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Sample records for watch gaw regional

  1. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  2. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-07-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC), on a statistical approach (REBS), on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX) and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2013.

  3. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  4. [In situ measurement of atmospheric HCFC-22 at the Shangdianzi GAW regional station].

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Zhou, Ling-xi; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-chun; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-ling; Zhou, Huai-gang; Dong, Fan; Zhou, Li-yan

    2010-08-01

    An in situ GC-ECD monitoring system was established at the Shangdianzi GAW Regional station from April 2007 to March 2008, and the mixing ratio of atmospheric HCFC-22 was (278.1 +/- 113.6) x 10(-12) (mol/mol). A "R" statistical software was applied to the HCFC-22 time series to separate background and pollution data. The background HCFC-22 mixing ratio was (199.5 +/- 5.1) x 10(-12), close to northern hemisphere background level observed at Mace Head and Trinidad Head stations. The pollution HCFC-22 mixing ratio was (312.1 +/- 121.0) x 10(-12) due to anthropogenic emission from various regions and air mass transport. There was no significant seasonal variability of background data. However, pollution data was much higher in summer than that in winter, and elevated up to 100.9 x 10(-12) in July than in January attribute to seasonal emission characteristics. The mean HCFC-22 mixing ratio from southwest wind sector (327.3 x 10(-12)) was much higher than that of northeast sector (236.2 x 10(-12)). The W-WSW-SW wind sector has a positive contribution to the HCFC-22 level, while NNE-N-NE has a large negative contribution. PMID:21090288

  5. Long-term observations of tropospheric ozone: GAW Measurement Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Galbally, Ian E.; Schultz, Martin G.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) coordinates long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere which are relevant for understanding of atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Atmospheric observations of reactive gases (tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides) coordinated by the GAW Programme complement local and regional scale air quality monitoring efforts. As part of the GAW quality assurance (QA) system detailed measurement guidelines for atmospheric trace species are developed by international expert teams at irregular intervals. The most recent report focuses on continuous in-situ measurements of ozone in the troposphere, performed in particular at continental or island sites with altitudes ranging from sea level to mountain tops. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are defined for different applications of the data (e.g. trend analysis and verification of global model forecasts). These DQOs include a thorough discussion of the tolerable level of measurement uncertainty and data completeness. The guidelines present the best practices and practical arrangements adopted by the GAW Programme in order to enable the GAW station network to approach or achieve the defined tropospheric ozone DQOs. The document includes information on the selection of station and measurement locations, required skills and training of staff, recommendations on the measurement technique and the necessary equipment to perform highest quality measurements, rules for conducting the measurements, preparing the data and archiving them, and more. Much emphasis is given to discussions about how to ensure the quality of the data through tracing calibrations back to primary standards, proper calibration and data analysis, etc. In the GAW Programme the QA system is implemented through Central Facilities (Central Calibration Laboratories, World and Regional

  6. The Wmo Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: Global Framework for Atmospheric Composition Observations and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Jalkanen, L.

    2010-12-01

    The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme is the only existing long-term international global programme providing an international coordinated framework for observations and analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. GAW is a partnership involving contributors from about 80 countries. It includes a coordinated global network of observing stations along with supporting facilities (Central Facilities) and expert groups (Scientific Advisory Groups, SAGs and Expert Teams, ETs). Currently GAW coordinates activities and data from 27 Global Stations and a substantial number of Regional and Contributing Stations. Station information is available through the GAW Station Information System GAWSIS (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/). There are six key groups of variables which are addressed by the GAW Programme, namely: ozone, reactive gases, greenhouse gases, aerosols, UV radiation and precipitation chemistry. GAW works to implement integrated observations unifying measurements from different platforms (ground based in situ and remote, balloons, aircraft and satellite) supported by modeling activities. GAW provides data for ozone assessments, Greenhouse Gas Bulletins, Ozone Bulletins and precipitation chemistry assessments published on a regular basis and for early warnings of changes in the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere. To ensure that observations can be used for global assessments, the GAW Programme has developed a Quality Assurance system. Five types of Central Facilities dedicated to the six groups of measurement variables are operated by WMO Members and form the basis of quality assurance and data archiving for the GAW global monitoring network. They include Central Calibration Laboratories (CCLs) that host primary standards (PS), Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centres (QA/SACs), World Calibration Centers (WCCs), Regional Calibration Centers (RCCs), and World Data Centers (WDCs) with responsibility for

  7. The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: New Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, D. E.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch Programme, one of the tree research Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GAW) is the only existing long-term international global programme that coordinates observations and analysis of atmospheric composition changes. The GAW Programme builds on a partnership of more than 100 countries. Within its 25 years of existence WMO/GAW has matured to the system that provides reliable long-term high quality observations in support of international policy making. WMO/GAW includes globally coordinated observational network, complemented by a comprehensive quality assurance system and capacity development. In spite of the fact that GAW has embraced the IGACO strategy (Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations), the programme in its current form still has a strong observational bias. Future development of WMO/GAW requires the further evolution of the programme concept toward "science for services". New challenges call for the changes in the GAW station requirements and data managements, for new approaches to collaboration with the contributing networks and better involvement of the modelling community. The programme structure is evolving to streamline better to user requirements with the move from precipitation chemistry to total deposition and from near-real-time data delivery to applications (modeling) requiring such data delivery. The updated concept of GAW will include more cross-cutting applications. A new category of local station is introduced to help with the verification of some applications including those related to urban areas and the impacts of urban complexes regionally and globally. The evolution of the GAW Programme towards user driven cross-cutting applications provides a new opportunity to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in partnership with other science - based institutions to increase their relevance to society.

  8. Characteristics of aerosols and mass closure study at two WMO GAW regional background stations in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Zhang, Renjian; Huan, Ning; Zhou, Xiuji; Zhang, Yangmei; Zhou, Huaigang; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-12-01

    In the summer and winter of 2004 and 2005, size-segregated atmospheric aerosols were sampled with modified Andersen KA200 Multi-stage impactor at two regional background stations in the eastern China, the Shangdianzi station (SDZ) in the suburb of Beijing and the Lin'An station (LA) in the Yangtze river delta region, both are WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station, which represent the regional background of air pollutions of the two rapid developing economical zone of China, the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin region. The aerosol mass size distributions, ionic compositions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and elemental components were analyzed. The mass concentrations for TSP (total suspend particle), PM11 (aerodynamic diameter less than 11 μm), and PM2.1 (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.1 μm) at both sites showed obviously different between the winter and summer, with higher mass concentrations measured in the winter time. All seasonal mean mass concentrations of PM2.1 accounted for over 50% of PM11 at both sites. The aerosol mass closure study indicated that the total mass concentration reconstructed from the aerosol chemical composition agreed well with the measured gravimetric mass at the two stations. The fine aerosol particles at the two stations were composed mainly of sulfate and organic matter. In the summer, more than half of the PM2.1 mass was sulfate, suggesting a dominant contribution of secondary aerosol to the fine particles in these two regions. In the winter, the contribution of nitrate to the fine particles increased significantly due to the lower volatile losses under the cold weather. The proportions of soil type components in the PM2.1 showed similar magnitude in the winter and summer at Lin'An station but significant seasonal differences with higher fractions in the winter at Shangdianzi station. On average EC accounted for about 2%-6% of the fine particle mass (PM2.1) at both sites with proportionally lower EC

  9. The global atmosphere watch of the WMO

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Many urgent global environmental problems confronting society, such as climate change, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and acid rain, are connected with the man-made changes in the state and composition of the atmosphere and its interactions with other environmental media. Within the United Nations system the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has a continuing responsibility to coordinate global activities related to the state and behavior of the earth`s atmosphere and climate using a number of its operational observation networks, one of which is the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The data collected at the GAW monitoring stations are particularly essential in two ways: (1) To understand the relationship between changing atmospheric composition and changes of global and regional climate (2) To describe the regional and long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of potentially harmful substances. The purpose of this presentation is two-fold. One is to give a description of overall programme of the GAW system and to show the different aspects of the global monitoring which is coordinated through the WMO. The second is to describe the activities of the GAW Regional network and air quality measurements.

  10. [Atmospheric CO2 data filtering method and characteristics of the molar fractions at the Longfengshan WMO/GAW regional station in China].

    PubMed

    Luan, Tian; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Fang, Shuang-Xi; Yao, Bo; Wang, Hong-Yang; Liu, Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Based on the in-situ observation results of atmospheric CO2 molar fractions at two levels (10 m and 80 m above the ground) at Longfengshan (LFS) regional background station in Heilongjiang Province during January 2009 to December 2011, this study mainly focused on the results from 10 m above the ground level (a. g. l.). The results indicated that the observed data from 10 m were strongly affected by the local sources/sinks. The differences between the 10 m and 80 m results were relatively small during the daytime (08:00-17:00) with values smaller than (0.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(-6). In spring, summer and winter, higher CO2 molar fractions were observed when surface winds came from the E-ESE-SE-SSE sectors, while, in winter, surface winds from the N-NNW-NW-WNW sectors obviously enhanced the observed values. Generally, lower CO2 values were accompanied with higher wind speed in the four seasons. This phenomenon was most obvious in winter. Based on the analysis of the observed diurnal cycles and the local meteorological conditions, the observed data from 10 m were filtered into background/non-background events. About 30.7% valid hourly data were filtered as regional background representative. The background CO2 variation displayed a peak in winter and a valley in summer with a seasonal peak to peak amplitude of (36.3 +/- 1.4) x 10(-6), which was higher than the values at similar latitude from Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) References and WMO/GAW stations. The yearly CO2 increasing rate at LFS was roughly estimated to be 2.4 x 10(-6) a(-1). PMID:25338353

  11. "If two witches would watch two watches, which witch would watch which watch?" tDCS over the left frontal region modulates tongue twister repetition in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fiori, V; Cipollari, S; Caltagirone, C; Marangolo, P

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical activity in the human brain. In the language domain, it has already been shown that during a naming task tDCS reduces vocal reaction times in healthy individuals and speeds up the recovery process in left brain-damaged aphasic subjects. In this study, we wondered whether tDCS would influence the ability to articulate tongue twisters during a repetition task. Three groups of 10 healthy individuals were asked to repeat a list of tongue twisters in three different stimulation conditions: one group performed the task during anodal tDCS (atDCS) (20 min, 2 mA) over the left frontal region; a second group during cathodal tDCS delivered over the same region; and, in a third group, sham stimulation was applied. Accuracy and vocal reaction times in repeating each tongue twister before, during and 1h after the stimulation were recorded. Participants were more accurate and faster at repeating the stimuli during atDCS than at baseline, while cathodal tDCS significantly reduced their performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times. No significant differences were observed among the three time points during the sham condition. We believe that these data clearly confirm that the left frontal region is critically involved in the process of speech repetition. They are also in line with recent evidence suggesting that frontal tDCS might be used as a therapeutic tool in patients suffering from articulatory deficits. PMID:24184977

  12. Regional variations in cardiovascular risk factors in India: India heart watch

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Guptha, Soneil; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Gupta, Arvind; Deedwania, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Mortality statistics and morbidity surveys indicate substantial regional variations in CVD prevalence and mortality rates. Data from the Registrar General of India reported greater age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality in southern and eastern states of the country. Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is greater in south India while stroke is more common in the eastern Indian states. CHD prevalence is higher in urban Indian populations while stroke mortality is similar in urban and rural regions. Case-control studies in India have identified that the common major risk factors account for more than 90% of incident myocardial infarctions and stroke. The case-control INTERHEART and INTERSTROKE studies reported that hypertension, lipid abnormalities, smoking, obesity, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, low fruit and vegetable intake, and psychosocial stress are as important in India as in other populations of the world. Individual studies have reported that there are substantial regional variations in risk factors in India. At a macro-level these regional variations in risk factors explain some of the regional differences in CVD mortality. However, there is need to study the prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in different regions of India and to correlate them with variations in CVD mortality using a uniform protocol. There is also a need to determine the “causes of the causes” or fundamental determinants of these risk factors. The India Heart Watch study has been designed to study socioeconomic, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors in urban populations in different regions of the country in order to identify regional differences. PMID:22558490

  13. In situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Zhou, L. X.; Tans, P. P.; Ciais, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Xu, L.; Luan, T.

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were continuously measured from January 2009 to December 2011 at four atmospheric observatories in China using cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. The stations are Lin'an (LAN), Longfengshan (LFS), Shangdianzi (SDZ), and Waliguan (WLG), which are regional (LAN, LFS, SDZ) or global (WLG) measurement stations of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch program (WMO/GAW). LAN is located near the megacity of Shanghai, in China's economically most developed region. LFS is in a forest and rice production area, close to the city of Harbin in northeastern China. SDZ is located 150 km northeast of Beijing. WLG, hosting the longest record of measured CO2 mole fractions in China, is a high-altitude site in northwestern China recording background CO2 concentration. The CO2 growth rates are 3.7 ± 1.2 ppm yr-1 for LAN, 2.7 ± 0.8 ppm yr-1 for LFS, 3.5 ± 1.6 ppm yr-1 for SDZ, and 2.2 ± 0.8 ppm yr-1 (1σ) for WLG during the period of 2009 to 2011. The highest annual mean CO2 mole fraction of 404.2 ± 3.9 ppm was observed at LAN in 2011. A comprehensive analysis of CO2 variations, their diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the analysis of the influence of local sources on the CO2 mole fractions allows a characterization of the sampling sites and of the key processes driving the CO2 mole fractions. These data form a basis to improve our understanding of atmospheric CO2 variations in China and the underlying fluxes using atmospheric inversion models.

  14. Terpenoids from the Octocoral Sinularia gaweli

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wun-Jie; Wu, Tung-Ying; Su, Tzu-Rong; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung; Fang, Lee-Shing; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2015-01-01

    Two eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, verticillatol (1) and 5α-acetoxy-4(14)-eudesmene-1β-ol (2) and two cembrane diterpenoids, (–)-leptodiol acetate (3) and sinulacembranolide A (4) were isolated from the octocoral Sinularia gaweli and compounds 2–4 are new isolates. The structures of new terpenoids 2–4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison the spectral data with those of known analogues. Terpenoid 4 was found to inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 marcophage cells. PMID:26295226

  15. Metadata for WIS and WIGOS: GAW Profile of ISO19115 and Draft WIGOS Core Metadata Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Jörg; Howe, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) is a key WMO priority to underpin all WMO Programs and new initiatives such as the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of the WIGOS Operational Information Resource (WIR) is central to the WIGOS Framework Implementation Plan (WIGOS-IP). The WIR shall provide information on WIGOS and its observing components, as well as requirements of WMO application areas. An important aspect is the description of the observational capabilities by way of structured metadata. The Global Atmosphere Watch is the WMO program addressing the chemical composition and selected physical properties of the atmosphere. Observational data are collected and archived by GAW World Data Centres (WDCs) and related data centres. The Task Team on GAW WDCs (ET-WDC) have developed a profile of the ISO19115 metadata standard that is compliant with the WMO Information System (WIS) specification for the WMO Core Metadata Profile v1.3. This profile is intended to harmonize certain aspects of the documentation of observations as well as the interoperability of the WDCs. The Inter-Commission-Group on WIGOS (ICG-WIGOS) has established the Task Team on WIGOS Metadata (TT-WMD) with representation of all WMO Technical Commissions and the objective to define the WIGOS Core Metadata. The result of this effort is a draft semantic standard comprising of a set of metadata classes that are considered to be of critical importance for the interpretation of observations relevant to WIGOS. The purpose of the presentation is to acquaint the audience with the standard and to solicit informal feed-back from experts in the various disciplines of meteorology and climatology. This feed-back will help ET-WDC and TT-WMD to refine the GAW metadata profile and the draft WIGOS metadata standard, thereby increasing their utility and acceptance.

  16. Identifying rare variants from exome scans: the GAW17 experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) provided a platform for evaluating existing statistical genetic methods and for developing novel methods to analyze rare variants that modulate complex traits. In this article, we present an overview of the 1000 Genomes Project exome data and simulated phenotype data that were distributed to GAW17 participants for analyses, the different issues addressed by the participants, and the process of preparation of manuscripts resulting from the discussions during the workshop. PMID:22373325

  17. Mussel watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

  18. In-situ measurement of atmospheric CO2 at the four WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Zhou, L. X.; Tans, P. P.; Ciais, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Xu, L.; Luan, T.

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were continuously measured from January 2009 to December 2011 at 4 atmospheric observatories in China ((Lin'an, LAN), (Longfengshan, LFS), (Shangdianzi, SDZ), and (Waliguan, WLG)) using Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. All sites are regional (LAN, LFS, SDZ) or global (WLG) measurement stations of the World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch program (WMO/GAW). LAN is located near the megacity of Shanghai, in China's most economically developed region. LFS is in a forest and rice production area, close to the city of Harbin in the northern east of China. SDZ is located 150 km north east of Beijing. WLG, hosting the longest record of measured CO2 mole fractions in China, is a high altitude site in northwest China recording background CO2 values. The CO2 growth rates are 2.2 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for LAN, 2.3 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for LFS, 2.0 ± 0.2 ppm yr-1 for SDZ, and 1.2 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1 (1σ) for WLG, during the period of 2009 to 2011. The growth rate at WLG may be underestimated due to the data gaps during the observation period. The highest annual mean CO2 mole fraction of 404.1 ± 4.1 ppm was observed at LAN in 2011. A comprehensive analysis of CO2 variations, their diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the analysis of the influence of different wind regimes on the CO2 mole fractions allows a thorough characterization of the sampling sites and of the key processes driving the CO2 mole fractions. These data form a basis to improve our understanding of atmospheric CO2 variations in China and the underlying fluxes, using atmospheric inversion models.

  19. Brain Regions Associated to a Kinesthetic Illusion Evoked by Watching a Video of One's Own Moving Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Blanchard, Caroline; Lebar, Nicolas; Nazarian, Bruno; Kavounoudias, Anne; Romaiguère, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that kinesthetic illusions can be induced by stimulation of several sensory systems (proprioception, touch, vision…). In this study we investigated the cerebral network underlying a kinesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans. Participants were instructed to keep their hand still while watching the video of their own moving hand (Self Hand) or that of someone else's moving hand (Other Hand). In the Self Hand condition they experienced an illusory sensation that their hand was moving whereas the Other Hand condition did not induce any kinesthetic illusion. The contrast between the Self Hand and Other Hand conditions showed significant activation in the left dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, in the left Superior and Inferior Parietal lobules, at the right Occipito-Temporal junction as well as in bilateral Insula and Putamen. Most strikingly, there was no activation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, whilst previous studies have reported significant activation in these regions for vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that indicates that humans can experience kinesthetic perception without activation in the primary motor and somatosensory areas. We conclude that under some conditions watching a video of one's own moving hand could lead to activation of a network that is usually involved in processing copies of efference, thus leading to the illusory perception that the real hand is indeed moving. PMID:26287488

  20. Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

    2013-05-01

    CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

  1. Regent Watching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Earl F.

    Although government and order in colleges are the object of almost constant public discussion, there is little public discussion of the governing boards themselves. "Regent watching" should be encouraged because the regents, or the trustee model of university government, is better than its alternatives, and it should be studied, criticized, and…

  2. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO-GAW and EMEP observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerger, C. C.; Werner, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2014-10-01

    The performance of 20 European laboratories involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements within the framework of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW data quality objectives (DQOs). Compared to previous intercomparisons the DQOs of ACTRIS are much more demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5% and repeatability of better than 2% for mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol-1. The participants were asked to measure both a 30 component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2) at approximately 1 nmol mol-1 and whole air (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, they had to report details on their instruments and they were asked to assess measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection or gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. Most systems performed well for the NMHC_N2 measurements (88% of the reported values were within the GAW DQOs and even 58% within the ACTRIS DQOs). For NMHC_air generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed compared to NMHC_N2 (77% of the reported values were within the GAW DQOs, but only 48% within the ACTRIS DQOs). Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol-1). Issues, which affected both NMHC mixtures, are the usage of direct vs. two-step calibration, breakthrough of C2-C3 hydrocarbons, blank values in zero-gas measurements (especially for those systems using a Nafion® Dryer), adsorptive losses of aromatic compounds, and insufficient chromatographic resolution. Essential for high-quality results are experienced operators, a comprehensive quality

  3. Tropospheric CH4 signals as observed by NDACC FTIR at globally distributed sites and comparison to GAW surface in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Barthlott, S.; Dubravica, D.; García, O. E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; González, Y.; Guerra, J. C.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Brailsford, G. W.; Robinson, J.; Meinhardt, F.; Steinbacher, M.; Aalto, T.; Worthy, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present lower/middle tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH4 signal, largely independent of the local small-scale signals of the boundary layer, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH4 variations. In order to achieve the weak dependency on the UTLS, we use an a posteriori correction method. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5% and a systematic error of about 2.5%. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in-situ CH4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in-situ datasets in order to obtain the in-situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in-situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of time scales that are interesting for CH4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual. The comparison study confirms our theoretical estimations and proves that the NDACC FTIR measurements can provide valuable data for investigating the cycle of CH4.

  4. Tropospheric CH4 signals as observed by NDACC FTIR at globally distributed sites and comparison to GAW surface in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Barthlott, S.; Dubravica, D.; García, O. E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; González, Y.; Guerra, J. C.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Brailsford, G. W.; Robinson, J.; Meinhardt, F.; Steinbacher, M.; Aalto, T.; Worthy, D.

    2014-07-01

    We present lower/middle tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH4 signal, largely independent of the local surface small-scale signals, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH4 variations. In order to achieve the weak dependency on the UTLS, we use an a posteriori correction method. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5% and a systematic error of about 2.5%. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in situ CH4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in situ data sets in order to obtain the in situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of timescales that are interesting for CH4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual. The comparison study confirms our theoretical estimations and proves that the NDACC FTIR measurements can provide valuable data for investigating the cycle of CH4.

  5. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  6. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The long-established notion that apoptosis would be immunologically silent, and hence it would go unnoticed by the immune system, if not tolerogenic, and hence it would actively suppress immune responses, has recently been revisited. In some instances, indeed, cancer cells undergo apoptosis while emitting a spatiotemporally-defined combination of signals that renders them capable of eliciting a long-term protective antitumor immune response. Importantly, only a few anticancer agents can stimulate such an immunogenic cell death. These include cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin, which are currently approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple hematologic and solid malignancies, as well as mitoxantrone, which is being used in cancer therapy and against multiple sclerosis. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the progress of recent (initiated after January 2008) clinical trials evaluating the off-label use of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone. PMID:22720239

  7. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Hervé Fridman, Wolf; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the possibility that preparations capable of eliciting tumor-specific immune responses would mediate robust therapeutic effects in cancer patients has received renovated interest. In this context, several approaches to vaccinate cancer patients against their own malignancies have been conceived, including the administration of DNA constructs coding for one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Such DNA-based vaccines conceptually differ from other types of gene therapy in that they are not devised to directly kill cancer cells or sensitize them to the cytotoxic activity of a drug, but rather to elicit a tumor-specific immune response. In spite of an intense wave of preclinical development, the introduction of this immunotherapeutic paradigm into the clinical practice is facing difficulties. Indeed, while most DNA-based anticancer vaccines are well tolerated by cancer patients, they often fail to generate therapeutically relevant clinical responses. In this Trial Watch, we discuss the latest advances on the use of DNA-based vaccines in cancer therapy, discussing the literature that has been produced around this topic during the last 13 months as well as clinical studies that have been launched in the same time frame to assess the actual therapeutic potential of this intervention. PMID:24800178

  8. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have first been characterized for their capacity to detect conserved microbial components like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, resulting in the elicitation of potent (innate) immune responses against invading pathogens. More recently, TLRs have also been shown to promote the activation of the cognate immune system against cancer cells. Today, only three TLR agonists are approved by FDA for use in humans: the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod. BCG (an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis) is mainly used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, but also for the immunotherapy of in situ bladder carcinoma. MPL (derived from the LPS of Salmonella minnesota) is included in the formulation of Cervarix®, a vaccine against human papillomavirus-16 and -18. Imiquimod (a synthetic imidazoquinoline) is routinely employed for actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts (condylomata acuminata). In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating FDA-approved TLR agonists as off-label medications for cancer therapy. PMID:23162757

  9. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vacchelli, Erika; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of hybridoma technology, dating back to 1975, monoclonal antibodies have become an irreplaceable diagnostic and therapeutic tool for a wide array of human diseases. During the last 15 years, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved by FDA for cancer therapy. These mAbs are designed to (1) activate the immune system against tumor cells, (2) inhibit cancer cell-intrinsic signaling pathways, (3) bring toxins in the close proximity of cancer cells, or (4) interfere with the tumor-stroma interaction. More recently, major efforts have been made for the development of immunostimulatory mAbs that either enhance cancer-directed immune responses or limit tumor- (or therapy-) driven immunosuppression. Some of these antibodies, which are thought to facilitate tumor eradication by initiating or sustaining a tumor-specific immune response, have already entered clinical trials. In this Trial Watch, we will review and discuss the clinical progress of the most important mAbs that are have entered clinical trials after January 2008. PMID:22720209

  10. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2015-07-01

    The performance of 18 European institutions involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements in ambient air within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to data quality objectives (DQOs) of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW. Compared to previous intercomparison studies the DQOs define a novel approach to assess and ensure a high quality of the measurements. Having already been adopted by GAW, the ACTRIS DQOs are demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5 % and a repeatability of better than 2 % for NMHC mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol-1. The participants of the intercomparison analysed two dry gas mixtures in pressurised cylinders, a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2) at approximately 1 nmol mol-1 and a whole air sample (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, participants had to report details on their instruments and assess their measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the NMHC_N2 measurements, 62 % of the reported values were within the 5 % deviation class corresponding to the ACTRIS DQOs. For NMHC_air, generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed, with 50 % of the reported values within the 5 % deviation class. Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol-1). The performance of the participating laboratories were affected by the different measurement procedures such as the usage of a two-step vs. a one-step calibration, breakthroughs of C2-C3 hydrocarbons in the focussing trap, blank values in zero

  11. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner’s work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

  12. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) represents a prominent form of immunotherapy against malignant diseases. ACT is conceptually distinct from dendritic cell-based approaches (which de facto constitute cellular vaccines) and allogeneic transplantation (which can be employed for the therapy of hematopoietic tumors) as it involves the isolation of autologous lymphocytes exhibiting antitumor activity, their expansion/activation ex vivo and their reintroduction into the patient. Re-infusion is most often performed in the context of lymphodepleting regimens (to minimize immunosuppression by host cells) and combined with immunostimulatory interventions, such as the administration of Toll-like receptor agonists. Autologous cells that are suitable for ACT protocols can be isolated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or generated by engineering their circulating counterparts for the expression of transgenic tumor-specific T-cell receptors. Importantly, lymphocytes can be genetically modified prior to re-infusion for increasing their persistence in vivo, boosting antitumor responses and minimizing side effects. Moreover, recent data indicate that exhausted antitumor T lymphocytes may be rejuvenated in vitro by exposing them to specific cytokine cocktails, a strategy that might considerably improve the clinical success of ACT. Following up the Trial Watch that we published on this topic in the third issue of OncoImmunology (May 2012), here we summarize the latest developments in ACT-related research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 months and clinical trials that have been initiated in the same period to assess the antineoplastic profile of this form of cellular immunotherapy. PMID:23762803

  13. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of several neoplasms. The term “oncolytic viruses” is generally employed to indicate naturally occurring or genetically engineered attenuated viral particles that cause the demise of malignant cells while sparing their non-transformed counterparts. From a conceptual standpoint, oncolytic viruses differ from so-called “oncotropic viruses” in that only the former are able to kill cancer cells, even though both display a preferential tropism for malignant tissues. Of note, such a specificity can originate at several different steps of the viral cycle, including the entry of virions (transductional specificity) as well as their intracellular survival and replication (post-transcriptional and transcriptional specificity). During the past two decades, a large array of replication-competent and replication-incompetent oncolytic viruses has been developed and engineered to express gene products that would specifically promote the death of infected (cancer) cells. However, contrarily to long-standing beliefs, the antineoplastic activity of oncolytic viruses is not a mere consequence of the cytopathic effect, i.e., the lethal outcome of an intense, productive viral infection, but rather involves the elicitation of an antitumor immune response. In line with this notion, oncolytic viruses genetically modified to drive the local production of immunostimulatory cytokines exert more robust therapeutic effects than their non-engineered counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy is significantly improved by some extent of initial immunosuppression (facilitating viral replication and spread) followed by the administration of immunostimulatory molecules (boosting antitumor immune responses). In this Trial Watch, we will discuss the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and antineoplastic potential of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:23894720

  14. In-flight measurements of the GA/W/-2 aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Weislogel, G. S.; Vogel, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests of a new 13% General Aviation Airfoil - the GA(W)-2 - gloved full span onto the existing wing of a Beech Sundowner have generated chordwise pressure distributions and wake surveys. Section lift, drag and moment coefficients derived from these measurements verify wind tunnel data and theory predicting the performance of this airfoil. The effect of steps, rivets and surface coatings upon the drag of the GA(W)-2 was also evaluated.

  15. Adults Watching Children Watch "South Park."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the satirical cartoon television series called "South Park." Discusses who watches this program, noting its immense popularity and the way it has entered the everyday lives of school children the world over. Looks at its cult appeal, and speculates as to reasons why some children might enjoy watching the program. (SR)

  16. YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

  17. Arctic Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  18. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt. Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Xu, X. B.; Tang, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. C.

    2015-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The level of tropospheric ozone, particularly in the surface layer, is impacted by emissions of precursors and is subjected to meteorological conditions. Due its importance, the long-term variation trend of baseline ozone is highly needed for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies about the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China, a country with rapid economic growth for recent decades, and many other developing countries. To uncover the long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone, concentration in western China, measurements at a global baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt. Waliguan) for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed in this study, using a modified Mann-Kendall test and the Hilbert-Huang Transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Results reveal higher surface ozone during the night and lower during the day at Waliguan, due to mountain-valley breezes. A seasonal maximum in summer was found, which was probably caused by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange events and/or by tropospheric photochemistry. Analysis suggests that there is a season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds on top of Mt. Waliguan. Season-dependent daytime and nighttime ranges of 6 h were determined based on the season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds and were used to sort subsets of ozone data for trend analysis. Significant increasing trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (1.5-2.7 ppbv 10 a-1) and nighttime (1.3-2.9 ppbv 10 a-1). Autumn and spring revealed the largest increase rates, while summer and winter showed relatively weaker increases. The HHT spectral analysis confirmed the increasing

  19. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wanyun; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Tang, Jie; Huang, Jianqing; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, climate, human and vegetation health can be impacted by the increase of the ozone level. Therefore, long-term determination of trends of baseline ozone is highly needed information for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies on the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China and many other developing countries. Measurements of surface ozone were carried out at a baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt Waliguan, 36°17' N, 100°54' E, 3816 m a.s.l.) for the period of 1994 to 2013. To uncover the variation characteristics, long-term trends and influencing factors of surface ozone at this remote site in western China, a two-part study has been carried out, with this part focusing on the overall characteristics of diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations and the trends of surface ozone. To obtain reliable ozone trends, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the ozone data. Our results confirm that the mountain-valley breeze plays an important role in the diurnal cycle of surface ozone at Waliguan, resulting in higher ozone values during the night and lower ones during the day, as was previously reported. Systematic diurnal and seasonal variations were found in mountain-valley breezes at the site, which were used in defining season-dependent daytime and nighttime periods for trend calculations. Significant positive trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (0.24 ± 0.16 ppbv year-1) and nighttime (0.28 ± 0.17 ppbv year-1). The largest nighttime increasing rate occurred in autumn (0.29 ± 0.11 ppbv year-1), followed by spring (0.24 ± 0.12 ppbv year-1), summer (0.22 ± 0

  20. Effectiveness of spoilers on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a high performance Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path allowing lower surface air to escape to the upper surface as the spoiler opens alleviates control reversal and hysteresis tendencies. Spoiler cross-sectional shape variations generally have a modest influence on control characteristics. A series of comparative tests of vortex generators applied to the (GA-W)-1 airfoil show that triangular planform vortex generators are superior to square planform vortex generators of the same span.

  1. Pressure Distributions for the GA(W)-2 Airfoil with 20% Aileron, 25% Slotted Flap and 30% Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    Surface pressure distributions were measured for the 13% thick GA(W)-2 airfoil section fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th power and a Mach number of 0.13. Pressure distribution and force and moment coefficient measurements are compared with theoretical results for a number of cases. Agreement between theory and experiment is generally good for low angles of attack and small flap deflections. For high angles and large flap deflections where regions of separation are present, the theory is inadequate. Theoretical drag predictions are poor for all flap-extended cases.

  2. Swatch Watch in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, Swiss firms manufactured and sold precision watches and were the undisputed leaders in timekeeping. All this came to an abrupt end when, in the mid-1970s, the Japanese began to make reliable digital watches at a fraction of the cost of the expensive, labor-intensive Swiss product. In 1983, Switzerland answered with the introduction…

  3. Uncertainty and bias of surface ozone measurements at selected Global Atmosphere Watch sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, JöRg; Zellweger, Christoph; Buchmann, Brigitte; Hofer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program currently coordinates 22 ground-based atmospheric background monitoring stations of global scope. The GAW World Calibration Centre for Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide and Methane (WCC-EMPA) is responsible for tracing surface ozone measurements at these stations to the designated reference within the GAW program, the Standard Reference Photometer SRP 2 maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The recommended method for surface ozone measurements is based on UV absorption at 254 nm (Hg line). Repeated and regular intercomparisons of station instruments are necessary to achieve and maintain high and known data quality. In this paper, the traceability chain is explained, and standard uncertainties for each element are evaluated. Data of 26 intercomparisons performed at 14 stations between 1996 and 2002 are analyzed. On 23 occasions, the instruments passed the audit with "good" agreement, in one case with "sufficient" agreement. On 2 occasions, both first audits at the site, the audited instrument did not comply with the minimal data quality requirements. The best instruments in use exhibit a median absolute bias of approximately 0.32 ppbv and a standard uncertainty of approximately 0.8 ppbv (0-100 ppbv). The quantitative improvement of data quality as a result of repeated audits can be demonstrated with several stations.

  4. South Asian Aerosols: Observations and regional scale modeling perspectives from the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, B.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Landi, T.; Putero, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Decesari, S.; Vuillermoz, E.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    SHARE (Stations at High Altitude Research on the Environment) project is promoted by Ev-K2-CNR and funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the Italian National Research Council (CNR). Today SHARE monitoring stations span four continents around the globe. This paper will present the results from the SHARE-Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) monitoring station located in the foothills of Mount Everest at an altitude of 5079 m.a.s.l. NCO-P is also one of the Global AtmosphericWatch stations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-GAW) and is the only currently operating GAW station in South Asia and the highest station of the UNEP ABC (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) project. Results obtained from the monitoring of aerosols and trace gases for multi years starting from 2006 will be presented. Seasonal distribution, composition, case studies and events related to high aerosol loadings will be discussed. A regional scale meteorological / chemical transport modeling projecthas been initiated to help put the measurements in perspective and provide decision support for policy makers. The paper will also describe themodeling framework,modeled case studiesillustrating sectoral and regional contribution to the aerosol loading over the Himalayan region will be presented.

  5. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded

  6. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groover, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Operation Waste Watch is a seven-unit program for grades K-6 which addresses such topics as litter control, recycling, and resources recovery. It is designed to instill in students positive feelings about the environment. (DS)

  7. Logistic transmission models of insulin dependent diabetes from GAW5 data

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, B.R.; Harley, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    A nonparametric and general method of linkage analysis has been developed. The repeated measure strategy of Speilman has been adapted to the conditional logistic function to establish linkage by stepwise modeling of transmission from parent to progeny. No foreknowledges of genetic association, linkage nor mode of inheritance is required. The effects at multiple loci are easily modelled. Such logistic transmission models have been developed from GAW5 data. Serology at HLA-DR is more closely linked to the phenotype than are the other GAW5 HLA loci with coefficients at DR2 of -1.4 (S.E. of 0.4), DR3 of 1.1 (S.E. of 0.2), and DR4 of 1.2 (S.E. of 0.2). Relative to the random transmission of alleles, the model achieves a {chi}{sub 3}{sup 2} of 114 (p<10{sup -24}). From the GAW5 subset with insulin gene data, models incorporating either the insulin gene 1 or the 3 alleles are similar. Overall models from this GAW5 subset are also consistent with genetic heterogeneity at HLA and the insulin gene (e.g., {chi}{sub 1}{sup 2} for improvement > 4.6, overall model {chi}{sub 4}{sup 2} = 71, p=10{sup -18}). Properties of the logistic transmission model suggest this approach will be useful when linkage is sought over small recombination distances, when resistance and susceptibility alleles coexist at a locus, and when a complex mode of inheritance is suspected.

  8. Country watch: Malawi.

    PubMed

    Knox, G

    1995-01-01

    The Drought Network for information sharing eventually led to the establishment of the more formal Southern Region AIDS Network (SORAN) where representatives from government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focused on awareness raising, lobbying, and advocacy. As an initial step towards networking on HIV/AIDS issues, a festival was organized in Blantyre on December 4, 1993, by NGOs, private companies, church groups, school children, and volunteers to bring about behavior change. About 2000 people gathered to listen to music, learn about HIV transmission through drama group presentations, watch videos with HIV/STD prevention messages, and learn about proper condom use. The participants officially established SORAN in February 1994 to act as a coordinating body for organizations working in prevention and care for HIV/STD-infected persons and their families. Network activities endeavored: to assist organizations interested in developing HIV/AIDS programs and activities; to encourage the business communities to participate in multisectoral coordination and to help channel funds from them to HIV/AIDS programs; to act as a resource center for information about HIV/AIDS; and to lobby among politicians as well as traditional local and religious leaders. When the first multi-party parliamentary election approached in May 1994, SORAN challenged representatives of 7 political parties and a women's organization to speak out publicly on what they envisioned doing about HIV/AIDS. The Grand Walk was also organized by SORAN members representing the Catholic Episcopal Conference of Malawi, the Protestant Blantyre Synod, a local brewery, and UNICEF. About 500 walkers received support from passersby. 70% were school children 10-18 years old who sang AIDS awareness songs and passed out flyers. Three months later the National AIDS Program's Big Walk for AIDS, following a National AIDS Crisis Conference, signaled the government's public recognition of the need for a

  9. The Monarch Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Science education can be an exciting process of observation and discovery. This article describes the use of the Monarch Watch project by environmental educators to study migratory behavior and scientific research through the tagging of Monarch butterflies. Discusses reasons the national project has been successful. (LZ)

  10. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  11. Wrist-watch dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Waechter, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1982-04-16

    The disclosure is directed to a wristwatch dosimeter utilizing a CdTe detector, a microprocessor and an audio and/or visual alarm. The dosimeter is entirely housable within a conventional digital watch case having an additional aperture enabling the detector to receive radiation.

  12. Climatology of new particle formation at Izaña mountain GAW observatory in the subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M. I.; Rodríguez, S.; González, Y.; García, R. D.

    2014-04-01

    A climatology of new particle formation (NPF) events at high altitude in the subtropical North Atlantic is presented. A 4-year data set (June 2008-June 2012), which includes number size distributions (10-600 nm), reactive gases (SO2, NOx, and O3), several components of solar radiation and meteorological parameters, measured at Izaña Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) observatory (2373 m above sea level; Tenerife, Canary Islands) was analysed. NPF is associated with the transport of gaseous precursors from the boundary layer by orographic buoyant upward flows that perturb the low free troposphere during daytime. On average, 30% of the days contained an NPF event. Mean values of the formation and growth rates during the study period were 0.46 cm-3 s-1 and 0.42 nm h-1, correspondingly. There is a clearly marked NPF season (May-August), when these events account for 50-60% of the days per month. Monthly mean values of the formation and growth rates exhibit higher values in this season, 0.49-0.92 cm-3 s-1 and 0.48-0.58 nm h-1, respectively. During NPF events, SO2, UV radiation and upslope winds showed higher values than during non-events. The overall data set indicates that SO2 plays a key role as precursor, although other species seem to contribute during some periods. Condensation of sulfuric acid vapour accounts for most of the measured particle growth during most of the year (~70%), except for some periods. In May, the highest mean growth rates (~0.6 nm h-1) and the lowest contribution of sulfuric acid (~13%) were measured, suggesting a significant involvement of other condensing vapours. The SO2 availability seems also to be the most influencing parameter in the year-to-year variability in the frequency of NPF events. The condensation sink showed similar features to other mountain sites, showing high values during NPF events. Summertime observations, when Izaña is within the Saharan Air Layer, suggest that dust particles may play a significant role acting as

  13. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The International Halley Watch has been designed to maximize the scientific value of ground-based observations of Halley's Comet. Important in their own right, such observations have also enhanced the value of space observations, setting the brief duration flyby data in the context of the overall apparition, placing the extremely high resolution encounter data into the normal scale of observations, and filling in missing data. The IHW has standardized observing techniques wherever useful and possible, coordinated the observing, and is now collecting data from publication in a comprehensive Halley Archieve. The IHW has been designed to avoid the problems of 1910 where the two major monographs on Halley were not published until 21 and 24 years later and where much data remains unpublished to this day. The Giacobini-Zinner Watch preovided support to the ICE mission and complements the IHW by using the same ground-based techniques at the same time of study another very different comet for comparison.

  14. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The International Halley Watch (IHW) is a program designed to promote cooperation, standardization, and archival documentation in all phases of study of Comet Halley during its 1985-86 apparition. Discipline Specialists have been selected to create cooperative nets of ground-based observers encompassing seven different technical areas and to coordinate the observations and publication of results in each. The IHW will promote cooperation among ground-based and space studies of Comet Halley wherever reasonable and feasible. More specifically, the IHW will make ephemerides from the astrometric net available to any country flying a deep space mission. It will coordinate special Halley Watch Days with the arrival dates of space probes or periods of observation from earth orbit. And the IHW will provide a permanent archive in published form of all scientific observations of Comet Halley.

  15. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.; Rahe, J.

    1984-01-01

    An International Halley Watch has been established to coordinate worldwide ground-based observations of Halley's Comet in the upcoming apparition. Channels have been created for cooperation with the space missions being sent to Halley in order to maximize the value of the collective scientific results. Details are given of the IHW organization already established, which includes 722 astronomers from 42 countries. The ultimate goal of the IHW is the 1989 production of a 'Halley Archive' of all Halley scientific data.

  16. The International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In preparation for the 1985 to 1986 apparition of Halley's Comet, the International Halley Watch (IHW) has initiated a comprehensive program to simulate, encourage, and coordinate scientific observation of the apparition. The observing groups with which the IHW plans to interact are discussed and the ground based observing nets are described in detail. An outline of the history of observations of Halley's Comet and a synopsis of comet properties and physics are included.

  17. Cembrane derivatives from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Chung; Yen, Wei-Hsuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chiang, Michael Yen-Nan; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yung-Husan; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2013-06-01

    A new norcembranoidal diterpene, 1-epi-sinulanorcembranolide A (1), and a new cembranoidal diterpene, flexibilin D (2), were isolated from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis, respectively. The structures of new metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and compound 2 was found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, S. flexibilis yielded a known cembrane, 5-dehydrosinulariolide (3); the structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:23774887

  18. Cembrane Derivatives from the Soft Corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Chung; Yen, Wei-Hsuan; Su, Jui-Hsin; Chiang, Michael Yen-Nan; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Lu, Ting-Jang; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yung-Husan; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2013-01-01

    A new norcembranoidal diterpene, 1-epi-sinulanorcembranolide A (1), and a new cembranoidal diterpene, flexibilin D (2), were isolated from the soft corals, Sinularia gaweli and Sinularia flexibilis, respectively. The structures of new metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and compound 2 was found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, S. flexibilis yielded a known cembrane, 5-dehydrosinulariolide (3); the structure, including its absolute stereochemistry, was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:23774887

  19. FIRST teams watch the competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  20. A low speed two-dimensional study of flow separation on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of flow fields with low speed turbulent boundary layers were made for the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 0.30 c Fowler flap deflected 40 deg at angles of attack of 2.7 deg, 7.7 deg, and 12.8 deg, at a Reynolds number of 2.2 million, and a Mach number of 0.13. Details of velocity and pressure fields associated with the airfoil flap combination are presented for cases of narrow, optimum and wide slot gaps. Extensive flow field turbulence surveys were also conducted employing hot-film anemometry. For the optimum gap setting, the boundaries of the regions of flow reversal within the wake were determined by this technique for two angles of attack. Local skin friction distributions for the basic airfoil and the airfoil with flap (optimum gap) were obtained using the razor blade technique.

  1. Four new WMO/GAW Observatories for the investigation of trace gas and aerosol variability in the Mediterranean hot-spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Busetto, Maurizio; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Bourcier, Laureline; Landi, Tony Christian; Calidonna, Claudia; Contini, Daniele; Ammoscato, Ivano; Gulli', Daniel; Dinoi, Adelaide; Sprovieri, Francesca; Carbone, Francesco; Naccarato, Attilio; Mannarino, Valentino; Pirrone, Nicola; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    with the description of selected special events registered in the first year of activity at these four regional GAW-WMO stations. A general characterization of these observatories in terms of location, meteorology and atmospheric transport patterns will be also provided. We also present and discuss the experimental set-up (sampling systems, calibration strategies, standards) used to implement WMO/GAW guidelines at each of these stations and methodologies to identify measurement period characterized by background conditions.

  2. Mixed-effects models for GAW18 longitudinal blood pressure data.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wonil; Zou, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two mixed-effects models for Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 (GAW18) longitudinal blood pressure data. The first method extends EMMA, an efficient mixed-model association-mapping algorithm. EMMA corrects for population structure and genetic relatedness using a kinship similarity matrix. We replace the kinship similarity matrix in EMMA with an estimated correlation matrix for modeling the dependence structure of repeated measurements. Our second approach is a Bayesian multiple association-mapping algorithm based on a mixed-effects model with a built-in variable selection feature. It models multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously and allows for SNP-SNP interactions and SNP-environment interactions. We applied these two methods to the longitudinal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) data from GAW18. The extended EMMA method identified a single SNP on Chr5:75506197 (p-value = 4.67 × 10(-7)) for SBP and three SNPs on Chr3:23715851 (p-value = 9.00 × 10(-8)), Chr 17:54834217 (p-value = 1.98 × 10(-7)), and Chr21:18744081 (p-value = 4.95 × 10(-7)) for DBP. The Bayesian method identified several additional SNPs on Chr1:17876090 (Bayes factor [BF] = 102), Chr3:197469358 (BF = 69), Chr15:87675666 (BF = 43), and Chr19:41642807 (BF = 33) for SBP. Furthermore, for SBP, we found a single SNP on Chr3:197469358 (BF = 69) that has a strong interaction with age. We further evaluated the performances of the proposed methods by simulations. PMID:25519345

  3. Forensic web watch 3.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    2000-03-01

    Since the publication of the first 'Forensic Web Watch' article a new search engine has become available, free of charge at the time of writing, to surfers of the Internet (Net). Fast Search claims to seek out sites of interest for the user from 'all the Web, all the time trade mark ' as opposed to parts of the Net as is more common with other search machines. It is easy to use, extremely fast but as it searches so much more of the Net, the end result is considerably larger. This, in turn, may lead to a longer time to seek out useful information as opposed to the obscure. Having said this, it is recommended to add to your search engine bookmarks. A search for sites on issues related to 'Police Surgeons' will yield limited information, as each country will have a different person filling this role, all referred to by different terms. The one common feature, however, to all such groups as well as forensic pathologists and scientists, is that they will work with, or in some cases for, the police services of their respective country. Thus, in this article we will look at sites related to the police which may have useful information related to their work, specific cases of interest and research and development which may effect our practice. PMID:15274993

  4. Proposing a tornado watch scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Jonathan Brock

    This thesis provides an overview of language used in tornado safety recommendations from various sources, along with developing a rubric for scaled tornado safety recommendations, and subsequent development and testing of a tornado watch scale. The rubric is used to evaluate tornado refuge/shelter adequacy responses of Tuscaloosa residents gathered following the April 27, 2011 Tuscaloosa, Alabama EF4 tornado. There was a significant difference in the counts of refuge adequacy for Tuscaloosa residents when holding the locations during the April 27th tornado constant and comparing adequacy ratings for weak (EF0-EF1), strong (EF2-EF3) and violent (EF4-EF5) tornadoes. There was also a significant difference when comparing future tornado refuge plans of those same participants to the adequacy ratings for weak, strong and violent tornadoes. The tornado refuge rubric is then revised into a six-class, hierarchical Tornado Watch Scale (TWS) from Level 0 to Level 5 based on the likelihood of high-impact or low-impact severe weather events containing weak, strong or violent tornadoes. These levels represent maximum expected tornado intensity and include tornado safety recommendations from the tornado refuge rubric. Audio recordings similar to those used in current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio communications were developed to correspond to three levels of the TWS, a current Storm Prediction Center (SPC) tornado watch and a particularly dangerous situation (PDS) tornado watch. These were then used in interviews of Alabama residents to determine how changes to the information contained in the watch statements would affect each participant's tornado safety actions and perception of event danger. Results from interview participants (n=38) indicate a strong preference (97.37%) for the TWS when compared to current tornado watch and PDS tornado watch statements. Results also show the TWS elicits more adequate safety decisions from participants

  5. Experimental studies of flow separation of the GA(W)-2 airfoil at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Rodgers, E. J.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a NASA GA(W)-2 airfoil section at Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.13. Detailed measurements of flow fields associated with turbulent boundary layers have been obtained at angles of attack of 10.3, 14.4, and 18.3 deg. Pre- and post-separated velocity and pressure survey results over the airfoil and in the associated wake are presented. Extensive force, pressure, tuft survey, hot-film survey, local skin friction, and boundary layer data are also included. Pressure distributions and separation point locations show good agreement with theory for the two lower angles of attack. Boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor agree well with theory up to the point of separation. There is considerable disparity between extent of flow reversal in the wake as measured by pressure and hot-film probes. The difference is attributed to the intermittent nature of the flow reversal.

  6. A study of aerosol optical properties at the global GAW station Bukit Kototabang, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, N.; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few studies carried out in Indonesia on the atmospheric aerosol optical properties and their impact on the earth climate. This study utilized solar radiation and aerosol measurement results of Indonesian GAW station Bukit Kototabang in Sumatra. The radiation data of nine years were used as input to a radiation simulation code for retrieving optically equivalent parameters of aerosols, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT), coarse particle to fine particle ratio ( γ-ratio), and soot fraction. Retrieval of aerosol properties shows that coarse particles dominated at the station due to high relative humidity (RH) reaching more than 80% throughout the year. AOT time series showed a distinct two peak structure with peaks in MJJ and NDJ periods. The second peak corresponds to the period of high RH suggesting it was formed by active particle growth with large RH near 90%. On the other hand the time series of hot spot number, though it is only for the year of 2004, suggests the first peak was strongly contributed by biomass burning aerosols. The γ-ratio took a value near 10 throughout the year except for November and December when it took a larger value. The soot fraction varies in close relation with the γ-ratio, i.e. low values when γ was large, as consistent with our proposal of active particle growth in the high relative periods.

  7. GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data i...

  8. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  9. Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

  10. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.705 Watches. (a) Title 46 U.S.C. 8104 applies to the establishment of watches...

  11. Boreal Forest Watch: A BOREAS Outreach Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Barrett N.

    1999-01-01

    The Boreal Forest Watch program was initiated in the fall of 1994 to act as an educational outreach program for the BOREAS project in both the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). Boreal Forest Watch (13FW) was designed to introduce area high school teachers and their students to the types of research activities occurring as part of the BOREAS study of Canadian boreal forests. Several teacher training workshops were offered to teachers from central and northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba between May, 1995 and February, 1999; teachers were introduced to techniques for involving their students in on-going environmental monitoring studies within local forested stands. Boreal Forest Watch is an educational outreach program which brings high school students and research scientists together to study the forest and foster a sustainable relationship between people and the planetary life-support system we depend upon. Personnel from the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC), with the cooperation from the Prince Albert National Park (PANP), instituted this program to help teachers within the BOREAS Study Areas offer real science research experience to their students. The program has the potential to complement large research projects, such as BOREAS, by providing useful student- collected data to scientists. Yet, the primary goal of BFW is to allow teachers and students to experience a hands-on, inquiry-based approach to leaming science - emulating the process followed by research scientists. In addition to introducing these teachers to on-going BOREAS research, the other goals of the BFW program were to: 1) to introduce authentic science topics and methods to students and teachers through hands-on, field-based activities; and, 2) to build a database of student-collected environmental monitoring data for future global change studies in the boreal region.

  12. Country watch: Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mercado Carreon, L

    1998-01-01

    The Asian Regional Conference on Gender and Communication, held in the Philippines, developed a plan of action to improve the portrayal of women in the mass media. Even in developing countries with traditional attitudes toward women, pornographic-type images are used to boost product sales. The conference's recommendations address the challenges posed by globalization of the media, commercialization of local media, and the increased violation of women's human rights in the media and the question of who has control over the media. After the conference, ISIS Maila assembled a report, "Status of Women and Media: Focus on Violence Against Women," which will be presented at a forum held during the 1998 meeting of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women. Gender justice for women in the media requires collaboration among media specialists, women's groups, researchers, nongovernmental organizations, and local and regional networks. PMID:12348696

  13. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories

  14. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Barr, Y.; Watkins, S.; Fung, P.; McGrath, T.; Baumann, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA endeavor conducted under the Human Research Program's (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focusing on ExMC technology gaps. The project involves several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASA's goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2011, the major focus areas for Tech Watch included information dissemination, education outreach and public accessibility to technology gaps and gap reports. The dissemination of information was accomplished through site visits to research laboratories and/or companies, and participation at select conferences where Tech Watch objectives and technology gaps were presented. Presentation of such material provided researchers with insights on NASA ExMC needs for space exploration and an opportunity to discuss potential areas of common interest. The second focus area, education outreach, was accomplished via two mechanisms. First, several senior student projects, each related to an ExMC technology gap, were sponsored by the various NASA centers. These projects presented ExMC related technology problems firsthand to collegiate laboratories

  15. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  16. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Shaw, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is directed by the NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and primarily focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of multiple NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion, and advance NASA's goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In fiscal year 2013, the Tech Watch project maintained student project activity aimed at specific ExMC gaps, completed the gap report review cycle for all gaps through a maturated gap report review process, and revised the ExMC Tech Watch Sharepoint site for enhanced data content and organization. Through site visits, internships and promotions via aerospace journals, several student projects were initiated and completed this past year. Upon project completion, the students presented their results via telecom or WebEx to the ExMC Element as a whole. The upcoming year will continue to forge strategic alliances and student projects in the interest of technology and knowledge gap closure. Through the population of Sharepoint with technologies assessed by the gap owners, the database expansion will develop a more comprehensive

  17. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Fung, Paul P.

    2013-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is a NASA project that is operated under the Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of several NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion and further NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In 2012, the Tech Watch project expanded the scope of activities to cultivate student projects targeted at specific ExMC gaps, generate gap reports for a majority of the ExMC gaps and maturate a gap report review process to optimize the technical and managerial aspects of ExMC gap status. Through numerous site visits and discussions with academia faculty, several student projects were initiated and/or completed this past year. A key element to these student projects was the ability of the project to align with a specific ExMC technology or knowledge gap. These projects were mentored and reviewed by Tech Watch leads at the various NASA centers. Another result of the past years efforts was the population of the ExMC wiki website that now contains more the three quarters of the ExMC gap reports. The remaining gap reports

  18. ExMC Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Watkins, S.; Shaw, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Watch (Tech Watch) project is directed by the NASA Human Research Programs (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element, and primarily focuses on ExMC technology gaps. The project coordinates the efforts of multiple NASA centers, including the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and the Langley Research Center (LaRC). The objective of Tech Watch is to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current NASA HRP technology development efforts. Identifying such technologies accelerates the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues encountered during human space exploration missions. The aim of this process is to leverage technologies developed by academia, industry and other government agencies and to identify the effective utilization of NASA resources to maximize the HRP return on investment. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion, and advance NASAs goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. In fiscal year 2013, the Tech Watch project maintained student project activity aimed at specific ExMC gaps, completed the gap report review cycle for all gaps through a maturated gap report review process, and revised the ExMC Tech Watch Sharepoint site for enhanced data content and organization. Through site visits, internships and promotions via aerospace journals, several student projects were initiated and completed this past year. Upon project completion, the students presented their results via telecom or WebEx to the ExMC Element as a whole. The upcoming year will continue to forge strategic alliances and student projects in the interest of technology and knowledge gap closure. Through the population of Sharepoint with technologies assessed by the gap owners, the database expansion will develop a more comprehensive

  19. Watching How Planets Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    explained if the disc contains a large amount of gas, in this case, at least as much as 10 times the mass of Jupiter. It should also contain more than 50 Earth masses in dust. The dust mass derived here is more than thousand times larger than what is observed in debris discs and Kuiper belt-like structures found around older, 'Vega-like' stars, such as Beta Pictoris, Vega, Fomalhaut and HR 4796. The dust around these stars is thought to be produced by collisions of larger bodies. The dust mass observed around HD 97048 is similar to the mass invoked for the (undetected) parent bodies in the more evolved systems. HD 97048's disc is thus most likely a precursor of debris discs observed around older stars. "From the structure of the disc, we infer that planetary embryos may be present in the inner part of the disc," said Lagage. "We are planning follow-up observations at higher angular resolution with ESO's VLT interferometer in order to probe these regions." A video, made by the CEA, is also available. More Information The scientists report their discovery in the 28 September issue of Science Express, the rapid online publication service of the journal Science: "Anatomy of a flaring proto-planetary disc around a young intermediate-mass star", by P.-O. Lagage et al. The team is composed of Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Coralie Doucet, and Eric Pantin, (CEA Saclay, France), Sébastien Charnoz (Paris 7 Denis Diderot University), Emilie Habart (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France), Gaspard Duchêne, François Ménard, and Christophe Pinte (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), and Jan-Willem Pel (Groningen University, The Netherlands).

  20. Long-term surface ozone variability at the Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW Global Station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Scheel, Hans-Eckhart; Steinbacher, Martin; Saliba, Martin; Azzoppardi, Francelle; Ellul, Ray; Fröhlich, Marina; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Duchi, Rocco; Cristian Landi, Tony; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    While several studies have been analysed the long-term surface ozone variability and trends at remote and rural locations of continental Europe, such an analysis is still lacking for the Mediterranean basin. For this reason, here we analysed the surface ozone variability observed at the Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN, 44°12' N, 10°42' E, 2165 m a.s.l., Italy) from 1991 to 2011. The measurements performed at this high-mountain observatory represent the longest surface ozone record at a baseline site in the Mediterranean basin. The shape of the mean annual variation of ozone (a winter minimum and a spring - summer maxima) is well comparable with that observed at other 4 baseline sites in the Alps and in the Mediterranean region (Jungfraujoch - Swiss Alps, Sonnblick - Austrian Alps, Mt. Krvavec- Slovenia and Giordan Lightouse - Island of Malta). In general, CMN shows higher ozone during warm months, which is likely to be related with vertical transport of polluted air-masses at regional and continental scales. In agreement with other baseline measurements in Europe, the first part of the CMN measurement period (1991-1993) was characterised by lower mean monthly mixing ratios, compared to the subsequent part of the time series. Constant ozone mixing ratios were generally observed at CMN from 1998 to middle 2004, while larger positive ozone anomalies were observed for the years 2005 - 2008. In agreement with other Alpine and Mediterranean baseline sites lower ozone values were finally observed at CMN during the most recent years (i.e. from 2009 to 2011). This resulted in the appearance of a significant positive linear trends in the monthly O3 mixing ratios over the period 1991 - 2011. On a seasonal basis, a positive trend has been observed for 1996 - 2011 only for spring. Significant decreases of the seasonal ozone growth-rates have been detected at CMN from winter to spring (during 1991 - 2011) and for summer during 1996 - 2011.

  1. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.705 Watches. (a) Title 46 U.S.C. 8104 is the law applicable to the establishment of watches aboard certain U.S. vessels....

  2. Multi-scale indicators in CropWatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.; Yan, N.; Zhang, N.; Zou, W.; Chang, S.; Liu, G.

    2013-12-01

    CropWatch is a crop monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information, mostly for Chinese users. In its 15th year of operation, CropWatch uses remote sensing data combined with selected field data to determine key crop descriptors: acreage, yield and production, condition, cropping intensity, planting proportion, total food availability, and the status and severity of droughts. Currently, CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite 3 (FY-3A) and geostationary meteorological satellites (FY-2). The new indicators can be assigned to three different scales: (1) global, (2) regional/Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ), and (3) National/sub-national level. At the global scale, CropWatch focuses on the growing environment including precipitation (R), soil moisture (SM), land surface temperature accumulation (LSTA) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). National values of these four descriptors of the current season and their departure from long term average (LTA) will be determined by spatial average weighted by the production potential. At regional/AEZ scale, CropWatch will use three indicators (biomass, fallow land ratio and cropping intensity) to represent crop condition. At the national/sub-national scale, CropWatch will focus on 30 countries plus China, covering 80% of exports and 80% of production, plus some additional countries. Indicators at global and AEZ scale will also be used for the 30 countries plus China but at a high resolution. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as well as Evapotranspiration (ET) will be incorporated to determine the crop condition and water stress. All these national/sub-national indicators will be analyzed by irrigated and rain-fed areas

  3. Edward D. Goldberg's proposal of "the Mussel Watch": Reflections after 40years.

    PubMed

    Farrington, John W; Tripp, Bruce W; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Knap, Anthony H

    2016-09-15

    We chronicle the extensive influence over the past forty years of Professor Edward D. Goldberg and his call in 1975 for a "Mussel Watch" or bivalve sentinel organism approach to assess geographic status and temporal trends of several chemicals of environmental concern in the coastal ocean. Examples of local, regional, national and international programs are discussed briefly as are examples of interesting useful findings and limitations to the Mussel Watch concept. Mussel Watch continues to provide useful data about status and trends of chemical contamination in coastal ecosystems. PMID:27339743

  4. Shared Struggles, Shared Triumphs: Watching Writers Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark

    When teachers base classroom discussion of literature, particularly poetry, on the authors' manuscripts, notebooks, and letters, they allow students to watch writers write and to appreciate the craft involved in creative writing. Watching the writer at work--examining the drafts and correspondence for such poems as Blake's "London" or Keats'"To…

  5. 46 CFR 15.705 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watches. 15.705 Section 15.705 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.705 Watches. (a) Title 46 U.S.C. 8104 is the law applicable to the establishment...

  6. 46 CFR 15.1109 - Watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watches. 15.1109 Section 15.1109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1109 Watches. Each master of a vessel that operates beyond the Boundary Line...

  7. WEBGIS based CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, M.; Yan, N.

    2015-12-01

    CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing global agricultural information. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. In order to better analysis and generate the bulletin and provide an alternative way to access agricultural monitoring indicators and results in CropWatch, The CropWatch online system based on the WEBGIS techniques has been developed. Figure 1 shows the CropWatch online system structure and the system UI in Clustering mode. Data visualization is sorted into three different modes: Vector mode, Raster mode and Clustering mode. Vector mode provides the statistic value for all the indicators over each monitoring units which allows users to compare current situation with historical values (average, maximum, etc.). Users can compare the profiles of each indicator over the current growing season with the historical data in a chart by selecting the region of interest (ROI). Raster mode provides pixel based anomaly of CropWatch indicators globally. In this mode, users are able to zoom in to the regions where the notable anomaly was identified from statistic values in vector mode. Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Clustering mode provides integrated information on different classes in maps, the corresponding profiles for each class and the percentage of area of each class to the total area of all classes. The time series data is categorized into limited types by the ISODATA algorithm. For each clustering type, pixels on the map, profiles, and percentage legend are all linked

  8. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  9. Development of a new concept diver's watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Takeo; Aizawa, Hitomi

    The 'Scuba Master' diver's watch represents a new concept. It was developed and announced in 1990. This watch automatically displays information necessary for safe scuba diving and records diving data. The watch was well accepted by divers all over the world. Safe diving techniques were investigated. This led to the need for developing a highly accurate, highly reliable depth measurement system. The functions and features of 'Scuba Masters' are described. The way to make the depth measurement system highly accurate and highly reliable is explained.

  10. Long-term surface ozone variability at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Saliba, M.; Azzopardi, F.; Ellul, R.; Fröhlich, M.; Tositti, L.; Brattich, E.; Maione, M.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Landi, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin represents a hot spot area for short-term O3 distribution and anthropogenic contributions to it. This is why we analysed in this work the surface O3 variability observed at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN, 44°12‧ N, 10°42‧ E, 2165 m a.s.l., Italy) from 1991 to 2011. The measurements performed at this mountain observatory represent the longest surface O3 record at a baseline site in the Mediterranean basin. Monthly O3 averages at CMN show a typical seasonal cycle characterised by a winter minimum and a spring - summer maxima. The shape of the mean annual variation of O3 is well comparable with those observed at other four baseline sites in the Alps and in the Mediterranean region: Jungfraujoch - Swiss Alps, Sonnblick - Austrian Alps, Mt. Krvavec- Slovenia and Giordan Lightouse - Island of Gozo, Malta. In general, O3 levels at CMN show higher values during warm months, which is likely to be related both to vertical transport of polluted air-masses at regional and continental scales and to enhanced photochemistry. Here, we also investigate the influence of specific atmospheric processes (i.e. the occurrence of heat-waves, North Atlantic Oscillation, thermal transport of air-masses from the regional PBL and stratospheric intrusions) in affecting O3 variability at CMN. Overall, a significant positive (95% confidence level) linear trend in monthly O3 mole fraction was observed over the period 1991-2011 (0.21 ± 0.10 nmol/mol yr-1) while no trend (-0.02 ± 0.12 nmol/mol yr-1) was detected for the 1996-2011, when measurements were carried out by an homogeneous experimental set-up. On a seasonal basis, a positive trend has been observed for 1996-2011 (0.34 ± 0.32 nmol/mol yr-1) only for spring. Significant decreases of the seasonal O3 growth-rates have been detected at CMN during 1991-2011 from winter to spring and only for summer during 1996-2011.

  11. Climatology of new particle formation events in the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña GAW observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, M. I.; Rodríguez, S.; González, Y.; García, R. D.

    2013-09-01

    A climatology of new particle formation (NPF) events in the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere is presented. A four year data set (June 2008-June 2012), which includes number size distributions (10-600 nm), reactive gases (SO2, NOx, and O3), several components of solar radiation and meteorological parameters, measured at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch observatory (2400 m above sea level; Tenerife, Canary Islands) was analysed. On average, NPF occurred during 30% of the days,the mean values of the formation and growth rates during the study period were 0.49 cm-3 s-1 and 0.42 nm h-1, correspondingly. There is a clearly marked NPF season (May to August), when these events account for 50 to 60% of the days/month. Monthly mean values of the formation and growth rates exhibit higher values during this season (0.50-0.95 cm-3 s-1 and 0.48-0.58 nm h-1, respectively) than during other periods. The two steps (formation and growth) of the NPF process mostly occur under the prevailing northern winds typical of this region. Sulphur dioxide and UV radiation show higher levels during NPF events than in other type of episodes. The presence of Saharan dust in the free troposphere is associated with a decrease in the formation rates of new particles. In the analysis of the year-to-year variability, mean sulphur dioxide concentration (within the range 60-300 ppt) was the parameter that exhibited the highest correlation with the frequency of NPF episodes. The availability of this trace gas (i.e. their oxidation products) seems also to have a influence on the duration of the events, number of formed nucleation particles, formation rates and growth rates. We identified a set of NPF events in which two nucleation modes (that may evolve at different rates) occur simultaneously and for which further investigations are necessary.

  12. Force and pressure tests of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 20% aileron and pressure tests with a 30% Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Seetharam, H. C.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel force and pressure tests were conducted for the GA(W)-1 airfoil equipped with a 20% aileron, and pressure tests were conducted with a 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 and a Mach number of 0.13. The aileron provides control effectiveness similar to ailerons applied to more conventional airfoils. Effects of aileron gaps from 0% to 2% chord were evaluated, as well as hinge moment characteristics. The aft camber of the GA(W)-1 section results in a substantial up-aileron moment, but the hinge moments associated with aileron deflection are similar to other configurations. Fowler flap pressure distributions indicate that unseparated flow is achieved for flap settings up to 40 deg., over a limited angle of attack range. Theoretical pressure distributions compare favorably with experiments for low flap deflections, but show substantial errors at large deflections.

  13. Antibodies to watch in 2014.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

  14. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  15. Antibodies to watch in 2016.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, are projected to gain first approvals in 2016. Commercial late-stage antibody therapeutics development exceeded expectations by increasing from 39 candidates in Phase 3 studies as of late 2014 to 53 as of late 2015. Of the 53 candidates, transitions to regulatory review by the end of 2016 are projected for 8 (atezolizumab, benralizumab, bimagrumab, durvalumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, lebrikizumab, ocrelizumab, tremelimumab). Other "antibodies to watch" include 15 candidates (bavituximab, bococizumab, dupilumab, fasinumab, fulranumab, gevokizumab, guselkumab, ibalizumab, LY2951742, onartuzumab, REGN2222, roledumab, romosozumab, sirukumab, Xilonix) undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies that have estimated primary completion dates in 2016. As evidenced by the antibody therapeutics discussed in this perspective, the biopharmaceutical industry has a highly active late-stage clinical pipeline that may deliver numerous new products to the global market in the near future. *See Note added in proof for updates through December 31, 2015. PMID:26651519

  16. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  17. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S82 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S82 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S68 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S68 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel C-11, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-5, & on ridge above Tunnel D-14, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, GuardWatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD/WATCH TOWER #S84 - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, On ridge above Tunnel CE-1, on Prime Road on ridge above Tunnel B-11, & on ridge above Tunnel C-17, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Video face recognition against a watch list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Jehanzeb; Dagli, Charlie K.; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-10-01

    Due to a large increase in the video surveillance data recently in an effort to maintain high security at public places, we need more robust systems to analyze this data and make tasks like face recognition a realistic possibility in challenging environments. In this paper we explore a watch-list scenario where we use an appearance based model to classify query faces from low resolution videos into either a watch-list or a non-watch-list face. We then use our simple yet a powerful face recognition system to recognize the faces classified as watch-list faces. Where the watch-list includes those people that we are interested in recognizing. Our system uses simple feature machine algorithms from our previous work to match video faces against still images. To test our approach, we match video faces against a large database of still images obtained from a previous work in the field from Yahoo News over a period of time. We do this matching in an efficient manner to come up with a faster and nearly real-time system. This system can be incorporated into a larger surveillance system equipped with advanced algorithms involving anomalous event detection and activity recognition. This is a step towards more secure and robust surveillance systems and efficient video data analysis.

  1. Observations of Black Carbon characteristics and radiative forcing over a Global Atmosphere Watch supersite in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, A. S.; Park, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Dong-Chul; Jung, Woon-Seon; Jang, Sang-Min; Jeong, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Soon; Yu, Jegyu; Jeong, Harrison

    2013-10-01

    This paper provides an account of observed variations in Black carbon (BC) mass concentrations and BC induced radiative forcing for the first time over a background Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site, Anmyeon in South Korea. BC concentrations were continuously measured over the site during January 2003-December 2004 periods using an Aethalometer. BC showed higher concentrations during 2003 in majority of the months (except in January, August and October). BC found to be showing higher concentrations in September 2003, with values reaching up to 3 μg m-3 over the site. It also showed higher peaks in May and December in 2003. BC values were found to be comparatively less during wet season (July-August; especially august), which could be associated with the rainout and washout associated with the Changma season (summer monsoon). Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model in combination with a radiative transfer model (SBDART) were used to estimate aerosol radiative forcing separately for composite aerosols (total aerosols) and solely for BC aerosols using chemical composition data sets of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) and BC. The atmospheric forcing for composite aerosols found to be +14.9 to +25.9 W m-2 during spring, +13.4 to +20.4 W m-2 in summer, +12.9 to +19.1 W m-2 in autumn and +16 to +18.2 W m-2 during winter,respectively. The respective BC atmospheric forcings were +8.1 to +11.8 W m-2, +8.4 to +11.1 W m-2, +8.7 to +11.4 W m-2 and +8.8 to +11.7 W m-2 during spring, summer, autumn and winter. The study suggests that BC induced atmospheric forcing can contribute up to 88% of total aerosol induced atmospheric warming.

  2. BioWatch in a Box

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M T; Dzentis, J M; Meyer, R M

    2006-02-01

    BioWatch, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) environmental monitoring program, has been successfully operating in many of the nation's urban centers since early 2003. This early warning environmental monitoring system can detect trace amounts of biological materials in the air, and has been used to provide information to assist public health experts determine whether detected materials are due to an intentional release (bioterrorism incident) or due to minute quantities that occur naturally in the environment. BioWatch information enables federal, state, and local officials to more quickly determine appropriate emergency response, medical care and consequence management.

  3. The Verification of MACC-II Global Reactive Gas Forecasts with Global Atmosphere Watch Surface Observations and Ozonesonde Measurements from the NDACC, WOUDC, NILU and SHADOZ Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.

    2012-04-01

    The MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate- phase II) project, funded under the 7th framework program of the European Union, provides a comprehensive monitoring and operational forecasting system for atmospheric constituents relevant to climate and air quality issues and surface solar radiation. The MACC-II forecast system is based on the global weather forecasting system operated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) coupled with the chemistry transport models MOZART (Model for OZone and Related chemical Tracers) and TM5. On a near real time (NRT) basis observational data and forecasts, as well as reanalyses are made available for greenhouse and reactive gases, UV radiation and aerosol optical density. The sub group "VAL" is focusing on the evaluation of reactive gases, thus, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone as well as its precursors and aerosols. The GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) network provides the ground-based observational data for the evaluation of model simulation forecast and reanalysis of the reactive gases CO and O3 at surface levels on a global scale. Contributing stations in this validation process provide their data in rapid delivery mode (within 1 day to 1 month), thus enabling a fast evaluation process. Currently, there are 12 stations providing data in Near-Real-Time. The validation process is performed online and daily updates of the results are displayed on the MACC website (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/d/services/gac/verif/grg/gaw/). For the validation of stratospheric and free tropospheric ozone forecasts, balloon sonde measurements from the data bases NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre), NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional OZon Sondes) are used. Here, we will give an overview on the status and the results of this Near-Real-Time (NRT) validation of the

  4. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  5. Whale Watching in the Gulf of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carkin, Clayton A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a variety of teaching strategies to prepare a class for a whale watching field trip. Guidelines for recording a sighting, pictures and statistics for commonly and/or occasionally seen whales, and hints for avoiding sea sickness are included. (DH)

  6. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Origination Approval Agreements taken by HUD's Federal Housing Administration (FHA) against HUD-approved mortgagees through the FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had their Origination Approval Agreements...

  7. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  8. Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

  9. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire... with flame-proof covers, or otherwise shielded with metal or fire-resistant guards or curtains; (4)...

  14. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  15. The Art of Watching Films. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, Joseph M.

    This guide aims to help students sharpen powers of observation, develop the skills and habits of perceptive watching, and discover complex aspects of film art. Organized in 16 chapters, the text, which focuses on narrative film, discusses film analysis in chapter 1 and establishes a foundation for understanding theme and story in chapters 2 and 3.…

  16. 10 Trends to Watch in Campus Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James; Samels, James E.

    2007-01-01

    College and university presidents are increasingly called upon to make informed choices about technology. The rapidly shifting landscape makes it tough to keep up with change and innovation, let alone stay ahead of the curve. In this article, the authors discuss 10 trends to watch in campus technology. These trends are the following: (1) increased…

  17. Additional flow field studies of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap including slot-gap variations and cove shape modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made to determine the effects of slot gap opening and flap cove shape on flap and airfoil flow fields. Test model was the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 0.30c Fowler flap deflected 35 degrees. Tests were conducted with optimum, wide and narrow gaps, and with three cove shapes. Three test angles were selected, corresponding to pre-stall and post-stall conditions. Reynolds number was 2,200,000 and Mach number was 0.13. Force, surface pressure, total pressure, and split-film turbulence measurements were made. Results were compared with theory for those parameters for which theoretical values were available.

  18. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  19. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  20. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  1. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  2. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1123 - Watch requirements for ship stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements for ship stations. 80.1123... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1123 Watch requirements for ship stations. (a) While at sea, all ships must maintain a continuous watch: (1) On VHF DSC channel 70, if the ship is...

  8. Impact on Psychiatric Interns of Watching Live Electroconvulsive Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazdag, Gabor; Sebestyen, Gabor; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Tolna, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Watching a live electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has both positive and negative effects on spectators. The authors aim to survey the attitude change towards ECT in interns after watching a live ECT session. Methods: A 23-item questionnaire was administered to 66 interns before and after watching ECT. Results: In five statements, the…

  9. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  10. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  11. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  12. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section... CUSTODY Suicide Prevention Program § 552.42 Suicide watch conditions. (a) Housing. Each institution must have one or more rooms designated specifically for housing an inmate on suicide watch. The...

  13. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  14. Global Drought Watch from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix N.

    1997-04-01

    Drought is the most damaging environmental phenomenon. During 1967-91, droughts affected 50% of the 2.8 billion people who suffered from weather-related disasters. Since droughts cover large areas, it is difficult to monitor them using conventional systems. In recent years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has designed a new Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer- (AVHRR) based Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI), which have been useful in detecting and monitoring large area, drought-related vegetation stress. The VCI was derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is the ratio of the difference between AVHRR-measured near-infrared and visible reflectance to their sum. The TCI was derived from the 10.3-11.3-mm AVHRR-measured radiances, converted to brightness temperature (BT). Algorithms were developed to reduce the noise and to adjust NDVI and BT for land surface nonhomogeneity. The VCI and TCI are used to determine the water- and temperature-related vegetation stress occuring during drought. This paper provides the principles of these indices, describes data processing, and gives examples of VCI-TCI applications in different ecological environments of the world. The results presented here are the first attempt to use both NDVI and thermal channels on a large area with very diversified ecological resources. The application of VCI and TCI are illustrated and validated by in situ measurements. These indices were also used for assessment of drought impact on regional agricultural production in South America, Africa, Asia, North America, and Europe. For this purpose, the average VCI-TCI values for a given region and for each week of the growing season were calculated and compared with yields of agricultural crops. The results showed a very strong correlation between these indices and yield, particularly during the critical periods of crop growth.

  15. An unmanned watching system using video cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, K.; Nakamae, E. ); Takahashi, E. ); Yazawa, K. )

    1990-04-01

    Techniques for detecting intruders at a remote location, such as a power plant or substation, or in an unmanned building at night, are significant in the field of unmanned watching systems. This article describes an unmanned watching system to detect trespassers in real time, applicable both indoors and outdoors, based on image processing. The main part of the proposed system consists of a video camera, an image processor and a microprocessor. Images are input from the video camera to the image processor every 1/60 second, and objects which enter the image are detected by measuring changes of intensity level in selected sensor areas. This article discusses the system configuration and the detection method. Experimental results under a range of environmental conditions are given.

  16. The 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The successful fulfillment of the objectives for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment is reported. The objectives were: (1) detect the development and spread of corn blight during the growing season across the Corn Belt; (2) assess different levels of infection in the Corn Belt; (3) amplify data acquired by ground observations to better appraise current blight status and the probable impact on crop production; and (4) estimate through extrapolation the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  17. Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  18. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; West, R.; Harrington, R.; Marsden, B.

    1986-01-01

    The Astrometry Network of the International Halley Watch (IHW) has organized and coordinated more than 300 astrometric observers from 47 countries in an effort to provide for accurate positional information on comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner. This information is being used to constantly update the existing orbits and ephemerides for the various flight projects to these two comets and also for the other ground-based observers within the IHW organization. The astrometric data, as well as the resultant orbits and ephemerides, are being distributed to all requesting observers and they will be cataloged within the general IHW archive system.

  19. The IHW island network. [International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm B., Jr.; Liller, William

    1987-01-01

    Early astronomical photography of comets at perihelion encouraged the establishment of an International Halley Watch (IHW) Team for regularly photographing the Comet. The February 1986 period was particularly troublesome due to the limitations of cometary visibility in the Southern Hemisphere. Schmidt cameras were placed on Tahiti, Easter Island, Faraday Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, Reunion Island and in South Africa. Blue- and red-filter B/W images were obtained every night and color prints were occasionally shot. Each night's images were examined before the next night's photography. Several interesting anecdotes are recounted from shipping, manning and operation of the telescopes.

  20. Wind tunnel tests of the GA(W)-2 airfoil with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap, 30% Fowler flap and 10% slot-lip spoiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensional wind tunnel tests were conducted for the GA(W)-2 airfoil section with: 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap; 30% Fowler flap, and 10% slot-lip spoiler. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2,200,000 and a Mach Number of 0.13. In addition to force measurements, tuft studies were conducted for the slotted and Fowler flap configurations. Aileron and spoiler hinge moments were obtained by integration of surface pressure measurements. Tests results show that a value of 3.82 was obtained with 30% Fowler flap. Aileron control effectiveness and hinge moments were similar to other airfoils. The slot-lip spoiler provided powerful, positive roll control at all flap settings.

  1. The Nurse Watch: Design and Evaluation of a Smart Watch Application with Vital Sign Monitoring and Checklist Reminders.

    PubMed

    Bang, Magnus; Solnevik, Katarina; Eriksson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Computerized wearable devices such as smart watches will become valuable nursing tools. This paper describes a smart-watch system developed in close collaboration with a team of nurses working in a Swedish ICU. The smart-watch system provides real-time vital-sign monitoring, threshold alarms, and to-do reminders. Additionally, a Kanban board, visualized on a multitouch screen provides an overview of completed and upcoming tasks. We describe an approach to implement automated checklist systems with smart watches and discuss aspects of importance when implementing such memory and attention support. The paper is finalized with an in-development formative evaluation of the system. PMID:26958162

  2. The Nurse Watch: Design and Evaluation of a Smart Watch Application with Vital Sign Monitoring and Checklist Reminders

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Magnus; Solnevik, Katarina; Eriksson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Computerized wearable devices such as smart watches will become valuable nursing tools. This paper describes a smart-watch system developed in close collaboration with a team of nurses working in a Swedish ICU. The smart-watch system provides real-time vital-sign monitoring, threshold alarms, and to-do reminders. Additionally, a Kanban board, visualized on a multitouch screen provides an overview of completed and upcoming tasks. We describe an approach to implement automated checklist systems with smart watches and discuss aspects of importance when implementing such memory and attention support. The paper is finalized with an in-development formative evaluation of the system. PMID:26958162

  3. Definitive Chemoradiotherapy ("Watch-and-Wait" Approach).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Karyn A

    2016-07-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision has been the standard of care for locally advanced patients with rectal cancer. Some patients achieve a pathologic complete response (pCR) to CRT and the oncologic outcomes are particularly favorable in this group. The role of surgery in patients with a pCR is now being questioned as radical rectal resection is associated with significant morbidity and long-term effects on quality of life. In an attempt to better tailor therapy, there is an interest in a "watch-and-wait" approach in patients who have a clinical complete response (cCR) after CRT with the goal of omitting surgery and allowing for organ preservation. However, a cCR does not always indicate a pCR, and improved clinical and imaging modalities are needed to better predict which patients have achieved a pCR and therefore can safely undergo a "watch-and-wait" approach. This article reviews the current data on nonoperative management and on-going controversies associated with this approach. PMID:27238472

  4. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  5. Solenoid permits remote control of stop watch and assures restarting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodai, C.

    1964-01-01

    Stop watch which may be remotely controlled by the use of a solenoid mechanism is described. When the solenoid is energized, the coil spring pulls the lever arm and starts the balance wheel. When it is not energized, the spring pulls the lever and stops the watch.

  6. Healthy Skepticism's new AdWatch: understanding drug promotion.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Peter R

    The AdWatch section of the Healthy Skepticism website (http://www.healthyskepticism.org/adwatch.asp) aims to improve medical decision-making by illuminating the techniques used in drug advertising. AdWatch draws on 20 years of dialogue about drug promotion plus ideas from many disciplines, especially logic, psychology and marketing. PMID:14636142

  7. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  8. Watching television by kids: How much and why?

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Karimi, Masoud; Ghorbanzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Television (TV) viewing by children may be linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. This study was aimed at examining the relationship between socioeconomic factors of families and TV watching behavior among 3–5 years old children in Ardakan, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: In the cross-sectional study, mothers of 188 children (93 boys and 95 girls) between 3 and 5 years old completed a researcher-designed questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS, using bivariate correlations and t-test for independent samples. Results: The mean of TV viewing was 2.68 ± 1.6 h daily, ranging from 0 to 9 h. There were no statistically significant gender differences on the basis of daily TV watching. There were positive associations between the children's daily TV watching and age as well aschildren's daily TV watching and their mothers’ time spent on watching TV. Children who lived in houses with the yard and could use it as a playground watched less TV than did the children who lived in houses without the yard. Conclusion: The results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of the association between different socioeconomic status aspects of families, such as the children's and mothers’ time spent on watching TV and having a yard in the house in an attempt to develop effective strategies and interventions to prevent excess TV watching. PMID:26097850

  9. BioWatch - a wrist watch based signal acquisition system for physiological signals including blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simi Susan; Nathan, Viswam; Chengzhi Zong; Akinbola, Ebunoluwa; Aroul, Antoine Lourdes Praveen; Philipose, Lijoy; Soundarapandian, Karthikeyan; Xiangrong Shi; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    A wrist watch based system, which can measure electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG), is presented in this work. By using both ECG and PPG we also measure pulse transit time (PTT), which studies show to correlate well with blood pressure (BP). The system is also capable of monitoring heart rate using either ECG or PPG and can monitor blood oxygenation by easily replacing the PPG sensors with a different set. In this work, we investigate methods to train a fitting function to convert a PTT measurement to its corresponding systolic BP. We also validate measurements on different postures and show the value of calibrating the device for each posture. This system, called BioWatch, can potentially facilitate continuous and ubiquitous monitoring of ECG, PPG, heart rate, blood oxygenation and BP. PMID:25570444

  10. Microcomputer keeps watch at Emerald Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    Where there's smoke, there's fire. Take the old adage a step further: ''Where there's carbon monoxide, there's likely to be a fire.'' That's the principle behind the mine monitoring system being used at the Emerald Mine operated by Emway Resources. Instead of watching for smoke or temperature rises, the system uses carbon monoxide (CO) sensors to detect fires - before they break out. CO, a gaseous product of incomplete combustion, is present in the early stages of a fire. Carried by the mine ventilation air, CO can be quickly traced by electrochemical gas sensors that are wired to a central computer. When preset levels are reached, alarms can alert mine personnel of the trouble. The Emerald Mine is located in southwestern Pennsylvania, near Waynesburg, and mines the Pittsburgh Seam, the nation's most heavily mined seam. Emerald is one of a number of progressive mines that are turning to computers to improve safety and productivity.

  11. 76 FR 62760 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; LVMH Watch and Jewelry U.S.A., Inc.; (Watches, Jewelry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ..., filed 1-14-2011); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR....; (Watches, Jewelry Products and Leather Goods) Springfield, NJ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign... for activity related to watch, jewelry and leather goods warehousing and distribution at the...

  12. Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: Investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Landi, T. C.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Marinoni, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Bonasoni, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we analysed reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx) and aerosol properties (eqBC, σs and particle number concentration) collected at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy) during the summer of 2012 in the framework of PEGASOS project. The major aim of this experiment is providing a characterization of the variability of summer atmospheric composition over the central Mediterranean basin, which is considered as a global "hot-spot" for atmospheric pollution and climate change. The atmospheric tracers have been analysed as a function of (i) meteorological parameters, (ii) synoptic-scale circulation and (iii) anthropogenic emission source proximity as estimated by O3/NOx ratio variability. In particular, we identified three O3/NOx regimes which tagged the distance of anthropogenic sources: near outflow (23% of hourly data), far-outflow (38% of data) and background (39% of data). The highest levels of anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. O3, CO, eqBC, accumulation particles) were concomitant with fresh emissions from northern Italy under near-outflow conditions: once injected to the free troposphere, these air-masses, rich in pollutants and climate-forcers (i.e. O3, eqBC) and soil dust, can be spread over a large region, thus significantly affecting regional climate. Moreover, based on the anthropogenic source proximity, atmospheric tracer variability and synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, we categorized and characterised four types of atmospheric regimes associated with (1) air-mass transport from the free troposphere, (2) transport of fresh emitted pollutants from the PBL, (3) transport at regional/continental scale of aged anthropogenic (4) transport of air-mass rich in mineral dust from northern Africa (i.e. coming from more than 1000 km). Lastly, by analysing the probability density functions (PDFs) of trace gases and aerosol properties, "fingerprints" of the mentioned atmospheric regimes were pointed out. Such information is useful for the

  13. Blog and Podcast Watch: Pediatric Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zaver, Fareen; Hansen, Michael; Leibner, Evan; Little, Andrew; Lin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction By critically appraising open access, educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) using an objective scoring instrument, this installment of the ALiEM (Academic Life in Emergency Medicine) Blog and Podcast Watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific areas of pediatric EM. Methods The Approved Instructional Resources – Professional (AIR-Pro) series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, six EM chief residents identify 3–5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro Board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on 7-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥26 (out of 35) points. An “Honorable Mention” label is awarded if Board members collectively felt that the posts were valuable and the scores were > 20. Results We included a total of 41 blog posts and podcasts. Key educational pearls from the 10 high quality AIR-Pro posts and four Honorable Mentions are summarized. Conclusion The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. Until more objective quality indicators are developed for learners and educators, this series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians. PMID:27625713

  14. Global positioning system watches for estimating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Orr, Barron J; Roe, Denise J; Reed, Rebecca G; Going, Scott B

    2013-11-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) watches have been introduced commercially, converting frequent measurements of time, location, speed (pace), and elevation into energy expenditure (EE) estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare EE estimates of 4 different GPS watches (Forerunner, Suunto, Polar, Adeo), at various walking speeds, with EE estimate from a triaxial accelerometer (RT3), which was used as a reference measure in this study. Sixteen healthy young adults completed the study. Participants wore 4 different GPS watches and an RT3 accelerometer and walked at 6-minute intervals on an outdoor track at 3 speeds (3, 5, and 7 km/hr). The statistical significance of differences in EE between the 3 watches was assessed using linear contrasts of the coefficients from the overall model. Reliability across trials for a given device was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients as estimated in the mixed model. The GPS watches demonstrated lower reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) across trials when compared with the RT3, particularly at the higher speed, 7 km/hr. Three GPS watches (Forerunner, Polar, and Suunto) significantly and consistently underestimated EE compared with the reference EE given by the RT3 accelerometer (average mean difference: Garmin, -50.5%; Polar, -41.7%; and Suunto, -41.7%; all p < 0.001). Results suggested that caution should be exercised when using commercial GPS watches to estimate EE in athletes during field-based testing and training. PMID:23439338

  15. Watching outside while under a carpet cloak of invisibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Zhu; Wang, De-Lin; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate in this work a unique approach for watching outside while hiding in a carpet cloaking based on transformation optics. Unlike conventional carpet cloaking, which screens all the incident electromagnetic waves, we break the cloak and allow incident light get into the carpet. Hence outside information is detected inside the cloak. To recover the invisible cloaking, complementary techniques are applied in the broken space. Consequently, a hiding-inside and watching-outside (HIWO) carpet cloak is sewed, which works as an invisible cloaking and allows surveillance of the outside at the same time. Our work provides a strategy for an ideal cloak with "hiding" and "watching" functions simultaneously. PMID:22181296

  16. A study of four-year HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b in-situ measurements at the Shangdianzi regional background station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bo; Vollmer, Martin K.; Xia, Lingjun; Zhou, Lingxi; Simmonds, Peter G.; Stordal, Frode; Maione, Michela; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) in-situ measurements have been recorded by an automated gas chromatograph-electron capture detectors (GC-ECDs) system and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Medusa-GC/MS) system at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) regional background station Shangdianzi (SDZ), China. The mixing ratios of the two HCFCs at SDZ show frequent events with elevated concentrations due to polluted air from urban or industrialized areas. The mean background mixing ratios for HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b were 205.3 ppt (parts per trillion, 10-12, molar) and 20.7 ppt, respectively, for the study period (March 2007-February 2011). The yearly background mixing ratios for the two HCFCs at SDZ are similar to those measured at Trinidad Head and Mace Head located in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), but larger than Cape Grim and Cape Matatula (located in the Southern Hemisphere) due to inter-hemispheric differences caused by predominantly NH emissions. During the study period, background mixing ratios exhibited positive growth rates of 8.7 ppt yr-1 for HCFC-22 and 0.95 ppt yr-1 for HCFC-142b. HCFC's seasonality exhibits a summer/autumn maximum and a winter minimum. 4-year averaged background seasonal amplitudes (maximum-minimum) are 6.0 ppt for HCFC-22 and 0.9 ppt for HCFC-142b. The seasonal fluctuations (maximum-minimum) in polluted events are 105.4 ppt for HCFC-22 and 29.1 ppt for HCFC-142b, which are much stronger than the fluctuations under background conditions. However, both HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b show summer minima in 2008, which is most likely due to emission control regulations when the Olympic Games were held in Beijing.

  17. The GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION) as a source of near-real time aerosol profile data for model evaluation and assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch’s Science Advisory Group on Aerosols described a global network of lidar networks called GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (GALION). GALION has a purpose of providing expanded coverage of aerosol observations for climate and air quality use. Comprised of networks in Asia (AD-NET), Europe (EARLINET and CIS-LINET), North America (CREST and CORALNET), South America (ALINE) and with contribution from global networks such as MPLNET and NDACC, the collaboration provides a unique capability to define aerosol profiles in the vertical. GALION is designed to supplement existing ground-based and column profiling (AERONET, PHOTONS, SKYNET, GAWPFR) stations. In September 2010, GALION held its second workshop and one component of discussion focussed how the network would integrate into model needs. GALION partners have contributed to the Sand and Dust Storm Warning and Analysis System (SDS-WAS) and to assimilation in models such as DREAM. This paper will present the conclusions of those discussions and how these observations can fit into a global model analysis framework. Questions of availability, latency, and aerosol parameters that might be ingested into models will be discussed. An example of where EARLINET and GALION have contributed in near-real time observations was the suite of measurements during the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland and its impact on European air travel. Lessons learned from this experience will be discussed.

  18. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  19. Watch Walking to Gauge Health After Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158791.html Watch Walking to Gauge Health After Heart Surgery Patients' pre-op gait is ... on: Heart Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Walking Problems About MedlinePlus Site ...

  20. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  1. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  2. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  3. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  4. 46 CFR 131.980 - Lookouts and watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. ... from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch, or...

  5. Watch Out for Glaucoma | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Watch Out for Glaucoma Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents A ... used to check eye pressure for signs of glaucoma. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma is a group ...

  6. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  7. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  8. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND...

  9. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  10. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  11. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  12. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  13. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  14. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  15. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  16. Study of short-lived climate forcers atmospheric variability at Kathmandu and at the WMO/GAW Global Station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (5079 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putero, Davide; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Marinoni, Angela; Duchi, Rocco; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Landi, Tony Christian; Pietro Verza, Gian; Alborghetti, Marcello; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and tropospheric ozone play a key role in the climate system, since they are short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). South Asia represents a "hot-spot" in terms of climate change, since a vast region extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas appears to be affected by large amounts of aerosols and pollutant gases (the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud). In the framework of the SusKat - ABC field campaign, a new measurement station has been installed in Pakanajol, Kathmandu (Nepal) on January 2013. This station is representative of the severe polluted conditions of the Kathmandu valley. Continuous measurements of equivalent black carbon (eqBC), surface ozone (O3), aerosol number concentration and size distribution, on-line PM10-PM1, as well as meteorological parameters, are carried out at this sampling site. In the high Himalayas (150 km north-east from Kathmandu), continuous atmospheric composition measurements are performed at the WMO/GAW Global Station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.) in the Southern Himalayas. This measurement site is representative of the background conditions of the Himalayan ridge and measurements of eqBC, O3, aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters are continuously carried out since March 2006. The aim of this work is to compare the variability of atmospheric composition between the two sampling sites, with a particular emphasis on SLCFs, thus providing two complementary perspectives about the Atmospheric Brown Cloud phenomenon. Moreover, hints about the possible role of vertical air-mass transport of SLCFs from the foothills to the high Himalayas will be provided. The seasonal trend of eqBC at Pakanajol is characterized by a decreasing behavior from winter to monsoon, while at NCO-P it is characterized by a clear pre-monsoon maximum. On the other hand, at both sampling sites, O3 and particle number (accumulation and coarse) showed highest values during the pre-monsoon (April

  17. "Walking and watching" in queer London: Sarah Waters' Tipping The Velvet and The Night Watch.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Sarah Waters' representation of London in her historical fictions Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch is used to delineate the gendered bodies and sexual identities of her characters. A historical summary demonstrates that female masculinity was slowly mapped onto sexual identity between the 1880s and 1940s in Britain. The article argues that Waters' "inventive" use of this history allows her to question the construction of both historical and contemporary identifications. The way that Waters' characters are constricted and liberated by London's urban landscape demonstrates the spatial and temporal contingency of both gender and sexuality. PMID:23855943

  18. The modelling and assessment of whale-watching impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    New, Leslie; Hall, Ailsa J.; Harcourt, Robert; Kaufman, Greg; Parsons, E.C.M.; Pearson, Heidi C.; Cosentino, A. Mel; Schick, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in modelling cumulative effects and the population consequences of individual changes in cetacean behaviour and physiology due to disturbance. One potential source of disturbance that has garnered particular interest is whale-watching. Though perceived as ‘green’ or eco-friendly tourism, there is evidence that whale-watching can result in statistically significant and biologically meaningful changes in cetacean behaviour, raising the question whether whale-watching is in fact a long term sustainable activity. However, an assessment of the impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans requires an understanding of the potential behavioural and physiological effects, data to effectively address the question and suitable modelling techniques. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the viability of long-term whale-watching, as well as logistical limitations and potential opportunities. We conclude that an integrated, coordinated approach will be needed to further understanding of the possible effects of whale-watching on cetaceans.

  19. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called "ubiquitin-proteasome system" (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308423

  20. Trial watch: Peptide vaccines in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Martins, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Prophylactic vaccination constitutes one of the most prominent medical achievements of history. This concept was first demonstrated by the pioneer work of Edward Jenner, dating back to the late 1790s, after which an array of preparations that confer life-long protective immunity against several infectious agents has been developed. The ensuing implementation of nation-wide vaccination programs has de facto abated the incidence of dreadful diseases including rabies, typhoid, cholera and many others. Among all, the most impressive result of vaccination campaigns is surely represented by the eradication of natural smallpox infection, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The idea of employing vaccines as anticancer interventions was first theorized in the 1890s by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it soon became clear that while vaccination could be efficiently employed as a preventive measure against infectious agents, anticancer vaccines would have to (1) operate as therapeutic, rather than preventive, interventions (at least in the vast majority of settings), and (2) circumvent the fact that tumor cells often fail to elicit immune responses. During the past 30 y, along with the recognition that the immune system is not irresponsive to tumors (as it was initially thought) and that malignant cells express tumor-associated antigens whereby they can be discriminated from normal cells, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the development of anticancer vaccines. Some of these approaches, encompassing cell-based, DNA-based and purified component-based preparations, have already been shown to exert conspicuous anticancer effects in cohorts of patients affected by both hematological and solid malignancies. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23264902

  1. Trial watch: DNA vaccines for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senovilla, Laura; Vacchelli, Erika; Garcia, Pauline; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    The foundation of modern vaccinology dates back to the 1790s, when the English physician Edward Jenner uncovered the tremendous medical potential of prophylactic vaccination. Jenner's work ignited a wave of nationwide vaccination campaigns abating the incidence of multiple life-threatening infectious diseases and culminating with the eradication of natural smallpox virus, which was definitively certified by the WHO in 1980. The possibility of using vaccines against cancer was first proposed at the end of the 19th century by Paul Ehrlich and William Coley. However, it was not until the 1990s that such a hypothesis began to be intensively investigated, following the realization that the immune system is not completely unresponsive to tumors and that neoplastic cells express immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Nowadays, anticancer vaccines are rapidly moving from the bench to the bedside, and a few prophylactic and therapeutic preparations have already been approved by FDA for use in humans. In this setting, one interesting approach is constituted by DNA vaccines, i.e., TAA-encoding circularized DNA constructs, often of bacterial origin, that are delivered to patients as such or by means of specific vectors, including (but not limited to) liposomal preparations, nanoparticles, bacteria and viruses. The administration of DNA vaccines is most often performed via the intramuscular or subcutaneous route and is expected to cause (1) the endogenous synthesis of the TAA by myocytes and/or resident antigen-presenting cells; (2) the presentation of TAA-derived peptides on the cell surface, in association with MHC class I molecules; and (3) the activation of potentially therapeutic tumor-specific immune responses. In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials that have evaluated/are evaluating DNA vaccines as therapeutic interventions against cancer. PMID:23734328

  2. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called “ubiquitin-proteasome system” (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308423

  3. Making the Venus Concept Watch 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Melchiorri, Julian P.

    2014-08-01

    Over the past year we have celebrated the 50th anniversary of planetary exploration, which started with the Venus flyby of Mariner-2; and the 35th anniversary of the Pioneer-Venus multi-probe mission where one large and three small probes descended to the surface of Venus, encountering extreme environmental conditions. At the surface of Venus the temperature is about 460 °C, and the pressure is 92 bar, with a highly corrosive super-critical CO2 atmosphere. At a Venusian altitude of 50 km the pressure and temperature conditions are near Earth-like, but the clouds carry sulfuric acid droplets. Deep probe missions to Jupiter and Saturn, targeting the 100 bar pressure depth encounter similar pressure and temperature conditions as the Pioneer-Venus probes did. Mitigating these environments is highly challenging and requires special considerations for designs and materials. While assessing such space mission concepts, we have found that there is an overlap between the extreme environments in planetary atmospheres and the environments experienced by deep-sea explorers back on Earth. Consequently, the mitigation approaches could be also similar between planetary probes and diver watches. For example, both need to tolerate about 100 bar of pressure-although high temperatures are not factors on Earth. Mitigating these environments, the potential materials are: titanium for the probe and the watch housing; sapphire for the window and glass; resin impregnated woven carbon fiber for the aeroshell's thermal protection system and for the face of the watch; and nylon ribbon for the parachute and for the watch band. Planetary probes also utilize precision watches; thus there is yet another crosscutting functionality with diver watches. Our team, from the Innovation Design Engineering Program of the Royal College of Art, has designed and built a concept watch to commemorate these historical events, while highlighting advances in manufacturing processes over the past three to five

  4. Watching Subtitled Films Can Help Learning Foreign Languages.

    PubMed

    Birulés-Muntané, J; Soto-Faraco, S

    2016-01-01

    Watching English-spoken films with subtitles is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. One reason for this trend is the assumption that perceptual learning of the sounds of a foreign language, English, will improve perception skills in non-English speakers. Yet, solid proof for this is scarce. In order to test the potential learning effects derived from watching subtitled media, a group of intermediate Spanish students of English as a foreign language watched a 1h-long episode of a TV drama in its original English version, with English, Spanish or no subtitles overlaid. Before and after the viewing, participants took a listening and vocabulary test to evaluate their speech perception and vocabulary acquisition in English, plus a final plot comprehension test. The results of the listening skills tests revealed that after watching the English subtitled version, participants improved these skills significantly more than after watching the Spanish subtitled or no-subtitles versions. The vocabulary test showed no reliable differences between subtitled conditions. Finally, as one could expect, plot comprehension was best under native, Spanish subtitles. These learning effects with just 1 hour exposure might have major implications with longer exposure times. PMID:27355343

  5. Watching Subtitled Films Can Help Learning Foreign Languages

    PubMed Central

    Birulés-Muntané, J.; Soto-Faraco, S.

    2016-01-01

    Watching English-spoken films with subtitles is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. One reason for this trend is the assumption that perceptual learning of the sounds of a foreign language, English, will improve perception skills in non-English speakers. Yet, solid proof for this is scarce. In order to test the potential learning effects derived from watching subtitled media, a group of intermediate Spanish students of English as a foreign language watched a 1h-long episode of a TV drama in its original English version, with English, Spanish or no subtitles overlaid. Before and after the viewing, participants took a listening and vocabulary test to evaluate their speech perception and vocabulary acquisition in English, plus a final plot comprehension test. The results of the listening skills tests revealed that after watching the English subtitled version, participants improved these skills significantly more than after watching the Spanish subtitled or no-subtitles versions. The vocabulary test showed no reliable differences between subtitled conditions. Finally, as one could expect, plot comprehension was best under native, Spanish subtitles. These learning effects with just 1 hour exposure might have major implications with longer exposure times. PMID:27355343

  6. HEALTH WATCH: health promotion and disease prevention in primary care.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R M

    1993-04-01

    HEALTH WATCH, a longitudinal prospective study of healthy aging, was designed to characterize a healthy population of 2,200 men and women, ages 20-80 years in 1970. Biochemical, hematological, and physiological tests are performed annually over three weekly visits, combined with a self-administered HEALTH WATCH questionnaire to measure health status and behaviors in seven areas (with over 1,330 variables). In 1988, the HEALTH WATCH study was modified to assess characteristics of an oldest old "productive aging" cohort in Kauai, Hawaii. Nutrition, physical activity, extended family, and spirituality were found to be major health determinants. During 1989 to 1991 a controlled intervention study (ten local primary care physicians and their patients, aged 65-89 years) was completed in the Sun Cities, Arizona. These studies provide evidence that primary care physicians can promote positive health outcomes in patients of any chronological age and baseline health status through active healthy aging interventions. PMID:8341160

  7. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Fierli, F.; Marinoni, A.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and equivalent black carbon (BC) at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV), part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy). For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007-June 2009, have been analyzed and correlated with the outputs of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB) and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppb, 122 ± 7 ppb and 213 ± 34 ng m-3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p < 95%), with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO. According to FLEXPART outputs, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracers only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five "representative" events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local), source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from -0.22 to 0.71) and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m-3 ppb-1) were observed. CO contributions related with anthropogenic emissions (COant) contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May-September) for CO, 19% (in May-September) for O3 and 32% (in January-April) for BC. During May-September, the analysis of the correlation among CO, O3 and BC as a function of the COant indicated that ICO-OV was influenced by air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution transported from the regional to the global

  8. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon concentrations at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Fierli, F.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and equivalent black carbon (BC) concentrations at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV), part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy). For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007-June 2009, have been analysed and correlated with the output of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB) and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC concentrations at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppbv, 122 ± 7 ppbv and 213 ± 34 ng m-3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p<95%), with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO. According to FLEXPART output, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracer concentrations only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five major events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local), source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from -0.22 to 0.71) and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m-3 ppbv-1) were observed. CO related with anthropogenic emissions (COant) contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May-September) for CO, 19% (in May-September) for O3 and 32% (in January-April) for BC. During May-September, the analysis of the correlation among CO, O3 and BC as a function of the COant indicated that ICO-OV was influenced by air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution transported from the

  9. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erin L.; Burke, Aran Z.; Martin, Kyle P.; Miura, Tanya A.; Wichman, Holly A.; Brown, Celeste J.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens. PMID:26925318

  10. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig R; Johnson, Erin L; Burke, Aran Z; Martin, Kyle P; Miura, Tanya A; Wichman, Holly A; Brown, Celeste J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens. PMID:26925318

  11. Observations of marine decoupled boundary layer during the ICOS campaign at the GAW Mace Head station, Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) top height detections have been retrieved by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO) based at the Mace Head Research station, Ireland, from the 8th to the 28th of June 2009 during the ICOS Mace Head campaign. Characteristic of this region, with warm waters, the marine boundary layer is typically 2-layered with a surface mixed layer (SML) and a decoupled residual or convective layer (DRCL), above which is the free troposphere (Kunz et al. 2002). The PBL data have been analyzed using a newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) for automatic detection of the independent SML and DRCL tops. Daily and weekly averages of the PBL data have been performed to smooth out the short term variability and assess the dependence of the PBL depth on different air masses advected over the Mace Head station. Moreover, a qualitative comparison between the ceilometer and radiometer PBL top detected values has been done to assess their consistency.

  12. Ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides time series at four alpine GAW mountain stations in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.; Steinbacher, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of ozone (O3) and its precursor gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period, 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites independent of wind sector. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the strongest O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest or even decline in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti-correlation with NO2 was found due to reduced O3 values on working days. Trends are discussed with respect to anthropogenic impacts and vertical

  13. Ozone, Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides time series at four Alpine GAW mountain stations in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-08-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of Ozone (O3) and its precursor gases Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites. This was observed independent of wind sector and for most seasons, with a tendency to higher positive trends in winter and lower and partly negative trends in summer. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the highest rate of O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti

  14. 76 FR 24504 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... information from BioWatch jurisdictions. The BioWatch Program operates aerosol collector equipment in... installing and removing filters from aerosol collection devices and transportation to local laboratories...

  15. Trash Treasures, Level 5. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  16. 28 CFR 552.42 - Suicide watch conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suicide watch conditions. 552.42 Section 552.42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT... significant observed behavior in a log book. (d) Termination. Based upon clinical findings, the...

  17. Long Lake Whale Watch: Outdoor Education Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James N.

    1993-01-01

    Promotes the experiential learning benefits of outdoor education. Describes the experiences of students in grades 4-6 who planned, raised funds for, and participated in a field trip that included a visit to the New England Aquarium, a whale watch cruise, and camping on Cape Cod during a tropical storm. (LP)

  18. The Students are Watching: Schools and the Moral Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizer, Theodore R.; Sizer, Nancy Faust

    This book claims that morality is a two-way street, and adolescent students learn by watching teachers. It argues that schools should incorporate morality as a pivotal tool in education, noting that the American school is an exhausting, inefficient, and often dehumanizing place of work for teenagers and their elders. Students learn not just from…

  19. Beginning Bird-Watching: New Programming Ideas Made More Affordable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Through corporate support, a bird-watching program was implemented at a summer camp for underprivileged New York City children. The program featured oversized flashcards containing color photos and facts about each bird, instruction on use of binoculars, and a hands-on experience in which campers used binoculars to identify bird cards placed in…

  20. Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

  1. Kathleen England watches her image transmitted to shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kathleen England (foreground and on monitor) watches her image transmitted to her husband in the shuttle via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Looking on are amateur radio operators employed at JSC: Gil Carman (WA5NOM); Lou McFaddin (WSDIO), and Candy Torres (KASUKJ).

  2. Watch Out for Children: A Mothers' Statement to Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for American Values, New York, NY.

    This report explains that all adults must watch out for all children, cautioning that marketing is harmful to children. Advertisers are aggressively targeting age groups that, until recently, have been considered off-limits and occupying more of children's psychic and physical space. The report presents a commitment by mothers to all children to…

  3. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  8. Litter Pollution, Level 2. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  9. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  10. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  11. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  12. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  13. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with a designated responsibility for monitoring COW operations is on the main deck at all times....

  14. Autumn Hawk Migration: Activities for a Schoolyard Hawk Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highsmith, R. Tod

    1980-01-01

    Suggests activities for the study of hawk migration: development of identification skills using the accompanying flying hawk silhouettes, photographs, and drawings; binocular spotting games; selection and outfitting of a hawk watching station; follow-up map study; ecological and historical perspectives. (NEC)

  15. Trash Trends, Level 3. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  16. Video Lecture Watching Behaviors of Learners in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozan, Ozlem; Ozarslan, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines learners' behaviors while watching online video lectures to understand learner preferences. 2927 students' 18,144 video events across 13 courses on Sakai CLE LMS, which were integrated with Kaltura Video Platform and Google Analytics, were analyzed. For the analysis of the quantitative data, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square test of…

  17. Foreign-Grammar Acquisition while Watching Subtitled Television Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lommel, Sven; Laenen, Annouschka; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2006-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that watching a subtitled foreign movie (i.e. foreign language in the soundtrack and native language in the subtitles) leads to considerable foreign-language vocabulary acquisition; however, acquisition of the grammatical rules has failed to emerge. Aims: The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the…

  18. Framework for a Technology-Watch Relay Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. A.; Palmer, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    At the centre of the PRIME Faraday Partnership's Technology Watch service is a growing series of technology and market reviews for managers and engineers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) producing "smart" products. Its aim is to help them maintain their awareness of new technologies and markets and thereby seize opportunities to…

  19. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  20. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  1. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section 80.148 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain...

  2. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303 Section 80.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  3. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). 80.303 Section 80.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.303 Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16). (a) During its hours of operation, each coast...

  4. 47 CFR 80.148 - Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). 80.148 Section 80.148 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Watches § 80.148 Watch on 156.8 MHz (Channel 16). Each compulsory vessel, while underway, must maintain...

  5. 77 FR 9622 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Applications for Watch Duty-Exemption and 7113...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...-Exemption and 7113 Jewelry Duty-Refund Program AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION... watch duty- exemptions and watch and jewelry duty-refunds to program producers in the U.S. insular... the duty-refund program for the watch and jewelry producers. Form ITA-360P requires no...

  6. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  7. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  8. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  9. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  10. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention. 80.305 Section 80.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches...

  11. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on...

  12. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  13. 49 CFR 1560.107 - Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM Collection and Transmission of Secure Flight Passenger Data for Watch List Matching § 1560.107 Use of watch list matching results by covered aircraft operators. A covered aircraft operator... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of watch list matching results by...

  14. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  15. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  16. Globe Watch. Teachers' Guide for Globe Watch IV: Mexico, Canada, Finland, Japan, the Arms Race, the Iran-Iraq War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ginny

    To enhance the use of the Globe Watch IV public television series, produced jointly by Hampden-Sydney College (Virginia) and the University of North Carolina Center for Public Television, each lesson in this guide provides: (1) a statement of the objective of the program; (2) a synopsis of the issue discussed; (3) background information; (4) brief…

  17. Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the California pilot study (2009-10).

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A; Furlong, Edward T; Kimbrough, Kimani L; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Christensen, John D

    2014-04-30

    To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009-10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California's coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation. PMID:23886247

  18. The weather watch/warning system for stroke and asthma in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaiyong; Ha, Jong-Sik; Jun, Sangil; Park, Tae-Sun; Kim, Ho

    2008-04-01

    Weather watch/warning systems have been established for human health outcomes. Our study aims to develop and demonstrate a weather watch/warning system for asthma and stroke within the whole of South Korea, using a stratified regression approach. We converted claim-based health insurance data covering almost all medical claims for the only health insurance system in Korea for asthma and stroke from 1996-2003 into personalized disease episode data, and combined them with meteorological data. We utilized a step-wise regression method using factors extracted from the meteorological data to develop stratified models for six (stroke) and nine (asthma) regional and day-of-week strata. Validation studies showed that the actual number of hospitalizations in 2003 increased according to the three-leveled predictions (levels I, II, and III) from the model based on the 1996-2002 data. This system is accessible via the internet (http://industry.kma.go.kr/APP/sub_APP15_H01.htm) at the Korean Meteorological Administration website. PMID:18365801

  19. LifeWatch - a Large-scale eScience Infrastructure to Assist in Understanding and Managing our Planet's Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Ernst, Vera; Poigné, Axel; Los, Walter

    2010-05-01

    Understanding and managing the complexity of the biodiversity system in relation to global changes concerning land use and climate change with their social and economic implications is crucial to mitigate species loss and biodiversity changes in general. The sustainable development and exploitation of existing biodiversity resources require flexible and powerful infrastructures offering, on the one hand, the access to large-scale databases of observations and measures, to advanced analytical and modelling software, and to high performance computing environments and, on the other hand, the interlinkage of European scientific communities among each others and with national policies. The European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) selected the "LifeWatch e-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity research" as a promising development to construct facilities to contribute to meet those challenges. LifeWatch collaborates with other selected initiatives (e.g. ICOS, ANAEE, NOHA, and LTER-Europa) to achieve the integration of the infrastructures at landscape and regional scales. This should result in a cooperating cluster of such infrastructures supporting an integrated approach for data capture and transmission, data management and harmonisation. Besides, facilities for exploration, forecasting, and presentation using heterogeneous and distributed data and tools should allow the interdisciplinary scientific research at any spatial and temporal scale. LifeWatch is an example of a new generation of interoperable research infrastructures based on standards and a service-oriented architecture that allow for linkage with external resources and associated infrastructures. External data sources will be established data aggregators as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) for species occurrences and other EU Networks of Excellence like the Long-Term Ecological Research Network (LTER), GMES, and GEOSS for terrestrial monitoring, the

  20. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David A; Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual's appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person's appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  1. Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches. PMID:26334540

  2. Coordinating work on P/Halley, the International Halley watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the International Halley Watch (IHW) organization in coordinating the study of the Comet Halley is briefly described. The archiving of data sent to the IHW is discussed, and cooperation among IHW, astronomers, and the various space missions to Halley is reviewed. Personnel changes at IHW and the publications produced by IHW are briefly addressed. Research results on comet Halley from 1982 through 1985 are summarized.

  3. WaterQualityWatch and water-quality information bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2014-01-01

    WaterQualityWatch is an online resource of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that provides access to continuous real-time measurements of water temperature, specific electrical conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate at selected data-collection stations throughout the Nation. Additional online resources of the USGS that pertain to various types of water-quality information are shown on the reverse side of this bookmark.

  4. Watching the fetal brain at 'rest'.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, V; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2012-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of human brain networks. According to the neurophysiological property of the fetal brain to generate spontaneous activity, we aimed to determine the feasibility of investigating the maturation of intrinsic networks, beginning at gestational week 20 in healthy human fetuses by combining resting-state fMRI and an analytical approach, independent component analysis (ICA). In this study, functional images of 16 fetuses with morphologically normal brain development, from 20 to 36 gestational weeks of age, were acquired on a 1.5T unit (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) using single-shot, gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging. After preprocessing (motion correction, brain extraction), images were analyzed using single-subject ICA. We visualized a bilateral occipital network and medial and lateral prefrontal activity pattern that involved the future Brodmann areas 9-11. Furthermore, there was one either predominantly right (3/7 cases) or left (4/7 cases) hemispheric lateralized network that involved the superior temporal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 22 and 39). Frequency oscillations were in the range of 0.01-0.06Hz for all networks. This study shows that resting-state networks (RSNs) are shaped and are detectable in utero. Further investigations of resting-state measurements in the fetus may therefore allow developmental brain activity monitoring and may provide insights into early brain function. PMID:22044604

  5. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  6. Edit while watching: home video editing made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, Marco; Weda, Hans; Barbieri, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more people capture their experiences in home videos. However, home video editing still is a difficult and time-consuming task. We present the Edit While Watching system that allows users to automatically create and change a summary of a home video in an easy, intuitive and lean-back way. Based on content analysis, video is indexed, segmented, and combined with proper music and editing effects. The result is an automatically generated home video summary that is shown to the user. While watching it, users can indicate whether they like certain content, so that the system will adapt the summary to contain more content that is similar or related to the displayed content. During the video playback users can also modify and enrich the content, seeing immediately the effects of their changes. Edit While Watching does not require a complex user interface: a TV and a few keys of a remote control are sufficient. A user study has shown that it is easy to learn and to use, even if users expressed the need for more control in the editing operations and in the editing process.

  7. Watching the World Rev its Heat Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of solar energy heats up our planet's surface and the atmosphere and makes life for us possible. But the energy cannot stay bound up in the Earth's environment forever. If it did then the Earth would be as hot as the Sun. Instead, as the surface and the atmosphere warm, they emit thermal longwave radiation, some of which escapes into space and allows the Earth to cool. This false-color image of the Earth was produced on September 30, 2001, by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows where more or less heat, in the form of longwave radiation, is emanating from the top of Earth's atmosphere. As one can see in the image, the thermal radiation leaving the oceans is fairly uniform. The blue swaths across the central Pacific represent thick clouds, the tops of which are so high they are among the coldest places on Earth. In the American Southwest, which can be seen in the upper righthand corner of the globe, there is often little cloud cover to block outgoing radiation and relatively little water to absorb solar energy. Consequently, the amount of outgoing radiation in the American Southwest exceeds that of the oceans. Also, that region was experiencing an extreme heatwave when these data were acquired. Recently, NASA researchers discovered that incoming solar radiation and outgoing thermal radiation increased in the tropics from the 1980s to the 1990s. (Click to read the press release.) They believe that the reason for the unexpected increase has to do with an apparent change in circulation patterns around the globe, which effectively reduced the amount of water vapor and cloud cover in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. Without the clouds, more sunlight was allowed to enter the tropical zones and more thermal energy was allowed to leave. The findings may have big implications for climate change and future global warming. 'This suggests that the tropical heat engine increased

  8. Watching the Birth of a Galaxy Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    First Visiting Astronomers to VLT ANTU Observe the Early Universe When the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) was "handed over" to the scientists on April 1, 1999, the first "visiting astronomers" at Paranal were George Miley and Huub Rottgering from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) [1]. They obtained unique pictures of a distant exploding galaxy known as 1138 - 262 . These images provide new information about how massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies may have formed in the early Universe. Formation of clusters of galaxies An intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first galaxies and groupings or clusters of galaxies emerged from the primeval gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theories predict that giant galaxies, often found at the centres of rich galaxy clusters, are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in this gas and stars condense out of those clumps to form small galaxies. Finally these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. An enigmatic class of objects important for investigating such scenarios are galaxies which emit intense radio emission from explosions that occur deep in their nuclei. The explosions are believed to be triggered when material from the merging swarm of smaller galaxies is fed into a rotating black hole located in the central regions. There is strong evidence that these distant radio galaxies are amongst the oldest and most massive galaxies in the early Universe and are often located at the heart of rich clusters of galaxies. They can therefore help pinpoint regions of the Universe in which large galaxies and clusters of galaxies are being formed. The radio galaxy 1138-262 The first visiting astronomers pointed ANTU towards a particularly important radio galaxy named 1138-262 . It is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water Snake). This galaxy was discovered some years ago using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla. Because 1138-262 is at a distance of

  9. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV. PMID:23986894

  10. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10