoil flap combination are presented for cases of narrow, optimum and wide slot gaps. Extensive flow field turbulence surveys were also conducted employing hot-film anemometry. For the optimum gap setting, the boundaries of the regions of flow reversal within the wake were determined by this technique for two angles of attack. Local skin friction distributions for the basic airfoil and the airfoil with flap (optimum gap) were obtained using the razor blade technique.

  1. Four new WMO/GAW Observatories for the investigation of trace gas and aerosol variability in the Mediterranean hot-spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Busetto, Maurizio; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Bourcier, Laureline; Landi, Tony Christian; Calidonna, Claudia; Contini, Daniele; Ammoscato, Ivano; Gulli', Daniel; Dinoi, Adelaide; Sprovieri, Francesca; Carbone, Francesco; Naccarato, Attilio; Mannarino, Valentino; Pirrone, Nicola; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    with the description of selected special events registered in the first year of activity at these four regional GAW-WMO stations. A general characterization of these observatories in terms of location, meteorology and atmospheric transport patterns will be also provided. We also present and discuss the experimental set-up (sampling systems, calibration strategies, standards) used to implement WMO/GAW guidelines at each of these stations and methodologies to identify measurement period characterized by background conditions.

  2. Mixed-effects models for GAW18 longitudinal blood pressure data.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wonil; Zou, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two mixed-effects models for Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 (GAW18) longitudinal blood pressure data. The first method extends EMMA, an efficient mixed-model association-mapping algorithm. EMMA corrects for population structure and genetic relatedness using a kinship similarity matrix. We replace the kinship similarity matrix in EMMA with an estimated correlation matrix for modeling the dependence structure of repeated measurements. Our second approach is a Bayesian multiple association-mapping algorithm based on a mixed-effects model with a built-in variable selection feature. It models multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously and allows for SNP-SNP interactions and SNP-environment interactions. We applied these two methods to the longitudinal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) data from GAW18. The extended EMMA method identified a single SNP on Chr5:75506197 (p-value = 4.67 × 10(-7)) for SBP and three SNPs on Chr3:23715851 (p-value = 9.00 × 10(-8)), Chr 17:54834217 (p-value = 1.98 × 10(-7)), and Chr21:18744081 (p-value = 4.95 × 10(-7)) for DBP. The Bayesian method identified several additional SNPs on Chr1:17876090 (Bayes factor [BF] = 102), Chr3:197469358 (BF = 69), Chr15:87675666 (BF = 43), and Chr19:41642807 (BF = 33) for SBP. Furthermore, for SBP, we found a single SNP on Chr3:197469358 (BF = 69) that has a strong interaction with age. We further evaluated the performances of the proposed methods by simulations. PMID:25519345

  3. Forensic web watch 3.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    2000-03-01

    Since the publication of the first 'Forensic Web Watch' article a new search engine has become available, free of charge at the time of writing, to surfers of the Internet (Net). Fast Search claims to seek out sites of interest for the user from 'all the Web, all the time trade mark ' as opposed to parts of the Net as is more common with other search machines. It is easy to use, extremely fast but as it searches so much more of the Net, the end result is considerably larger. This, in turn, may lead to a longer time to seek out useful information as opposed to the obscure. Having said this, it is recommended to add to your search engine bookmarks. A search for sites on issues related to 'Police Surgeons' will yield limited information, as each country will have a different person filling this role, all referred to by different terms. The one common feature, however, to all such groups as well as forensic pathologists and scientists, is that they will work with, or in some cases for, the police services of their respective country. Thus, in this article we will look at sites related to the police which may have useful information related to their work, specific cases of interest and research and development which may effect our practice. PMID:15274993

  4. Proposing a tornado watch scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Jonathan Brock

    This thesis provides an overview of language used in tornado safety recommendations from various sources, along with developing a rubric for scaled tornado safety recommendations, and subsequent development and testing of a tornado watch scale. The rubric is used to evaluate tornado refuge/shelter adequacy responses of Tuscaloosa residents gathered following the April 27, 2011 Tuscaloosa, Alabama EF4 tornado. There was a significant difference in the counts of refuge adequacy for Tuscaloosa residents when holding the locations during the April 27th tornado constant and comparing adequacy ratings for weak (EF0-EF1), strong (EF2-EF3) and violent (EF4-EF5) tornadoes. There was also a significant difference when comparing future tornado refuge plans of those same participants to the adequacy ratings for weak, strong and violent tornadoes. The tornado refuge rubric is then revised into a six-class, hierarchical Tornado Watch Scale (TWS) from Level 0 to Level 5 based on the likelihood of high-impact or low-impact severe weather events containing weak, strong or violent tornadoes. These levels represent maximum expected tornado intensity and include tornado safety recommendations from the tornado refuge rubric. Audio recordings similar to those used in current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio communications were developed to correspond to three levels of the TWS, a current Storm Prediction Center (SPC) tornado watch and a particularly dangerous situation (PDS) tornado watch. These were then used in interviews of Alabama residents to determine how changes to the information contained in the watch statements would affect each participant's tornado safety actions and perception of event danger. Results from interview participants (n=38) indicate a strong preference (97.37%) for the TWS when compared to current tornado watch and PDS tornado watch statements. Results also show the TWS elicits more adequate safety decisions from participants

  5. A study of aerosol optical properties at the global GAW station Bukit Kototabang, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, N.; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few studies carried out in Indonesia on the atmospheric aerosol optical properties and their impact on the earth climate. This study utilized solar radiation and aerosol measurement results of Indonesian GAW station Bukit Kototabang in Sumatra. The radiation data of nine years were used as input to a radiation simulation code for retrieving optically equivalent parameters of aerosols, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT), coarse particle to fine particle ratio ( γ-ratio), and soot fraction. Retrieval of aerosol properties shows that coarse particles dominated at the station due to high relative humidity (RH) reaching more than 80% throughout the year. AOT time series showed a distinct two peak structure with peaks in MJJ and NDJ periods. The second peak corresponds to the period of high RH suggesting it was formed by active particle growth with large RH near 90%. On the other hand the time series of hot spot number, though it is only for the year of 2004, suggests the first peak was strongly contributed by biomass burning aerosols. The γ-ratio took a value near 10 throughout the year except for November and December when it took a larger value. The soot fraction varies in close relation with the γ-ratio, i.e. low values when γ was large, as consistent with our proposal of active particle growth in the high relative periods.

  6. Experimental studies of flow separation of the GA(W)-2 airfoil at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Rodgers, E. J.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a NASA GA(W)-2 airfoil section at Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.13. Detailed measurements of flow fields associated with turbulent boundary layers have been obtained at angles of attack of 10.3, 14.4, and 18.3 deg. Pre- and post-separated velocity and pressure survey results over the airfoil and in the associated wake are presented. Extensive force, pressure, tuft survey, hot-film survey, local skin friction, and boundary layer data are also included. Pressure distributions and separation point locations show good agreement with theory for the two lower angles of attack. Boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor agree well with theory up to the point of separation. There is considerable disparity between extent of flow reversal in the wake as measured by pressure and hot-film probes. The difference is attributed to the intermittent nature of the flow reversal.

  7. GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data i...

  8. Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

  9. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  10. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.705 Watches. (a) Title 46 U.S.C. 8104 applies to the establishment of watches...

  11. Boreal Forest Watch: A BOREAS Outreach Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Barrett N.

    1999-01-01

    The Boreal Forest Watch program was initiated in the fall of 1994 to act as an educational outreach program for the BOREAS project in both the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). Boreal Forest Watch (13FW) was designed to introduce area high school teachers and their students to the types of research activities occurring as part of the BOREAS study of Canadian boreal forests. Several teacher training workshops were offered to teachers from central and northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba between May, 1995 and February, 1999; teachers were introduced to techniques for involving their students in on-going environmental monitoring studies within local forested stands. Boreal Forest Watch is an educational outreach program which brings high school students and research scientists together to study the forest and foster a sustainable relationship between people and the planetary life-support system we depend upon. Personnel from the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC), with the cooperation from the Prince Albert National Park (PANP), instituted this program to help teachers within the BOREAS Study Areas offer real science research experience to their students. The program has the potential to complement large research projects, such as BOREAS, by providing useful student- collected data to scientists. Yet, the primary goal of BFW is to allow teachers and students to experience a hands-on, inquiry-based approach to leaming science - emulating the process followed by research scientists. In addition to introducing these teachers to on-going BOREAS research, the other goals of the BFW program were to: 1) to introduce authentic science topics and methods to students and teachers through hands-on, field-based activities; and, 2) to build a database of student-collected environmental monitoring data for future global change studies in the boreal region.

  12. Country watch: Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mercado Carreon, L

    1998-01-01

    The Asian Regional Conference on Gender and Communication, held in the Philippines, developed a plan of action to improve the portrayal of women in the mass media. Even in developing countries with traditional attitudes toward women, pornographic-type images are used to boost product sales. The conference's recommendations address the challenges posed by globalization of the media, commercialization of local media, and the increased violation of women's human rights in the media and the question of who has control over the media. After the conference, ISIS Maila assembled a report, "Status of Women and Media: Focus on Violence Against Women," which will be presented at a forum held during the 1998 meeting of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women. Gender justice for women in the media requires collaboration among media specialists, women's groups, researchers, nongovernmental organizations, and local and regional networks. PMID:12348696

  13. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories

  14. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Program's (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASA's goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories

  15. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Shaw, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is directed by the NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and primarily focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of multiple NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion, and advance NASA's goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In fiscal year 2013, the Tech Watch project maintained student project activity aimed at specific ExMC gaps, completed the gap report review cycle for all gaps through a maturated gap report review process, and revised the ExMC Tech Watch Sharepoint site for enhanced data content and organization. Through site visits, internships and promotions via aerospace journals, several student projects were initiated and completed this past year. Upon project completion, the students presented their results via telecom or WebEx to the ExMC Element as a whole. The upcoming year will continue to forge strategic alliances and student projects in the interest of technology and knowledge gap closure. Through the population of Sharepoint with technologies assessed by the gap owners, the database expansion will develop a more comprehensive

  16. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Fung, Paul P.

    2013-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA project that is operated under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2012, the Tech Watch project expanded the scope of activities to cultivate student projects targeted at specific ExMC gaps, generate gap reports for a majority of the ExMC gaps and maturate a gap report review process to optimize the technical and managerial aspects of ExMC gap status. Through numerous site visits and discussions with academia faculty, several student projects were initiated and/or completed this past year. A key element to these student projects was the ability of the project to align with a specific ExMC technology or knowledge gap. These projects were mentored and reviewed by Tech Watch leads at the various NASA centers. Another result of the past years efforts was the population of the ExMC wiki website that now contains more the three quarters of the ExMC gap reports. The remaining gap reports

  17. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Shaw, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is directed by the NASA Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and primarily focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of multiple NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion, and advance NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In fiscal year 2013, the Tech Watch project maintained student project activity aimed at specific ExMC gaps, completed the gap report review cycle for all gaps through a maturated gap report review process, and revised the ExMC Tech Watch Sharepoint site for enhanced data content and organization. Through site visits, internships and promotions via aerospace journals, several student projects were initiated and completed this past year. Upon project completion, the students presented their results via telecom or WebEx to the ExMC Element as a whole. The upcoming year will continue to forge strategic alliances and student projects in the interest of technology and knowledge gap closure. Through the population of Sharepoint with technologies assessed by the gap owners, the database expansion will develop a more comprehensive

  18. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  19. Watching How Planets Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    explained if the disc contains a large amount of gas, in this case, at least as much as 10 times the mass of Jupiter. It should also contain more than 50 Earth masses in dust. The dust mass derived here is more than thousand times larger than what is observed in debris discs and Kuiper belt-like structures found around older, 'Vega-like' stars, such as Beta Pictoris, Vega, Fomalhaut and HR 4796. The dust around these stars is thought to be produced by collisions of larger bodies. The dust mass observed around HD 97048 is similar to the mass invoked for the (undetected) parent bodies in the more evolved systems. HD 97048's disc is thus most likely a precursor of debris discs observed around older stars. "From the structure of the disc, we infer that planetary embryos may be present in the inner part of the disc," said Lagage. "We are planning follow-up observations at higher angular resolution with ESO's VLT interferometer in order to probe these regions." A video, made by the CEA, is also available. More Information The scientists report their discovery in the 28 September issue of Science Express, the rapid online publication service of the journal Science: "Anatomy of a flaring proto-planetary disc around a young intermediate-mass star", by P.-O. Lagage et al. The team is composed of Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Coralie Doucet, and Eric Pantin, (CEA Saclay, France), Sébastien Charnoz (Paris 7 Denis Diderot University), Emilie Habart (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France), Gaspard Duchêne, François Ménard, and Christophe Pinte (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), and Jan-Willem Pel (Groningen University, The Netherlands).

  20. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.705 Watches. (a) Title 46 U.S.C. 8104 is the law applicable to the establishment of watches aboard certain U.S. vessels....

  1. Long-term surface ozone variability at the Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW Global Station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Scheel, Hans-Eckhart; Steinbacher, Martin; Saliba, Martin; Azzoppardi, Francelle; Ellul, Ray; Fröhlich, Marina; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Duchi, Rocco; Cristian Landi, Tony; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    While several studies have been analysed the long-term surface ozone variability and trends at remote and rural locations of continental Europe, such an analysis is still lacking for the Mediterranean basin. For this reason, here we analysed the surface ozone variability observed at the Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN, 44°12' N, 10°42' E, 2165 m a.s.l., Italy) from 1991 to 2011. The measurements performed at this high-mountain observatory represent the longest surface ozone record at a baseline site in the Mediterranean basin. The shape of the mean annual variation of ozone (a winter minimum and a spring - summer maxima) is well comparable with that observed at other 4 baseline sites in the Alps and in the Mediterranean region (Jungfraujoch - Swiss Alps, Sonnblick - Austrian Alps, Mt. Krvavec- Slovenia and Giordan Lightouse - Island of Malta). In general, CMN shows higher ozone during warm months, which is likely to be related with vertical transport of polluted air-masses at regional and continental scales. In agreement with other baseline measurements in Europe, the first part of the CMN measurement period (1991-1993) was characterised by lower mean monthly mixing ratios, compared to the subsequent part of the time series. Constant ozone mixing ratios were generally observed at CMN from 1998 to middle 2004, while larger positive ozone anomalies were observed for the years 2005 - 2008. In agreement with other Alpine and Mediterranean baseline sites lower ozone values were finally observed at CMN during the most recent years (i.e. from 2009 to 2011). This resulted in the appearance of a significant positive linear trends in the monthly O3 mixing ratios over the period 1991 - 2011. On a seasonal basis, a positive trend has been observed for 1996 - 2011 only for spring. Significant decreases of the seasonal ozone growth-rates have been detected at CMN from winter to spring (during 1991 - 2011) and for summer during 1996 - 2011.

  2. Multi-scale indicators in CropWatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.; Yan, N.; Zhang, N.; Zou, W.; Chang, S.; Liu, G.

    2013-12-01

    CropWatch is a crop monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information, mostly for Chinese users. In its 15th year of operation, CropWatch uses remote sensing data combined with selected field data to determine key crop descriptors: acreage, yield and production, condition, cropping intensity, planting proportion, total food availability, and the status and severity of droughts. Currently, CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite 3 (FY-3A) and geostationary meteorological satellites (FY-2). The new indicators can be assigned to three different scales: (1) global, (2) regional/Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ), and (3) National/sub-national level. At the global scale, CropWatch focuses on the growing environment including precipitation (R), soil moisture (SM), land surface temperature accumulation (LSTA) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). National values of these four descriptors of the current season and their departure from long term average (LTA) will be determined by spatial average weighted by the production potential. At regional/AEZ scale, CropWatch will use three indicators (biomass, fallow land ratio and cropping intensity) to represent crop condition. At the national/sub-national scale, CropWatch will focus on 30 countries plus China, covering 80% of exports and 80% of production, plus some additional countries. Indicators at global and AEZ scale will also be used for the 30 countries plus China but at a high resolution. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as well as Evapotranspiration (ET) will be incorporated to determine the crop condition and water stress. All these national/sub-national indicators will be analyzed by irrigated and rain-fed areas

  3. Edward D. Goldberg's proposal of "the Mussel Watch": Reflections after 40years.

    PubMed

    Farrington, John W; Tripp, Bruce W; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Knap, Anthony H

    2016-09-15

    We chronicle the extensive influence over the past forty years of Professor Edward D. Goldberg and his call in 1975 for a "Mussel Watch" or bivalve sentinel organism approach to assess geographic status and temporal trends of several chemicals of environmental concern in the coastal ocean. Examples of local, regional, national and international programs are discussed briefly as are examples of interesting useful findings and limitations to the Mussel Watch concept. Mussel Watch continues to provide useful data about status and trends of chemical contamination in coastal ecosystems. PMID:27339743

  4. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.705 Watches. (a) Title 46 U.S.C. 8104 is the law applicable to the establishment...

  5. Shared Struggles, Shared Triumphs: Watching Writers Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark

    When teachers base classroom discussion of literature, particularly poetry, on the authors' manuscripts, notebooks, and letters, they allow students to watch writers write and to appreciate the craft involved in creative writing. Watching the writer at work--examining the drafts and correspondence for such poems as Blake's "London" or Keats'"To…

  6. 46 CFR 15.1109 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watches. 15.1109 Section 15.1109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1109 Watches. Each master of a vessel that operates beyond the Boundary Line...

  7. WEBGIS based CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, M.; Yan, N.

    2015-12-01

    CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing global agricultural information. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. In order to better analysis and generate the bulletin and provide an alternative way to access agricultural monitoring indicators and results in CropWatch, The CropWatch online system based on the WEBGIS techniques has been developed. Figure 1 shows the CropWatch online system structure and the system UI in Clustering mode. Data visualization is sorted into three different modes: Vector mode, Raster mode and Clustering mode. Vector mode provides the statistic value for all the indicators over each monitoring units which allows users to compare current situation with historical values (average, maximum, etc.). Users can compare the profiles of each indicator over the current growing season with the historical data in a chart by selecting the region of interest (ROI). Raster mode provides pixel based anomaly of CropWatch indicators globally. In this mode, users are able to zoom in to the regions where the notable anomaly was identified from statistic values in vector mode. Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Clustering mode provides integrated information on different classes in maps, the corresponding profiles for each class and the percentage of area of each class to the total area of all classes. The time series data is categorized into limited types by the ISODATA algorithm. For each clustering type, pixels on the map, profiles, and percentage legend are all linked

  8. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  9. Development of a new concept diver's watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Takeo; Aizawa, Hitomi

    The 'Scuba Master' diver's watch represents a new concept. It was developed and announced in 1990. This watch automatically displays information necessary for safe scuba diving and records diving data. The watch was well accepted by divers all over the world. Safe diving techniques were investigated. This led to the need for developing a highly accurate, highly reliable depth measurement system. The functions and features of 'Scuba Masters' are described. The way to make the depth measurement system highly accurate and highly reliable is explained.

  10. Long-term surface ozone variability at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Saliba, M.; Azzopardi, F.; Ellul, R.; Fröhlich, M.; Tositti, L.; Brattich, E.; Maione, M.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin represents a hot spot area for short-term O3 distribution and anthropogenic contributions to it. This is why we analysed in this work the surface O3 variability observed at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN, 44°12‧ N, 10°42‧ E, 2165 m a.s.l., Italy) from 1991 to 2011. The measurements performed at this mountain observatory represent the longest surface O3 record at a baseline site in the Mediterranean basin. Monthly O3 averages at CMN show a typical seasonal cycle characterised by a winter minimum and a spring - summer maxima. The shape of the mean annual variation of O3 is well comparable with those observed at other four baseline sites in the Alps and in the Mediterranean region: Jungfraujoch - Swiss Alps, Sonnblick - Austrian Alps, Mt. Krvavec- Slovenia and Giordan Lightouse - Island of Gozo, Malta. In general, O3 levels at CMN show higher values during warm months, which is likely to be related both to vertical transport of polluted air-masses at regional and continental scales and to enhanced photochemistry. Here, we also investigate the influence of specific atmospheric processes (i.e. the occurrence of heat-waves, North Atlantic Oscillation, thermal transport of air-masses from the regional PBL and stratospheric intrusions) in affecting O3 variability at CMN. Overall, a significant positive (95% confidence level) linear trend in monthly O3 mole fraction was observed over the period 1991-2011 (0.21 ± 0.10 nmol/mol yr-1) while no trend (-0.02 ± 0.12 nmol/mol yr-1) was detected for the 1996-2011, when measurements were carried out by an homogeneous experimental set-up. On a seasonal basis, a positive trend has been observed for 1996-2011 (0.34 ± 0.32 nmol/mol yr-1) only for spring. Significant decreases of the seasonal O3 growth-rates have been detected at CMN during 1991-2011 from winter to spring and only for summer during 1996-2011.

  11. Climatology of new particle formation events in the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña GAW observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M. I.; Rodríguez, S.; González, Y.; García, R. D.

    2013-09-01

    A climatology of new particle formation (NPF) events in the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere is presented. A four year data set (June 2008-June 2012), which includes number size distributions (10-600 nm), reactive gases (SO2, NOx, and O3), several components of solar radiation and meteorological parameters, measured at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch observatory (2400 m above sea level; Tenerife, Canary Islands) was analysed. On average, NPF occurred during 30% of the days,the mean values of the formation and growth rates during the study period were 0.49 cm-3 s-1 and 0.42 nm h-1, correspondingly. There is a clearly marked NPF season (May to August), when these events account for 50 to 60% of the days/month. Monthly mean values of the formation and growth rates exhibit higher values during this season (0.50-0.95 cm-3 s-1 and 0.48-0.58 nm h-1, respectively) than during other periods. The two steps (formation and growth) of the NPF process mostly occur under the prevailing northern winds typical of this region. Sulphur dioxide and UV radiation show higher levels during NPF events than in other type of episodes. The presence of Saharan dust in the free troposphere is associated with a decrease in the formation rates of new particles. In the analysis of the year-to-year variability, mean sulphur dioxide concentration (within the range 60-300 ppt) was the parameter that exhibited the highest correlation with the frequency of NPF episodes. The availability of this trace gas (i.e. their oxidation products) seems also to have a influence on the duration of the events, number of formed nucleation particles, formation rates and growth rates. We identified a set of NPF events in which two nucleation modes (that may evolve at different rates) occur simultaneously and for which further investigations are necessary.

  12. Antibodies to watch in 2014.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

  13. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  14. Antibodies to watch in 2016.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, are projected to gain first approvals in 2016. Commercial late-stage antibody therapeutics development exceeded expectations by increasing from 39 candidates in Phase 3 studies as of late 2014 to 53 as of late 2015. Of the 53 candidates, transitions to regulatory review by the end of 2016 are projected for 8 (atezolizumab, benralizumab, bimagrumab, durvalumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, lebrikizumab, ocrelizumab, tremelimumab). Other "antibodies to watch" include 15 candidates (bavituximab, bococizumab, dupilumab, fasinumab, fulranumab, gevokizumab, guselkumab, ibalizumab, LY2951742, onartuzumab, REGN2222, roledumab, romosozumab, sirukumab, Xilonix) undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies that have estimated primary completion dates in 2016. As evidenced by the antibody therapeutics discussed in this perspective, the biopharmaceutical industry has a highly active late-stage clinical pipeline that may deliver numerous new products to the global market in the near future. *See Note added in proof for updates through December 31, 2015. PMID:26651519

  15. Force and pressure tests of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 20% aileron and pressure tests with a 30% Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Seetharam, H. C.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel force and pressure tests were conducted for the GA(W)-1 airfoil equipped with a 20% aileron, and pressure tests were conducted with a 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 and a Mach number of 0.13. The aileron provides control effectiveness similar to ailerons applied to more conventional airfoils. Effects of aileron gaps from 0% to 2% chord were evaluated, as well as hinge moment characteristics. The aft camber of the GA(W)-1 section results in a substantial up-aileron moment, but the hinge moments associated with aileron deflection are similar to other configurations. Fowler flap pressure distributions indicate that unseparated flow is achieved for flap settings up to 40 deg., over a limited angle of attack range. Theoretical pressure distributions compare favorably with experiments for low flap deflections, but show substantial errors at large deflections.

  16. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  17. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S82 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S82 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S68 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S68 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel C-11, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-5, & on ridge above Tunnel D-14, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Video face recognition against a watch list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Jehanzeb; Dagli, Charlie K.; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-10-01

    Due to a large increase in the video surveillance data recently in an effort to maintain high security at public places, we need more robust systems to analyze this data and make tasks like face recognition a realistic possibility in challenging environments. In this paper we explore a watch-list scenario where we use an appearance based model to classify query faces from low resolution videos into either a watch-list or a non-watch-list face. We then use our simple yet a powerful face recognition system to recognize the faces classified as watch-list faces. Where the watch-list includes those people that we are interested in recognizing. Our system uses simple feature machine algorithms from our previous work to match video faces against still images. To test our approach, we match video faces against a large database of still images obtained from a previous work in the field from Yahoo News over a period of time. We do this matching in an efficient manner to come up with a faster and nearly real-time system. This system can be incorporated into a larger surveillance system equipped with advanced algorithms involving anomalous event detection and activity recognition. This is a step towards more secure and robust surveillance systems and efficient video data analysis.

  1. Observations of Black Carbon characteristics and radiative forcing over a Global Atmosphere Watch supersite in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, A. S.; Park, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Dong-Chul; Jung, Woon-Seon; Jang, Sang-Min; Jeong, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Soon; Yu, Jegyu; Jeong, Harrison

    2013-10-01

    This paper provides an account of observed variations in Black carbon (BC) mass concentrations and BC induced radiative forcing for the first time over a background Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site, Anmyeon in South Korea. BC concentrations were continuously measured over the site during January 2003-December 2004 periods using an Aethalometer. BC showed higher concentrations during 2003 in majority of the months (except in January, August and October). BC found to be showing higher concentrations in September 2003, with values reaching up to 3 μg m-3 over the site. It also showed higher peaks in May and December in 2003. BC values were found to be comparatively less during wet season (July-August; especially august), which could be associated with the rainout and washout associated with the Changma season (summer monsoon). Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model in combination with a radiative transfer model (SBDART) were used to estimate aerosol radiative forcing separately for composite aerosols (total aerosols) and solely for BC aerosols using chemical composition data sets of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) and BC. The atmospheric forcing for composite aerosols found to be +14.9 to +25.9 W m-2 during spring, +13.4 to +20.4 W m-2 in summer, +12.9 to +19.1 W m-2 in autumn and +16 to +18.2 W m-2 during winter,respectively. The respective BC atmospheric forcings were +8.1 to +11.8 W m-2, +8.4 to +11.1 W m-2, +8.7 to +11.4 W m-2 and +8.8 to +11.7 W m-2 during spring, summer, autumn and winter. The study suggests that BC induced atmospheric forcing can contribute up to 88% of total aerosol induced atmospheric warming.

  2. BioWatch in a Box

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M T; Dzentis, J M; Meyer, R M

    2006-02-01

    BioWatch, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) environmental monitoring program, has been successfully operating in many of the nation's urban centers since early 2003. This early warning environmental monitoring system can detect trace amounts of biological materials in the air, and has been used to provide information to assist public health experts determine whether detected materials are due to an intentional release (bioterrorism incident) or due to minute quantities that occur naturally in the environment. BioWatch information enables federal, state, and local officials to more quickly determine appropriate emergency response, medical care and consequence management.

  3. The Verification of MACC-II Global Reactive Gas Forecasts with Global Atmosphere Watch Surface Observations and Ozonesonde Measurements from the NDACC, WOUDC, NILU and SHADOZ Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.

    2012-04-01

    The MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate- phase II) project, funded under the 7th framework program of the European Union, provides a comprehensive monitoring and operational forecasting system for atmospheric constituents relevant to climate and air quality issues and surface solar radiation. The MACC-II forecast system is based on the global weather forecasting system operated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) coupled with the chemistry transport models MOZART (Model for OZone and Related chemical Tracers) and TM5. On a near real time (NRT) basis observational data and forecasts, as well as reanalyses are made available for greenhouse and reactive gases, UV radiation and aerosol optical density. The sub group "VAL" is focusing on the evaluation of reactive gases, thus, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone as well as its precursors and aerosols. The GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) network provides the ground-based observational data for the evaluation of model simulation forecast and reanalysis of the reactive gases CO and O3 at surface levels on a global scale. Contributing stations in this validation process provide their data in rapid delivery mode (within 1 day to 1 month), thus enabling a fast evaluation process. Currently, there are 12 stations providing data in Near-Real-Time. The validation process is performed online and daily updates of the results are displayed on the MACC website (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/d/services/gac/verif/grg/gaw/). For the validation of stratospheric and free tropospheric ozone forecasts, balloon sonde measurements from the data bases NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre), NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional OZon Sondes) are used. Here, we will give an overview on the status and the results of this Near-Real-Time (NRT) validation of the

  4. Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

  5. Whale Watching in the Gulf of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carkin, Clayton A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a variety of teaching strategies to prepare a class for a whale watching field trip. Guidelines for recording a sighting, pictures and statistics for commonly and/or occasionally seen whales, and hints for avoiding sea sickness are included. (DH)

  6. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Origination Approval Agreements taken by HUD's Federal Housing Administration (FHA) against HUD-approved mortgagees through the FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had their Origination Approval Agreements...

  7. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  8. The Art of Watching Films. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, Joseph M.

    This guide aims to help students sharpen powers of observation, develop the skills and habits of perceptive watching, and discover complex aspects of film art. Organized in 16 chapters, the text, which focuses on narrative film, discusses film analysis in chapter 1 and establishes a foundation for understanding theme and story in chapters 2 and 3.…

  9. 10 Trends to Watch in Campus Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James; Samels, James E.

    2007-01-01

    College and university presidents are increasingly called upon to make informed choices about technology. The rapidly shifting landscape makes it tough to keep up with change and innovation, let alone stay ahead of the curve. In this article, the authors discuss 10 trends to watch in campus technology. These trends are the following: (1) increased…

  10. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  11. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  16. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  17. Additional flow field studies of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap including slot-gap variations and cove shape modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made to determine the effects of slot gap opening and flap cove shape on flap and airfoil flow fields. Test model was the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 0.30c Fowler flap deflected 35 degrees. Tests were conducted with optimum, wide and narrow gaps, and with three cove shapes. Three test angles were selected, corresponding to pre-stall and post-stall conditions. Reynolds number was 2,200,000 and Mach number was 0.13. Force, surface pressure, total pressure, and split-film turbulence measurements were made. Results were compared with theory for those parameters for which theoretical values were available.

  18. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  19. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  20. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  1. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  7. Impact on Psychiatric Interns of Watching Live Electroconvulsive Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazdag, Gabor; Sebestyen, Gabor; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Tolna, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Watching a live electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has both positive and negative effects on spectators. The authors aim to survey the attitude change towards ECT in interns after watching a live ECT session. Methods: A 23-item questionnaire was administered to 66 interns before and after watching ECT. Results: In five statements, the…

  8. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  9. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  10. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  11. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  12. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  13. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  14. Global Drought Watch from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix N.

    1997-04-01

    Drought is the most damaging environmental phenomenon. During 1967-91, droughts affected 50% of the 2.8 billion people who suffered from weather-related disasters. Since droughts cover large areas, it is difficult to monitor them using conventional systems. In recent years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has designed a new Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer- (AVHRR) based Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI), which have been useful in detecting and monitoring large area, drought-related vegetation stress. The VCI was derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is the ratio of the difference between AVHRR-measured near-infrared and visible reflectance to their sum. The TCI was derived from the 10.3-11.3-mm AVHRR-measured radiances, converted to brightness temperature (BT). Algorithms were developed to reduce the noise and to adjust NDVI and BT for land surface nonhomogeneity. The VCI and TCI are used to determine the water- and temperature-related vegetation stress occuring during drought. This paper provides the principles of these indices, describes data processing, and gives examples of VCI-TCI applications in different ecological environments of the world. The results presented here are the first attempt to use both NDVI and thermal channels on a large area with very diversified ecological resources. The application of VCI and TCI are illustrated and validated by in situ measurements. These indices were also used for assessment of drought impact on regional agricultural production in South America, Africa, Asia, North America, and Europe. For this purpose, the average VCI-TCI values for a given region and for each week of the growing season were calculated and compared with yields of agricultural crops. The results showed a very strong correlation between these indices and yield, particularly during the critical periods of crop growth.

  15. An unmanned watching system using video cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, K.; Nakamae, E. ); Takahashi, E. ); Yazawa, K. )

    1990-04-01

    Techniques for detecting intruders at a remote location, such as a power plant or substation, or in an unmanned building at night, are significant in the field of unmanned watching systems. This article describes an unmanned watching system to detect trespassers in real time, applicable both indoors and outdoors, based on image processing. The main part of the proposed system consists of a video camera, an image processor and a microprocessor. Images are input from the video camera to the image processor every 1/60 second, and objects which enter the image are detected by measuring changes of intensity level in selected sensor areas. This article discusses the system configuration and the detection method. Experimental results under a range of environmental conditions are given.

  16. The 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The successful fulfillment of the objectives for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment is reported. The objectives were: (1) detect the development and spread of corn blight during the growing season across the Corn Belt; (2) assess different levels of infection in the Corn Belt; (3) amplify data acquired by ground observations to better appraise current blight status and the probable impact on crop production; and (4) estimate through extrapolation the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  17. Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  18. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; West, R.; Harrington, R.; Marsden, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Astrometry Network of the International Halley Watch (IHW) has organized and coordinated more than 300 astrometric observers from 47 countries in an effort to provide for accurate positional information on comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner. This information is being used to constantly update the existing orbits and ephemerides for the various flight projects to these two comets and also for the other ground-based observers within the IHW organization. The astrometric data, as well as the resultant orbits and ephemerides, are being distributed to all requesting observers and they will be cataloged within the general IHW archive system.

  19. The IHW island network. [International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm B., Jr.; Liller, William

    1987-01-01

    Early astronomical photography of comets at perihelion encouraged the establishment of an International Halley Watch (IHW) Team for regularly photographing the Comet. The February 1986 period was particularly troublesome due to the limitations of cometary visibility in the Southern Hemisphere. Schmidt cameras were placed on Tahiti, Easter Island, Faraday Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, Reunion Island and in South Africa. Blue- and red-filter B/W images were obtained every night and color prints were occasionally shot. Each night's images were examined before the next night's photography. Several interesting anecdotes are recounted from shipping, manning and operation of the telescopes.

  20. Wind tunnel tests of the GA(W)-2 airfoil with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap, 30% Fowler flap and 10% slot-lip spoiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensional wind tunnel tests were conducted for the GA(W)-2 airfoil section with: 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap; 30% Fowler flap, and 10% slot-lip spoiler. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2,200,000 and a Mach Number of 0.13. In addition to force measurements, tuft studies were conducted for the slotted and Fowler flap configurations. Aileron and spoiler hinge moments were obtained by integration of surface pressure measurements. Tests results show that a value of 3.82 was obtained with 30% Fowler flap. Aileron control effectiveness and hinge moments were similar to other airfoils. The slot-lip spoiler provided powerful, positive roll control at all flap settings.

  1. The Nurse Watch: Design and Evaluation of a Smart Watch Application with Vital Sign Monitoring and Checklist Reminders.

    PubMed

    Bang, Magnus; Solnevik, Katarina; Eriksson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Computerized wearable devices such as smart watches will become valuable nursing tools. This paper describes a smart-watch system developed in close collaboration with a team of nurses working in a Swedish ICU. The smart-watch system provides real-time vital-sign monitoring, threshold alarms, and to-do reminders. Additionally, a Kanban board, visualized on a multitouch screen provides an overview of completed and upcoming tasks. We describe an approach to implement automated checklist systems with smart watches and discuss aspects of importance when implementing such memory and attention support. The paper is finalized with an in-development formative evaluation of the system. PMID:26958162

  2. The Nurse Watch: Design and Evaluation of a Smart Watch Application with Vital Sign Monitoring and Checklist Reminders

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Magnus; Solnevik, Katarina; Eriksson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Computerized wearable devices such as smart watches will become valuable nursing tools. This paper describes a smart-watch system developed in close collaboration with a team of nurses working in a Swedish ICU. The smart-watch system provides real-time vital-sign monitoring, threshold alarms, and to-do reminders. Additionally, a Kanban board, visualized on a multitouch screen provides an overview of completed and upcoming tasks. We describe an approach to implement automated checklist systems with smart watches and discuss aspects of importance when implementing such memory and attention support. The paper is finalized with an in-development formative evaluation of the system. PMID:26958162

  3. Definitive Chemoradiotherapy ("Watch-and-Wait" Approach).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Karyn A

    2016-07-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision has been the standard of care for locally advanced patients with rectal cancer. Some patients achieve a pathologic complete response (pCR) to CRT and the oncologic outcomes are particularly favorable in this group. The role of surgery in patients with a pCR is now being questioned as radical rectal resection is associated with significant morbidity and long-term effects on quality of life. In an attempt to better tailor therapy, there is an interest in a "watch-and-wait" approach in patients who have a clinical complete response (cCR) after CRT with the goal of omitting surgery and allowing for organ preservation. However, a cCR does not always indicate a pCR, and improved clinical and imaging modalities are needed to better predict which patients have achieved a pCR and therefore can safely undergo a "watch-and-wait" approach. This article reviews the current data on nonoperative management and on-going controversies associated with this approach. PMID:27238472

  4. Healthy Skepticism's new AdWatch: understanding drug promotion.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Peter R

    The AdWatch section of the Healthy Skepticism website (http://www.healthyskepticism.org/adwatch.asp) aims to improve medical decision-making by illuminating the techniques used in drug advertising. AdWatch draws on 20 years of dialogue about drug promotion plus ideas from many disciplines, especially logic, psychology and marketing. PMID:14636142

  5. Solenoid permits remote control of stop watch and assures restarting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodai, C.

    1964-01-01

    Stop watch which may be remotely controlled by the use of a solenoid mechanism is described. When the solenoid is energized, the coil spring pulls the lever arm and starts the balance wheel. When it is not energized, the spring pulls the lever and stops the watch.

  6. Watching television by kids: How much and why?

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Karimi, Masoud; Ghorbanzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Television (TV) viewing by children may be linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. This study was aimed at examining the relationship between socioeconomic factors of families and TV watching behavior among 3–5 years old children in Ardakan, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: In the cross-sectional study, mothers of 188 children (93 boys and 95 girls) between 3 and 5 years old completed a researcher-designed questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS, using bivariate correlations and t-test for independent samples. Results: The mean of TV viewing was 2.68 ± 1.6 h daily, ranging from 0 to 9 h. There were no statistically significant gender differences on the basis of daily TV watching. There were positive associations between the children's daily TV watching and age as well aschildren's daily TV watching and their mothers’ time spent on watching TV. Children who lived in houses with the yard and could use it as a playground watched less TV than did the children who lived in houses without the yard. Conclusion: The results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of the association between different socioeconomic status aspects of families, such as the children's and mothers’ time spent on watching TV and having a yard in the house in an attempt to develop effective strategies and interventions to prevent excess TV watching. PMID:26097850

  7. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  8. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  9. BioWatch - a wrist watch based signal acquisition system for physiological signals including blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simi Susan; Nathan, Viswam; Chengzhi Zong; Akinbola, Ebunoluwa; Aroul, Antoine Lourdes Praveen; Philipose, Lijoy; Soundarapandian, Karthikeyan; Xiangrong Shi; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    A wrist watch based system, which can measure electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG), is presented in this work. By using both ECG and PPG we also measure pulse transit time (PTT), which studies show to correlate well with blood pressure (BP). The system is also capable of monitoring heart rate using either ECG or PPG and can monitor blood oxygenation by easily replacing the PPG sensors with a different set. In this work, we investigate methods to train a fitting function to convert a PTT measurement to its corresponding systolic BP. We also validate measurements on different postures and show the value of calibrating the device for each posture. This system, called BioWatch, can potentially facilitate continuous and ubiquitous monitoring of ECG, PPG, heart rate, blood oxygenation and BP. PMID:25570444

  10. 76 FR 62760 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; LVMH Watch and Jewelry U.S.A., Inc.; (Watches, Jewelry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ..., filed 1-14-2011); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR....; (Watches, Jewelry Products and Leather Goods) Springfield, NJ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign... for activity related to watch, jewelry and leather goods warehousing and distribution at the...

  11. Microcomputer keeps watch at Emerald Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    Where there's smoke, there's fire. Take the old adage a step further: ''Where there's carbon monoxide, there's likely to be a fire.'' That's the principle behind the mine monitoring system being used at the Emerald Mine operated by Emway Resources. Instead of watching for smoke or temperature rises, the system uses carbon monoxide (CO) sensors to detect fires - before they break out. CO, a gaseous product of incomplete combustion, is present in the early stages of a fire. Carried by the mine ventilation air, CO can be quickly traced by electrochemical gas sensors that are wired to a central computer. When preset levels are reached, alarms can alert mine personnel of the trouble. The Emerald Mine is located in southwestern Pennsylvania, near Waynesburg, and mines the Pittsburgh Seam, the nation's most heavily mined seam. Emerald is one of a number of progressive mines that are turning to computers to improve safety and productivity.

  12. Blog and Podcast Watch: Pediatric Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zaver, Fareen; Hansen, Michael; Leibner, Evan; Little, Andrew; Lin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction By critically appraising open access, educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) using an objective scoring instrument, this installment of the ALiEM (Academic Life in Emergency Medicine) Blog and Podcast Watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific areas of pediatric EM. Methods The Approved Instructional Resources – Professional (AIR-Pro) series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, six EM chief residents identify 3–5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro Board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on 7-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥26 (out of 35) points. An “Honorable Mention” label is awarded if Board members collectively felt that the posts were valuable and the scores were > 20. Results We included a total of 41 blog posts and podcasts. Key educational pearls from the 10 high quality AIR-Pro posts and four Honorable Mentions are summarized. Conclusion The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. Until more objective quality indicators are developed for learners and educators, this series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians. PMID:27625713

  13. Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: Investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Landi, T. C.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Marinoni, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Bonasoni, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we analysed reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx) and aerosol properties (eqBC, σs and particle number concentration) collected at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy) during the summer of 2012 in the framework of PEGASOS project. The major aim of this experiment is providing a characterization of the variability of summer atmospheric composition over the central Mediterranean basin, which is considered as a global "hot-spot" for atmospheric pollution and climate change. The atmospheric tracers have been analysed as a function of (i) meteorological parameters, (ii) synoptic-scale circulation and (iii) anthropogenic emission source proximity as estimated by O3/NOx ratio variability. In particular, we identified three O3/NOx regimes which tagged the distance of anthropogenic sources: near outflow (23% of hourly data), far-outflow (38% of data) and background (39% of data). The highest levels of anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. O3, CO, eqBC, accumulation particles) were concomitant with fresh emissions from northern Italy under near-outflow conditions: once injected to the free troposphere, these air-masses, rich in pollutants and climate-forcers (i.e. O3, eqBC) and soil dust, can be spread over a large region, thus significantly affecting regional climate. Moreover, based on the anthropogenic source proximity, atmospheric tracer variability and synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, we categorized and characterised four types of atmospheric regimes associated with (1) air-mass transport from the free troposphere, (2) transport of fresh emitted pollutants from the PBL, (3) transport at regional/continental scale of aged anthropogenic (4) transport of air-mass rich in mineral dust from northern Africa (i.e. coming from more than 1000 km). Lastly, by analysing the probability density functions (PDFs) of trace gases and aerosol properties, "fingerprints" of the mentioned atmospheric regimes were pointed out. Such information is useful for the

  14. Global positioning system watches for estimating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Orr, Barron J; Roe, Denise J; Reed, Rebecca G; Going, Scott B

    2013-11-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) watches have been introduced commercially, converting frequent measurements of time, location, speed (pace), and elevation into energy expenditure (EE) estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare EE estimates of 4 different GPS watches (Forerunner, Suunto, Polar, Adeo), at various walking speeds, with EE estimate from a triaxial accelerometer (RT3), which was used as a reference measure in this study. Sixteen healthy young adults completed the study. Participants wore 4 different GPS watches and an RT3 accelerometer and walked at 6-minute intervals on an outdoor track at 3 speeds (3, 5, and 7 km/hr). The statistical significance of differences in EE between the 3 watches was assessed using linear contrasts of the coefficients from the overall model. Reliability across trials for a given device was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients as estimated in the mixed model. The GPS watches demonstrated lower reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) across trials when compared with the RT3, particularly at the higher speed, 7 km/hr. Three GPS watches (Forerunner, Polar, and Suunto) significantly and consistently underestimated EE compared with the reference EE given by the RT3 accelerometer (average mean difference: Garmin, -50.5%; Polar, -41.7%; and Suunto, -41.7%; all p < 0.001). Results suggested that caution should be exercised when using commercial GPS watches to estimate EE in athletes during field-based testing and training. PMID:23439338

  15. Watching outside while under a carpet cloak of invisibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Zhu; Wang, De-Lin; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate in this work a unique approach for watching outside while hiding in a carpet cloaking based on transformation optics. Unlike conventional carpet cloaking, which screens all the incident electromagnetic waves, we break the cloak and allow incident light get into the carpet. Hence outside information is detected inside the cloak. To recover the invisible cloaking, complementary techniques are applied in the broken space. Consequently, a hiding-inside and watching-outside (HIWO) carpet cloak is sewed, which works as an invisible cloaking and allows surveillance of the outside at the same time. Our work provides a strategy for an ideal cloak with "hiding" and "watching" functions simultaneously. PMID:22181296

  16. A study of four-year HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b in-situ measurements at the Shangdianzi regional background station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bo; Vollmer, Martin K.; Xia, Lingjun; Zhou, Lingxi; Simmonds, Peter G.; Stordal, Frode; Maione, Michela; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) in-situ measurements have been recorded by an automated gas chromatograph-electron capture detectors (GC-ECDs) system and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Medusa-GC/MS) system at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) regional background station Shangdianzi (SDZ), China. The mixing ratios of the two HCFCs at SDZ show frequent events with elevated concentrations due to polluted air from urban or industrialized areas. The mean background mixing ratios for HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b were 205.3 ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, molar) and 20.7 ppt, respectively, for the study period (March 2007-February 2011). The yearly background mixing ratios for the two HCFCs at SDZ are similar to those measured at Trinidad Head and Mace Head located in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), but larger than Cape Grim and Cape Matatula (located in the Southern Hemisphere) due to inter-hemispheric differences caused by predominantly NH emissions. During the study period, background mixing ratios exhibited positive growth rates of 8.7 ppt yr-1 for HCFC-22 and 0.95 ppt yr-1 for HCFC-142b. HCFC's seasonality exhibits a summer/autumn maximum and a winter minimum. 4-year averaged background seasonal amplitudes (maximum-minimum) are 6.0 ppt for HCFC-22 and 0.9 ppt for HCFC-142b. The seasonal fluctuations (maximum-minimum) in polluted events are 105.4 ppt for HCFC-22 and 29.1 ppt for HCFC-142b, which are much stronger than the fluctuations under background conditions. However, both HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b show summer minima in 2008, which is most likely due to emission control regulations when the Olympic Games were held in Beijing.

  17. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  18. Watch Walking to Gauge Health After Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158791.html Watch Walking to Gauge Health After Heart Surgery Patients' pre-op gait is ... on: Heart Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Walking Problems About MedlinePlus Site ...

  19. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  20. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  1. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  2. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  3. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  4. Watch Out for Glaucoma | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Watch Out for Glaucoma Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents A ... used to check eye pressure for signs of glaucoma. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma is a group ...

  5. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  6. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  7. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND...

  8. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  9. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  10. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  11. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  12. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  13. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  14. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  15. The GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION) as a source of near-real time aerosol profile data for model evaluation and assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch’s Science Advisory Group on Aerosols described a global network of lidar networks called GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION). GALION has a purpose of providing expanded coverage of aerosol observations for climate and air quality use. Comprised of networks in Asia (AD-NET), Europe (EARLINET and CIS-LINET), North America (CREST and CORALNET), South America (ALINE) and with contribution from global networks such as MPLNET and NDACC, the collaboration provides a unique capability to define aerosol profiles in the vertical. GALION is designed to supplement existing ground-based and column profiling (AERONET, PHOTONS, SKYNET, GAWPFR) stations. In September 2010, GALION held its second workshop and one component of discussion focussed how the network would integrate into model needs. GALION partners have contributed to the Sand and Dust Storm Warning and Analysis System (SDS-WAS) and to assimilation in models such as DREAM. This paper will present the conclusions of those discussions and how these observations can fit into a global model analysis framework. Questions of availability, latency, and aerosol parameters that might be ingested into models will be discussed. An example of where EARLINET and GALION have contributed in near-real time observations was the suite of measurements during the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland and its impact on European air travel. Lessons learned from this experience will be discussed.

  16. "Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality. PMID:23855943

  17. Study of short-lived climate forcers atmospheric variability at Kathmandu and at the WMO/GAW Global Station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (5079 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Landi, Tony Christian; Pietro Verza, Gian; Alborghetti, Marcello; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and tropospheric ozone play a key role in the climate system, since they are short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). South Asia represents a "hot-spot" in terms of climate change, since a vast region extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas appears to be affected by large amounts of aerosols and pollutant gases (the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud). In the framework of the SusKat - ABC field campaign, a new measurement station has been installed in Pakanajol, Kathmandu (Nepal) on January 2013. This station is representative of the severe polluted conditions of the Kathmandu valley. Continuous measurements of equivalent black carbon (eqBC), surface ozone (O3), aerosol number concentration and size distribution, on-line PM10-PM1, as well as meteorological parameters, are carried out at this sampling site. In the high Himalayas (150 km north-east from Kathmandu), continuous atmospheric composition measurements are performed at the WMO/GAW Global Station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the Southern Himalayas. This measurement site is representative of the background conditions of the Himalayan ridge and measurements of eqBC, O3, aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters are continuously carried out since March 2006. The aim of this work is to compare the variability of atmospheric composition between the two sampling sites, with a particular emphasis on SLCFs, thus providing two complementary perspectives about the Atmospheric Brown Cloud phenomenon. Moreover, hints about the possible role of vertical air-mass transport of SLCFs from the foothills to the high Himalayas will be provided. The seasonal trend of eqBC at Pakanajol is characterized by a decreasing behavior from winter to monsoon, while at NCO-P it is characterized by a clear pre-monsoon maximum. On the other hand, at both sampling sites, O3 and particle number (accumulation and coarse) showed highest values during the pre-monsoon (April

  18. The modelling and assessment of whale-watching impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    New, Leslie; Hall, Ailsa J.; Harcourt, Robert; Kaufman, Greg; Parsons, E.C.M.; Pearson, Heidi C.; Cosentino, A. Mel; Schick, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in modelling cumulative effects and the population consequences of individual changes in cetacean behaviour and physiology due to disturbance. One potential source of disturbance that has garnered particular interest is whale-watching. Though perceived as ‘green’ or eco-friendly tourism, there is evidence that whale-watching can result in statistically significant and biologically meaningful changes in cetacean behaviour, raising the question whether whale-watching is in fact a long term sustainable activity. However, an assessment of the impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans requires an understanding of the potential behavioural and physiological effects, data to effectively address the question and suitable modelling techniques. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the viability of long-term whale-watching, as well as logistical limitations and potential opportunities. We conclude that an integrated, coordinated approach will be needed to further understanding of the possible effects of whale-watching on cetaceans.

  19. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called “ubiquitin-proteasome system” (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308423

  20. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called "ubiquitin-proteasome system" (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308423

  1. Trial watch: Peptide vaccines in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Martins, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Prophylactic vaccination constitutes one of the most prominent medical achievements of history. This concept was first demonstrated by the pioneer work of Edward Jenner, dating back to the late 1790s, after which an array of preparations that confer life-long protective immunity against several infectious agents has been developed. The ensuing implementation of nation-wide vaccination programs has de facto abated the incidence of dreadful diseases including rabies, typhoid, cholera and many others. Among all, the most impressive result of vaccination campaigns is surely represented by the eradication of natural smallpox infection, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The idea of employing vaccines as anticancer interventions was first theorized in the 1890s by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it soon became clear that while vaccination could be efficiently employed as a preventive measure against infectious agents, anticancer vaccines would have to (1) operate as therapeutic, rather than preventive, interventions (at least in the vast majority of settings), and (2) circumvent the fact that tumor cells often fail to elicit immune responses. During the past 30 y, along with the recognition that the immune system is not irresponsive to tumors (as it was initially thought) and that malignant cells express tumor-associated antigens whereby they can be discriminated from normal cells, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the development of anticancer vaccines. Some of these approaches, encompassing cell-based, DNA-based and purified component-based preparations, have already been shown to exert conspicuous anticancer effects in cohorts of patients affected by both hematological and solid malignancies. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23264902

  2. Trial watch: DNA vaccines for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner's work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

  3. Making the Venus Concept Watch 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Melchiorri, Julian P.

    2014-08-01

    Over the past year we have celebrated the 50th anniversary of planetary exploration, which started with the Venus flyby of Mariner-2; and the 35th anniversary of the Pioneer-Venus multi-probe mission where one large and three small probes descended to the surface of Venus, encountering extreme environmental conditions. At the surface of Venus the temperature is about 460 °C, and the pressure is 92 bar, with a highly corrosive super-critical CO2 atmosphere. At a Venusian altitude of 50 km the pressure and temperature conditions are near Earth-like, but the clouds carry sulfuric acid droplets. Deep probe missions to Jupiter and Saturn, targeting the 100 bar pressure depth encounter similar pressure and temperature conditions as the Pioneer-Venus probes did. Mitigating these environments is highly challenging and requires special considerations for designs and materials. While assessing such space mission concepts, we have found that there is an overlap between the extreme environments in planetary atmospheres and the environments experienced by deep-sea explorers back on Earth. Consequently, the mitigation approaches could be also similar between planetary probes and diver watches. For example, both need to tolerate about 100 bar of pressure-although high temperatures are not factors on Earth. Mitigating these environments, the potential materials are: titanium for the probe and the watch housing; sapphire for the window and glass; resin impregnated woven carbon fiber for the aeroshell's thermal protection system and for the face of the watch; and nylon ribbon for the parachute and for the watch band. Planetary probes also utilize precision watches; thus there is yet another crosscutting functionality with diver watches. Our team, from the Innovation Design Engineering Program of the Royal College of Art, has designed and built a concept watch to commemorate these historical events, while highlighting advances in manufacturing processes over the past three to five

  4. Watching Subtitled Films Can Help Learning Foreign Languages

    PubMed Central

    Birulés-Muntané, J.; Soto-Faraco, S.

    2016-01-01

    Watching English-spoken films with subtitles is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. One reason for this trend is the assumption that perceptual learning of the sounds of a foreign language, English, will improve perception skills in non-English speakers. Yet, solid proof for this is scarce. In order to test the potential learning effects derived from watching subtitled media, a group of intermediate Spanish students of English as a foreign language watched a 1h-long episode of a TV drama in its original English version, with English, Spanish or no subtitles overlaid. Before and after the viewing, participants took a listening and vocabulary test to evaluate their speech perception and vocabulary acquisition in English, plus a final plot comprehension test. The results of the listening skills tests revealed that after watching the English subtitled version, participants improved these skills significantly more than after watching the Spanish subtitled or no-subtitles versions. The vocabulary test showed no reliable differences between subtitled conditions. Finally, as one could expect, plot comprehension was best under native, Spanish subtitles. These learning effects with just 1 hour exposure might have major implications with longer exposure times. PMID:27355343

  5. Watching Subtitled Films Can Help Learning Foreign Languages.

    PubMed

    Birulés-Muntané, J; Soto-Faraco, S

    2016-01-01

    Watching English-spoken films with subtitles is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. One reason for this trend is the assumption that perceptual learning of the sounds of a foreign language, English, will improve perception skills in non-English speakers. Yet, solid proof for this is scarce. In order to test the potential learning effects derived from watching subtitled media, a group of intermediate Spanish students of English as a foreign language watched a 1h-long episode of a TV drama in its original English version, with English, Spanish or no subtitles overlaid. Before and after the viewing, participants took a listening and vocabulary test to evaluate their speech perception and vocabulary acquisition in English, plus a final plot comprehension test. The results of the listening skills tests revealed that after watching the English subtitled version, participants improved these skills significantly more than after watching the Spanish subtitled or no-subtitles versions. The vocabulary test showed no reliable differences between subtitled conditions. Finally, as one could expect, plot comprehension was best under native, Spanish subtitles. These learning effects with just 1 hour exposure might have major implications with longer exposure times. PMID:27355343

  6. HEALTH WATCH: health promotion and disease prevention in primary care.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R M

    1993-04-01

    HEALTH WATCH, a longitudinal prospective study of healthy aging, was designed to characterize a healthy population of 2,200 men and women, ages 20-80 years in 1970. Biochemical, hematological, and physiological tests are performed annually over three weekly visits, combined with a self-administered HEALTH WATCH questionnaire to measure health status and behaviors in seven areas (with over 1,330 variables). In 1988, the HEALTH WATCH study was modified to assess characteristics of an oldest old "productive aging" cohort in Kauai, Hawaii. Nutrition, physical activity, extended family, and spirituality were found to be major health determinants. During 1989 to 1991 a controlled intervention study (ten local primary care physicians and their patients, aged 65-89 years) was completed in the Sun Cities, Arizona. These studies provide evidence that primary care physicians can promote positive health outcomes in patients of any chronological age and baseline health status through active healthy aging interventions. PMID:8341160

  7. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig R; Johnson, Erin L; Burke, Aran Z; Martin, Kyle P; Miura, Tanya A; Wichman, Holly A; Brown, Celeste J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens. PMID:26925318

  8. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erin L.; Burke, Aran Z.; Martin, Kyle P.; Miura, Tanya A.; Wichman, Holly A.; Brown, Celeste J.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens. PMID:26925318

  9. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Fierli, F.; Marinoni, A.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and equivalent black carbon (BC) at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV), part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy). For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007-June 2009, have been analyzed and correlated with the outputs of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB) and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppb, 122 ± 7 ppb and 213 ± 34 ng m-3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p < 95%), with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO. According to FLEXPART outputs, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracers only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five "representative" events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local), source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from -0.22 to 0.71) and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m-3 ppb-1) were observed. CO contributions related with anthropogenic emissions (COant) contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May-September) for CO, 19% (in May-September) for O3 and 32% (in January-April) for BC. During May-September, the analysis of the correlation among CO, O3 and BC as a function of the COant indicated that ICO-OV was influenced by air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution transported from the regional to the global

  10. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon concentrations at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Fierli, F.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and equivalent black carbon (BC) concentrations at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV), part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy). For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007-June 2009, have been analysed and correlated with the output of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB) and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC concentrations at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppbv, 122 ± 7 ppbv and 213 ± 34 ng m-3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p<95%), with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO. According to FLEXPART output, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracer concentrations only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five major events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local), source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from -0.22 to 0.71) and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m-3 ppbv-1) were observed. CO related with anthropogenic emissions (COant) contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May-September) for CO, 19% (in May-September) for O3 and 32% (in January-April) for BC. During May-September, the analysis of the correlation among CO, O3 and BC as a function of the COant indicated that ICO-OV was influenced by air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution transported from the

  11. Observations of marine decoupled boundary layer during the ICOS campaign at the GAW Mace Head station, Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) top height detections have been retrieved by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO) based at the Mace Head Research station, Ireland, from the 8th to the 28th of June 2009 during the ICOS Mace Head campaign. Characteristic of this region, with warm waters, the marine boundary layer is typically 2-layered with a surface mixed layer (SML) and a decoupled residual or convective layer (DRCL), above which is the free troposphere (Kunz et al. 2002). The PBL data have been analyzed using a newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) for automatic detection of the independent SML and DRCL tops. Daily and weekly averages of the PBL data have been performed to smooth out the short term variability and assess the dependence of the PBL depth on different air masses advected over the Mace Head station. Moreover, a qualitative comparison between the ceilometer and radiometer PBL top detected values has been done to assess their consistency.

  12. Ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides time series at four alpine GAW mountain stations in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.; Steinbacher, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of ozone (O3) and its precursor gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period, 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites independent of wind sector. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the strongest O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest or even decline in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti-correlation with NO2 was found due to reduced O3 values on working days. Trends are discussed with respect to anthropogenic impacts and vertical

  13. Ozone, Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides time series at four Alpine GAW mountain stations in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-08-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of Ozone (O3) and its precursor gases Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites. This was observed independent of wind sector and for most seasons, with a tendency to higher positive trends in winter and lower and partly negative trends in summer. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the highest rate of O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti

  14. 76 FR 24504 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... information from BioWatch jurisdictions. The BioWatch Program operates aerosol collector equipment in... installing and removing filters from aerosol collection devices and transportation to local laboratories...

  15. Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

  16. Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kathleen England (foreground and on monitor) watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

  17. Watch Out for Children: A Mothers' Statement to Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for American Values, New York, NY.

    This report explains that all adults must watch out for all children, cautioning that marketing is harmful to children. Advertisers are aggressively targeting age groups that, until recently, have been considered off-limits and occupying more of children's psychic and physical space. The report presents a commitment by mothers to all children to…

  18. Trash Treasures, Level 5. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  19. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section 552.42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT... significant observed behavior in a log book. (d) Termination. Based upon clinical findings, the...

  20. Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James N.

    1993-01-01

    Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

  1. The Students are Watching: Schools and the Moral Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizer, Theodore R.; Sizer, Nancy Faust

    This book claims that morality is a two-way street, and adolescent students learn by watching teachers. It argues that schools should incorporate morality as a pivotal tool in education, noting that the American school is an exhausting, inefficient, and often dehumanizing place of work for teenagers and their elders. Students learn not just from…

  2. Beginning Bird-Watching: New Programming Ideas Made More Affordable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Through corporate support, a bird-watching program was implemented at a summer camp for underprivileged New York City children. The program featured oversized flashcards containing color photos and facts about each bird, instruction on use of binoculars, and a hands-on experience in which campers used binoculars to identify bird cards placed in…

  3. Foreign-Grammar Acquisition while Watching Subtitled Television Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lommel, Sven; Laenen, Annouschka; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2006-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that watching a subtitled foreign movie (i.e. foreign language in the soundtrack and native language in the subtitles) leads to considerable foreign-language vocabulary acquisition; however, acquisition of the grammatical rules has failed to emerge. Aims: The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the…

  4. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  5. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  6. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  7. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  8. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  9. Trash Trends, Level 3. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  10. Video Lecture Watching Behaviors of Learners in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozan, Ozlem; Ozarslan, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines learners' behaviors while watching online video lectures to understand learner preferences. 2927 students' 18,144 video events across 13 courses on Sakai CLE LMS, which were integrated with Kaltura Video Platform and Google Analytics, were analyzed. For the analysis of the quantitative data, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square test of…

  11. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  16. Litter Pollution, Level 2. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  17. Autumn Hawk Migration: Activities for a Schoolyard Hawk Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highsmith, R. Tod

    1980-01-01

    Suggests activities for the study of hawk migration: development of identification skills using the accompanying flying hawk silhouettes, photographs, and drawings; binocular spotting games; selection and outfitting of a hawk watching station; follow-up map study; ecological and historical perspectives. (NEC)

  18. Framework for a Technology-Watch Relay Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. A.; Palmer, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    At the centre of the PRIME Faraday Partnership's Technology Watch service is a growing series of technology and market reviews for managers and engineers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) producing "smart" products. Its aim is to help them maintain their awareness of new technologies and markets and thereby seize opportunities to…

  19. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  20. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  1. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on...

  2. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  3. 77 FR 9622 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Applications for Watch Duty-Exemption and 7113...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...-Exemption and 7113 Jewelry Duty-Refund Program AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION... watch duty- exemptions and watch and jewelry duty-refunds to program producers in the U.S. insular... the duty-refund program for the watch and jewelry producers. Form ITA-360P requires no...

  4. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  5. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  6. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  7. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  8. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  9. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft operator... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by...

  10. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section 80.148 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain...

  11. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303 Section 80.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  12. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303 Section 80.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  13. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section 80.148 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain...

  14. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  15. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  16. Globe Watch. Teachers' Guide for Globe Watch IV: Mexico, Canada, Finland, Japan, the Arms Race, the Iran-Iraq War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ginny

    To enhance the use of the Globe Watch IV public television series, produced jointly by Hampden-Sydney College (Virginia) and the University of North Carolina Center for Public Television, each lesson in this guide provides: (1) a statement of the objective of the program; (2) a synopsis of the issue discussed; (3) background information; (4) brief…

  17. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10).

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A; Furlong, Edward T; Kimbrough, Kimani L; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Christensen, John D

    2014-04-30

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009-10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California's coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation. PMID:23886247

  18. The weather watch/warning system for stroke and asthma in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaiyong; Ha, Jong-Sik; Jun, Sangil; Park, Tae-Sun; Kim, Ho

    2008-04-01

    Weather watch/warning systems have been established for human health outcomes. Our study aims to develop and demonstrate a weather watch/warning system for asthma and stroke within the whole of South Korea, using a stratified regression approach. We converted claim-based health insurance data covering almost all medical claims for the only health insurance system in Korea for asthma and stroke from 1996-2003 into personalized disease episode data, and combined them with meteorological data. We utilized a step-wise regression method using factors extracted from the meteorological data to develop stratified models for six (stroke) and nine (asthma) regional and day-of-week strata. Validation studies showed that the actual number of hospitalizations in 2003 increased according to the three-leveled predictions (levels I, II, and III) from the model based on the 1996-2002 data. This system is accessible via the internet (http://industry.kma.go.kr/APP/sub_APP15_H01.htm) at the Korean Meteorological Administration website. PMID:18365801

  19. LifeWatch - a Large-scale eScience Infrastructure to Assist in Understanding and Managing our Planet's Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Ernst, Vera; Poigné, Axel; Los, Walter

    2010-05-01

    Understanding and managing the complexity of the biodiversity system in relation to global changes concerning land use and climate change with their social and economic implications is crucial to mitigate species loss and biodiversity changes in general. The sustainable development and exploitation of existing biodiversity resources require flexible and powerful infrastructures offering, on the one hand, the access to large-scale databases of observations and measures, to advanced analytical and modelling software, and to high performance computing environments and, on the other hand, the interlinkage of European scientific communities among each others and with national policies. The European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) selected the "LifeWatch e-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity research" as a promising development to construct facilities to contribute to meet those challenges. LifeWatch collaborates with other selected initiatives (e.g. ICOS, ANAEE, NOHA, and LTER-Europa) to achieve the integration of the infrastructures at landscape and regional scales. This should result in a cooperating cluster of such infrastructures supporting an integrated approach for data capture and transmission, data management and harmonisation. Besides, facilities for exploration, forecasting, and presentation using heterogeneous and distributed data and tools should allow the interdisciplinary scientific research at any spatial and temporal scale. LifeWatch is an example of a new generation of interoperable research infrastructures based on standards and a service-oriented architecture that allow for linkage with external resources and associated infrastructures. External data sources will be established data aggregators as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) for species occurrences and other EU Networks of Excellence like the Long-Term Ecological Research Network (LTER), GMES, and GEOSS for terrestrial monitoring, the

  20. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David A; Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual's appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person's appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  1. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  2. Coordinating work on P/Halley, the International Halley watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the International Halley Watch (IHW) organization in coordinating the study of the Comet Halley is briefly described. The archiving of data sent to the IHW is discussed, and cooperation among IHW, astronomers, and the various space missions to Halley is reviewed. Personnel changes at IHW and the publications produced by IHW are briefly addressed. Research results on comet Halley from 1982 through 1985 are summarized.

  3. WaterQualityWatch and water-quality information bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2014-01-01

    WaterQualityWatch is an online resource of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that provides access to continuous real-time measurements of water temperature, specific electrical conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate at selected data-collection stations throughout the Nation. Additional online resources of the USGS that pertain to various types of water-quality information are shown on the reverse side of this bookmark.

  4. Edit while watching: home video editing made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, Marco; Weda, Hans; Barbieri, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more people capture their experiences in home videos. However, home video editing still is a difficult and time-consuming task. We present the Edit While Watching system that allows users to automatically create and change a summary of a home video in an easy, intuitive and lean-back way. Based on content analysis, video is indexed, segmented, and combined with proper music and editing effects. The result is an automatically generated home video summary that is shown to the user. While watching it, users can indicate whether they like certain content, so that the system will adapt the summary to contain more content that is similar or related to the displayed content. During the video playback users can also modify and enrich the content, seeing immediately the effects of their changes. Edit While Watching does not require a complex user interface: a TV and a few keys of a remote control are sufficient. A user study has shown that it is easy to learn and to use, even if users expressed the need for more control in the editing operations and in the editing process.

  5. Watching the fetal brain at 'rest'.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, V; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2012-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of human brain networks. According to the neurophysiological property of the fetal brain to generate spontaneous activity, we aimed to determine the feasibility of investigating the maturation of intrinsic networks, beginning at gestational week 20 in healthy human fetuses by combining resting-state fMRI and an analytical approach, independent component analysis (ICA). In this study, functional images of 16 fetuses with morphologically normal brain development, from 20 to 36 gestational weeks of age, were acquired on a 1.5T unit (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) using single-shot, gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging. After preprocessing (motion correction, brain extraction), images were analyzed using single-subject ICA. We visualized a bilateral occipital network and medial and lateral prefrontal activity pattern that involved the future Brodmann areas 9-11. Furthermore, there was one either predominantly right (3/7 cases) or left (4/7 cases) hemispheric lateralized network that involved the superior temporal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 22 and 39). Frequency oscillations were in the range of 0.01-0.06Hz for all networks. This study shows that resting-state networks (RSNs) are shaped and are detectable in utero. Further investigations of resting-state measurements in the fetus may therefore allow developmental brain activity monitoring and may provide insights into early brain function. PMID:22044604

  6. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  7. Watching the World Rev its Heat Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of solar energy heats up our planet's surface and the atmosphere and makes life for us possible. But the energy cannot stay bound up in the Earth's environment forever. If it did then the Earth would be as hot as the Sun. Instead, as the surface and the atmosphere warm, they emit thermal longwave radiation, some of which escapes into space and allows the Earth to cool. This false-color image of the Earth was produced on September 30, 2001, by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows where more or less heat, in the form of longwave radiation, is emanating from the top of Earth's atmosphere. As one can see in the image, the thermal radiation leaving the oceans is fairly uniform. The blue swaths across the central Pacific represent thick clouds, the tops of which are so high they are among the coldest places on Earth. In the American Southwest, which can be seen in the upper righthand corner of the globe, there is often little cloud cover to block outgoing radiation and relatively little water to absorb solar energy. Consequently, the amount of outgoing radiation in the American Southwest exceeds that of the oceans. Also, that region was experiencing an extreme heatwave when these data were acquired. Recently, NASA researchers discovered that incoming solar radiation and outgoing thermal radiation increased in the tropics from the 1980s to the 1990s. (Click to read the press release.) They believe that the reason for the unexpected increase has to do with an apparent change in circulation patterns around the globe, which effectively reduced the amount of water vapor and cloud cover in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. Without the clouds, more sunlight was allowed to enter the tropical zones and more thermal energy was allowed to leave. The findings may have big implications for climate change and future global warming. 'This suggests that the tropical heat engine increased

  8. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV. PMID:23986894

  9. Watching the Birth of a Galaxy Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    First Visiting Astronomers to VLT ANTU Observe the Early Universe When the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) was "handed over" to the scientists on April 1, 1999, the first "visiting astronomers" at Paranal were George Miley and Huub Rottgering from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) [1]. They obtained unique pictures of a distant exploding galaxy known as 1138 - 262 . These images provide new information about how massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies may have formed in the early Universe. Formation of clusters of galaxies An intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first galaxies and groupings or clusters of galaxies emerged from the primeval gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theories predict that giant galaxies, often found at the centres of rich galaxy clusters, are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in this gas and stars condense out of those clumps to form small galaxies. Finally these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. An enigmatic class of objects important for investigating such scenarios are galaxies which emit intense radio emission from explosions that occur deep in their nuclei. The explosions are believed to be triggered when material from the merging swarm of smaller galaxies is fed into a rotating black hole located in the central regions. There is strong evidence that these distant radio galaxies are amongst the oldest and most massive galaxies in the early Universe and are often located at the heart of rich clusters of galaxies. They can therefore help pinpoint regions of the Universe in which large galaxies and clusters of galaxies are being formed. The radio galaxy 1138-262 The first visiting astronomers pointed ANTU towards a particularly important radio galaxy named 1138-262 . It is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water Snake). This galaxy was discovered some years ago using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla. Because 1138-262 is at a distance of

  10. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10

  11. Listening, Watching, and Reading: The Structure and Correlates of Entertainment Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Zilca, Ran

    2010-01-01

    People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of over 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences. PMID:20649744

  12. Listening, watching, and reading: the structure and correlates of entertainment preferences.

    PubMed

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Zilca, Ran

    2011-04-01

    People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of more than 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences. PMID:20649744

  13. The Canadian Ozone Watch and UV-B advisory programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, J. B.; Mcelroy, C. T.; Tarasick, D. W.; Wardle, D. I.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozone Watch, initiated in March, 1992, is a weekly bulletin describing the state of the ozone layer over Canada. The UV-B advisory program, which started in May, 1992, produces daily forecasts of clear-sky UV-B radiation. The forecast procedures use daily ozone measurements from the eight-station monitoring network, the output from the Canadian operational forecast model and a UV-B algorithm based on three years of spectral UV-B measurements with the Brewer spectrophotometer.

  14. The Applicability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing in Identifying Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) sources using NOAA National Status & Trends Mussel Watch Program Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, P. L.; Edwards, M.; Branch, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    - With an ongoing assessment of more than two decades, the Mussel Watch Program is one of the longest running contaminant monitoring programs in coastal ocean research. Mussel Watch uses bivalves (Mussels, Oysters, and Zebra Mussels) as a means to assess water quality. The purpose of the program was geared towards assessing contaminants nationally. Utilizing tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing data assessment, an attempt was made within this project to identify possible releasers of effluent waste into the major coastal watershed regions pertaining to ongoing research conducted within monitored mussel watch sites. The categorization of possible contaminating locations was made available through spatial data verification development. This dataset was derived from agencies such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS ), as well as independent state government databases. Utilizing platforms such as ESRI® ArcMap™ software, spatially referenced locations, via point data, vector data, line data, and polygons depicting points and sites of interest was created using latitude and longitude information. Points and areas of interest (AOI) were verified using Remote Sensing imagery. As such, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) within observable mussel watch sites were assessed by NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA). Using this data, present and future researchers will be more able to identify possible sources of contributors to the present contaminant areas.

  15. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Marcos E; Fang, Sandy H

    2015-11-27

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage III (node-positive) disease. For stage II and III colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluation-this is known as complete clinical response (cCR). The "watch and wait" approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with cCR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the "watch and wait" approach and its outcomes. PMID:26649153

  16. Conference report. Women's perspectives: keeping a close watch.

    PubMed

    Datta, B

    1994-01-01

    Most individuals in the women's movement are happy with the accomplishments of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Activists were able to introduce feminist discourse into world governments and have a term like "gender equality" used as freely as "mother's milk." Some women, however, critique that the conference will do little to empower women in any real sense. Whatever the long-term effects, it is clear that women and women's groups were required to put aside their confrontational politics and adopt a more organized, collaborative approach. The Women's Caucus at Cairo created Women Watching ICPD, a group to monitor if governments, donors, and service providers follow through with the commitments they made at the conference. Six nongovernmental organizations (NGO) from the North and South have already agreed to participate in the task force. The group promises to ensure an end to coercion and to make certain that positive recommendations are implemented. It will watch budgets, allocation processes, and decision makers, and try to ensure that NGOs monitoring international financial institutions make gender efforts central to their efforts. PMID:12319117

  17. Antibody-based therapeutics to watch in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This overview of 25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and five Fc fusion protein therapeutics provides brief descriptions of the candidates, recently published clinical study results and on-going Phase 3 studies. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 therapeutic antibodies to watch list comprises AIN-457, bapineuzumab, brentuximab vedotin, briakinumab, dalotuzumab, epratuzumab, farletuzumab, girentuximab (WX-G250), naptumomab estafenatox, necitumumab, obinutuzumab, otelixizumab, pagibaximab, pertuzumab, ramucirumab, REGN88, reslizumab, solanezumab, T1h, teplizumab, trastuzumab emtansine, tremelimumab, vedolizumab, zalutumumab and zanolimumab. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 Fc fusion protein therapeutics to watch list comprises aflibercept, AMG-386, atacicept, Factor VIII-Fc and Factor IX-Fc. Commercially-sponsored mAb and Fc fusion therapeutics that have progressed only as far as Phase 2/3 or 3 were included. Candidates undergoing regulatory review or products that have been approved may also be in Phase 3 studies, but these were excluded. Due to the large body of primary literature about the candidates, only selected references are given and results from recent publications and articles that were relevant to Phase 3 studies are emphasized. Current as of September 2010, the information presented here will serve as a baseline against which future progress in the development of antibody-based therapeutics can be measured. PMID:21051951

  18. Antibody-based therapeutics to watch in 2011.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2011-01-01

    This overview of 25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and 5 Fc fusion protein therapeutics provides brief descriptions of the candidates, recently published clinical study results and on-going Phase 3 studies. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 therapeutic antibodies to watch list comprises AIN-457, bapineuzumab, brentuximab vedotin, briakinumab, dalotuzumab, epratuzumab, farletuzumab, girentuximab (WX-G250), naptumomab estafenatox, necitumumab, obinutuzumab, otelixizumab, pagibaximab, pertuzumab, ramucirumab, REGN88, reslizumab, solanezumab, T1h , teplizumab, trastuzumab emtansine, tremelimumab, vedolizumab, zalutumumab and zanolimumab. In alphanumeric order, the 2011 Fc fusion protein therapeutics to watch list comprises aflibercept, AMG-386, atacicept, Factor VIII and Factor IX-Fc. Commercially-sponsored mAb and Fc fusion therapeutics that have progressed only as far as Phase 2/3 or 3 were included. Candidates undergoing regulatory review or products that have been approved may also be in Phase 3 studies, but these were excluded. Due to the large body of primary literature about the candidates, only selected references are given and results from recent publications and articles that were relevant to Phase 3 studies are emphasized. Current as of September 2010, the information presented here will serve as a baseline against which future progress in the development of antibody-based therapeutics can be measured. PMID:21051951

  19. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  20. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  1. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  2. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  3. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  4. 33 CFR 110.47 - Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. 110.47 Section 110.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I. All of the navigable waters...

  5. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  6. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  7. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  8. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  9. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch...

  10. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  11. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 WITH RANGE POLE Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 WITH RANGE POLE - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12–15, 2012 ... percentage of youth watched TV or used a computer daily? Almost all (98.5%) youth aged 12– ...

  13. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  14. Professional Wrestling: Can Watching It Bring Out Aggressive and Violent Behaviors in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Caroline

    This study investigated the effect of viewing professional wrestling programs on first grade boys' violent and aggressive behavior. Interviews were conducted, in focus groups of 4 children, with 16 students who watched wrestling 4-6 hours a week. The children indicated that they enjoyed watching professional wrestling and that after viewing, they…

  15. 76 FR 42130 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... collection request (ICR) in the Federal Register on May 2, 2011 at 76 FR 24504, for a 60-day public comment... information from BioWatch jurisdictions. The BioWatch Program operates aerosol collector equipment in... installing and removing filters from aerosol collection devices and transportation to local laboratories...

  16. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  17. Interim criteria for Organic Watch List tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, S.; Turner, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document establishes interim criteria for identifying single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that contain organic chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salts in potentially hazardous concentrations. These tanks are designated as ``organic Watch List tanks.`` Watch List tanks are radioactive waste storage tanks that have the potential for release of high-level waste as a result of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Organic Watch List tanks are those Watch List tanks that contain relatively high concentrations of organic chemicals. Because of the potential for release of high-level waste resulting from uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure, the organic Watch List tanks (collectively) constitute a Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank ``safety issue.``

  18. Watching as an ordinary affect: Care and mothers’ preemption of injury in child supervision

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    As unintentional injuries continue to be the leading cause of hospitalization and death for toddlers between the ages of 1 and 4, the Centers for Disease Control has argued that child supervision is a key factor in reducing these injuries and fatalities. This article focuses on the affective relationships in the concept of supervision and practice of watching as an injury prevention method. Three parts frame our argument. First, we describe how watching is an ordinary affect. Second, as part of the ethos of caring, watching is embedded in a temporal frame of anticipation and gives rise to an affectsphere of watching and to a parents’ subjectivity as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ supervisors. Third, these affective relationships generate seemingly contradictory outcomes wherein children are expected to gain independence and experience injury. The affective qualities of watching provide a critique of the individualizing forces of supervision and an analysis of subjectivities generated by gender and class. PMID:25114724

  19. 75 FR 10463 - Office of Insular Affairs; Allocation of Duty-Exemptions for Calendar Year 2010 for Watch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Changes in Watch, Watch Movement and Jewelry Program for the U.S. Insular Possessions, 65 FR 8048... producer allocation Belair Quartz, Inc 500,000 The balance of the units allocated to the USVI is...

  20. Television watching during lunch increases afternoon snack intake of young women.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Woodward, Morgan

    2009-02-01

    Eating while watching television has been shown to increase food intake in part due to the distracting effects of television viewing. It is also known that enhancing memory for the specific attributes of foods eaten in the recent past decreases subsequent food intake. Because distraction at the time of encoding interferes with memory formation, we predicted that television watching during lunch would increase afternoon snack intake due to impaired memory for recent eating. Using a repeated-measures design, 16 young women undergraduate students visited the laboratory to eat a fixed lunch either while watching television or in the absence of television. Intake of cookies at a tasting session later that afternoon was measured and participants recalled eating the lunch and rated the memory for vividness. All participants ate all of the lunch and rated appetite during lunch did not differ according to condition. Participants ate significantly more cookies after they had eaten their lunch while watching television than when they had eaten their lunch while not watching television and this effect could not be attributed to an effect of television watching on rated mood or appetite before the snack session. Watching television while eating lunch was also associated with reduced vividness ratings of the memory of the lunch. These results suggest that the effects of television watching on food intake extend beyond the time of television watching to affect subsequent consumption. They further suggest that this effect may be related to an effect of television watching on encoding of the memory of the meal. PMID:18692103

  1. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) U.S. President Bill Clinton, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, Astronaut Robert Cabana and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

  2. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Watching a successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery from the roof of the Launch Control Center are (left to right) Astronaut Eileen Collins (in flight suit) with unidentified companions, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, Astronaut Robert Cabana, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, and U.S. President Bill Clinton. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on mission STS-95. Collins will command the crew of STS-93, the first woman to hold that position. Cabana will command the crew of STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission to carry hardware to space for the assembly of the International Space Station, targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3.

  3. Current status of the international Halley Watch infrared net archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguinness, Brian B.

    1988-01-01

    The primary purposes of the Halley Watch have been to promote Halley observations, coordinate and standardize the observing where useful, and to archive the results in a database readily accessible to cometary scientists. The intention of IHW is to store the observations themselves, along with any information necessary to allow users to understand and use the data, but to exclude interpretations of these data. Each of the archives produced by the IHW will appear in two versions: a printed archive and a digital archive on CD-ROMs. The archive is expected to have a very long lifetime. The IHW has already produced an archive for P/Crommelin. This consists of one printed volume and two 1600 bpi tapes. The Halley archive will contain at least twenty gigabytes of information.

  4. Digital Earth Watch: Investigating the World with Digital Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A. D.; Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Pickle, J.

    2015-12-01

    Every digital camera including the smart phone camera can be a scientific tool. Pictures contain millions of color intensity measurements organized spatially allowing us to measure properties of objects in the images. This presentation will demonstrate how digital pictures can be used for a variety of studies with a special emphasis on using repeat digital photographs to study change-over-time in outdoor settings with a Picture Post. Demonstrations will include using inexpensive color filters to take pictures that enhance features in images such as unhealthy leaves on plants, or clouds in the sky. Software available at no cost from the Digital Earth Watch (DEW) website that lets students explore light, color and pixels, manipulate color in images and make measurements, will be demonstrated. DEW and Picture Post were developed with support from NASA. Please visit our websites: DEW: http://dew.globalsystemsscience.orgPicture Post: http://picturepost.unh.edu

  5. Which are the antibodies to watch in 2013?

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The start of the new year signals that it is time for mAbs' annual review of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in active Phase 2/3 or Phase 3 clinical studies. The entire clinical pipeline currently includes ~350 mAbs, but most of these are in early development. As of the beginning of 2013, our "Antibodies to watch" list includes 28 single mAbs and one mAb mixture that are undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies for inflammatory or immunological disorders, cancers, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease and infectious disease. In alphabetical order, the 28 mabs are alirocumab, AMG 145, elotuzumab, epratuzumab, farletuzumab, gantenerumab, gevokizumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, itolizumab, ixekizumab, lebrikizumab, mepolizumab, naptumomab estafenatox, necitumumab, nivolumab, obinutuzumab, ocrelizumab, onartuzumab, racotumomab, ramucirumab, reslizumab, romosozumab, sarilumab, secukinumab, sirukumab, solanezumab, tabalumab, and vedolizumab. The mixture of actoxumab and bezlotoxumab is being evaluated in two Phase 3 studies as a treatment for Clostridium difficile infection. PMID:23254906

  6. Watching films with magical content facilitates creativity in children.

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene; Hysted, Claire; Jones, Nicola

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the possible link between magical thinking and creativity in preschool children. In Exp. 1, 4- and 6-yr.-old children were shown a film with either a magical or nonmagical theme. Results indicated that the mean scores of children shown the magical film was significantly higher than that of children watching the nonmagical film on the majority of subsequent creativity tests for both age groups. This trend was also found for 6-yr.-olds' drawings of impossible items. In Exp. 2, Exp. 1 was replicated successfully with 6- and 8-yr.-old children. Exposing children to a film with a magical theme did not affect their beliefs about magic. The results were interpreted to accentuate the role of magical thinking in children's cognitive development. Classroom implications of the results were also discussed. PMID:21058605

  7. Is Watching Television a Realistic Leisure Option for People with Dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Gústafsdóttir, Margrét

    2015-01-01

    Background Watching television is a common leisure activity, not least among older people. However, watching television may become difficult when it is disturbed by symptoms of dementia. Method A total of 284 questionnaires were handed out to relatives of people with dementia in Iceland, in the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital and in specialized units for people with dementia (6 day-care units and 8 units within nursing homes). The response rate was just below 58%. Results Watching television was shown to play a less important role in the course of the daily life of people with dementia as soon as the symptoms of the disease became evident, and it increasingly became less relevant. So, this previous leisure activity left an ever-growing void of time to fill. However, watching television may provide an important social context for contact and togetherness during the progress of the disease, as watching television with someone close to them was important for the individuals with dementia. Conclusion It is not a viable option for people with dementia to watch television on their own, but they may enjoy watching television while sharing this activity with a person close to them. This may even provide quality time. PMID:25941531

  8. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.; Christensen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009–10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California’s coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation.

  9. Inter-Subject Correlation of Brain Hemodynamic Responses During Watching a Movie: Localization in Space and Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Tohka, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Cinema is a promising naturalistic stimulus that enables, for instance, elicitation of robust emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject correlation (ISC) has been used as a model-free analysis method to map the highly complex hemodynamic responses that are evoked during watching a movie. Here, we extended the ISC analysis to frequency domain using wavelet analysis combined with non-parametric permutation methods for making voxel-wise statistical inferences about frequency-band specific ISC. We applied these novel analysis methods to a dataset collected in our previous study where 12 subjects watched an emotionally engaging movie “Crash” during fMRI scanning. Our results suggest that several regions within the frontal and temporal lobes show ISC predominantly at low frequency bands, whereas visual cortical areas exhibit ISC also at higher frequencies. It is possible that these findings relate to recent observations of a cortical hierarchy of temporal receptive windows, or that the types of events processed in temporal and prefrontal cortical areas (e.g., social interactions) occur over longer time periods than the stimulus features processed in the visual areas. Software tools to perform frequency-specific ISC analysis, together with a visualization application, are available as open source Matlab code. PMID:20428497

  10. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for large scale phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The largest scale structures of comets, their tails, are extremely interesting from a physical point of view, and some of their properties are among the most spectacular displayed by comets. Because the tail(s) is an important component part of a comet, the Large-Scale Phenomena (L-SP) Discipline was created as one of eight different observational methods in which Halley data would be encouraged and collected from all around the world under the aspices of the International Halley Watch (IHW). The L-SP Discipline Specialist (DS) Team resides at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center under the leadership of John C. Brandt, Malcolm B. Niedner, and their team of image-processing and computer specialists; Jurgan Rahe at NASA Headquarters completes the formal DS science staff. The team has adopted the study of disconnection events (DE) as its principal science target, and it is because of the rapid changes which occur in connection with DE's that such extensive global coverage was deemed necessary to assemble a complete record.

  11. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  12. Trial watch – inhibiting PARP enzymes for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sistigu, Antonella; Manic, Gwenola; Obrist, Florine; Vitale, Ilio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a members of family of enzymes that catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and/or mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation), two post-translational protein modifications involved in crucial cellular processes including (but not limited to) the DNA damage response (DDR). PARP1, the most abundant family member, is a nuclear protein that is activated upon sensing distinct types of DNA damage and contributes to their resolution by PARylating multiple DDR players. Recent evidence suggests that, along with DDR, activated PARP1 mediates a series of prosurvival and proapoptotic processes aimed at preserving genomic stability. Despite this potential oncosuppressive role, upregulation and/or overactivation of PARP1 or other PARP enzymes has been reported in a variety of human neoplasms. Over the last few decades, several pharmacologic inhibitors of PARP1 and PARP2 have been assessed in preclinical and clinical studies showing potent antineoplastic activity, particularly against homologous recombination (HR)-deficient ovarian and breast cancers. In this Trial Watch, we describe the impact of PARP enzymes and PARylation in cancer, discuss the mechanism of cancer cell killing by PARP1 inactivation, and summarize the results of recent clinical studies aimed at evaluating the safety and therapeutic profile of PARP inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308587

  13. Children infer affiliative and status relations from watching others imitate.

    PubMed

    Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether young children are able to infer affiliative relations and relative status from observing others' imitative interactions. Children watched videos showing one individual imitating another and were asked about the relationship between those individuals. Experiment 1 showed that 5-year-olds assume that individuals imitate people they like. Experiment 2 showed that children of the same age assume that an individual who imitates is relatively lower in status. Thus, although there are many advantages to imitating others, there may also be reputational costs. Younger children, 4-year-olds, did not reliably make either inference. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that imitation conveys valuable information about third party relationships and that, at least by the age of 5, children are able to use this information in order to infer who is allied with whom and who is dominant over whom. In doing so, they add a new dimension to our understanding of the role of imitation in human social life. PMID:25529928

  14. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creton, Costantino

    2014-03-01

    Most unfilled elastomers are relatively brittle, in particular when the average molecular weight between crosslinks is lower than the average molecular weight between entanglements. We created a new class of tough elastomers by introducing isotropically prestretched chains inside ordinary acrylic elastomers by successive swelling and polymerization steps. These new materials combine a high entanglement density with a densely crosslinked structure reaching elastic moduli of 4 MPa and fracture strength of 25 MPa. The highly prestretched chains are the minority in the material and can break in the bulk of the material before catastrophic failure occurs, increasing the toughness of the material by two orders of magnitude up to 5 kJ/m2. To investigate the details of the toughening mechanism we introduced specific sacrificial dioxetane bonds in the prestretched chains that emit light when they break. In uniaxial extension cyclic experiments, we checked that the light emission corresponded exactly and quantitatively to the energy dissipation in each cycle demonstrating that short chains break first and long chains later. We then watched crack propagation in notched samples and mapped spatially the location of bond breakage ahead of the crack tip before and during propagation. This new toughening mechanism for elastomers creates superentangled rubbers and is ideally suited to overcome the trade-off between toughness and stiffness of ordinary elastomers. We gratefully acknowledge funding from DSM Ahead

  15. The French Ambassador in Firing Room to watch launch.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On hand in the Firing Room to watch the launch of STS-103 are (left to right) Joseph Rothenberg, associate administrator, Office of Space Flight; JoAnn Morgan, associate director for Advanced Development and Shuttle Upgrades; and Francois Bujon de L'Estang, ambassador of France. Behind the ambassador is his wife, Madam de L'Estang. One of the STS-103 crew, Mission Specialist Jean-Francois Clervoy, is from France, and a member of the European Space Agency (ESA). Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. , Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland (also with ESA). The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 19 at 7:50 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. After the 7-day, 21-hour mission, Discovery is expected to land at KSC Monday, Dec. 27, at about 5:24 p.m. EST

  16. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for radio science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Gerard, E.; Brown, R. D.; Godfrey, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some 34 radio observatories in 18 countries are participating in the Radio Science Net of the International Halley Watch. Approximately 100 radio astronomers are contributing to this effort, which has included observations of comets P/Crommelin and P/Giacobini-Zinner as well as P/Halley. It is clear that the record of data for the 18 cm OH ground state lambda doublet, which provides fundamental information on the gas production rate, kinematics, and potentially the magnetic field in the coma, will be vastly more complete and of higher accuracy than has even been obtained on any previous comet. The coverage by a number of radio observatories will enable short period variations to be studied and correlated with simultaneous data obtained at other wavelengths. Likewise, the first definitive detection of the important parent molecule hydrogen cyanide in a comet was obtained and is being studied by groups in the United States, Sweden, and France. The first detection of the comet with the Very Large Array telescope operated by NRAO was achieved and has produced exciting results for the distribution of emission at high angular resolution from the OH radical. At this writing data are still being obtained and being processed, and there are still strong indications that exciting information will be obtained from radar studies of P/Halley and from searches for additional parent molecules.

  17. Trial watch - inhibiting PARP enzymes for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sistigu, Antonella; Manic, Gwenola; Obrist, Florine; Vitale, Ilio

    2016-03-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a members of family of enzymes that catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and/or mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation), two post-translational protein modifications involved in crucial cellular processes including (but not limited to) the DNA damage response (DDR). PARP1, the most abundant family member, is a nuclear protein that is activated upon sensing distinct types of DNA damage and contributes to their resolution by PARylating multiple DDR players. Recent evidence suggests that, along with DDR, activated PARP1 mediates a series of prosurvival and proapoptotic processes aimed at preserving genomic stability. Despite this potential oncosuppressive role, upregulation and/or overactivation of PARP1 or other PARP enzymes has been reported in a variety of human neoplasms. Over the last few decades, several pharmacologic inhibitors of PARP1 and PARP2 have been assessed in preclinical and clinical studies showing potent antineoplastic activity, particularly against homologous recombination (HR)-deficient ovarian and breast cancers. In this Trial Watch, we describe the impact of PARP enzymes and PARylation in cancer, discuss the mechanism of cancer cell killing by PARP1 inactivation, and summarize the results of recent clinical studies aimed at evaluating the safety and therapeutic profile of PARP inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308587

  18. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-12-30

    The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts.

  19. Traditional Sex Role Development and Amount of Time Spent Watching Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Terry; McGhee, Paul E.

    1975-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching television would be significantly related to the strength of traditional sex role development. Subjects were 80 kindergarten and elementary school children. (SDH)

  20. World mussel watch database. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is an internationally cooordinated system for systematic operational data collection and analysis. This contribution to GOOS is an attempt to determine the levels of contaminants in mussels and oysters collected worldwide and to compare the results with the long-term Mussel Watch programs of the United States and France. A comprehensive literature search of studies using any species of mussels and/or oysters worldwide to monitor the levels of trace metals and organic contaminants was conducted and the data compiled into the World Mussel Watch database. Data sources and statistics of the database are included. Results of the World Mussel Watch and the US and France Mussel Watch programs were compared and typical levels of some trace metals in uncontaminated mussels and oysters were calculated.

  1. How Things Work: A Spinning Top, Lenz's Law and Electric Watches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a physics explanation for a toy top driven by a magnet. Draws parallels to electric watches which use balance wheels with small permanent magnet mounts on them and having the coils mounted at one side. (JM)

  2. A Timely Intervention: Endoscopic Retrieval of a Swallowed Magnetized Activity Watch

    PubMed Central

    Radowsky, Jason S.; Lee, Joseph S.; Schlussel, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    The accidental ingestion of a foreign object often presents a difficult scenario for the clinician. This includes not only the decision to retrieve the material but also the appropriate technique to use. We present the case of a young asymptomatic girl who swallowed a magnetic activity watch, which was then successfully retrieved with an endoscopic snare. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of salvaging an operational watch from the stomach using an endoscopic technique. PMID:26904319

  3. A Timely Intervention: Endoscopic Retrieval of a Swallowed Magnetized Activity Watch.

    PubMed

    Radowsky, Jason S; Lee, Joseph S; Schlussel, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    The accidental ingestion of a foreign object often presents a difficult scenario for the clinician. This includes not only the decision to retrieve the material but also the appropriate technique to use. We present the case of a young asymptomatic girl who swallowed a magnetic activity watch, which was then successfully retrieved with an endoscopic snare. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of salvaging an operational watch from the stomach using an endoscopic technique. PMID:26904319

  4. Effect of Watching 3-Dimensional Television on Refractive Error in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Yong-Min; Han, Ji-Yoon; Nam, Gi-Tae; You, Eun-Joo; Cho, Yoonae A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. Methods Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. Results The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. Conclusions Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children. PMID:25646061

  5. Assessing the Function of Cypress Knees - A Watershed Watch Student Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. D.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Porter, W.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research presented here was conducted on cypress knees of different ages from the campus of Elizabeth City State University in northeastern North Carolina. Samples were collected from Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) knees and thin sections were cut from the distal, medial, and proximal regions of each knee. Three specimens of each of young and old knees were analyzed. Structural differences in the location and amount of wood (secondary xylem), parenchyma, and aerenchyma tissues were compared in order to determine if both younger and older knees function as pneumatophores, and if only the younger knees are capable of providing oxygen to roots in waterlogged soils. Our findings include: younger knees have the most aerenchyma tissue (living cells associated with air canals) and a thinner bark (likely pervious) on the distal tips. The older knees are more woody with distinct growth rings, exhibit less aerenchyma tissue, and have a much thicker (likely impervious) bark at the distal tip. The conclusion regarding the purpose of cypress knees is that the younger knees likely function as aerating organs (peumatophores) for the growing roots tips, while the older knees have reduced amounts of aerenchyma tissue and a thicker bark, and therefore may lose the ability to function as an aerating organ for the older roots.

  6. Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for a Self-Powered Electronic Watch.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ting; Wang, Xue; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2015-12-22

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator including a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and six electromagnetic generators (EMGs) that can effectively scavenge biomechanical energy for sustainably powering an electronic watch. Triggered by the natural motions of the wearer's wrist, a magnetic ball at the center in an acrylic box with coils on each side will collide with the walls, resulting in outputs from both the EMGs and the TENG. By using the hybridized nanogenerator to harvest the biomechanical energy, the electronic watch can be continuously powered under different motion types of the wearer's wrist, where the best approach is to charge a 100 μF capacitor in 39 s to maintain the continuous operation of the watch for 456 s. To increase the working time of the watch further, a homemade Li-ion battery has been utilized as the energy storage unit for realizing the continuous working of the watch for about 218 min by using the hybridized nanogenerator to charge the battery within 32 min. This work will provide the opportunities for developing a nanogenerator-based built-in power source for self-powered wearable electronics such as an electronic watch. PMID:26565597

  7. Outcomes following watchful waiting for stage II-IV follicular lymphoma patients in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Nastoupil, Loretta J; Sinha, Rajni; Byrtek, Michelle; Ziemiecki, Ryan; Zhou, Xiaolei; Taylor, Michael; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Link, Brian K; Cerhan, James R; Dawson, Keith; Flowers, Christopher R

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an initial management strategy of watchful waiting for follicular lymphoma (FL) in clinical practice, we compared outcomes for patients diagnosed 2004-2007 in the United States initially managed with watchful waiting with outcomes following initial rituximab monotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy. In total, 1754 stage II-IV patients in the National LymphoCare Study underwent watchful waiting (n = 386), rituximab monotherapy (n = 296) or rituximab plus chemotherapy (n = 1072) as initial management strategy. Female patients and those who received treatment in the Northeast or in an academic setting more commonly underwent watchful waiting versus initial chemoimmunotherapy; whereas patients with grade 3 histology, anaemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, extranodal involvement, B symptoms or performance status ≥1 more commonly received chemoimmunotherapy. Although time to new treatment and progression-free survival following first- and second-line therapy were improved with chemoimmunotherapy, and time to chemotherapy was improved with rituximab monotherapy, there were no differences in overall survival between watchful waiting and chemoimmunotherapy or rituximab monotherapy. With 8-year overall survival estimates of 74%, initial management with watchful waiting in the context of sequential therapy remains a viable option for FL patients in the modern era. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00097565). PMID:26729445

  8. Preliminary Results of Observations of Comets De Vico and Hyakutake by the Ulysses Comet Watch Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, C. C.; Brandt, J. C.; Yi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cometary interactions with the solar wind allow us to use comets as probes of the inner regions of the heliosphere. During their close passage to the Sun, comets are exposed to different environments depending on their latitude. Until recently, characterizing these environments has been difficult because most spacecraft studying the sun have been confined to studying its mid-latitudes. A valuable source of information about the differing regimes of the solar wind is the joint ESA/NASA ULYSSES mission, which is the first spacecraft to explore the polar regions of the heliosphere. In 1995, ULYSSES' orbit covered a range of solar latitudes from -80 degrees to +80 degrees - an interval referred to as the 'fast latitude scan.' The Ulysses Comet Watch incorporates in-situ measurements during these periods by the ULYSSES spacecraft with images contributed by a world-wide network of observers (both amateur and professional). Bright comets whose paths come within 20 degrees solar latitude of the spacecraft are considered especially good targets for correlation between spacecraft data and plasma tail activity. Ulysses findings of interest to cometary plasma research are: Verification of global differences in solar wind properties (speed and density) at different solar latitudes. At polar latitudes - ranging from roughly +/-30 degrees to +/-80 degrees - the solar wind speed is about 750 kilometers/sec, and has a proton density (1 AU) around 3 cm(exp -3). Changes in properties are small and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is not seen. In the equatorial latitudes (roughly +30 to -30 degrees), the average solar wind speed is about 450 kilometers/sec, with an average proton density (at 1 AU) around 9 cm(exp -3). The HCS is seen and changes in properties can be large. An object, spacecraft or comet, at a given latitude, can be entirely in the polar, entirely in the equatorial, or can experience both - sort of a transition region.

  9. Forest Watch: A K-12 Outreach Program to Engage Pre-College Students in Authentic, Hands-On Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, M. T.; Rock, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Forest Watch Program is a K-12 hands-on science outreach program developed at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991. The program has engaged students and their teachers in assisting researchers at UNH in the assessment of the state-of-health of white pine (Pinus strobus), a known bio-indicator species for exposure to elevated levels of ground-level ozone. Students are introduced to the scientific method while participating in an authentic on-going research program. The program was designed in partnership with participating teachers, and thus the field and classroom activities meet specific New England state science and mathematics curricula standards for K-12 education. Student participation in Forest Watch has resulted in an improved understanding and characterization of inter-annual white pine response to changes in air quality across the region over the past two decades. Forest Watch, students participate in three types of activities: 1. the analysis of remote sensing data (Landsat TM) provided for their local area using MultiSpec freeware. Through image processing, students learn the concepts of spatial and spectral resolution; how to identify landcover features; how plants interact with visible and infrared energy; and how to use this information to determine vegetation types and identify vegetation conditions. 2. students select 5 white pine trees to be permanently tagged near their school within a 30x30 meter (pixel sized sampling plot - the spatial resolution of the TM dataset), followed by collection and analysis of needle samples, and a suite of forest plot biometric measurements such as tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and canopy closure and ground cover. 3. the students send a set of their needle samples to UNH for spectral analysis of key reflectance features such as the Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP), the TM 5/4 moisture stress index, and the NIR 3/1. Over 250 schools from all six New England states have participated in the

  10. Hydro-climatic control of stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) across northern catchments within the North-Watch program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Seibert, Jan; Soulsby, Chris; Carey, Sean; Buttle, Jim; McDonnell, Jeff; McGuire, Kevin; Caissie, Daniel; Shanley, Jamie

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in understanding the regulating mechanisms of surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) the last decade. A majority of this recent work has been based on individual well characterized research catchments or on regional synoptic datasets combined with readily available landscape and climatic variables. However, as the production and transport of DOC primarily is a function of hydro-climatic conditions a better description of catchment hydrological functioning across large geographic regions would be favorable for moving the mechanistic understanding forward. To do this we report from a first assessment of catchment DOC within the international inter-catchment comparison program North-Watch (http://www.abdn.ac.uk/northwatch/). North-Watch includes long-term research catchments ranging from northern temperate regions to the boreal and sub-arctic biomes with the aim to better understand the variable hydrological and biogeochemical responses in Northern catchments to climate change. The North-Watch catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the US (Sleepers River and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). The annual average DOC concentration in the nine catchments investigated were directly linked to hydro-climatic influences (e.g. temperature, water storage) and landscape configuration. In general, the DOC concentration followed a parabolic shape with temperature, where the highest concentrations were found in the boreal and near boreal sites and with the lowest concentrations in the temperate and sub-arctic catchments. The between catchment variability in DOC concentration could also be explained by catchment water storage and amount of wetlands in the catchment. Whereas there is a mechanistic link between long-term climatic conditions and the areal coverage of wetlands, the total catchment storage of water is more strongly linked to topography, parent material

  11. Forest Watch: a K-12 Outreach Program to Engage Young Students in Authentic, Hands-On Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Gagnon, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Forest Watch Program is a K-12 science outreach program developed at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991. The program engages pre-college teachers and their students in assisting researchers at UNH in the assessment of the state-of-health of white pine (Pinus strobus), a known bio- indicator species for exposure to elevated levels of ground-level ozone. Students participate in three types of activities: 1. selection, collection, and analysis of needle samples from five permanently tagged white pine trees near their school; 2. Study of needles in their classroom and sending a set of needles to UNH for spectral analysis; and 3. analysis of remote sensing data (Landsat TM) provided of their local area using freeware software (MultiSpec). Student-derived foliar symptomology, needle length, needle retention, and tree biometrics, plus the spectral indices, allow UNH researchers to characterize annual variations in tree state-of-health, and to correlate that state-of-health with annual summer ozone levels collected by the EPA and state environmental monitoring networks. The results suggest that regional air quality and state- of-health of trees has improved since 1991. Annual student data and the yearly spectral variations, for the same trees, suggest that white pine health has improved dramatically since 1997/8. This improvement in tree health corresponds with improved regional air quality. An evaluation of student data reliability has been conducted and suggests that the DBH measurements are a most reliable indicator of tree growth. Student data are more reliable if multiple sets of measurements are made and averaged together, compared with single sets of measurements. Based on both student data and spectral analysis of student-provided branch samples, the greatest damage (chlorosis) occurs in trees located along the seacoast areas. Participation in Forest Watch introduces students to the scientific method via an authentic research program. The program is

  12. Episodic action memory for real objects: an ERP investigation with perform, watch, and imagine action encoding tasks versus a non-action encoding task.

    PubMed

    Senkfor, Ava J; Van Petten, Cyma; Kutas, Marta

    2002-04-01

    Cognitive research shows that people typically remember actions they perform better than those that they only watch or imagine doing, but also at times misremember doing actions they merely imagined or planned to do (source memory errors). Neural research suggests some overlap between brain regions engaged during action production, motor imagery, and action observation. The present study evaluates the similarities/differences in brain activity during the retrieval of various types of action and nonaction memories. Participants study real objects in one of four encoding conditions: performing an action, watching the experimenter perform an action, or imagining an action with an object, or a nonmotoric task of estimating an object's cost. At test, participants view color photos of the objects, and make source memory judgments about the initial encoding episodes. Event-related potentials (ERPs) during test reveal (1) content-specific brain activity depending on the nature of the encoding task, and (2) a hand tag, i.e., sensitivity to the hand with which an object had been manipulated at study. At fronto-central sites, ERPs are similar for the three action-retrieval conditions, which are distinct from those to the cost-encoded objects. At occipital sites ERPs distinguished objects from encoding conditions with visual motion (Perform and Watch) from those without visual motion (Imagine and Cost). Results thus suggest some degree of recapitulation of encoding brain activity during retrieval of memories with qualitatively distinct attributes. PMID:11970800

  13. Accuracy of Heart Rate Watches: Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established. Aim To determine the accuracy of four wrist-worn devices (Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, Samsung Gear S and Mio Alpha) to measure heart rate and energy expenditure at rest and during exercise. Methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers (50% female; aged 24 ± 5.6 years) completed ~1-hr protocols involving supine and seated rest, walking and running on a treadmill and cycling on an ergometer. Data from the devices collected during the protocol were compared with reference methods: electrocardiography (heart rate) and indirect calorimetry (energy expenditure). Results None of the devices performed significantly better overall, however heart rate was consistently more accurate than energy expenditure across all four devices. Correlations between the devices and reference methods were moderate to strong for heart rate (0.67–0.95 [0.35 to 0.98]) and weak to strong for energy expenditure (0.16–0.86 [-0.25 to 0.95]). All devices underestimated both outcomes compared to reference methods. The percentage error for heart rate was small across the devices (range: 1–9%) but greater for energy expenditure (9–43%). Similarly, limits of agreement were considerably narrower for heart rate (ranging from -27.3 to 13.1 bpm) than energy expenditure (ranging from -266.7 to 65.7 kcals) across devices. Conclusion These devices accurately measure heart rate. However, estimates of energy expenditure are poor and would have implications for people using these devices for weight loss. PMID:27232714

  14. US Mussel Watch Program: Transuranic element data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1976-1983. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Palmieri, J.; Livingston, H.; Farrington, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus californianus, Crassostrea virginica and Ostrea equestris) were collected once per year during 1976, 1977, and 1978 along the United States coast and analyzed for (239,240)Pu, (241)Am and (137)Cs as part of the U.S. Mussel Watch program. Monthly samples were collected during 1976-1980 from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Bodega Head, California and analyzed for (239,240)Pu, (241)Am, and (137)Cs. There is no evidence in the data for systematic regional or local elevated concentrations of radionuclides as a result of releases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Monthly fluctuations in radionuclide concentrations in the Narragansett Bay mussels appear to be primarily influenced by spawning.

  15. Temporal orienting of attention: An fNIRS study on the illusion of "a watched pot never boils".

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Fu, Xiaolan

    2015-06-01

    The present study used a single-task paradigm in which participants received guidance to focus more attention (waiting for someone) on the temporal intervals in the "waiting" condition and to stay relaxed in the control condition. The reported time was longer in the waiting condition than in the control condition. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure simultaneously the activation levels of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for each condition. Greater oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) activation in the waiting condition was observed compared with the control condition, whilst deoxyhemoglobin data showed no difference between the two conditions. The gradual changes in oxy-Hb in the DLPFC in increments of 100 ms yielded further insights into the role of this region in the "watched pot never boils" phenomenon. PMID:26261904

  16. Clinical Usefulness of Watch-PAT for Assessing the Surgical Results of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficacy of a wrist-worn device that is based on peripheral arterial tonometry (watch-PAT) to evaluate the surgical results of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome subjects. Study Design and Method: Thirty-five subjects who were diagnosed with OSA and underwent sleep surgeries such as septoplasty, tonsillectomy, or uvuloplasty to correct their airway collapse, participated in this study; the watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured after the sleep surgery. Results: The present study showed that RDI (32.8 ± 10.7 vs 14.8 ± 7.5), AHI (30.3 ± 8.6 vs 13.4 ± 8.2 events/h), lowest oxygen saturation (78.2% ± 8.4% vs 90.5% ± 7.1%), and valid sleep time (329.1 ± 47.2 min and a postoperative value of 389.1 ± 50.1 min) recovered to within a normal range after surgery in 28 subjects. In addition, good agreement was found between watch-PAT-derived factors and visual analogue scales for changes in subjective symptoms, such as snoring, apnea, and daytime somnolence. Seven of the 35 subjects showed no improvement for their subjective symptoms and complained of snoring and apnea after surgery. We found that the RDI and AHI of those 7 subjects were not reduced, and the changes between pre- and postoperative values which were measured with watch-PAT were minimal. Their postoperative lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time were not elevated per the watch-PAT. The results support a strong correlation between the findings from watch-PAT and improved symptoms after surgical correction of an airway collapse. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the factors measured by the watch-PAT might be reliable indicators of symptomatic changes in OSA subjects after sleep surgery and also shows that the watch-PAT is a highly sensitive portable device for estimating treatment results in OSA. Citation: Park CY

  17. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  18. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N.; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T.

    2014-01-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  19. Fast Flux Watch: A mechanism for online detection of fast flux networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Duwairi, Basheer N; Al-Hammouri, Ahmad T

    2014-07-01

    Fast flux networks represent a special type of botnets that are used to provide highly available web services to a backend server, which usually hosts malicious content. Detection of fast flux networks continues to be a challenging issue because of the similar behavior between these networks and other legitimate infrastructures, such as CDNs and server farms. This paper proposes Fast Flux Watch (FF-Watch), a mechanism for online detection of fast flux agents. FF-Watch is envisioned to exist as a software agent at leaf routers that connect stub networks to the Internet. The core mechanism of FF-Watch is based on the inherent feature of fast flux networks: flux agents within stub networks take the role of relaying client requests to point-of-sale websites of spam campaigns. The main idea of FF-Watch is to correlate incoming TCP connection requests to flux agents within a stub network with outgoing TCP connection requests from the same agents to the point-of-sale website. Theoretical and traffic trace driven analysis shows that the proposed mechanism can be utilized to efficiently detect fast flux agents within a stub network. PMID:25685515

  20. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  1. The associations of physical activity and television watching with change in kidney function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Marquis; Newman, Anne B.; Madero, Magdalena; Patel, Kushang V.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Cooper, Jennifer; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Fried, Linda F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults. METHODS The Health, Aging and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3,075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function. RESULTS Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.05, 1.52) compared to individuals who watched television < 2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome. CONCLUSIONS High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study. PMID:24762526

  2. A "watch window" technique for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps during circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Zhang, Xin-Rui; Liu, Xue-Kui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Wei-Wei; Li, Hao; Guo, Zhu-Ming

    2012-07-01

    The free jejunum flap approach is the optimal option for circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction. In this study, we designed a "watch window" for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps, thereby allowing us to assess graft viability. From 2007 to 2011, 14 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy that was reconstructed using a free jejunum flap at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre. During the closing of the neck incision, a "watch window" was designed for postoperative monitoring. Two patients experienced thrombosis of the pedicle. One was detected early and successfully rescued by removal of the thrombosis, the other one managed with a second free jejunum flap. The success rate of the buried flaps was 92.9%. No pharyngocutaneous fistulas or strictures occurred. All patients eventually resumed oral feeding and swallowing. The "watch window" technique for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps is simple, reliable and useful for finding vascular problems. Level of evidence Case series. PMID:22116384

  3. Is watch and wait still acceptable for patients with low-grade follicular lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Armitage, James O; Longo, Dan L

    2016-06-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) represents more than 20% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas worldwide and approximately 30% of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas diagnosed in the United States. Although occasionally localized at the time of diagnosis, most patients have disseminated disease. However, patients are frequently asymptomatic, and this, in combination with a long median survival, led to the initial studies of observing asymptomatic patients without initial therapy, ie, "watch and wait." Since the initial report of watch and wait as a treatment strategy for patients with low-grade FL, our understanding of the biology of the disease has advanced; multiple active new agents have been introduced into practice, and the survival of patients with low-grade FL has improved. Given these changes, is watch and wait still an acceptable treatment recommendation for a newly diagnosed patient with low-grade FL? PMID:26994147

  4. Children's discrimination of fantastic vs. realistic visual displays after watching a film with magical content.

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene; Slater, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Six- and nine-yr.-old children (n=28 of each) were divided into equal experimental and control groups. The experimental groups were shown a film with a magical theme, and the control groups were shown a film with a nonmagical theme. All groups then were presented with a choice task requiring them to discriminate between ordinary and fantastic visual displays on a computer screen. Statistical analyses indicated that mean scores for correctly identifying the ordinary and fantastic displays were significantly different between experimental and control groups. The children in the experimental groups who watched the magical film had significantly higher scores on correct identifications than children in the control groups who watched the nonmagical film for both age groups. The results suggest that watching films with a magical theme might enhance children's sensitivity toward the fantasy/reality distinction. PMID:21667768

  5. Television and families: what do young children watch with their parents?

    PubMed

    St Peters, M; Fitch, M; Huston, A C; Wright, J C; Eakins, D J

    1991-12-01

    A sample of 271 3- and 5-year-olds and their families participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of television viewing patterns. 5 1-week diaries for all family members were collected at 6-month intervals. Programs were categorized as: (1) child informative, (2) child entertainment, (3) news and informative, (4) sports, (5) comedy, (6) drama, (7) action-adventure, and (8) variety-game. The majority of child programs were viewed without parents, while the majority of adult programs were watched with parents. Coviewing patterns of adult programs were predicted from parents' individual viewing habits, but not from the child's. Coviewing declined with age. Parental encouragement and regulation of viewing were orthogonal. Children whose parents encouraged viewing watched more child informative programming; children of restrictive parents watched less entertainment programming. Encouraging parents coviewed more than nonencouraging parents. Results support the assertion that parental viewing preferences, habits, and orientations toward television influence children's viewing, both with and without parents. PMID:1786724

  6. What Physiological Changes and Cerebral Traces Tell Us about Adhesion to Fiction During Theater-Watching?

    PubMed Central

    Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle; Bressan, Yannick; Heider, Nathalie; Otzenberger, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Live theater is typically designed to alter the state of mind of the audience. Indeed, the perceptual inputs issuing from a live theatrical performance are intended to represent something else, and the actions, emphasized by the writing and staging, are the key prompting the adhesion of viewers to fiction, i.e., their belief that it is real. This phenomenon raises the issue of the cognitive processes governing access to a fictional reality during live theater and of their cerebral underpinnings. To get insight into the physiological substrates of adhesion we recreated the peculiar context of watching live drama in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, with simultaneous recording of heart activity. The instants of adhesion were defined as the co-occurrence of theatrical events determined a priori by the stage director and the spectators’ offline reports of moments when fiction acted as reality. These data served to specify, for each spectator, individual fMRI time-series, used in a random-effect group analysis to define the pattern of brain response to theatrical events. The changes in this pattern related to subjects’ adhesion to fiction, were investigated using a region of interest analysis. The results showed that adhesion to theatrical events correlated with increased activity in the left BA47 and posterior superior temporal sulcus, together with a decrease in dynamic heart rate variability, leading us to discuss the hypothesis of subtle changes in the subjects’ state of awareness, enabling them to mentally dissociate physical and mental (drama-viewing) experiences, to account for the phenomenon of adhesion to dramatic fiction. PMID:20838472

  7. CT-detected traumatic small artery extremity injuries: surgery, embolize, or watch? A 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Velez, Erik; Surman, Andrew M; Nanavati, Sujal M; Kumar, Vishal; Lehrman, Evan; Wilson, Mark W; Conrad, Miles B

    2016-02-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) angiography have increased the sensitivity and specificity of detecting small branch arterial injuries in the extremities of trauma patients. However, it is unclear whether these patients should undergo surgery, angioembolization, or conservative watchful waiting. We hypothesized that uncomplicated small arterial branch injuries can be managed successfully with watchful waiting. A 10-year retrospective review of extremity CT angiograms with search findings of arterial "active extravasation" or "pseudoaneurysm" was performed at a level 1 county trauma center. Subgroup analysis was performed on those with isolated extremity injury and those with concurrent injuries. A total of 31 patients had CT-detected active extravasation (84 %) or pseudoaneurysm (16 %), 71 % of which were isolated vascular injuries. Of the patients evaluated, 71 % (n = 22) were managed with watchful waiting, 19 % (n = 6) with angioembolization, and 10 % (n = 3) with surgery. Watchful waiting complications included progression to alternative treatment (n = 1) and blood transfusions (n = 2). Complications of surgery included the inability to find active bleeding (n = 1) and postoperative psychosis (n = 1). Complications of angioembolization were limited to a postprocedure blood transfusion (n = 1). Patients with isolated vascular injuries had an average length of stay of 2.9 days, with management averages of the following: 2.7 days with watchful waiting (n = 16), 3.3 days with angioembolization (n = 3), and 3.7 days with surgery (n = 3). CT angiography has greatly increased the reported incidence of traumatic arterial injury in the extremity. We propose that small branch arterial injuries in the extremities can be managed successfully with watchful waiting and do not often require immediate embolization. PMID:26581655

  8. Night Watch in One Brain Hemisphere during Sleep Associated with the First-Night Effect in Humans.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Masako; Bang, Ji Won; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-05-01

    We often experience troubled sleep in a novel environment [1]. This is called the first-night effect (FNE) in human sleep research and has been regarded as a typical sleep disturbance [2-4]. Here, we show that the FNE is a manifestation of one hemisphere being more vigilant than the other as a night watch to monitor unfamiliar surroundings during sleep [5, 6]. Using advanced neuroimaging techniques [7, 8] as well as polysomnography, we found that the temporary sleep disturbance in the first sleep experimental session involves regional interhemispheric asymmetry of sleep depth [9]. The interhemispheric asymmetry of sleep depth associated with the FNE was found in the default-mode network (DMN) involved with spontaneous internal thoughts during wakeful rest [10, 11]. The degree of asymmetry was significantly correlated with the sleep-onset latency, which reflects the degree of difficulty of falling asleep and is a critical measure for the FNE. Furthermore, the hemisphere with reduced sleep depth showed enhanced evoked brain response to deviant external stimuli. Deviant external stimuli detected by the less-sleeping hemisphere caused more arousals and faster behavioral responses than those detected by the other hemisphere. None of these asymmetries were evident during subsequent sleep sessions. These lines of evidence are in accord with the hypothesis that troubled sleep in an unfamiliar environment is an act for survival over an unfamiliar and potentially dangerous environment by keeping one hemisphere partially more vigilant than the other hemisphere as a night watch, which wakes the sleeper up when unfamiliar external signals are detected. PMID:27112296

  9. A general and flexible methodology to define thresholds for heat health watch and warning systems, applied to the province of Québec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Chebana, Fateh; Martel, Barbara; Gosselin, Pierre; Giroux, Jean-Xavier; Ouarda, Taha B M J

    2013-07-01

    Several watch and warning systems have been established in the world in recent years to prevent the effects of heat waves. However, many of these approaches can be applied only in regions with perfect conditions (e.g., enough data, stationary series or homogeneous regions). Furthermore, a number of these approaches do not account for possible trend in mortality and/or temperature series, whereas others are generally not adapted to regions with low population densities or low daily mortality levels. In addition, prediction based on multiple days preceding the event can be less accurate if it attributes the same importance to each of these days, since the forecasting accuracy actually decreases with the period. The aim of the present study was to identify appropriate indicators as well as flexible and general thresholds that can be applied to a variety of regions and conditions. From a practical point of view, the province of Québec constitutes a typical case where a number of the above-mentioned constraints are present. On the other hand, until recently, the province's watch and warning system was based on a study conducted in 2005, covering only the city of Montreal and applied to the whole province. The proposed approach is applied to each one of the other health regions of the province often experiencing low daily counts of mortality and presenting trends. The first constraint led to grouping meteorologically homogeneous regions across the province in which the number of deaths is sufficient to carry out the appropriate data analyses. In each region, mortality trends are taken into account. In addition, the proposed indicators are defined by a 3-day weighted mean of maximal and minimal temperatures. The sensitivity of the results to the inclusion of traumatic deaths is also checked. The application shows that the proposed method improved the results in terms of sensitivity, specificity and number of yearly false alarms, compared to those of the existing and

  10. Methodology for evaluating lateral boundary conditions in the regional chemical transport model MATCH (v5.5.0) using combined satellite and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, E.; Kahnert, M.; Devasthale, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hemispheric transport of air pollutants can have a significant impact on regional air quality, as well as on the effect of air pollutants on regional climate. An accurate representation of hemispheric transport in regional chemical transport models (CTMs) depends on the specification of the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). This study focuses on the methodology for evaluating LBCs of two moderately long-lived trace gases, carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), for the European model domain and over a 7-year period, 2006-2012. The method is based on combining the use of satellite observations at the lateral boundary with the use of both satellite and in situ ground observations within the model domain. The LBCs are generated by the global European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West (EMEP MSC-W) model; they are evaluated at the lateral boundaries by comparison with satellite observations of the Terra-MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) sensor (CO) and the Aura-OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) sensor (O3). The LBCs from the global model lie well within the satellite uncertainties for both CO and O3. The biases increase below 700 hPa for both species. However, the satellite retrievals below this height are strongly influenced by the a priori data; hence, they are less reliable than at, e.g. 500 hPa. CO is, on average, underestimated by the global model, while O3 tends to be overestimated during winter, and underestimated during summer. A regional CTM is run with (a) the validated monthly climatological LBCs from the global model; (b) dynamical LBCs from the global model; and (c) constant LBCs based on in situ ground observations near the domain boundary. The results are validated against independent satellite retrievals from the Aqua-AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) sensor at 500 hPa, and against in situ ground observations from the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) network. It is found that (i) the use of

  11. Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

  12. 78 FR 2683 - Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S. Flagged Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S... Guard announces the implementation date of carriage standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS), in accordance with the Articles of the International Convention for the Safety of Life...

  13. Children under the age of two are more likely to watch inappropriate background media than older children

    PubMed Central

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Brockmeyer Cates, Carolyn; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule, Samantha B; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Aim To establish whether young children watched foreground electronic media or background media that was not aimed at them or was inappropriate for their age. Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis of mother-infant dyads participating in a larger parenting study. The primary dependent variable was maternal reports of watching habits from media diaries at six, 14, 24 and 36 months. Independent variables were child age, programme content and whether the programme was turned on specifically for the child. Results We analysed 3,570 programme exposures in 527 children, mostly from television. Children were significantly more likely to actually watch programmes if they were older, if the content was coded as “educational-young child” or if the parent tuned on the programme specifically so the child could watch it. Children under the age of two were more likely than older children to watch background media that featured age-inappropriate content or had not been turned on for them to watch (30% versus 16% of programmes; AOR = 2.19, [95%CI 1.82-2.65]). Conclusions Young children under the age of two frequently watch background media that has age-inappropriate content or has not been turned on for them to watch. PMID:24812713

  14. 46 CFR 12.609 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as rating forming part of an engineering watch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as rating forming part of an engineering watch (RFPEW). 12.609 Section 12.609 Shipping COAST GUARD... forming part of an engineering watch (RFPEW). (a) To qualify for an STCW endorsement as an RFPEW in...

  15. STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Cameron juggle cassettes on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron juggle cassette tapes on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Laughing at Cameron's stunt are Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin (foreground), Commander Steven R. Nagel (behind Cameron), and MS Jerry L. Ross (at floor level). Ross snacks on chocolate candy during the performance.

  16. Folklore in Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God." [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Zora Neale Hurston's work is lively, lyrical, funny, and poignant, but this consummate literary craftsperson was also a first-rate ethnographer, conducting field work for Franz Boas and for the Works Progress Administration (WPA). "Their Eyes Were Watching God," often acclaimed as Hurston's masterpiece, is perhaps the richest beneficiary of her…

  17. Effects of Watching Captioned Movie Clip on Vocabulary Development of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan; Tanriverdi, Belgin

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of watching a closed-captioned movie clip on incidental vocabulary learning in a pre-test post-test experimental design. 120 college students from a college preparatory class, who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL), participated in the study. Two weeks before the treatment, all of the…

  18. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 7 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  19. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 6 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 6 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  20. Promotion and Prevention Orientations in the Choice to Attend Lectures or Watch Them Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassili, J. N.

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the option to use a new instructional technology, students often face an approach-avoidance conflict. This study explored promotion and prevention orientations, concepts linked to approach and avoidance in Higgins's regulatory focus theory, in the choice to attend lectures or watch them online. Openness, a core disposition in…

  1. International Television Programing. If People Could Have It, Would They Watch It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Donald R.

    Most of the literature on communication satellites deals with the technological, legal, and political problems of international communication. Few writers have considered what sorts of programing the international audiences might wish to receive or would watch. Several sources of evidence suggest what the choices might be if the entire world is…

  2. The Use of Common Planning Time: A Case Study of Two Kentucky Schools to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Christopher M.; Faulkner, Shawn A.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teams with common planning time have been a hallmark of the middle school organizational structure since the 1960s, yet research on the effective use of common planning time is limited. This study explores how interdisciplinary teams at schools designated Kentucky Schools to Watch use common planning time, including the factors…

  3. Watching a Drunkard for 10 Nights: A Study of Distributions of Variances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zia, R. K. P.; Schmittmann, B.

    2003-01-01

    Considers a problem of simple random walks to study distributions of variances. Describes watching a drunk over a period of nights, taking a number of steps per night. Explores the full probability distribution for the variance of the data string and discusses the connection of the results to the problem of data binning. (Author/NB)

  4. Let's Waste Less Waste, Level 4. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  5. Waste Out of Place, Level 1. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  6. Natural and Man-Made Objects, Level K. Teacher's Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  7. Commentary: watching closely at a distance: key tensions in supervising resident physicians.

    PubMed

    Babbott, Stewart

    2010-09-01

    Graded responsibility and autonomy are integral features of medical education. High-quality patient care is paramount and is the ultimate responsibility of the attending physician. In the training setting, the teaching attending holds quality of care constant while balancing the amount of supervision and autonomy he or she gives the learner. Sterkenburg and colleagues focus on how faculty members make their decisions to entrust patient care to learners. Both this critical decision and the process of deciding, performed many times a day by teaching faculty, are at the heart of the confluence of providing quality patient care and developing the next generation of physicians. Sterkenburg and colleagues innovatively use a system of rating (with six sequentially more complex entrustable professional activities [EPAs]) and structured interviews to better understand the current practice of entrusting care. They defined gaps between when attending faculty feel residents are ready to perform a particular EPA, when the residents feel ready, and when the residents actually perform it. The tension between the imperative to ensure quality care and the competing imperative to grant graded autonomy can be described as "watching closely at a distance." The details of who should watch whom, when and what to watch, and how and how much to watch are all key issues for faculty and residents. Sterkenburg and colleagues provide a framework for further investigation (e.g., discerning the ideal level of supervision, developing a gold standard for assessing EPAs) into these critical medical education challenges. PMID:20736665

  8. Community Solutions for Solid Waste Pollution, Level 6. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  9. Developing a Critical View on E-Learning Trend Reports: Trend Watching or Trend Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Jo; Rusman, Ellen; van der Klink, Marcel; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Trend watching reports are an indispensable resource in the e-learning domain. Many HRD departments consider these reports as essential cornerstones for the development of their e-learning strategy. But what is the quality of the forecasts made in these reports? In this article, several methods of forecasting trends are discussed, resulting in a…

  10. Watch This! A Guide to Implementing Video Modeling in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynkoop, Kaylee Stahr

    2016-01-01

    The video modeling (VM) teaching strategy is one in which a student watches a video of someone performing a specific behavior, skill, or task and is then expected to complete the behavior, skill, or task. This column discusses the variety of ways in which VM has been documented within the literature and supports teacher interest in the strategy by…

  11. Is the "Idiot's Box" Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munasib, Abdul; Bhattacharya, Samrat

    2010-01-01

    There is widespread belief that exposure to television has harmful effects on children's cognitive development. Most studies that point to a negative correlation between hours of television watching and cognitive outcomes, fail to establish causality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we study young children between 5 and 10…

  12. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O’Connor, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22–0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04–0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering. PMID:26644979

  13. 77 FR 38817 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval Agreements with FHA lenders and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE)...

  14. 76 FR 22119 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... HUD published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE)...

  15. 76 FR 38407 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval Agreements with FHA... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE)...

  16. 76 FR 53148 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval Agreements with FHA... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE)...

  17. 77 FR 5262 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval Agreements with FHA lenders and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE)...

  18. 75 FR 61165 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... published a notice (64 FR 26769), on its procedures for terminating Origination Approval Agreements with FHA... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE)...

  19. Teachers Steer Their Own Learning: Colorado Middle School becomes a School to Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Diane; Matthews, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Conrad Ball Middle School in Loveland, Colorado, earned a "School to Watch" Award in 2005 from the National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform and was designated as high-performing by the state. However, in 2002, the school had its lowest test scores ever. Teachers at Conrad Ball received the news and determined they would turn things…

  20. Effects of watching eyes and norm cues on charitable giving in a surreptitious behavioral experiment.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Moe; Bateson, Melissa; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A series of experimental studies by multiple groups of researchers have found that displaying images of watching eyes causes people to behave more prosocially. It is not yet clear whether watching eyes increase prosocial motivation per se, or whether they simply make people's behavior more normative. Here, we report results from a surreptitious behavioral experiment examining the impacts of watching eye images and cues to local norms on charitable donations in a controlled setting. Eye images significantly increased average donations. Eye images did not make people conform more closely to the apparent norm overall. Instead, there were different patterns according to the apparent norm. For an apparent norm of small donations, eye images made many participants more generous than the norm. For an apparent norm of large donations, there was an excess of participants giving zero in the no-eyes treatment, which was abolished in the eyes treatment. Our results can be explained by a combination of watching eyes increasing prosocial motivation and reluctance to leave a donation visibly less generous than the norm. PMID:25331033

  1. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O'Connor, Abby; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22-0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04-0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering. PMID:26644979

  2. STS-93: Crew Watch the Installation of Chandra's Solar Panel in the VPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers, Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman and Michel Tognini, watching the installation of Chandra's Solar Panel in the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at Kennedy Space Center. Crewmembers ask the engineers questions about different components in order to familiarize themselves.

  3. Technology Watch and Competitive Intelligence: A New Challenge in Education for Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Henri; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for education of information professionals in France to change because of changing needs for scientific, technological, and economic information. The functions of technology watch and competitive intelligence based on an organization's critical success factor are shown to be important. (13 references) (EAM)

  4. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  5. Validity and Reliability of a Commercial Fitness Watch for Measuring Running Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas; Pozzi, Federico; Carroll, Anthony; Rombach, Andrew; Zeni, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Validity and reliability study. Background Providing feedback on running mechanics is a common intervention to decrease the risk of injury or to restore running after an injury. Commercially available devices are able to measure running dynamics, such as cadence, ground contact time (GCT), and vertical oscillation (VO), but there is limited evidence on the validity and reliability of these measures. Objective To determine the validity and reliability of measures of cadence, GCT, and VO with a fitness watch compared to a motion-analysis system. Methods Twenty runners ran in 3 conditions: (1) baseline (self-selected speed and cadence), (2) higher cadence, and (3) decreased vertical motion (minimal oscillation). Ten runners also performed an additional baseline running session to measure intrasession reliability. For each condition, the average cadence, GCT, and VO were collected from a watch and from a motion-capture system. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess validity between devices. An analysis of variance with 2 repeated measures was used to determine the ability of the watch and motion analysis to detect change in running dynamics. Results The ICCs between the 2 measuring systems were 0.931, 0.963, and 0.749 for cadence, VO, and GCT, respectively (P<.01). The minimal detectable changes at the 95% confidence interval for cadence, VO, and GCT were 2.53 steps per minute, 0.45 cm, and 0.01 seconds, respectively, for the watch. There were no interaction effects, but there was a main effect for condition; both devices detected changes in running dynamics. Conclusion The watch is a valid and reliable tool for detecting changes in cadence, VO, and GCT. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):471-476. Epub 26 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6391. PMID:27117729

  6. The effect of watching live arthroscopic views on postoperative anxiety of patients.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Ahmet; Tuncay, Ibrahim; Atasoy, Nuray; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Keser, Selçuk; Ege, Ahmet

    2008-11-01

    Surgery is a stressful experience. Many minor interventions have been shown to cause considerable anxiety in patients, but whether arthroscopy leads to such anxiety is not well-known. Methods for lowering perioperative anxiety have been sought and listening to music or watching a movie have been recommended. The method of permitting patients to watch their own endoscopy has been studied infrequently. Our aim in this study was to find out the effect of watching simultaneous arthroscopic views on postoperative anxiety. A total of 63 patients were randomly divided into two groups: those watching their own arthroscopy formed group W, while patients that were only verbally informed formed group NW. The mean age of patients in both groups were 33 and 34, respectively. Meniscal surgery was the most commonly performed procedure (49/63 patients). The patients filled in state scale of State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) forms and the study questionnaire (SQ) prepared for this study, just before and after the arthroscopy. Group W had significantly lower postoperative scores of STAI-S, whole questionnaire (Q-score) and all but one of individual statements in SQ. Having a previous operation history did not affect STAI scores. Age and level of education was not correlated with any of the studied parameters either. The ratio of patients that were pleased with the arthroscopy experience in group W and NW were 94 and 63%, respectively. Watching live arthroscopic views has led to a significant decrease in postoperative anxiety and worries about the surgery and the postoperative period, while increasing overall understanding and satisfaction of the patient. PMID:18566798

  7. Naturally occurring changes in time spent watching television are inversely related to frequency of physical activity during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Lytle, Leslie A

    2006-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with an increase in frequency of leisure-time physical activity. That relationship was strong in magnitude and independent of sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and the value participants placed on health, appearance, and achievement. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce television watching as a possible means of increasing adolescent physical activity. PMID:16338428

  8. Progress on the development of the MediWatch ambulatory blood pressure monitor and related devices.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim-Gau; Ting, Choon-Meng; Yeo, Joon-Hock; Sim, Kwang-Wei; Peh, Wee-Leng; Chua, Ngak-Hwee; Chua, Ngak-Kwong; Kwong, Frank

    2004-06-01

    The MediWatch is a wrist-mounted noninvasive blood pressure monitor designed to capture the radial pulse waveform using arterial tonometry and yield blood pressure measurements when the waveform is calibrated. An early prototype of this monitor uses a pulse-sensing system with a cylindrical plunger to applanate the radial artery. This prototype was evaluated against simulated blood pressure generated by a pneumatic pressure-pulse generator. The simulation-based results show that the prototype gave accurate pressure measurements when the MediWatch waveforms were calibrated against the simulator's pressure, indicating that the pulse-sensing system was able to measure force accurately. The prototype was clinically evaluated against intra-arterial pressure on post-open heart surgery patients. The results show that, under stationary conditions, for short periods of time and when the MediWatch waveforms were calibrated against the intra-arterial pressure, the prototype gave measurements that satisfy some of the statistical criteria of the 1993 Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standard, the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol and the 2002 European Society of Hypertension protocol. These clinical results indicate that, under the stated test conditions, the prototype was able to accurately track changes in the patients' systolic and diastolic pressures. The MediWatch is being developed into an ambulatory device that provides a macroscopic view of the patient's blood pressure through measurement at preprogrammed intervals over 24 h, as well as a microscopic view of the patient's pressure through the pulse waveform captured during each measurement cycle. The design features of the MediWatch are being adapted for other applications that require the arterial pulse waveform, calibrated beat-to-beat blood pressure or both. An improved MediWatch prototype has been developed that provides memory storage for measurement data and functions as an

  9. Different brain correlates for watching real and virtual hand actions.

    PubMed

    Perani, D; Fazio, F; Borghese, N A; Tettamanti, M; Ferrari, S; Decety, J; Gilardi, M C

    2001-09-01

    We investigated whether observation of actions reproduced in three-dimensional virtual reality would engage perceptual and visuomotor brain processes different from those induced by the observation of real hand actions. Participants were asked to passively observe grasping actions of geometrical objects made by a real hand or by hand reconstructions of different quality in 3D virtual reality as well as on a 2D TV screen. We found that only real actions in natural environment activated a visuospatial network including the right posterior parietal cortex. Observation of virtual-reality hand actions engaged prevalent visual perceptual processes within lateral and mesial occipital regions. Thus, only perception of actions in reality maps onto existing action representations, whereas virtual-reality conditions do not access the full motor knowledge available to the central nervous system. PMID:11506547

  10. A crowd watches practice sessions for the FIRST competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Visitors to Kennedy Space Center, team members and their families fill the stands during practice sessions of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 at the KSC Visitor Complex. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at KSC, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  11. The New Product Watch: Successes and Challenges of Crowdsourcing as a Method of Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Amy L; Biener, Lois

    2016-01-01

    New smokeless tobacco (eg, snus and dissolvable tobacco products) and nontobacco nicotine products (eg, e-cigarettes) have emerged in recent years amid widespread speculation about locations of test marketing, toxic constituents, and consumer targeting. The New Product Watch was a pilot online monitoring system aimed at filling these information gaps by using a form of crowdsourcing: recruiting volunteers to visit local retailers and report their findings. With very little funding, the New Product Watch gathered county-specific data on new product availability in 19 states as well as trend data on product marketing and demand, and completed 2 rounds of product purchases and subsequent toxic constituent analyses. Data were collected over a 2-year period, between 2009 and 2011. Despite the successes, we found that this small-scale, volunteer effort was not a sustainable method for ensuring continuous, systematic surveillance of new product availability, marketing, and toxicity. PMID:24335713

  12. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M.; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Nemes, Bogdan; Mars Bitenc, Urša; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging. PMID:26694431

  13. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Nemes, Bogdan; Mars Bitenc, Urša; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-12-01

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging. PMID:26694431

  14. Where people look when watching movies: do all viewers look at the same place?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Robert B; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2007-07-01

    Magnification around the most important point of a movie scene (center of interest-COI) might aid people with visual impairments that cause resolution loss. This will be effective only if most people look at the same place when watching a movie. We recorded the eye movements of 20 normally sighted subjects as each watched six movie clips, totaling 37.5 min. More than half of the time the distribution of subject gaze points fell within an area statistic that was less than 12% of the movie scene. Male and older subjects were more likely to look in the same place than female and younger subjects, respectively. We conclude that the between-subject agreement is sufficient to make the approach practical. PMID:17010963

  15. Adapting SugarWatch to Manage Metabolic Syndrome in a Partial Hospitalization Program: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Clute, Rose

    2015-01-01

    A successful worksite diabetes prevention program, SugarWatch,was adapted for a seriously mentally ill patient population in a partial hospitalization program in Hawai‘i. A feasibility study was implemented using an intervention with 3 components:SugarWatch curriculum, structured physical activity,and Create a Plate lunch. Twenty participants completed the three month intervention. Only systolic blood pressure showed statistically significant improvement. However, trends in improvement were also seen with diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Despite minimal improvement in physiological measures, the project changed practice in the setting to align with the 2004 American Diabetes Association and American Psychiatric Association Guidelines for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and better management of patients taking second generation antipsychotic medications. PMID:25821649

  16. Choking under monitoring pressure: being watched by the experimenter reduces executive attention.

    PubMed

    Belletier, Clément; Davranche, Karen; Tellier, Idriss S; Dumas, Florence; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Performing more poorly given one's skill level ("choking") is likely in situations that offer an incentive if a certain outcome is achieved (outcome pressure) or when one is being watched by others-especially when one's performance is being evaluated (monitoring pressure). According to the choking literature, outcome pressure is associated with reduced executive control of attention, whereas monitoring pressure is associated with increased, yet counterproductive, attention to skill processes. Here, we show the first evidence that monitoring pressure-being watched by the experimenter-may lead individuals with higher working memory to choke on a classic measure of executive control-just the task effect thought to result from outcome pressure. Not only does this finding help refine our understanding of the processes underlying choking under monitoring pressure, but it also leads to a new look at classic audience effects, with an important implication for experimental psychology. PMID:25673216

  17. An analysis of the New Technical Strategy Flowsheet applied to the watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1994-09-01

    The New Technical Strategy Flowsheet is currently chosen for cleanup of the tanks on the Hanford Reservation. In this study, it is applied to a set of nine single shell tanks on the site. These tanks are considered to have a high potential for uncontrolled releases and have been placed on a watch list. Accordingly, it appears that any waste remediation strategy such as the New Technical Strategy Flowsheet might first be applied to these tanks.

  18. Development of a bathroom watching system based on breath detection and silhouette extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2005-12-01

    Sudden death in bathrooms is an important social problem in Japan. This paper proposes a bathroom watching system with the aim of detecting bathing people who are drowning. This system employs a fiber grating vision system and a color camera to detect breathing and the position of a bather, as well as to perform a self-diagnosis of the system operational state. The effectiveness of these functions was verified through experiments.

  19. Watching orientational ordering at the nanoscale with coherent anti-stokes Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Sapun H; Domke, Katrin F

    2013-09-01

    Whether in lipid membranes, liquid crystals or solid-state catalysts, the orientational ordering of molecules greatly influences the overall system behaviour. However, watching molecular alignment is a huge technical challenge. This article introduces nonlinear Raman (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; CARS) microscopy as a promising tool for fast, label-free 3D chemical and structural sample characterization at the nanoscale in real time. PMID:25931284

  20. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048

  1. Results of gas monitoring of double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-01-19

    Tanks 103-SY; 101-AW; 103-, 104-, and 105-AN are on the Flammable Gas Watch List. Recently, standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) cabinets have been installed in the vent header of each of these tanks. Grab samples have been taken once per week, and a gas chromatograph was installed on tank 104-AN as a field test. The data that have been collected since gas monitoring began on these tanks are summarized in this document.

  2. Validity of the Smarthealth Watch to Measure Heart Rate during Rest and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. Matthew; Gorelick, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the Smarthealth watch (Salutron, Inc., Fremont, California, USA), a heart rate monitor that includes a wristwatch without an accompanying chest strap. Twenty-five individuals participated in 3-min periods of standing, 2.0 mph walking, 3.5 mph walking, 4.5 mph jogging, and 6.0 mph running.…

  3. Data handling and analysis for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Phillips, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The overall corn blight watch experiment data flow is described and the organization of the LARS/Purdue data center is discussed. Data analysis techniques are discussed in general and the use of statistical multispectral pattern recognition methods for automatic computer analysis of aircraft scanner data is described. Some of the results obtained are discussed and the implications of the experiment on future data communication requirements for earth resource survey systems is discussed.

  4. 76 FR 74788 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From HealthWatch, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...AHRQ has accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from HealthWatch, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109-41, 42 U.S.C. 299b-21--b-26, provides for the formation of PSOs, which collect, aggregate, and analyze confidential information regarding the quality and safety of......

  5. The Watcher and the Watched: Social Judgments about Privacy in a Public Place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Batya; Kahn, Peter H.; Hagman, Jennifer; Severson, Rachel L.; Gill, Brian

    Digitally capturing and displaying real-time images of people in public places raises concerns for individual privacy. Applying the principles of Value Sensitive Design, we conducted two studies of people's social judgments about this topic. In Study I, 750 people were surveyed as they walked through a public plaza that was being captured by a HDTV camera and displayed in real-time in the office of a building overlooking the plaza. In Study II, 120 individuals were interviewed about the same topic. Moreover, Study II controlled for whether the participant was a direct stakeholder of the technology (inside the office watching people on the HDTV large-plasma display window) or an indirect stakeholder (being watched in the public venue). Taking both studies together, results (showed the following): (a) the majority of participants upheld some modicum of privacy in public; (b) people's privacy judgments were not a one-dimensional construct, but often involved considerations based on physical harm, psychological well-being, and informed consent; and (c) more women than men expressed concerns about the installation, and, unlike the men, equally brought forward their concerns, whether they were The Watcher or The Watched.

  6. Viewers vs. doers. The relationship between watching food television and BMI.

    PubMed

    Pope, Lizzy; Latimer, Lara; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine where nutritional gatekeepers obtain information about new foods, and whether information source is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as whether any association varied according to how often the participant cooked from scratch. A national panel survey of 501 females aged 20-35 assessed how participants obtained information on new recipes, and asked a series of questions about their cooking habits, their weight and height. Linear regressions were run to determine associations between information source, cooking from scratch, and BMI. Obtaining information from cooking shows was positively correlated with BMI (p <0.05), as was obtaining information from social media (p <0.05), whereas obtaining information from other print, online, or in-person sources was not significantly associated with BMI. A significant interaction between watching cooking shows and cooking from scratch indicated that cooking from scratch, as well as watching cooking shows was associated with higher BMI (p <0.05). Obtaining information about new foods from television cooking shows or social media - versus other sources - appears to have a unique relationship with BMI. Furthermore, watching cooking shows may have a differential effect on BMI for those who are merely TV "viewers," versus those who are "doers." Promoting healthy foods on cooking shows may be one way to positively influence the weight status of "doers" as well as "viewers." PMID:25747286

  7. Mediation and moderation of the effects of watching the angiography screen on patients.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Drori, Erga; Peleg, Shira; Banai, Shmuel; Finkelstein, Ariel

    2016-10-01

    It has been reported that allowing patients to watch the coronary angiography screen during the procedure results in psychological benefits. This study aimed to investigate the roles of illness perceptions as mediators of this outcome and to examine whether individual differences in monitoring coping style moderated these effects. The experiment compared patients who were instructed to watch the monitor screen (n = 57) with those who were not (n = 51). Questionnaires were used to measure the research variables at one day and one month after the procedure. Results showed that watching the angiography screen increased patients' personal and treatment control perceptions that mediated changes in self-assessed health, risk perceptions, negative affect, general and diet outcome expectancies, and diet and physical activity intentions. The behavior-related outcomes were moderated by monitoring coping style. These findings illustrate the significance of illness perceptions, perceived control and monitoring coping style in achieving desirable outcomes among patients undergoing coronary angiography, and reveal opportunities for interventions using medical imaging technologies. PMID:26740003

  8. Television watching, diet quality, and physical activity and diabetes among three ethnicities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

  9. Visual fatigue caused by watching 3DTV: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxiao; Wang, Jing; Li, Kun; Liu, Yuping; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to observe the visual fatigue caused by watching 3DTV using the method of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data of fMRI during three kinds of visual stimulation tasks were obtained from twenty subjects. At first, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes during stimuli of checkerboard task were compared before and after one-hour watching 3D/2DTV, and subjective evaluation was conducted based on the questionnaire simultaneously. Then 3D and 2D images were used to stimulate healthy individuals to measure brain activities that correlated with stereoscopic vision. Finally, the relationship between front or back depth of field images and visual fatigue was investigated. The results reveal that the 3D group shows more significant differences of brain activities in BA8, BA17, BA18 and BA19 than the 2D group during the checkerboard stimulation. BA5, BA6, BA7 and BA8 were testified to have close relationship with stereoscopic perception via the 2D/3D images stimulation. Furthermore, the front depth of field image was proven to impose a more serious impact on visual fatigue than the back one. These conclusions are useful for healthy and reasonable 3DTV watching as well as properly designing of 3D scenes. PMID:25603496

  10. Treatment of indolent lymphomas: watchful waiting v aggressive combined modality treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.C.; Longo, D.L.; Glatstein, E.; Ihde, D.C.; Jaffe, E.S.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Patients with advanced indolent lymphoma often have long survival (median, 4 to 8 years) in spite of frequent relapses. The inability of combination chemotherapy or radiation therapy (RT) to render patients disease free has led to radically divergent treatment approaches. Initial treatment may vary from aggressive combined modality therapy to no initial treatment. We sought to evaluate these two divergent approaches in a randomized trial of advanced indolent lymphomas (nodular, poorly differentiated lymphocytic; nodular mixed; diffuse, well-differentiated lymphocytic; diffuse, intermediately differentiated lymphocytic; and diffuse, poorly differentiated lymphocytic). A total of 104 patients were entered: 44 were randomly assigned to watch and wait in which only carefully defined, limited RT was administered if necessary; 45 were randomly assigned to aggressive combined modality treatment with prednisone, methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, plus etoposide plus mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone (ProMACE-MOPP), followed by total nodal irradiation (TNI); and 15, with symptoms requiring initial therapy, received the identical combined treatment but were not randomly assigned. Of 41 evaluable patients on watch and wait, 23 (56%) have still not required systemic therapy, although 16 (39%) have received limited RT. Median time to crossover was 34 months. Of 18 patients crossed over, seven of the 16 who completed therapy (43%) achieved CR; two (11%) have relapsed. Histologic progression was seen in six (15%) of 41 patients on watch and wait without intervening chemotherapy. Of 45 patients randomly assigned to chemotherapy, 37 (82%) have completed induction therapy, and 29 of the 37 (78%) achieved CR.

  11. The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 2; Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Halley's Comet (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft, subsequently renamed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini- Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

  12. Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Seok; Chang, Won-du; Park, Jinsick; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects' visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie. PMID:26529091

  13. Television Watching, Diet Quality, and Physical Activity and Diabetes among Three Ethnicities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications. PMID:22851980

  14. Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young Seok; Chang, Won-du; Park, Jinsick; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects’ visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie. PMID:26529091

  15. Wireless glucose monitoring watch enabled by an implantable self-sustaining glucose sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    Implantable glucose sensors can measure real time blood glucose as compared to conventional techniques involving drawing blood samples and in-vitro processing. An implantable sensor requires energy source for operation with wire inout provision for power and sending signals. Implants capable of generation-transmission of sensory signals, with minimal or no power requirement, can solve this problem. An implantable nanosensor design has been presented here, which can passively detect glucose concentration in blood stream and transmit data to a wearable receiver-recorder system or a watch. The glucose sensitive component is a redox pair of electrodes that generates voltage proportional to glucose concentration. The bio-electrode, made of carbon nanotubes-enzyme nanocluster, has been investigated because of the large surface area for taping electrical signals. This glucose sensor can charge a capacitor, which can be a part of a LCR resonance/inductive coupling based radio frequency (RF) sensor telemetry. Such a system can measure change in glucose concentration by the induced frequency shift in the LCR circuit. A simultaneous power transmission and signal transmission can be achieved by employing two separate LCR oscillating loops, one for each operation. The corresponding coupling LCR circuits can be housed in the wearable receiving watch unit. The data logged in this glucose monitoring watch can be instrumental in managing blood glucose as trigger for an insulin dispensing payload worn on person or implanted.

  16. [Watching, listening and sharing: field work for psychosocial autopsies].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Grubits, Sonia; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    The article describes the research realization phases of field work in ten municipalities in five regions entitled "Is it possible to prevent the anticipation of the end? Suicide among the elderly in Brazil and the possibilities for action by the Health Sector." The sample comprises 51 psychosocial autopsies of 5 elderly people who committed suicide in 9 locations and 6 in another. 84 family members were interviewed. Semi-structured psychosocial autopsies and contextual observations were used. Each interview lasted 60 minutes on average and in the majority of the cases there was more than one encounter with family members. The study consisted of a collective process that involved bibliographic review, discussion of the samples, approach strategies, field results and empirical analysis. This article highlights the theoretical, conceptual and practical preparation of researchers and production and standardization of instruments; information about existing data sources and those that are actually used; introduction of institutional credentials; assessment of the family context, difficulties and strategies for empirical study; entrance to and exit from the field; and the impact of the research on the investigators. PMID:22899144

  17. As the West Warms: Watching Our Home Burn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, H. F.

    2006-12-01

    Mountain environments have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they are places with sharp vertical gradients, which result in the stacking of natural ecotones with elevation. The impact of global climate change in mountainous regions may lead to rapid and irreversible changes in a number of areas; these range from major changes in the seasonal hydrographs of meltwater-driven streams affecting communities that depend on the melting of frozen precipitation for their water supplies, to increases in large and intense forest fires, arising from a combination of factors that include increasing temperature and insect outbreaks, to changes in growing seasons and species extinction. In the last 10 years, rising temperatures occurring during a period of diminished precipitation in the western United States has led to unprecedented drought conditions—the most widespread severe drought in the period of instrumental records. An examination of the available climate record suggests that the US, and in particular the West, may be entering, or perhaps is in the midst of a period of rapid warming. The combination of much warmer than normal temperature, likely driven by global warming, and a drier than normal period, regardless of its cause, may result in more frequent and widespread western droughts, with all its attendant consequences of enhanced wildfire risk, water supply problems, and a host of other environmental threats. Results from recent climate model simulations underscores the potential threat to the western United States resulting from greenhouse-gas-induced global warming. I will examine the latest set of climate records from both the North and South American Cordillera, highlighting some impacts already evident in many areas. Although some political action has been taken to address the issue of global warming impacts on western society, the actions to date have been largely in the nature of calls to mitigate some of the expected

  18. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - June 25, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on June 25, 1997 and provides more convincing information that the weather-disrupting phenomenon known as El Nino is back and getting stronger. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it s about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21-30 degrees Celsius (70-85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of the early indications of El Nino conditions.

  19. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - March thru June, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These four views of the Pacific Ocean were produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The images show sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions from March 1997 through June 1997. This evolutionary view is providing oceanographers with more convincing information that the weather-disrupting phenomenon known as El Nino is back and getting stronger. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it s about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21-30 degrees Celsius (70-85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of the early indications of El Nino conditions.

  20. TOPEX/El Nino Watch- September 20, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on September 20, 1997 and provides more convincing information that the weather-disrupting phenomenon known as El Nino is back and getting stronger. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters ( 6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21-30 degrees Celsius (70-85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of the early indications of El Nino conditions.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page

  1. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - October 3, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Oct. 3, 1997 as the warm water associated with El Nino (in white) spreads northward along the entire coast of North America from the equator all the way to Alaska. The warm water pool in tropical Pacific resulting from El Nino seems to have stabilized. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one and one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21 and 30 C (70 to 85 F), carries the amount of heat equal to 100 times the amount of fossil fuel energy consumed by the entire U.S. population during one year. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has issued an advisory

  2. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - October 23, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has issued an advisory indicating the presence of a strong El Nino condition throughout the winter.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  3. Binocular vision and abnormal head posture in children when watching television

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Shu-Zhen; Peng, Hai-Ying; Wang, Li-Ya

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the binocular vision and an abnormal head posture (AHP) when watching television (TV) in children 7-14y of age. METHODS Fifty normal children in the normal group and 52 children with an AHP when watching TV in the AHP group were tested for spherical equivalents, far and near fusional convergence (FC) and fusional divergence (FD) amplitudes, near point of convergence, far and near heterophoria, accommodative convergence/ accommodation ratio and stereoacuity. The values of these tests were compared between the two groups. The independent t test was applied at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS The far and near FC amplitudes and far FD amplitudes were lower in the AHP group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 13.6±5.4Δ, recovery point 8.7±5.4Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 14.5±7.3Δ, recovery point 10.3±5.1Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 3.9±2.7Δ, recovery point 2.6±2.3Δ) compared with those in the normal group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 19.1±6.2Δ, recovery point 12.4±4.5Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 22.3±8.0Δ, recovery point 16.1±5.7Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 7.0±2.1Δ, recovery point 4.6±1.9Δ). Other tests presented no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION An association between the reduced FC and FD amplitudes and the AHP in children when watching TV is proposed in the study. This kind of AHP is considered to be an anomalous manifestation which appears in a part of puerile patients of fusional vergence dysfunction. PMID:27275434

  4. How older people watch television. Telemetric data on the TV use in Germany in 1996.

    PubMed

    Grajczyk, A; Zöllner, O

    1998-01-01

    This study has been prompted by the relatively small body of knowledge on the media use of the elderly. The aim of this study was to show how people 50 years and older use the medium television in Germany. Therefore, the 1996 television usership data collected in a representative 'peoplemeter' panel of about 4,800 German television households have been surveyed, processed and analyzed using standard audience research software. In 1996, Germans 50 years and above watched on average 233 min television per day. The older a person, the longer he or she watches television. Individuals 65 years and older watch television for 253 min per day. This subgroup appears to comprise the most intensive users of the medium. Men 65 years and above may be depicted as the heaviest weekend TV watchers, older women as the medium's closest followers from Monday to Friday. Television program broadcast late in the afternoon and early in the evening have by far the best chances to be chosen by seniors. The affinity of the elderly for the medium can be explained by its potential for offering entertainment, information, and companionship, being a substitute for primary interpersonal communication, a tool for structuring time patterns and keeping up the rhythms of long-established everyday rituals. On the one hand, television can be a 'lifeline' and a 'window to the outside world' for people with little opportunity for direct, unmediated social contact, thus possibly raising their satisfaction of life. On the other hand, prolonged TV use may be seen as an indicator for the degree of loneliness and neglect of the elderly. PMID:9592692

  5. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exert antineoplastic effects by eliciting a novel or reinstating a pre-existing antitumor immune response. Most often, immunostimulatory mAbs activate T lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells by inhibiting immunosuppressive receptors, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1), or by engaging co-stimulatory receptors, like CD40, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4, best known as OX40) or TNFRSF18 (best known as GITR). The CTLA4-targeting mAb ipilimumab has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma in 2011. The therapeutic profile of ipilimumab other CTLA4-blocking mAbs, such as tremelimumab, is currently being assessed in subjects affected by a large panel of solid neoplasms. In the last few years, promising clinical results have also been obtained with nivolumab, a PD-1-targeting mAb formerly known as BMS-936558. Accordingly, the safety and efficacy of nivolumab and other PD-1-blocking molecules are being actively investigated. Finally, various clinical trials are underway to test the therapeutic potential of OX40- and GITR-activating mAbs. Here, we summarize recent findings on the therapeutic profile of immunostimulatory mAbs and discuss clinical trials that have been launched in the last 14 months to assess the therapeutic profile of these immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:24701370

  6. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Vitale, Ilio; Tartour, Eric; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has extensively been employed as a curative or palliative intervention against cancer throughout the last century, with a varying degree of success. For a long time, the antineoplastic activity of X- and γ-rays was entirely ascribed to their capacity of damaging macromolecules, in particular DNA, and hence triggering the (apoptotic) demise of malignant cells. However, accumulating evidence indicates that (at least part of) the clinical potential of radiotherapy stems from cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms, including the normalization of tumor vasculature as well as short- and long-range bystander effects. Local bystander effects involve either the direct transmission of lethal signals between cells connected by gap junctions or the production of diffusible cytotoxic mediators, including reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and cytokines. Conversely, long-range bystander effects, also known as out-of-field or abscopal effects, presumably reflect the elicitation of tumor-specific adaptive immune responses. Ionizing rays have indeed been shown to promote the immunogenic demise of malignant cells, a process that relies on the spatiotemporally defined emanation of specific damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Thus, irradiation reportedly improves the clinical efficacy of other treatment modalities such as surgery (both in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant settings) or chemotherapy. Moreover, at least under some circumstances, radiotherapy may potentiate anticancer immune responses as elicited by various immunotherapeutic agents, including (but presumably not limited to) immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies, cancer-specific vaccines, dendritic cell-based interventions and Toll-like receptor agonists. Here, we review the rationale of using radiotherapy, alone or combined with immunomodulatory agents, as a means to elicit or boost anticancer immune responses, and present recent clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of this approach in cancer patients. PMID:24319634

  7. Standing Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    Russlynn Ali, Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights at the Department of Education, is charged with enforcing a wide range of education equity laws. Ali was a passionate activist in California helping champion educational equity for minorities. Today, as Ali approaches her third year working as assistant secretary for civil rights, she says she has…

  8. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, for the first time in history, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), i.e., the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of mAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has not stopped to expand, nowadays encompassing a stunning amount of 15 distinct molecules. This therapeutic armamentarium includes mAbs that target tumor-associated antigens, as well as molecules that interfere with tumor-stroma interactions or exert direct immunostimulatory effects. These three classes of mAbs exert antineoplastic activity via distinct mechanisms, which may or may not involve immune effectors other than the mAbs themselves. In previous issues of OncoImmunology, we provided a brief scientific background to the use of mAbs, all types confounded, in cancer therapy, and discussed the results of recent clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach. Here, we focus on mAbs that primarily target malignant cells or their interactions with stromal components, as opposed to mAbs that mediate antineoplastic effects by activating the immune system. In particular, we discuss relevant clinical findings that have been published during the last 13 months as well as clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of hitherto investigational tumor-targeting mAbs. PMID:24605265

  9. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, dozens—if not hundreds—of monoclonal antibodies have been developed and characterized for their capacity to mediate antineoplastic effects, either as they activate/enhance tumor-specific immune responses, either as they interrupt cancer cell-intrinsic signal transduction cascades, either as they specifically delivery toxins to malignant cells or as they block the tumor-stroma interaction. Such an intense research effort has lead to the approval by FDA of no less than 14 distinct molecules for use in humans affected by hematological or solid malignancies. In the inaugural issue of OncoImmunology, we briefly described the scientific rationale behind the use of monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy and discussed recent, ongoing clinical studies investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach in patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of clinical research, focusing on high impact studies that have been published during the last 15 months and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of promising, yet hitherto investigational, monoclonal antibodies. PMID:23482847

  10. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the past 3 decades, along with the recognition that the immune system not only influences oncogenesis and tumor progression, but also determines how established neoplastic lesions respond therapy, renovated enthusiasm has gathered around the possibility of using vaccines as anticancer agents. Such an enthusiasm quickly tempered when it became clear that anticancer vaccines would have to be devised as therapeutic, rather than prophylactic, measures, and that malignant cells often fail to elicit (or actively suppress) innate and adaptive immune responses. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence indicates that a variety of anticancer vaccines, including cell-based, DNA-based, and purified component-based preparations, are capable of circumventing the poorly immunogenic and highly immunosuppressive nature of most tumors and elicit (at least under some circumstances) therapeutically relevant immune responses. Great efforts are currently being devoted to the identification of strategies that may provide anticancer vaccines with the capacity of breaking immunological tolerance and eliciting tumor-associated antigen-specific immunity in a majority of patients. In this sense, promising results have been obtained by combining anticancer vaccines with a relatively varied panels of adjuvants, including multiple immunostimulatory cytokines, Toll-like receptor agonists as well as inhibitors of immune checkpoints. One year ago, in the December issue of OncoImmunology, we discussed the biological mechanisms that underlie the antineoplastic effects of peptide-based vaccines and presented an abundant literature demonstrating the prominent clinical potential of such an approach. Here, we review the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on high-profile studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to evaluate purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic anticancer agents. PMID:24498550

  11. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  12. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeting immune responses provide a significant contribution to (when they do not entirely account for) the clinical activity of diverse antineoplastic regimens, encompassing not only a large panel of immunotherapeutic strategies but also conventional cytotoxic molecules, targeted anticancer agents and irradiation. In line with this notion, several approaches have been devised to elicit novel or boost existing anticancer immune responses, including the administration of immunomodulatory cytokines. Such a relatively unspecific intervention suffices to mediate clinical effects in (at least a subset of) patients bearing particularly immunogenic tumors, like melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. More often, however, immunostimulatory cytokines are administered to boost the immunogenic potential of other agents, including (but not limited to) immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies, anticancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses and immunogenic chemotherapeutics. Here, we summarize the latest advances in the clinical development of recombinant cytokines as an immunomodulatory intervention for cancer therapy. PMID:25083328

  13. Nature Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

  14. Trial Watch:

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Cremer, Isabelle; Erbs, Philippe; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Preville, Xavier; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are natural or genetically modified viral species that selectively infect and kill neoplastic cells. Such an innate or exogenously conferred specificity has generated considerable interest around the possibility to employ oncolytic viruses as highly targeted agents that would mediate cancer cell-autonomous anticancer effects. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy is not a simple consequence of the cytopathic effect, but strongly relies on the induction of an endogenous immune response against transformed cells. In line with this notion, superior anticancer effects are being observed when oncolytic viruses are engineered to express (or co-administered with) immunostimulatory molecules. Although multiple studies have shown that oncolytic viruses are well tolerated by cancer patients, the full-blown therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy, especially when implemented in the absence of immunostimulatory interventions, remains unclear. Here, we cover the latest advances in this active area of translational investigation, summarizing high-impact studies that have been published during the last 12 months and discussing clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the therapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy in oncological indications. PMID:25097804

  15. Suicide Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Researchers say the best way to prevent suicide is to find and treat kids with depression and substance-abuse problems. Schools should also develop a suicide-prevention policy, make curriculum decisions wisely, train staff as detectives, notify parents, make sure affected children get help, and attend to survivors. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  16. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, Michaela; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lenalidomide is a synthetic derivative of thalidomide currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients affected by multiple myeloma (in combination with dexamethasone) and low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndromes that harbor 5q cytogenetic abnormalities. For illustrative purposes, the mechanism of action of lenalidomide can be subdivided into a cancer cell-intrinsic, a stromal, and an immunological component. Indeed, lenalidomide not only exerts direct cell cycle-arresting and pro-apoptotic effects on malignant cells, but also interferes with their physical and functional interaction with the tumor microenvironment and mediates a robust, pleiotropic immunostimulatory activity. In particular, lenalidomide has been shown to stimulate the cytotoxic functions of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, to limit the immunosuppressive impact of regulatory T cells, and to modulate the secretion of a wide range of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ as well as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-12. Throughout the last decade, the antineoplastic and immunostimulatory potential of lenalidomide has been investigated in patients affected by a wide variety of hematological and solid malignancies. Here, we discuss the results of these studies and review the status of clinical trials currently assessing the safety and efficacy of this potent immunomodulatory drug in oncological indications. PMID:24482747

  17. Watch It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2008-01-01

    For the school chief information officer (CIO), safeguarding students and facilities is as much a part of the job description as keeping the data networks running and the servers protected from hackers. This article describes how two districts, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and Taos Municipal Schools, secured their surveillance systems. The…

  18. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    It is now clear that the immune system plays a critical role not only during oncogenesis and tumor progression, but also as established neoplastic lesions respond to therapy. Selected cytotoxic chemicals can indeed elicit immunogenic cell death, a functionally peculiar type of apoptosis that stimulates tumor-specific cognate immune responses. Such immunogenic chemotherapeutics include cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin (which are approved by FDA for the treatment of various hematological and solid malignancies), mitoxantrone (which is currently employed both as an anticancer agent and against multiple sclerosis) and patupilone (a microtubular poison in clinical development). One year ago, in the second issue of OncoImmunology, we discussed the scientific rationale behind immunogenic chemotherapy and reviewed the status of recent clinical trials investigating the off-label use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this area of clinical research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months and clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of immunogenic chemotherapeutics. PMID:23687621

  19. Drug watch.

    PubMed

    Whitson, S

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments on new anti-HIV agents and drugs for opportunistic infections are highlighted. Information is provided on the infusion inhibitor T-20; DuPont's second generation non-nukes, DPC 961 and DPC 963; Papirine (PEN203) for the human papilloma virus; Sporanox for treating fungal infections; and the antiretroviral protein, lysozyme. In addition, information is given on a plant found in the Bolivian rainforest that may contain compounds to prevent HIV infection by blocking the enzyme, integrase. Other promising new drugs addressed at the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections are listed in a table. Contact information for US clinical trials is provided. PMID:11366758

  20. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Bloy, Norma; Pol, Jonathan; Manic, Gwenola; Vitale, Ilio; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, it has become increasingly clear that the antineoplastic effects of radiation therapy do not simply reflect the ability of X-, β- and γ-rays to damage transformed cells and directly cause their permanent proliferative arrest or demise, but also involve cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms. Indeed, among other activities, radiotherapy has been shown to favor the establishment of tumor-specific immune responses that operate systemically, underpinning the so-called ‘out-of-field’ or ‘abscopal’ effect. Thus, ionizing rays appear to elicit immunogenic cell death, a functionally peculiar variant of apoptosis associated with the emission of a particularly immunostimulatory combination of damage-associated molecular patterns. In line with this notion, radiation therapy fosters, and thus exacerbates, the antineoplastic effects of various treatment modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy and various immunotherapeutic agents. Here, we summarize recent advances in the use of ionizing rays as a means to induce or potentiate therapeutically relevant anticancer immune responses. In addition, we present clinical trials initiated during the past 12 months to test the actual benefit of radioimmunotherapy in cancer patients. PMID:25941606

  1. Development of the Bathroom Watching System Supported by the Breath Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomofumi, Nishiura; Masato, Nakajima

    Recently, domestic accidents caused by sudden illness are increasing in Japan. We developed a detection and alarming system for the dangerous state in a bathroom. FG sensor which has been developed in our laboratory is used in this system to get respiratory information of bathing person. It becomes possible to watch the person in a bathroom by this sensor, without invading his privacy. We applied the developed system to an actual bathroom, and carried out several experiments supposing various situations. As a result of the experiment, we confirmed that this system can acquire the person's respiratory information and can emit alarms correctly for emergency.

  2. Astronaut David Scott watching hammer and feather fall to lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander, watches a geological hammer and a feather hit the lunar surface simultaneously in a test of Galileo's law of motion concerning falling bodies, as seen in this color reproduction taken from a transmission made by the RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Scott released the hammer from his right hand and the feather from his left at the same instant. This experiment occured toward the end of the third and final lunar surface extravehicular activity.

  3. Network-Level Connectivity Dynamics of Movie Watching in 6-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert W.; Short, Sarah J.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of the developing brain’s functional mechanisms is critical for improving diagnosis and treatment of different developmental disorders. Particularly, characterizing how the developing brain dynamically reorganizes during different cognitive states may offer novel insight into the neuronal mechanisms of cognitive deficits. Imaging the brain during naturalistic conditions, like movie watching, provides a highly practical way to study young children’s developing functional brain systems. In this study we compared the network-level functional organization of 6-year-old children while they were at rest with their functional connectivity as they watched short video clips. We employed both a data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) approach and a hypothesis-driven seed-based analysis to identify changes in network-level functional interactions during the shift from resting to video watching. Our ICA results showed that naturally watching a movie elicits significant changes in the functional connectivity between the visual system and the dorsal attention network when compared to rest (t(32) = 5.02, p = 0.0001). More interestingly, children showed an immature, but qualitatively adult-like, pattern of reorganization among three of the brain’s higher-order networks (frontal control, default-mode and dorsal attention). For both ICA and seed-based approaches, we observed a decrease in the frontal network’s correlation with the dorsal attention network (ICA: t(32) = −2.46, p = 0.02; Seed-based: t(32) = −1.62, p =0.12) and an increase in its connectivity with the default mode network (ICA: t(32) = 2.84, p = 0.008; Seed-based: t(32) = 2.28, p =0.03), which is highly consistent with the pattern observed in adults. These results offer improved understanding of the developing brain’s dynamic network-level interaction patterns during the transition between different brain states and call for further studies to examine potential alterations to

  4. The use of transplanted mussels in the California State Mussel Watch Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Ichikawa, G.S.; Goetzl, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have relied solely on resident bivalves. This approach limits the versatility of monitoring programs in that residents are not often found in all the places necessary to sample and there are factors which are inherent in using residents that confound the results. The California State Mussel Watch Program has relied heavily on transplants because they eliminate much of the variation inherent in using residents and they can be transplanted almost anywhere. Examples are given that demonstrate the advantages of using transplants over residents.

  5. Spontaneous-idiopathic left anterior descending artery dissection: is watchful waiting better than immediate stenting?

    PubMed

    Arrivi, A; Bazzucchi, M; De Paolis, M; Placanica, A; Bock, C; Milici, C; Boschetti, E; Dominici, M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare, complex disease, nowadays poorly understood yet. The lack of firm recommendations about this issue is a great limitation which makes any therapeutic decision controversial. The case described is that of a young, otherwise healthy woman, who presented with an ostial dissection of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Due to patient's stable clinical and hemodynamic parameters, we used a cautious approach based on watchful waiting and medical therapy, postponing stenting in order to achieve a partial vessel reopening with a more comfortable access to PCI. PMID:24106639

  6. Spontaneous-Idiopathic Left Anterior Descending Artery Dissection: Is Watchful Waiting Better Than Immediate Stenting?

    PubMed Central

    Arrivi, A.; Bazzucchi, M.; De Paolis, M.; Placanica, A.; Bock, C.; Milici, C.; Boschetti, E.; Dominici, M.

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare, complex disease, nowadays poorly understood yet. The lack of firm recommendations about this issue is a great limitation which makes any therapeutic decision controversial. The case described is that of a young, otherwise healthy woman, who presented with an ostial dissection of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Due to patient's stable clinical and hemodynamic parameters, we used a cautious approach based on watchful waiting and medical therapy, postponing stenting in order to achieve a partial vessel reopening with a more comfortable access to PCI. PMID:24106639

  7. STS-39 Commander Coats on OV-103's flight deck watches SPAS-II/IBSS deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Commander Michael L. Coats smiles as he watches the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS-II) / Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) spacecraft deployment through the aft flight deck windows while aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The SPAS-II/IBSS spacecraft is visible through the overhead window W7 after its release from the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector. The crewman optical alignment sight (COAS) is fastened to the sill of window W7. SPAS-II is a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO).

  8. This (Sandpiper like) bird, as well as many other species keep watch over Moffett Field wetlands.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This (Sandpiper like) bird, as well as many other species keep watch over Moffett Field wetlands. The shorebird in this picture is a greater yellowlegs (Tinga melanoleuca) which is a common bird found in our coastal salt marsh and tidal zones in winter months. Generally, they summer/breed up north in Canada and Alaska and then migrate in the fall to winter along the west coast of the U.S. and Mexico. Known for their loud call of a slightly descending series of three or more tew notes. Diet consists of small fish, insects, snails, worms, and tadpoles. used in Ames 60 yr. History NASA SP-2000-4314

  9. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Matson, Pamela A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to four-years-old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Results Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β =0.91, 95% CI: 0.09–1.73). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. PMID:25424888

  10. Design and Implementation of Ubiquitous Health System U-Health Using Smart-Watches Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi Termeh, V.; Sadeghi Niaraki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Today as diseases grow rapidly, the responsibilities of the health clinics in giving services to patients increase and patients have to be more monitored and controlled. Remote systems of monitoring patients result in reducing cost, ease of movement, and also persistent control of patients by their doctors, so that patient can be monitored without need to go to the clinic. Recent advances in the field of ubiquitous sciences as well as using smartphones have resulted in increasingly use of this devices in remote monitoring of patients. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a ubiquitous health system using smartphones and sensors of smart-watches. This is accomplished through the information sent to the smartphone from the sensors of the watch, e.g. heart beat measurement sensor and ultraviolet ray. Then, this information is analyzed in the smartphone and some information based on the position of the patient and the path of him/her using GIS analyses as well as the information about the health level of the patient is sent to the doctor via SMS or phone call. Unnatural heart beats can be resulted in diseases such as Heart Failure and Arterial Fibrillation. With the approach adopted in this study, the patient or the doctor could be aware of these diseases at any time. The proposed approach is a low cost, without need to complex and resilient equipment, system in ubiquitous health that does not limit the movement of the patient.

  11. Gynecologic Cancer Information on YouTube: Will Women Watch Advertisements to Learn More?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Chu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The quality and accuracy of health content posted on YouTube varies widely. To increase dissemination of evidence-based gynecologic cancer information to US YouTube users, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored two types of advertisements: (1) pre-roll videos that users had to watch for at least 5 s before seeing a video they selected and (2) keyword-targeted listings that appeared in search results when users entered terms related to gynecologic cancer. From July 2012 to November 2013, pre-roll videos were shown 9.2 million times, viewed (watched longer than the mandatory 5 s) 1.6 million times (17.6%), and cost $0.09 per view. Keyword-targeted listings were displayed 15.3 million times, viewed (activated by users) 59,766 times (0.4%), and cost $0.31 per view. CDC videos in advertisements played completely in 17.0% of pre-roll video views and 44.4% of keyword-targeted listing views. Advertisements on YouTube can disseminate evidence-based cancer information broadly with minimal cost. PMID:25877466

  12. The GlobalJetWatch spectrographs: a fibre-fed spectrograph for small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Fraser J.; Gosling, Andrew J.; Doolin, Sam; Goodall, Paul; Perez, Sebastian; Pattinson, Paul; Makin, Rick; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2008-07-01

    The GlobalJetWatch project (www.globaljetwatch.net) will place small (0.5-metre) commerical telescopes in four schools around the world. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom designed spectrograph, currently being built by the Astrophysics sub-department of the University of Oxford. The scientific goal of the project is to provide continual monitoring of a rosetta stone object, the micro-quasar SS433. In addition, the project has a significant out-reach element, aiming to involve school children on four-continents in front-line astronomical research. The spectrograph is a fibre-fed fixed format cross-dispersed echellete design providing R~6000 spectra from 4300-8500 in a single exposure. The spectrograph is built almost entirely from off-the-shelf components. The four GlobalJetWatch sites (Australia, India, South Africa, Chile) will be commissioned in 2008/09. Here we present the baseline design of the spectrograph, and initial results from the prototype on-sky commissioning in Oxford.

  13. Gynecologic Cancer Information on YouTube: Will Women Watch Advertisements to Learn More?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    The quality and accuracy of health content posted on YouTube varies widely. To increase dissemination of evidence-based gynecologic cancer information to US YouTube users, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored two types of advertisements: (1) pre-roll videos that users had to watch for at least 5 s before seeing a video they selected and (2) keyword-targeted listings that appeared in search results when users entered terms related to gynecologic cancer. From July 2012 to November 2013, pre-roll videos were shown 9.2 million times, viewed (watched longer than the mandatory 5 s) 1.6 million times (17.6 %), and cost $0.09 per view. Keyword-targeted listings were displayed 15.3 million times, viewed (activated by users) 59,766 times (0.4 %), and cost $0.31 per view. CDC videos in advertisements played completely in 17.0 % of pre-roll video views and 44.4 % of keyword-targeted listing views. Advertisements on YouTube can disseminate evidence-based cancer information broadly with minimal cost. PMID:25877466

  14. Waterway wide area tactical coverage and homing (WaterWATCH) program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driggers, Gerald; Cleveland, Tammy; Araujo, Lisa; Spohr, Robert; Umansky, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Congressional and Army sponsored WaterWATCH TM Program has developed and demonstrated a fully integrated shallow water port and facility monitoring system. It provides fully automated monitoring of domains above and below the surface of the water using primarily off-the-shelf sensors and software. The system is modular, open architecture and IP based, and elements can be mixed and matched to adapt to specific applications. The sensors integrated into the WaterWATCH TM system include cameras, radar, passive and active sonar, and various motion detectors. The sensors were chosen based on extensive requirements analyses and tradeoffs. Descriptions of the system and individual sensors are provided, along with data from modular and system level testing. Camera test results address capabilities and limitations associated with using "smart" image analysis software with stressing environmental issues such as bugs, darkness, rain and snow. Radar issues addressed include achieving range and resolution requirements. The passive sonar capability to provide near 100% true positives with zero false positives is demonstrated. Testing results are also presented to show that inexpensive active sonar can be effective against divers with or without SCUBA gear and that false alarms due to fish can be minimized. A simple operator interface has also been demonstrated.

  15. Semi-automatic inspecting instrument for watch escape wheel based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong; Wang, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Jin; Cai, Zhen-xing; Liu, Xin-bo

    2011-12-01

    Escape wheel as a typical precision micro-machinery part is one of the most precision parts in one mechanical watch. A new inspecting instrument based on machine vision technology used to achieve semi-automatic inspection of watch escape wheel is introduced in this paper. This instrument makes use of high resolution CCD sensor and independent designed lens as the imaging system. It can not only achieve to image an area with 7mm diameter once, but also has the resolving power in micrometer and cooperates with two-dimensional moving station to achieve a continuous and automatic measurement of the work pieces placed in array type. In which, the following aspects are highlighted: measuring princeple and process, the basic components of array type measuring workbench, positioning process and verticality, parallelism and other precision adjusting mechanism. Cooperating with novelty escape wheel preparation tool this instrument forms an array type semi-automatic measuring mode. At present, the instrument has been successfully running in the industry field.

  16. The three viewpoints for raising a child's natural science literacy -Catch, Touch and Watch -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    There are few opportunities to go out for field study, and the difficulty of letting a child and student get an understanding accompanied with realization, in Primary and Junior high schools of Japan (e.g. JST, 2010; 2011). Performing field study using nature near around school is a good opportunity to force the essence of everything. Moreover, it is very important also on the concept formation of the natural science over the things phenomenon of a child and student. In this presentation, I clarify the appearance of the child who wants to educate from a viewpoint of field study, and observe three viewpoints of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" which heightens the education effect in the field (nature). In the presentation of this meeting last year (Yoshida and Matsumoto, 2011), I outlined that three viewpoint of "Catch", "Touch", and "Watch" is important. In response to it, I carried out More-Options arrangement about the "natural science literacy" to the child of each viewpoint this time. For that purpose, teacher effective support is required to educate to a child. That is, the focusing to the details in the inside of a large nature, prepare of teaching materials and teaching tools, and a teacher's own independence study are important.

  17. Part Two: Learning Science Through Digital Video: Student Views on Watching and Creating Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, P.; Courtney, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The use of digital video for science education has become common with the wide availability of video imagery. This study continues research into aspects of using digital video as a primary teaching tool to enhance student learning in undergraduate science courses. Two survey instruments were administered to undergraduate non-science majors. Survey One focused on: a) What science is being learned from watching science videos such as a "YouTube" clip of a volcanic eruption or an informational video on geologic time and b) What are student preferences with regard to their learning (e.g. using video versus traditional modes of delivery)? Survey Two addressed students' perspectives on the storytelling aspect of the video with respect to: a) sustaining interest, b) providing science information, c) style of video and d) quality of the video. Undergraduate non-science majors were the primary focus group in this study. Students were asked to view video segments and respond to a survey focused on what they learned from the segments. The storytelling aspect of each video was also addressed by students. Students watched 15-20 shorter (3-15 minute science videos) created within the last four years. Initial results of this research support that shorter video segments were preferred and the storytelling quality of each video related to student learning.

  18. The effects of conservation messaging on adult whale watch tour participant's pro-environmental attitudes, knowledge and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Julien L.

    Ten whale watches were completed between October 2014 and January 2015 using a quasi-experimental design with and without balloon debris retrievals. A link to a post-trip electronic survey was sent two weeks after whale watch tours to adult participants who volunteered to take part in this study. This study showed how witnessing the retrieval of marine debris while listening to a conservation message did have an effect on the reported intended pro-environmental behaviors. Overall, those who were exposed to the balloon retrieval mentioned conservation themes within the open-ended questions more than the control group. This study suggests that pro-environmental changes intended behaviors, attitudes and knowledge did occur and may have produced thoughts and actions in individuals who are now more enlightened and aware about marine debris issues. Contrary to changes in attitudes and intended behaviors, there were no noticeable impacts on reported actual behavior changes from the participants after the whale watch tour.

  19. Negative psychological effects of watching the news in the television: relaxation or another intervention may be needed to buffer them!

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Hopkinson, Katey L

    2007-01-01

    The psychological effects of televised news were studied in 2 groups (n = 179) of undergraduate students who watched a 15-min random newscast followed by either a 15-min progressive relaxation exercise or a 15-min lecture (control condition). Subjective measures of state anxiety, total mood disturbance (TMD), positive affect, and negative affect were obtained before and after the news, as well as following relaxation exercise or the lecture. The results show that state anxiety and TMD increased, whereas positive affect decreased in both groups after watching the news and 15 min later they returned to baseline (pre-news) only in the relaxation group, whereas they remained unchanged in the control group. These findings demonstrate that watching the news on television triggers persisting negative psychological feelings that could not be buffered by attention-diverting distraction (i.e., lecture), but only by a directed psychological intervention such as progressive relaxation. PMID:17926432

  20. Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-01-01

    There is great concern about the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. The present experimental study was aimed at investigating the differential effects of actively playing vs. passively watching the same violent video game on subsequent aggressive behavior. Fifty-seven children aged 10-13 either played a violent video game (active violent condition), watched the same violent video game (passive violent condition), or played a non-violent video game (active non-violent condition). Aggression was measured through peer nominations of real-life aggressive incidents during a free play session at school. After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These findings indicate that, specifically for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence. PMID:18161877

  1. Geostatistical Analyses of Interactions between Minke Whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and Whale-Watching Boats in Skjalfandi Bay, Northeast Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Joshua I.

    The Icelandic whale-watching industry has experienced rapid growth since its inception in 1991, and today represents the fastest growing economic activity of the country. Skjalfandi Bay in Northeast Iceland has become the epicenter of whale-watching in Iceland, yet little is known about the local effects of the whale-watching industry on cetaceans. I used theodolite techniques and GIS to examine boat effects on the swimming speed, directionality, inter-breath intervals, and surface feeding events of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in Skjalfandi Bay. The proximity and number of vessels did not have a statistically significant effect on any aspect of minke behavior. These results contradict a previous study from Faxafloi Bay, suggesting that differences exist between the two locations, and that management strategies may need to be location-specific.

  2. Western Mediterranean coastal waters--monitoring PCBs and pesticides accumulation in Mytilus galloprovincialis by active mussel watching: the Mytilos project.

    PubMed

    Scarpato, Alfonso; Romanelli, Giulia; Galgani, Francois; Andral, Bruno; Amici, Marina; Giordano, Pierpaolo; Caixach, Josep; Calvo, Monica; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Albadalejo, José Benedicto; Cento, Alessandro; BenBrahim, Samir; Sammari, Cherif; Deudero, Salud; Boulahdid, Mostefa; Giovanardi, Franco

    2010-04-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination levels in the Western Mediterranean basin, the active mussel watch methodology has been applied. This methodology consists of mussel transplantation (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from non impacted areas to selected coastal areas, characterised by potential impact from the continent due to contaminating sources. The areas of interest were selected along the entire coastal development of the Western Mediterranean sea, 122 sites in total. The time of mussel caging exposure was 12 weeks. The project was co-financed in the frame of the Interreg IIIB Meddoc Programme, aimed at determining the overall chemical quality of the Mediterranean sea, consistent with the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. Several partners representative of the coastal Mediterranean Countries were involved in the Project, with the purpose of building up a common surveillance network, adopting shared methodologies. In this paper we present the results of three yearly monitoring campaigns (2004, 2005, 2006) carried out along the coasts of Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, including the coastal environment of Baleares, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The contamination levels of Pesticides (DDT and its metabolites, Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers alpha and gamma) and Polychlorinated biphenyls, are reported and discussed. Statistical elaborations performed on the original data set were mainly aimed at validating the raw sample distributions, by means of the Johnson method. Both DD and PCB species frequency distributions have been approximated to appropriate theoretical distributions, belonging to the Log-normal and Bounded families. By integrating the related Probability Density Functions (p.d.f.), different accumulation values for DDT, DDD and DDE and PCB species have been estimated, corresponding to fixed percentage points of the area under the respective curves. By choosing appropriate probability level boundaries (33rd and 66th percentile

  3. The effect of tactile discrimination training is enhanced when patients watch the reflected image of their unaffected limb during training.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Wiech, Katja

    2009-08-01

    In patients with phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), sensory discrimination training increases tactile acuity, normalises cortical reorganisation and decreases pain. In healthy people, sensory cortical response, and tactile acuity, are greater if the participant looks towards the body part being stimulated. Does this effect enhance tactile training in CRPS patients? Ten patients underwent a 30-min tactile discrimination training session under four conditions (order randomised) in a 2 x 2 design: looking towards or away from the stimulated limb and seeing or not seeing skin. Tactile training imparted long-term improvement in tactile acuity when patients watched the reflected image of their unaffected limb in a mirror during training (that is, they looked towards the stimulated body part and could see the skin of the opposite body part in the mirror): two-point discrimination threshold (TPD) was 8mm less 2 days after training than it was before training ([95% CI=1.5-14.3mm], p<0.001). Although this condition also imparted a greater reduction in resting pain at post-treatment than the other conditions, and change in pain and change in TPD over the session were strongly related (r=0.83, p<0.001), there was no residual effect on pain at 2-day follow-up. In the other conditions, tactile acuity had returned to pre-training levels at 2-day follow-up. The results should directly improve management of CRPS, and have implications for rehabilitation of other conditions associated with nervous system injury or disease, for example stroke, in which tactile recovery is a major objective of rehabilitation. PMID:19501965

  4. Monitoring Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines and Nicotine in Novel Smokeless Tobacco Products: Findings From Round II of the New Product Watch

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Yershova, Katrina; Nyman, Amy L.; Bliss, Robin; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Analysis of novel smokeless tobacco products purchased in Round I of the New Product Watch (NPW)—a national tobacco monitoring network—demonstrated that some tobacco constituents vary not only across various brands but also regionally and over time within the same product. In this study, we analyzed snus and dissolvable tobacco products that were purchased in Round II of the NPW. Methods: We analyzed tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) and nicotine in snus and dissolvable tobacco products that were purchased in various regions of the country during the spring and summer of 2011. The results were compared against the Round I data, across different U.S. regions, and among products. Results: A total of 216 samples were received from different states representing 6 regions of the country. Compared with the previous analyses, TSNA levels increased significantly in Marlboro and Camel Snus and some dissolvable Camel products. The levels of unprotonated nicotine in Marlboro Snus and Camel Snus in this study were not different from Round I but varied significantly by regions; the differences between the highest and the lowest average regional levels were ~3.2-fold in Marlboro Snus ~1.7-fold in Camel Snus. Conclusions: Our results indicate that some novel smokeless tobacco products contain TSNA at the levels found in the conventional moist snuff. Observation of regional variations in unprotonated nicotine content in both Round I and Round II of NPW suggest that manufacturers may tailor the levels of this constituent consistently to different regions. PMID:24604020

  5. Using WatchMinder to Increase the On-Task Behavior of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Finn, Lisa; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Dukes, Charles; Scott, John

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the use of WatchMinder™, a vibrating prompt watch, and self-graphing on the on-task behavior of students with autism spectrum disorder in an elementary special education setting. Using a multiple baseline across subjects design, results showed an immediate increase in on-task behavior when the intervention was introduced. Participants maintained high levels of on-task behavior during the follow-up phase. Implications for expanded self-monitoring treatment packages are discussed. PMID:25377769

  6. Trajectories of Television Watching from Childhood to Early Adulthood and Their Association with Body Composition and Mental Health Outcomes in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Smith, Anne; Howie, Erin; Straker, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prior studies examining longitudinal patterns of television (TV) watching have tended to use analytical approaches which do not allow for heterogeneity in the variation of TV watching over time. In the current study, we used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine the relationships between television watching (from childhood to early adulthood) and body fat percentage (%) and mental health. Methods Data were collected from 2411 participants (50% female) from the Raine Study, a prospective birth cohort study in Australia. Participants were followed up over 15 years and answered questions about hours of TV watching per week at six time-points (5, 8, 10, 14, 17 and 20yrs). Trajectories of television watching were estimated using LCA and appropriate regression models used to test the association of television watching class with percentage body fat (measured by DXA) and mental health (DASS-21) at age 20. Physical activity was used as a covariate. Results Three distinct trajectories of TV watching were identified. Class 1 (47.4%) had consistently high (>14 hrs/wk) levels of TV watching, Class 2 (37.9%) was characterised by an increase in TV watching over adolescence and Class 3 (14.7%) had consistently lower (<14 hrs/wk) TV watching over 15 years. Sex was used as an active covariate in the latent class model and was significantly associated with class membership (p<0.001), with females comprising 45%, 47% and 59% of Class 1, 2 and 3 respectively. In females, membership in Class 2 or 3 was associated with lower body fat % at age 20, compared to Class 1 (p<0.001). For males, membership in Class 2 was associated with lower body fat % compared with males in Class 1 (p = 0.026). Membership of TV watching class and mental health were not related (p>0.05). Conclusions TV watching from childhood to young adulthood appears to be a relatively stable behavior for around two thirds of participants, but not everyone tracks consistently. This study identified a subset of

  7. Watch for those fragments of evidence: the use of an automatic timepiece to help correlate a helicopter crash site from the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Tuller, Hugh; Paolello, Josephine M

    2012-01-01

    This case study illustrates the use of the date function on an automatic wristwatch to help identify a Vietnam War helicopter crash site. The location of a crash incident can sometimes be uncertain because of inadequate or inaccurate wartime records and the passage of time. Artifacts recovered from a prospective crash scene are regularly used to correlate the loss incident. In this case study, a recovered automatic watch displayed a date 2 days later than the reported loss incident. Although the date conflicts with the aircraft crash incident report, it is observed that a fully wound automatic watch continues to work for c. 2 days after movement of the watch ceases. Thus, the watch's date in fact correlates with the aircraft crash incident report. It is noted that automatic watches may also be used to date scenes of crime. PMID:21939442

  8. [Effect of repetitive tasks on workers' sense of well-being in the watch industry].

    PubMed

    Oegerli, K

    1980-12-01

    In an interdisciplinary study, which was carried out in the Swiss watch industry, the influence of different job characteristics on the workers' well-being was investigated. Comparing the ergonomic, psychological and medical data of 120 women and 80 men executing tasks with restricted or enlarged degree of discretion, the following negative effects of repetitive tasks with low variety and little autonomy must be considered important: 1. pains in theeyes and headache 2. pains in the neck, the shoulder and the arms 3. increased intake of analgesics and sedatives 4. strongly experienced qualitative underload 5. a resignative tendency to accept small supplies for need fulfilment in the work situation. In both groups with a restricted degree of dicretion but also in the control group with more autonomy and variety a negative correlation could be found between length of service in job and the test score measuring information processing capacity. PMID:7245925

  9. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  10. Monitoring mobility in older adults using global positioning system (GPS) watches and accelerometers: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Sandra C; Porter, Michelle M

    2009-10-01

    This exploratory study examined the feasibility of using Garmin global positioning system (GPS) watches and ActiGraph accelerometers to monitor walking and other aspects of community mobility in older adults. After accuracy at slow walking speeds was initially determined, 20 older adults (74.4 +/- 4.2 yr) wore the devices for 1 day. Steps, distances, and speeds (on foot and in vehicle) were determined. GPS data acquisition varied from 43 min to over 12 hr, with 55% of participants having more than 8 hr between initial and final data-collection points. When GPS data were acquired without interruptions, detailed mobility information was obtained regarding the timing, distances covered, and speeds reached during trips away from home. Although GPS and accelerometry technology offer promise for monitoring community mobility patterns, new GPS solutions are required that allow for data collection over an extended period of time between indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:19940324

  11. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen L.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Henson, Rik; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Davis, Simon; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier; McCarrey, Anna; Price, Darren; Taylor, Jason; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Dixon, Marie; Barnes, Dan; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  12. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Shafto, Meredith A; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-11-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  13. Watchful Waiting for Cases of Pediatric Otitis Media: Modeling Parental Response to Physician Advice.

    PubMed

    MacGeorge, Erina L; Smith, Rachel A; Caldes, Emily P; Hackman, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Watchful waiting (WW) can reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in the treatment of pediatric otitis media (ear infection), but its utility is impaired by underutilization and noncompliance. Guided by advice response theory, the current study proposes advantage and capacity as factors that predict how caregivers evaluate and respond affectively to WW. Parents (N = 373) of at least 1 child age 5 years or younger completed questionnaires that assessed responses to hypothetical WW advice for their youngest child. Perceptions of advantage from WW and the capacity to monitor and manage symptoms predicted advice quality, physician trust, and future compliance both directly and indirectly through negative affect. The findings suggest the elaboration of advice response theory to include more aspects of advice content evaluation (e.g., advantage) and the influence of negative affect. The study also provides practical guidance for physicians seeking to improve caregiver reception of WW advice. PMID:27409041

  14. Spectators in the stands watch launch of STS-95 and Space Shuttle Discovery.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Amid the thousands of spectators watching the launch of STS-95 are Insurance Commissioner Bill Nelson (second from left, pointing) and Heavyweight Boxing Champion Evander Holyfield (next to him). A former U.S. representative, Nelson flew as a crew member on STS 61-C in January 1986. The STS-95 mission, which lifted off at 2:19:34 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Extra attention has been drawn to the mission due to the addition to the crew of John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio. STS-95 is Glenn's second flight into space after 36 years; he was one of the original Project Mercury astronauts and flew his first mission in February 1962.

  15. Spectators in the stands watch launch of STS-95 and Space Shuttle Discovery.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These stands are filled with spectators watching and photographing the launch of STS-95. The viewing sites and roadways at Kennedy Space Center bulge with people and vehicles wanting to see Space Shuttle Discovery lift off. Extra attention has been drawn to the mission due to the addition to the crew of John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio. STS-95 is Glenn's second flight into space after 36 years; he was one of the original Project Mercury astronauts and flew his first mission in February 1962. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  16. A study on the precision of mechanical watch movement with Tourbillon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gu; Ko, P. H.; Du, R.

    2011-08-01

    Despite its long history, detailed studies on the dynamics of mechanical watch movement are still lacking. In this paper, extending our previous mechanics model, the dynamical wave motion of the hairspring—balance wheel assembly, the core of the timekeeping mechanism called the escapement, is analyzed by partial differential equations. It is found that the corresponding eigenfunctions may be formulated into a Fourier series, through which the relative amplitudes of high order harmonics can be obtained. The relative error incurred owing to the high order harmonics is estimated to be around 10 -3, or 10 2 s/day, much higher than the needed accuracy. This is why manual adjustment is needed in practice. Moreover, addition of the pricy Tourbillon mechanism, which is designed to counteract the gravity effect, is found to trigger complexity in the motion and hence, may not be worth much.

  17. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  18. Addressing Race, Class, and Gender in Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Are Watching God": Strategies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Brenda M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an educator's attempt to raise multicultural issues in the classroom through a course centered on Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Are Watching God." Maintains that educators have a responsibility to raise issues of cultural diversity in learning communities that provide ways for student to engage in thinking that expands their world…

  19. TV Watching and Computer Use in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15, 2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 157

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Kirsten A.; Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Carlson, Susan A.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive screen-time behaviors, such as using a computer and watching TV, for more than 2 hours daily have been linked with elevated blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, and being overweight or obese among youth. Additionally, screen-time behavior established in adolescence has been shown to track into adulthood. The National Heart, Lung,…

  20. Children's Hostile Attribution Bias Is Reduced after Watching Realistic Playful Fighting, and the Effect Is Mediated by Prosocial Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Hostile attribution bias (HAB) has been found to characterize aggressive children. Watching prosocial media has been shown to have positive effects on children, and the general learning model has been used to account for these observations. This study tested the hypotheses derived from this theory that exposure to playful fighting would lead to a…

  1. Solomon Islands: Summary Report. Educational Experience Survey: Education, Language and Literacy Experience. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Watch initiative is being implemented in the Solomon Islands by the Coalition on Education Solomon Islands (COESI) in partnership with Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). COESI aims to generate a reliable body of information that will: (1) Accurately explain how much the national government has done and can do to…

  2. The Parents' Parenting Patterns, Education, Jobs, and Assistance to Their Children in Watching Television, and Children's Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…

  3. Waiting in Line: Low Income Families and the Search for Housing. Watching Out for Children in Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Citizens for Children and Youth, PA.

    The existing housing crisis for Philadelphia's low income families has been exacerbated by a decrease in the real income of these families over the past 10 years, a shortage of affordable housing during the same period, and the deterioration of much of the existing housing stock. "Watching Out for Children in Changing Times," a joint effort…

  4. Relationship between Noctcaelador and Aesthetic Sensitivity: Art-Related Personality Factors Associated with College Students' Night-Sky Watching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between positive attitudes and behaviors concerning night-sky watching (noctcaelador) and aesthetic sensitivity. College students (N = 106) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory (Kelly, 2004a) and a shortened version of the Sensitivity Questionnaire (Child, 1965). Noctcaelador was significantly, positively…

  5. Pick a Hand, Any Hand: Mixed-Handedness and Night-Sky Watching in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between handedness and interest in night-sky watching. University students (N= 128) completed the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (Oldfield, 1971) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (Kelly, 2004). The findings indicated that mixed-handed participants scored highest on noctcaelador relative to those classified as…

  6. 46 CFR 11.329 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as Officer in Charge of an Engineering Watch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... periodically unmanned engineroom on vessels powered by main propulsion machinery of 750 kW/1,000 HP propulsion... Watch (OICEW) in a manned engineroom or designated duty engineer in a periodically unmanned engineroom... Room or Designated Duty Engineer in a Periodically Unmanned Engine Room on Vessels Powered by...

  7. The New Classified Research. Corporate Sponsored Biomedical Research and the Reign of Secrecy at Harvard University. A Harvard Watch Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Jaron

    Harvard Watch asserts that withholding essential information from public scrutiny is not uncommon at Harvard University. Maintaining that Harvard has reversed its position from extolling the virtues of public disclosure to one of imposing secrecy, the document suggests that this about face is linked to the university's recent collaboration with…

  8. CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) for weather impact assessment on global agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gommes, René; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Ning; Feng, Xueliang; Zeng, Hongwei; Li, Zhongyuan; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    CropWatch agroclimatic indicators (CWAIs) are a monitoring tool developed by the CropWatch global crop monitoring system in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; www.cropwatch.com.cn, Wu et al Int J Digital Earth 7(2):113-137, 2014, Wu et al Remote Sens 7:3907-3933, 2015). Contrary to most other environmental and agroclimatic indicators, they are "agronomic value-added", i.e. they are spatial values averaged over agricultural areas only and they include a weighting that enhances the contribution of the areas with the largest production potential. CWAIs can be computed for any time interval (starting from dekads) and yield one synthetic value per variable over a specific area and time interval, for instance a national annual value. Therefore, they are very compatible with socio-economic and other variables that are usually reported at regular time intervals over administrative units, such as national environmental or agricultural statistics. Two of the CWAIs are satellite-based (RAIN and Photosynthetically Active radiation, PAR) while the third is ground based (TEMP, air temperature); capitals are used when specifically referring to CWAIs rather than the climate variables in general. The paper first provides an overview of some common agroclimatic indicators, describing their procedural, systemic and normative features in subsequent sections, following the terminology of Binder et al Environ Impact Assess Rev 30:71-81 (2010). The discussion focuses on the systemic and normative aspects: the CWAIs are assessed in terms of their coherent description of the agroclimatic crop environment, at different spatial scales (systemic). The final section shows that the CWAIs retain key statistical properties of the underlying climate variables and that they can be compared to a reference value and used as monitoring and early warning variables (normative).

  9. Learning Science Through Digital Video: Views on Watching and Creating Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, P.; Courtney, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    In science, the use of digital video to document phenomena, experiments and demonstrations has rapidly increased during the last decade. The use of digital video for science education also has become common with the wide availability of video over the internet. However, as with using any technology as a teaching tool, some questions should be asked: What science is being learned from watching a YouTube clip of a volcanic eruption or an informational video on hydroelectric power generation? What are student preferences (e.g. multimedia versus traditional mode of delivery) with regard to their learning? This study describes 1) the efficacy of watching digital video in the science classroom to enhance student learning, 2) student preferences of instruction with regard to multimedia versus traditional delivery modes, and 3) the use of creating digital video as a project-based educational strategy to enhance learning. Undergraduate non-science majors were the primary focus group in this study. Students were asked to view video segments and respond to a survey focused on what they learned from the segments. Additionally, they were asked about their preference for instruction (e.g. text only, lecture-PowerPoint style delivery, or multimedia-video). A majority of students indicated that well-made video, accompanied with scientific explanations or demonstration of the phenomena was most useful and preferred over text-only or lecture instruction for learning scientific information while video-only delivery with little or no explanation was deemed not very useful in learning science concepts. The use of student generated video projects as learning vehicles for the creators and other class members as viewers also will be discussed.

  10. TreeWatch.net: A Water and Carbon Monitoring and Modeling Network to Assess Instant Tree Hydraulics and Carbon Status

    PubMed Central

    Steppe, Kathy; von der Crone, Jonas S.; De Pauw, Dirk J. W.

    2016-01-01

    TreeWatch.net is an initiative that has been developed to watch trees grow and function in real-time. It is a water- and carbon-monitoring and modeling network, in which high-quality measurements of sap flow and stem diameter variation are collected on individual trees. Automated data processing using a cloud service enables instant visualization of water movement and radial stem growth. This can be used to demonstrate the sensitivity of trees to changing weather conditions, such as drought, heat waves, or heavy rain showers. But TreeWatch.net’s true innovation lies in its use of these high-precision harmonized data to also parameterize process-based tree models in real-time, which makes displaying the much-needed mechanisms underlying tree responses to climate change possible. Continuous simulation of turgor to describe growth processes and long-term time series of hydraulic resistance to assess drought-vulnerability in real-time are only a few of the opportunities our approach offers. TreeWatch.net has been developed with the view to be complementary to existing forest monitoring networks and with the aim to contribute to existing dynamic global vegetation models. It provides high-quality data and real-time simulations in order to advance research on the impact of climate change on the biological response of trees and forests. Besides its application in natural forests to answer climate-change related scientific and political questions, we also envision a broader societal application of TreeWatch.net by selecting trees in nature reserves, public areas, cities, university areas, schoolyards, and parks to teach youngsters and create public awareness on the effects of changing weather conditions on trees and forests in this era of climate change. PMID:27458474

  11. TreeWatch.net: A Water and Carbon Monitoring and Modeling Network to Assess Instant Tree Hydraulics and Carbon Status.

    PubMed

    Steppe, Kathy; von der Crone, Jonas S; De Pauw, Dirk J W

    2016-01-01

    TreeWatch.net is an initiative that has been developed to watch trees grow and function in real-time. It is a water- and carbon-monitoring and modeling network, in which high-quality measurements of sap flow and stem diameter variation are collected on individual trees. Automated data processing using a cloud service enables instant visualization of water movement and radial stem growth. This can be used to demonstrate the sensitivity of trees to changing weather conditions, such as drought, heat waves, or heavy rain showers. But TreeWatch.net's true innovation lies in its use of these high-precision harmonized data to also parameterize process-based tree models in real-time, which makes displaying the much-needed mechanisms underlying tree responses to climate change possible. Continuous simulation of turgor to describe growth processes and long-term time series of hydraulic resistance to assess drought-vulnerability in real-time are only a few of the opportunities our approach offers. TreeWatch.net has been developed with the view to be complementary to existing forest monitoring networks and with the aim to contribute to existing dynamic global vegetation models. It provides high-quality data and real-time simulations in order to advance research on the impact of climate change on the biological response of trees and forests. Besides its application in natural forests to answer climate-change related scientific and political questions, we also envision a broader societal application of TreeWatch.net by selecting trees in nature reserves, public areas, cities, university areas, schoolyards, and parks to teach youngsters and create public awareness on the effects of changing weather conditions on trees and forests in this era of climate change. PMID:27458474

  12. Processes Controlling the Diurnal and Seasonal Variability in Reactive Gases in the Tropical North Atlantic Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. C.; Carpenter, L. J.; Read, K. A.; Lee, J. D.; Hopkins, J. R.; Moller, S.; Mendes, L. N.; Lopez, H.; Fleming, Z.; Evans, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The tropical marine boundary layer is a key region for the global chemical destruction of gases such methane, carbon monoxide, VOCs and ozone, but there are few measurements of the intra and interannual variability of these reactive processes. The photochemistry of such regions has been considered in principle to be dominated by OH production from photolysis with concomitant ozone loss, occurring in the absence of NOx. The remoteness of the majority of the tropical oceans does not insulate them from anthropogenic emissions however, and there is a significant potential sensitivity to changes in background NOx derived from shipping. Logistics and geography constrain the amount of long-term boundary layer data that is currently available and tropical trends on decadal and longer timescales for some reactive species are yet to be established. The WMO-Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station on Sao Vicente, Cape Verde represents one of a very limited number of GAW observatories now undertaking continuous in situ observations of the reactive gases ozone, CO, non-methane hydrocarbons, and NOx. From four years of observations it is now clear that the factors controlling oxidation rates in this region of the tropical North Atlantic are more complex than previously thought, with [OH] and ozone loss influenced significantly by halogen oxides derived from oceanic emissions and by perturbations to regional scale NOx from commercial shipping. Variability in the frequency and composition of outflow from West Africa also exerts a significant influence on the wider Eastern tropical Atlantic maritime regions. The chemical and meteorological factors controlling the short- (diurnal) and medium-term (seasonal) behaviour of a range of WMO-GAW reactive gases will be discussed, and the surface observations placed in context through comparison to regional measurements from D288 and FAAM146 research aircraft and a global CTM. Inter-annual behaviour of CO, ethane and propane measured from Cape

  13. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. PMID:26485291

  14. Watershed Watch Undergraduate Research Projects: Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Tree Growth - Urban Development and Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) is designed to engage early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). Two Watershed Watch students from the 2009 Summer Research Institute (SRI), held on the ECSU campus, August 3-14, 2009 investigated the use of wood cores collected from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). One student team studied the possible impacts of urban development on tree growth, focusing on the use of dendrochronology to assess the effect of environmental factors on the trees. Tree cores and foliar samples were collected at the ECSU Outdoor Classroom and compared with the same species from the Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) in Virginia. The main targets of this experiment were one aquatic tree, the bald cypress, and a land based tree, the loblolly pine. This allowed us to compare an urbanized area (ECSU) with a more natural setting (GDS) to evaluate factors impacting tree growth. This experiment suggests that there may be potentially harmful impacts of an urban environment with the data that at ECSU. The growth rings of the ECSU campus tree cores are noticeably narrow, especially in the loblolly pine from the ECSU outdoor classroom, and multiple fluctuations in more recent tree rings of the bald cypress in the ECSU campus. Growth ring compression, beginning approximately in 1956 in 100-year old loblolly pines, corresponds in timing with

  15. International Mussel Watch Project. Initial implementation phase. Final report. Coastal chemical contaminant monitoring using bivalves. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, J.W.; Tripp, B.W.

    1995-05-01

    The objective International Mussel Watch is to assess the extent of chemical contamination in the equatorial and subequatorial areas of the southern hemisphere with particular attention to coastal areas of developing countries. The First Phase took place in South America, Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico with particular emphasis on PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in mollusks collected at 76 sites in 1991 to 1992. Samples from some sites were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results show that concentrations of these organic chemicals in mollusks were generally lower than in similar samples collected in the NOAA Mussel Watch Project in the United States. Relatively high levels found in urban areas were with the ranges of concentrations found in the United States. The Project included a chemical intercomparison exercise that involved analytical chemists from the Host Countries.

  16. Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, Monika; Salmimaa, Marja; Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    A stereoscopic 3-D version of the film Avatar was shown to 85 people who subsequently answered questions related to sickness, visual strain, stereoscopic image quality, and sense of presence. Viewing Avatar for 165 min induced some symptoms of visual strain and sickness, but the symptom levels remained low. A comparison between Avatar and previously published results for the film U2 3D showed that sickness and visual strain levels were similar despite the films' runtimes. The genre of the film had a significant effect on the viewers' opinions and sense of presence. Avatar, which has been described as a combination of action, adventure, and sci-fi genres, was experienced as more immersive and engaging than the music documentary U2 3D. However, participants in both studies were immersed, focused, and absorbed in watching the stereoscopic 3-D (S3-D) film and were pleased with the film environments. The results also showed that previous stereoscopic 3-D experience significantly reduced the amount of reported eye strain and complaints about the weight of the viewing glasses.

  17. How Watching Pinocchio Movies Changes Our Subjective Experience of Extrapersonal Space

    PubMed Central

    Fini, Chiara; Committeri, Giorgia; Müller, Barbara C. N.; Deschrijver, Eliane; Brass, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The way we experience the space around us is highly subjective. It has been shown that motion potentialities that are intrinsic to our body influence our space categorization. Furthermore, we have recently demonstrated that in the extrapersonal space, our categorization also depends on the movement potential of other agents. When we have to categorize the space as “Near” or “Far” between a reference and a target, the space categorized as “Near” is wider if the reference corresponds to a biological agent that has the potential to walk, instead of a biological and non-biological agent that cannot walk. But what exactly drives this “Near space extension”? In the present paper, we tested whether abstract beliefs about the biological nature of an agent determine how we categorize the space between the agent and an object. Participants were asked to first read a Pinocchio story and watch a correspondent video in which Pinocchio acts like a real human, in order to become more transported into the initial story. Then they had to categorize the location ("Near" or "Far") of a target object located at progressively increasing or decreasing distances from a non-biological agent (i.e., a wooden dummy) and from a biological agent (i.e., a human-like avatar). The results indicate that being transported into the Pinocchio story, induces an equal “Near” space threshold with both the avatar and the wooden dummy as reference frames. PMID:25799346

  18. NOAA Coral Reef Watch: Decision Support Tools for Coral Reef Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauenzahn, J.; Eakin, C.; Skirving, W. J.; Burgess, T.; Christensen, T.; Heron, S. F.; Li, J.; Liu, G.; Morgan, J.; Nim, C.; Parker, B. A.; Strong, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    A multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors exert substantial influence on coral reef ecosystems and contribute to bleaching events, slower coral growth, infectious disease outbreaks, and mortality. Satellite-based observations can monitor, at a global scale, environmental conditions that influence both short-term and long-term coral reef ecosystem health. From research to operations, NOAA Coral Reef Watch (CRW) incorporates paleoclimatic, in situ, and satellite-based biogeophysical data to provide near-real-time and forecast information and tools to help managers, researchers, and other stakeholders interpret coral health and stress. CRW has developed an operational, near-real-time product suite that includes sea surface temperature (SST), SST time series data, SST anomaly charts, coral bleaching HotSpots, and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW). Bi-weekly global SST analyses are based on operational nighttime-only SST at 50-km resolution. CRW is working to develop high-resolution products to better address thermal stress on finer scales and is applying climate models to develop seasonal outlooks of coral bleaching. Automated Satellite Bleaching Alerts (SBAs), available at Virtual Stations worldwide, provide the only global early-warning system to notify managers of changing reef environmental conditions. Currently, CRW is collaborating with numerous domestic and international partners to develop new tools to address ocean acidification, infectious diseases of corals, combining light and temperature to detect coral photosystem stress, and other parameters.

  19. The Analysis Portal and the Swedish LifeWatch e-infrastructure for biodiversity research

    PubMed Central

    Käck, Martin; Karlsson, Björn; Kindvall, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last years, more and more online portals were generated and are now available for ecologists to run advanced models with extensive data sets. Some examples are the Biodiversity Virtual e-Laboratory (BioVel) Portal (https://portal.biovel.eu) for ecological niche modelling and the Mobyle SNAP Workbench (https://snap.hpc.ncsu.edu) for evolutionary and population genetics analysis. Such portals have the main goal to facilitate the run of advanced models, through access to large-capacity computers or servers. In this study, we present the Analysis Portal (www.analysisportal.se), which is a part of the Swedish LifeWatch e-infrastructure for biodiversity research that combines a variety of Swedish web services to perform different kinds of dataprocessing. New information For the first time, the Swedish Analysis Portal for integrated analysis of species occurrence data is described in detail. It was launched in 2013 and today, over 60 Million Swedish species observation records can be assessed, visualized and analyzed via the portal. Datasets can be assembled using sophisticated filtering tools, and combined with environmental and climatic data from a wide range of providers. Different validation tools, for example the official Swedish taxon concept database Dyntaxa, ensure high data quality. Results can be downloaded in different formats as maps, tables, diagrams and reports. PMID:27099553

  20. Does eating while watching television influence children's food-related behaviours?

    PubMed

    Marquis, Marie; Filion, Yves P; Dagenais, Fannie

    2005-01-01

    To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the p<0.05 level for all findings. These results suggest that gender should be considered in attempts to understand children's food motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eating behaviours that may be associated with a given environment. PMID:15780151

  1. Performance of Major Flare Watches from the Max Millennium Program (2001 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, D. S.; Gallagher, P. T.; Marquette, W. H.; Milligan, R. O.; Canfield, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    The physical processes that trigger solar flares are not well understood, and significant debate remains around processes governing particle acceleration, energy partition, and particle and energy transport. Observations at high resolution in energy, time, and space are required in multiple energy ranges over the whole course of many flares to build an understanding of these processes. Obtaining high-quality, co-temporal data from ground- and space- based instruments is crucial to achieving this goal and was the primary motivation for starting the Max Millennium program and Major Flare Watch (MFW) alerts, aimed at coordinating observations of all flares ≥ X1 GOES X-ray classification (including those partially occulted by the limb). We present a review of the performance of MFWs from 1 February 2001 to 31 May 2010, inclusive, which finds that (1) 220 MFWs were issued in 3407 days considered (6.5 % duty cycle), with these occurring in 32 uninterrupted periods that typically last 2 - 8 days; (2) 56% of flares ≥ X1 were caught, occurring in 19 % of MFW days; (3) MFW periods ended at suitable times, but substantial gain could have been achieved in percentage of flares caught if periods had started 24 h earlier; (4) MFWs successfully forecast X-class flares with a true skill statistic (TSS) verification metric score of 0.500, that is comparable to a categorical flare/no-flare interpretation of the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Centre probabilistic forecasts (TSS = 0.488).

  2. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  3. Discrimination of LINAC photon and sunlight contributions in watch glass analyzed by means of thermoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Anna; Brai, Maria; Carlino, Antonio; Marrale, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    The research described in this paper shows how to extract from the glow curves of watch glasses exposed to LINAC photons and sunlight a contribution sensitive to LINAC photons dose. As first step, the dependence of the TL signal due to sunlight on the exposure duration was studied and a signal saturation was observed after about 20 weeks. The comparison of TL signals due to solar light and to LINAC photons highlights a partial overlap of the two signals. Here, two different analysis procedures of glow curves (general order kinetics deconvolution and principal components analysis) are reported to point out components which depend differently on LINAC photon radiation dose. For both analyses two components were used and the dependence on dose was investigated. In order to evaluate the ability of both techniques to reconstruct absorbed doses a blind test was performed. The reconstructed dose with both techniques is significantly consistent with the initial dose value. The procedures here described are valuable because they could be used to discriminate any background signal from that due to ionizing radiation irradiation and could be used as useful tools for dose reconstruction in retrospective dosimetry.

  4. How watching Pinocchio movies changes our subjective experience of extrapersonal space.

    PubMed

    Fini, Chiara; Committeri, Giorgia; Müller, Barbara C N; Deschrijver, Eliane; Brass, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The way we experience the space around us is highly subjective. It has been shown that motion potentialities that are intrinsic to our body influence our space categorization. Furthermore, we have recently demonstrated that in the extrapersonal space, our categorization also depends on the movement potential of other agents. When we have to categorize the space as "Near" or "Far" between a reference and a target, the space categorized as "Near" is wider if the reference corresponds to a biological agent that has the potential to walk, instead of a biological and non-biological agent that cannot walk. But what exactly drives this "Near space extension"? In the present paper, we tested whether abstract beliefs about the biological nature of an agent determine how we categorize the space between the agent and an object. Participants were asked to first read a Pinocchio story and watch a correspondent video in which Pinocchio acts like a real human, in order to become more transported into the initial story. Then they had to categorize the location ("Near" or "Far") of a target object located at progressively increasing or decreasing distances from a non-biological agent (i.e., a wooden dummy) and from a biological agent (i.e., a human-like avatar). The results indicate that being transported into the Pinocchio story, induces an equal "Near" space threshold with both the avatar and the wooden dummy as reference frames. PMID:25799346

  5. Watching bats find food: Do we classify the signals, the strategies, or the bats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, James A.

    2001-05-01

    The fact that different families, genera, and even species of echolocating bats broadcast characteristic sonar signals has motivated numerous efforts to classify bats according to signal design, which has received support from correlations with both peripheral and central auditory physiology. Signal types vary according to the situations in which bats have been observed hunting for food, so this classification has been extended to the hunting strategies they use. The availability of new technical means for watching and documenting the behavior of echolocating bats in real time (thermal infrared video cameras, night-vision video with infrared illumination, video recorders with ultrasonic audio channels) makes it possible to follow individual bats long enough to observe variations in their behavior over periods of seconds to minutes. These observations reveal that at least some species nominally classified as using just one hunting strategy in fact use several strategies according to prevailing conditions, sometimes using different strategies in the course of only a few minutes. The historic inaccessibility of bats to real-time observation in the dark may have lead to exaggerated stereotyping of their behavior. [Work supported by ONR, NSF.

  6. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaxin; Tseng, Philip; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving) and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search). Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participants' inhibition ability, but such an impairing effect was completely eliminated when participants were led to believe that their facial expressions were monitored by a webcam. Furthermore, there was no post-error slowing in any of the conditions, thus these results cannot be explained by a deliberate speed-accuracy tradeoff or other types of conscious shift in strategy. Together, these findings demonstrate that the interaction between emotional arousal and impulse control can be dependent on one's state of self-consciousness. Furthermore, this study also highlights the effect that the mere presence of the experimenter may have on participants' cognitive performance, even if it's only a webcam. PMID:25653635

  7. Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: generation-after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Genik, Richard J; Green, Christopher C; Graydon, Francis X; Armstrong, Robert E

    2005-06-01

    Confinement and isolation have always confounded the extraordinary endeavor of human spaceflight. Psychosocial health is at the forefront in considering risk factors that imperil missions of 1- to 2-yr duration. Current crewmember selection metrics restricted to behavioral observation by definition observe rather than prevent performance degradation and are thus inadequate when preflight training cannot simulate an entire journey. Nascent techniques to monitor functional and task-related cortical neural activity show promise and can be extended to include whole-brain monitoring. Watching spaceflight crews think can reveal the efficiency of training procedures. Moreover, observing subcortical emotion centers may provide early detection of developing neuropsychiatric disorders. The non-invasive functional neuroimaging modalities electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and highlights of how they may be engineered for spacecraft are detailed. Preflight and in-flight applications to crewmember behavioral health from current generation, next generation, and generation-after-next neuroscience research studies are also described. The emphasis is on preventing the onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, thus reducing the risk of mission failure due to human error. PMID:15943214

  8. The effect of left-right reversal on film: Watching Kurosawa reversed

    PubMed Central

    Bertamini, Marco; Bode, Carole; Bruno, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The mirror reversal of an image is subtly different from the original. Often such change goes unnoticed in pictures, although it can affect preference. For the first time we studied the effect of mirror reversal of feature films. People watched Yojimbo or Sanjuro in a cinema, both classic films by Akira Kurosawa. They knew that this was a study and filled out a questionnaire. On one day Yojimbo was shown in its original orientation, and on another day the film was mirror reversed. Sanjuro was shown reversed on one day and non-reversed on another day. Viewers did not notice the reversal, even when they had seen the film before and considered themselves fans of Kurosawa. We compared this with estimates from a survey. In addition, the question about the use of space (scenography) revealed that although people who had seen the film before gave higher ratings compared with those who had not, this was only true when the film was not reversed. PMID:23145243

  9. Heart rate modulation in bystanding geese watching social and non-social events

    PubMed Central

    Wascher, Claudia A.F; Scheiber, Isabella B.R; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Simply observing other individuals interacting has been shown to affect subsequent behaviour and also hormones in ‘bystander’ individuals. However, immediate physiological responses of an observer have been hardly investigated. Here we present results on individuals' heart rate (HR) responses during various situations, which occur regularly in a flock of greylag geese (Anser anser, e.g. agonistic encounters, vehicles passing by). We recorded simultaneously HR and behaviour of 21 semi-tame free-roaming geese, equipped with fully implanted transmitters. We considered 304 social and 81 non-social events during which the focal individuals did not respond behaviourally. Independent of the spatial distance to the event, these HR responses were significantly greater in social contexts (e.g. departing or landing geese, agonistic interactions) than in non-social situations (e.g. vehicles passing by, thunder). Focal individuals showed a significantly higher maximum HR as well as a greater HR increase in response to agonistic interactions, in which the pair partner or a family member was involved, as compared with a non-affiliated goose. Also, HR was significantly higher when the bystander watched non-affiliated geese interacting, which were higher ranking than the focal. We conclude that these differences are due to different relevance of the recorded events for the focal individual, depending on the individuals involved in the observed interaction. PMID:18430645

  10. Watching elderly and disabled person's physical condition by remotely controlled monorail robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaka, Yasunori; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Fukaya, Yasutoshi; Takahashi, Tomoichi; Takeshita, Toru

    2001-10-01

    We are developing a nursing system using robots and cameras. The cameras are mounted on a remote controlled monorail robot which moves inside a room and watches the elderly. It is necessary to pay attention to the elderly at home or nursing homes all time. This requires staffs to pay attention to them at every time. The purpose of our system is to help those staffs. This study intends to improve such situation. A host computer controls a monorail robot to go in front of the elderly using the images taken by cameras on the ceiling. A CCD camera is mounted on the monorail robot to take pictures of their facial expression or movements. The robot sends the images to a host computer that checks them whether something unusual happens or not. We propose a simple calibration method for positioning the monorail robots to track the moves of the elderly for keeping their faces at center of camera view. We built a small experiment system, and evaluated our camera calibration method and image processing algorithm.

  11. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. Being watched by others eliminates the effect of emotional arousal on inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiaxin; Tseng, Philip; Muggleton, Neil G.; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving) and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search). Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participants’ inhibition ability, but such an impairing effect was completely eliminated when participants were led to believe that their facial expressions were monitored by a webcam. Furthermore, there was no post-error slowing in any of the conditions, thus these results cannot be explained by a deliberate speed-accuracy tradeoff or other types of conscious shift in strategy. Together, these findings demonstrate that the interaction between emotional arousal and impulse control can be dependent on one’s state of self-consciousness. Furthermore, this study also highlights the effect that the mere presence of the experimenter may have on participants’ cognitive performance, even if it’s only a webcam. PMID:25653635

  13. Touch or Watch to Learn? Toddlers' Object Retrieval Using Contingent and Noncontingent Video.

    PubMed

    Choi, Koeun; Kirkorian, Heather L

    2016-05-01

    The experiment reported here was designed to examine the effect of contingent interaction with touch-screen devices on toddlers' use of symbolic media (video) during an object-retrieval task. Toddlers (24-36 months old; N = 75) were randomly assigned to watch an animated character hiding on screen either in a no-contingency video (requiring no action), a general-contingency video (accepting touch input anywhere on screen), or a specific-contingency video (requiring touch input on a particular area of interest). After the hiding event, toddlers searched for the character on a corresponding felt board. Across all trials, younger toddlers were more likely to search correctly after a specific-contingency video than after a no-contingency video, which suggests that contingent interaction designed to emphasize specific information on screen may promote learning. However, this effect was reversed for older toddlers. We interpret our findings with respect to the selective encoding of target features during hiding events and the relative strength of memory traces during search. PMID:27052556

  14. The development of ShortWatch, a novel overtemperature or mechanical damage sensing technology for wires or cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Ken; Morris, Jack; Wong, C.P.; Luo, Shijian

    2001-09-07

    'ShortWatch' is a patented technology which for the first time offers electrical wire/cable products providing real-time, 'in-situ' (1) condition monitoring that warns of insulation damage before an electrical fault occurs, (2) assessment of the ability to perform in a Design Basis event, (3) distributed sensor warning of overtemperature, and (4) insulation leakage measurement capability providing arc sensing and a reliable tool for wire age prediction.

  15. Prospective study of the associations between television watching and car riding behaviors and development of depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuemei; Brown, Wendy J.; Lavie, Carl J.; West, Delia S.; Pate, Russel R.; Payne, Jonathan P.W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between sedentary behaviors and risk of developing depressive symptoms. Patients and Methods 1012 women and 3790 men (18–80 yr) not reporting depressive moods completed a health survey during 1982 when they reported their time spent watching television (TV) and riding in a car each week. All participants completed a follow-up health survey when they responded to the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10). Those who scored 8 or more on the CES-D 10 were considered to have depressive symptoms. Results 568 participants reported depressive symptoms during an average follow-up of 9.3 years. After multivariate-adjustment including moderate- and vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA), time in riding in a car, watching TV and combined time spent in the two sedentary behaviors were positively (P trend <.05 for each) associated with depressive symptoms. Individuals who reported ≥9 hrs/wk riding in a car, >10 hrs/wk watching TV, or ≥19 hrs/wk of combined sedentary behavior had 28%, 52%, and 74% greater risk of developing depressive symptoms than those who reported <5 hrs/wk, <5 hrs/wk, or <12 hrs/wk, respectively after adjusting for baseline covariates and MVPA. The positive association between time in riding in a car or time in watching TV and depressive symptoms was only observed among individual who did not meet the current PA guidelines. Conclusion Longer time reported in these two sedentary behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The direct associations between time spent in car riding and TV viewing, with depressive symptoms, were however only significant among those who did not meet the current PA recommendation. PMID:25659236

  16. Occurrence and removal of organic micropollutants: An overview of the watch list of EU Decision 2015/495.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marta O; Moreira, Nuno F F; Ribeiro, Ana R; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2016-05-01

    Although there are no legal discharge limits for micropollutants into the environment, some regulations have been published in the last few years. Recently, a watch list of substances for European Union-wide monitoring was reported in the Decision 2015/495/EU of 20 March 2015. Besides the substances previously recommended to be included by the Directive 39/2013/EU, namely two pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and the synthetic hormone 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) and a natural hormone (17-beta-estradiol (E2)), the first watch list of 10 substances/groups of substances also refers three macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin), other natural hormone (estrone (E1)), some pesticides (methiocarb, oxadiazon, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, acetamiprid and triallate), a UV filter (2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate) and an antioxidant (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) commonly used as food additive. Since little is known about the removal of most of the substances included in the Decision 2015/495/EU, particularly regarding realistic concentrations in aqueous environmental samples, this review aims to: (i) overview the European policy in the water field; (ii) briefly describe the most commonly used conventional and advanced treatment processes to remove micropollutants; (iii) summarize the relevant data published in the last decade, regarding occurrence and removal in aqueous matrices of the 10 substances/groups of substances that were recently included in the first watch list for European Union monitoring (Decision 2015/495/EU); and (iv) highlight the lack of reports concerning some substances of the watch list, the study of un-spiked aquatic matrices and the assessment of transformation by-products. PMID:26967909

  17. 76 FR 4284 - Foreign-Trade Zone 49-Newark, NJ Area; Application for Subzone; LVMH Watch & Jewelry U.S.A., Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... & Jewelry U.S.A., Inc. (Watches, Jewelry Products and Leather Goods); Springfield, NJ An application has..., jewelry products, leather goods (apparel, hand bags, wallets, cases), accessories, and luggage. All of...

  18. The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 1; Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1966-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Halley's Comet (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft, subsequently renamed the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini-Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

  19. The Archive of the Amateur Observation Network of the International Halley Watch. Volume 1; Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, Stephen J. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) was organized for the purpose of gathering and archiving the most complete record of the apparition of a comet, Comet Halley (1982i = 1986 III = 1P/Halley), ever compiled. The redirection of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), toward Comet Giacobini-Zinner (1984e = 1985 XIII = 21P/Giacobini-Zinner) prompted the initiation of a formal watch on that comet. All the data collected on P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley have been published on CD-ROM in the Comet Halley Archive. This document contains a printed version of the archive data, collected by amateur astronomers, on these two comets. Volume 1 contains the Comet Giacobini-Zinner data archive and Volume 2 contains the Comet Halley archive. Both volumes include information on how to read the data in both archives, as well as a history of both comet watches (including the organizing of the network of astronomers and lessons learned from that experience).

  20. Watershed Watch: A Curriculum Model for an Undergraduate Biogeoscience Course Designed to Attract Undeclared and Undecided Students into STEM Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S.; Rock, B. N.; Schloss, J. A.; Gagnon, M. T.; Perry, C.; Yuan, J.; Branch, B. D.; Lecompte, M. A.; Mitchell, L.; Traore, K.; Hayden, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed Watch (NSF-DUE-STEP 0525433) engages early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in biogeoscience. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The curriculum model for Watershed Watch includes a Summer two-week, fieldwork-based, inquiry instructional model followed by a semester long Academic Year follow-up course that features students continuing authentic research experiences. This curriculum model utilizes the Summer experience as a rapid immersion into how to conduct a scientific investigation and focuses on various research methodologies used on watershed ecology, and the Academic Year follow-up as a more controlled and thoughtful exercise into scientific investigations in watershed ecology. Together, these two curricular components expose early undergraduates to the rewarding aspect of doing science, and the model has been effective at attracting and retaining students into science majors.